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The relationship of air density and electromagnetic radiation

Changes in the relative speed in which atomic and subatomic particles move is observed when
such particles are influenced by some environmental factors, i.e. gravity, air density, etc. This study
asserts that a reduction of air density may be achieved by manipulating one or more of three
related factors: air pressure, temperature, and humidity.
Observation of a positive relationship between air density, temperature, humidity and
electromagnetic radiation explains that by changing air pressure and altering temperature and
humidity in an area of three-dimensional space, alteration of the oscillation frequency of radioactive
particles in that area will result. The proposed invention ascribed to this discovery might allow for
effecting changes in space-time by using an apparatus consisting of a magnetic flux generator and
a configuration of two parallel inertial mass generators.
This report includes some study on related anti-matter, anti-gravity and ion propulsion technology
as well as original research on the subject of air density and electromagnetic radiation. Some
preliminary sketches of a proposed time machine are also included.
By lowering and raising air pressure (i.e. altering the flow of qi energy), it is theoretically possible to
change the oscillation frequency of radioactive particles as measured by means of spectroscopy.
Because of this, objects become lighter as their relativistic mass decreases, and vice versa.
The time machine described in this report is essentially a high density enclosure equipped with a
magnetic flux generator and two high frequency magnetic rotors. In addition to the possibility of
manipulating the magnitude of electromagnetic radiation of a three-dimensional scalar field, this
invention also provides for anti-matter and anti-gravity technologies.
To verify these claims, an experiment was proposed to examine the influence that air pressure,
humidity and temperature exert on a hermetically sealed area of three-dimensional space and to
devise a method of equating air density with the velocity of radioactive particles. For the purpose of
experimentation, the following items were procured as apparatus:

1 ozone generator

2 DC motor (12 volts 6 amperes)

1 insulated enclosure (approx. 2m )

2 barometer

2 thermometer

2 hydrometer

2 atomic clock

electronic equipment, tools and accessories

The basis for this theory is derived from the understanding that equilibrium produces gravity, hence
= G, where denotes air density and G denotes gravitational force. The influence atmospheric
pressure has on air density has been articulated in the following manner: The air stays at
atmospheric pressure, which means that the density must go down when the temperature goes up,
since the pressure is approximately proportional to the product of density and absolute
temperature.1
There are three factors which determine air density: air pressure, humidity and temperature. The
density of dry air can be determined with the calculation = p RT, where p denotes air pressure,
R denotes a specific gas constant for dry air, and T denotes temperature in degrees Kelvin.2
1 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2012. Q & A: Creating a Vacuum.
http://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=896. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
2 Fly Me to the Moon. 2009. Balloon Pilot and Crew Education How to Calculate Air Density.
https://www.brisbanehotairballooning.com.au/faqs/education/116-calculate-air-density.html. Retrieved 6 November
2012.

When all three factors of air pressure, humidity and temperature become nil, a vacuum is created
because there are no particles present. This theory asserts that in a vacuum, the effect of gravity is
decreased due to an effect of equilibrium. Leonardo da Vinci stated that gravity comes into being
when an element is placed above another more rarefied element... a light thing is always above a
heavy thing when both are at liberty. The heavier part of the bodies is the guide of the lighter part.3
Electromagnetic waves encounter no impedance or resistance in a vacuum because there are no
particles getting in the way of one another. Quantity of time, therefore, increases in proportion to a
clock's distance from a centre of gravity. This idea has been observed in numerous experiments
involving the use of atomic clocks placed at different altitudes and travelling at different velocities. It
is contended that as such alteration of quantity of time is possible by changing the density of the
air. The creation of anti-matter by making an efficient vacuum also becomes possible.
The representation of atoms and molecular structures as rotating spheres might be misleading to
the student of science, although such representations serve as a useful reference for purposes of
illustration. Popular consensus holds that hydrogen is the lightest element and its atomic mass unit
is 1. However, quantum physicists agree that subatomic particles much smaller than hydrogen
atoms exist. For the purpose of understanding the simple concept presented here, only a basic
understanding of four-dimensional scalar fields is needed; three dimensions of space and one
dimension of mass density per unit in a three-dimensional space. In some cases, one unit may be
denoted as amu (atomic mass unit). A two-dimensional representation of time might also be
needed for time travel. In total, six dimensions of space-time should be sufficient for most purposes
of space and time travel, but the number of dimensions is limited only by one's imagination.
Because space has been proven to be non-Euclidean in structure, the extra dimension of mass
and density is added to space, making four-dimensional space.
The concept of anti-matter may be defined using Da Vinci's law of equilibrium or Einstein's theory
of relativity as methods of interpretation. One might argue that hydrogen is a form of anti-matter
when compared to gold or lead. Elements lighter than hydrogen exist but are difficult to detect.
Similarly, elements heavier than uranium also exist, i.e. ununoctium, which is a synthetic element.
Manipulation of electromagnetic radiation becomes possible by changing air density, which is a
product of air pressure, humidity, and temperature. For the purpose of further research and to
examine and possibly validate such claims, experimentation as explained in this paper is
suggested.
Using calculations of air density4 and data on weather conditions at Mt. Washington5 a
determination of air density at 6,265 feet above sea level is made and according to Frisch and
Smith (1963) the air density at such altitude and 10 feet above sea level, using a constant humidity
value and air temperature is 0.0637 lbm/ft and 0.0802 lbm/ft respectively. It was then determined
that the values in pounds per cubic foot equate to 1,021.54 ppm and 1,286 ppm respectively.6
In accordance with the principles explained heretofore an assumption that the weather conditions
at different altitudes play a fundamental role in the propagation of electromagnetic waves in space
is made. Frisch and Smith's experiment resulted in the observation of slowing of time in proportion
to the density of air. Using data obtained from that experiment, projection of the rate of time dilation
at higher altitudes becomes possible.
Frisch and Smith's study of decaying mesons concluded that mesons, used as clocks, when
observed descending from 6,265 ft to 10 ft above sea level, ran slower by a factor of about 9.1.
This means that electromagnetic radiation propagates faster by a factor of 9.1 at the summit of
Mount Washington, when compared with electromagnetic radiation at sea level. Since
3 Time Travel Research Center. 2005. Electro-Dynamic Propulsion.
http://www.amandayolculuk.com/centinbal/HTMLdosya1/ioncraft.htm. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
4 DeNysschen. Air Density Calculator. http://www.denysschen.com/catalogue/density.aspx. Retrieved 1 December
2014.
5 Mount Washington Observatory. Mount Washington Observatory Current Summit Conditions.
http://www.mountwashington.org/weather/conditions.php. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
6 Accelware. Pounds/Cubic Foot to Parts/Million (Ppm) Conversion Calculator.
http://www.unitconversion.org/concentration-solution/pounds-per-cubic-foot-to-parts-per-million-ppmconversion.html. Retrieved 1 December 2014.

electromagnetic radiation propagates at the speed of light, the speed of light for different altitudes
(or, by extension, density of air) can then be determined.
The speed of light, expressed as a constant, is 299,792,458 metres per second. The speed of light
at sea level, observed from an altitude of 6,265 feet above sea level, diminishes by a factor of 9.1,
resulting in a speed of 32,944,226 metres per second or a difference of 266,848,232 metres per
second. Using this data, projection of the speed of light at higher altitudes becomes possible. In a
linear sense, a difference in the speed of light is measured as about 42,593 m/s per foot above sea
level, provided temperature and humidity are constant. Converting to metres above sea level
results in a difference of 12,982 m/s per metre in altitude.
The following values represent the speed of propagation of the mesons. As mesons travel at
0.998c7 the actual speed of the mesons is calculated by using this value as a factor.
10^1 metres above sea level: 0 m/s.
10^2 metres above sea level: 1,298,200 m/s.
10^3 metres above sea level: 12,982,000 m/s.
10^4 metres above sea level: 129,820,000 m/s.
10^5 metres above sea level: 1,298,200,000 m/s.
Thus, 10,000 metres above sea level equates to a difference in mean velocity of light of
129,820,000 m/s, or about 43% of the speed of light. To achieve velocity equal to the speed of
light, an altitude of 23,255.81 metres is needed. To put this into perspective, such an altitude is
equivalent to 2.63 times the height of Mt. Everest. In summary, the environmental conditions at
about 23,256 metres (or 23 kilometres) above sea level allow for superluminal propagation of
electromagnetic waves (relative to sea level).
Taking into account the differences in air density between 10 ft above sea level and 6,265 ft above
sea level, which equals, on average, 264.61 ppm, we learn that the difference in air density is
proportional to altitude at a factor of 0.0423037569944 ppm per foot in altitude (or
0.138791853656 ppm per metre). The following statistics are derived from this understanding:
10^1 ft altitude: c(1286.15 ppm)
10^2 ft altitude: c(1286.15 ppm) - ((90 x 0.42303)ppm = 38.07) = 1,248.08 ppm
10^3 ft altitude: c(1286.15 ppm) - ((990 x 0.4230)ppm = 418.80) = 867.35 ppm
10^4 ft altitude: c(1286.15 ppm) - ((9990 x 0.423)ppm = 4226.14) = -2,939.99 ppm
10^5 ft altitude: c(1286.15 ppm) - ((99990 x 0.42)ppm = 42,299.51) = -41,013.36 ppm
To solve the ppm involved with an altitude of 300,000,000 metres above sea level (the conditions
where superluminal travel becomes feasible), first we convert the relevant ppm to ppb:
0.138791853656 / 1000 = 0.000138791853656 ppb. Now we multiply this by 300,000,000 metres
and subtract from ppb of air density at sea level (0.000138791853656 x 300,000,000 = 41,637.55).
Professor Joe Nahhas (1980) suggested that the conclusion of time dilation using spectroscopy at
differing altitudes is misleading. He bases his argument on the observation that air density affects
the diffraction of moving particles, which explain the results of such experiments.
Density of the air plays a role in time dilation effects which have been observed in numerous
experiments since the 1960s. Diffraction as a result of change in air density and time dilation aren't
necessarily mutually exclusive or conflicting ideas. The measurement of time is limited to clocks
and experiments like this, and as a philosophical concept time is challenging to contemplate. But if
time-like effects have been observed in these experiments, whether or not due to diffraction
caused by air density (which is a compelling reason), then time dilation has been observed.
Frisch and Smith counted, on average, 563 decays at 6,265 ft (1,909 m) and 408 at sea level. This
is a difference of 27.53% over 1,989 m in altitude, or 0.0138416709308% difference per metre
above sea level. Mu-mesons have a lifespan of 2 microseconds. Given that 155 more mu-mesons
were detected at 6,265 ft, it is reasonable to assume that for every (2 x 408 = 816) microseconds
at sea level, (2 x 563 = 1,126) microseconds pass at 6,265 ft. This is analogous to a difference of
27.53% over 1,986 m in altitude as described previously.
7 The Student Room. Speed of Pi Meson. http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/showthread.php?t=1871523. Retrieved 1
December 2014.

Six data sets measuring air pressure and temperature were taken over the course of several
months. Three categories of data sets including data taken from an open field, a closed field, and a
smaller closed field are included in two types, control and trial (which is with the apparatus
switched off and on) in the supplement. This experiment may be replicated by using any negative
ion generator or ozone generator powered by at least 12 volts 6 amperes.
Higher levels of radioactivity were consistently produced in rising temperature and lowering air
pressure fields when the device was operated cf. when the device was switched off or not present.
This study conclusively proves the effectiveness of negative ion generators, ozone generators, and
confirms the idea that using such devices in a closed (or open, to a lesser extent) threedimensional field of air reduces air density.
The experiment was continued to ascertain whether such effects warp space-time which was
proved to some extent by comparing clocks in differing regions. Specifically, a local clock affected
by the device which had been in use in an open field for 72 hours measured time by a factor of
0.1s/86,400s per second faster than another clock during normal weather conditions. 8 The raw
data taken during this experiment is as follows, the blue points indicating extra time elapsed locally
compared to a control clock.

In conclusion, warping of the space-time continuum of a three-dimensional scalar field has been
empirically proven to be possible with the use of an apparatus to control air density by creating a
magnetic flux (an ozone generator or a negative ion generator). Any effect of the device on
magnitude of a field of gravitation, however, is yet to be proven, although it is expected that such
an experiment would also yield positive results.

8 National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2014. NIST Time. http://nist.gov. Retrieved 1 December 2014.

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