You are on page 1of 66

INTRODUCTION

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature


in the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of
four components; namely, Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and
Information and Communication Technology. In this module, the focus is on Home
Economics mini-course COMMERCIAL COOKING.
In this course, you will be introduced to the different learning activities which
will prepare you to be skillful before you take the plunge into the world of work
specifically in commercial cooking and to help you more confident in preparing
dishes for people around you. Through your creativity and resourcefulness, you are
expected to bring the taste buds of most busy people to their comfort food in no time.
This module is specifically designed to focus on Process and Delivery. This
module is enriched with different activities that will assess your skills and knowledge
that you are expected to demonstrate after going through this learning materials.
Learning procedures are divided into different sections - What to Know, What to
Process, What to Reflect and Understand, and What to Transfer. Go over with
the suggested tasks and accomplish them to practice developing a sustainable
program, prioritizing needs and building vision.
So, explore and experience the K to 12 TLE modules and be a step closer to
become a successful chef.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this module, you are expected to:


demonstrate necessary competencies of a chef;
prepare a plan of action that will even more improve your areas of
strengths; and,
identify creative and imaginative ideas through customers needs and
wants in preparing dishes for commercial cooking.

PRE-ASSESSMENT
Test I
Directions: Read and study the situations below. Write the letter of your choice in
your answer sheet.
1. Which of the following situations describe a persistent chef?
a. Gives up easily over a decline of his business.
b. Changes his procedures to get the desired profit.
c. Makes effort to invest in another business.
d. Sells his property and look for a position in a government office.
2. Jervine owns a restaurant. Although he has a canteen manager, Jervine makes
sure that he visits his restaurant every morning and afternoon to see to it that the
canteen is well-managed.
a. confident
c. motivated
b. creative
d. risk taker
3. He always introduces new recipes. What trait does he possess?
a. Goal-setter
c. Persistent
b. Passion- oriented
d. Opportunity seeker
4. This chef spends a lot of time and effort in improving his ability. He
is___________.
a. creative
c. hard worker
b. responsible
d. opportunity seeker.
5. Who do you think is a good planner?
a) One who likes to think of what his business will be five years onwards.
b) A person who spends time trying to solve a problem.
c) A man with a word of honor.
d) A businessman who goes places to seek information.
2

6. A chef who visits places to learn new things is____________.


a. persistent
c. information seeker
b. goal-setter
d. planner
7. How will you describe a person who believes that in whatever he does, he can
do well?
a. Confident in himself
c. Persistent
b. Goal setter
d. Persuasive
8. Jeryll tries very hard to convince his fellow chefs to do what he wants. He
is__________.
a. persistent
c. efficient
b. commited
d. persuasive
9. Jenisa always finishes her work on time. She is__________.
a. pesistent
c. goal setter
b. efficient
d. committed to work contract
10. Mrs. Soliven considers time as gold. She does not let it pass without doing
anything. She____________.
a. is planning and monitoring
b. demands for quality and efficiency
c. has commitment to work contract
d. has systematic informations
11. Marilyn cooked puto. What cooking utensil sid she used?
a. double boiler
c. teflon
b. kettle
d. glass
12. It is good for baking but not practical on top or surface cooking. You need
extra care in using it. What is it?
a. cast iron
c. stainless
b. aluminum
d. glass
13. It is used to grate, shred, slice and separate foods such as carrots, cabbage
and cheese.
a. graters
c. flipper
b. colander
d. funnels
14. What utensil is used to transfer little or lots of cooked pasta to a waiting plate
without a mess?
a. two-tined fork
c. scraper
b. pasta spoon or server
d. serving spoon
15. It is used to level off ingredients when measuring and to spread frosting and
sandwich filling.
a. spatula
c. baster
b. spoons
d. scraper
3

16. What tool is used for serving soups or stews, gravy or dessert sauces?
a. spoons
c. ladle
b. soup ladle
d. wooden spoon

17. It is commonly used to measure solids and dry ingredients, such as flour, fat, and
sugar.
a. measuring glass
c. scale
b. measuring cup
d. portion
18. Which tool is used to measure in serving of soft foods, such as filling ice cream,
and mashed potato?
a. potato masher
c. scoops or dipper
b. scooper
d. baster
19. It is a chamber or compartment used for cooking, baking, heating, or drying.
a. microwave oven
c. skillet
b. oven
d. oven toaster
20. Which tool is used to chop, blend, mix, whip, puree, grate, and liquify all kinds of
food?
a. mixer
b. blender
c. chopping board d. beater
21. It is a Filipino dessert made primarily from coconut milk.
a. maja blanca
c. biko
b. cuchinta
d. suman
22. Which native delicacy is made of rice flour dough that is boiled and
then coated with coconut and sesame seeds?
a. palitaw
c. espasol
b. polboron
d. sapin-sapin
23. It is a dessert made from purple yam.
a. maja blanca
c. puto
b. ube jam
d. puto kutsinta
24. It is a source of coco milk.
a. nutmeg
b. coconut

c. powdered milk
d. corn

25. It adds color and flavoring to native delicacies.


a. batter
c. cheese
b. butter and margarine
d. nuts
26. Which kitchen lay-out offers a great deal of space?
a. G-shape
c. L-shape
b. Island shape
d. U-shape

27. Which shape of the kitchen has a very flexible lay-out?


a. G-shape
c. Island option
b. U-shape
d. L-shape
28. Which kitchen is the most flexible and most popular as it provides with a compact
triangle?
a. U-shape
c. Island option
b. L-shape
d. G-shape
29. The ideal shape of kitchen for larger families that need extra storage space, is
the_________________.
a. Island option
c. U-shape
b. G-shape
d. L-shape
30. What shape of kitchen is easy to maneuver?
a. Pullman kitchen
c. G-shape
b. Galley Kitchen
d. U-shape

LEARNING GOALS/ TARGETS


As you go through this module, you will be able to assess yourself with the
characteristics and competencies of a chef.
You may now set your learning goals and targets that you may guide you as
you go through this module.
Provide honest answer for each item below.

MY GOALS ARE THE RESULTS OF WHAT I WANT TO BE.


MY GOALS ARE.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

MY TARGETS ARE THE METHODS TOWARDS THE


ACHIEVEMENT OF MY GOALS.
MY TARGETS ARE.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

KNOW

Commercial Cooking is cooking for others for sale (restaurant, nursing home,
boarding school, food manufacturer, etc.) It is the result of mans demand for food
that is readily available and the fast changing phase of his/her lifestyle.
Any cook should be familiar with the correct utensils, devices and equipment in
the kitchen. It is important to consider several things and not only the price when
buying them. The job of cooking requires specific tools, utensils, and equipment for
proper and efficient preparation of food. Each piece has been designed to
accomplish a specific job in the kitchen.
The tools, utensils and equipment are made of different materials, each
having certain advantages and disadvantages.

From this point, you are heading into


meaningful activities and learning encounters.
Complete the exercises and answer the
worksheets to experience lifelong, practical
learning that awaits at the end of this module.
ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY!

Lesson 1: Use of kitchen materials, utensils and equipment

Activity 1. Open-Ended Statement


Directions: Complete the clauses below with your opinion or prior knowledge about
kitchen materials, kitchen utensils and equipment that are commonly found in the
kitchen.

What I know about ______________________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________

What I can do in relation to_______________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________

What I understand about________________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________

The following are list of cooking materials, kitchen utensils and equipment that are
commonly found in the kitchen.

Cooking Materials
Aluminum is the best for all-around use. It is the most popular,
lightweight, attractive and less expensive. It requires care to
keep it shiny and clean. Much more, it gives even heat
distribution no matter what heat temperature you have. It is
available in sheet or cast aluminum. Since it is a soft metal, the
lighter gauges will dent and scratch easily, making the utensil
unusable. Aluminum turns dark when used with alkalis, such as
potatoes, beets, carrots and other vegetables. Acid vegetables
like tomatoes will brighten it.

Stainless Steel is the most popular material used for tools


and equipment, but it is more expensive. It is easier to clean
and shine and will not wear out as soon as aluminum.
Choose those with copper, aluminum or laminated steel
bottoms to spread heat and keep the pot from getting heat
dark spots. Stainless steel utensils maybe bought in many
gauges, from light to heavy.

Glass is good for baking but not practical for top or surface
cooking. Great care is needed to ensure for long shelf life.
How to take care of Glass?
1. to remove stain, use 2 table spoon of liquid bleach per cup
of water when soaking and cleaning them.
2. use baking soda to remove grease crust and boiled vinegar
as final rinse.
3. use nylon scrub.

Cast Iron is sturdy but must be kept oiled to avoid rusting.


Salad oil with no salt or shortening can be rubbed inside and out
and dried. Wash with soap (not detergent) before using.

Ceramic and heat-proof glass are used especially for baking dishes,
casseroles, and measuring cups. Glass and ceramic conduct the heat
slowly and evenly. Many of these baking dishes are decorated and can go
from stove or oven to the dining table.
Double boiler is used when temperature must be kept below
boiling, such as for egg sauces, puddings, and to keep food
warm without overcooking.

Teflon is a special coating applied inside of aluminum or steel


pots and pans. It prevents food from sticking to the pan.
It is easier to wash and clean, however, take care not to
scratch the Teflon coating with sharp instrument such as knife
or fork. Use wooden or plastic spatula to turn or mix food
inside.

KITCHEN TOOLS

A baster is handy for returning some of the meat or poultry


juices from the pan, back to the food.
Basting brushes can be used for the same purpose, but
they are also convenient for buttering the tops of breads
and baked goods after they come out of the oven.

Cans, bottles, cartoons opener use to open a food tin,


preferably with a smooth operation, and comfortable gripand
turning knob.

Colanders also called a vegetable strainer are


essentialfor various tasks from cleaning vegetables
to straining pasta or tin contents.

Plastic and Hard Rubber are used for cutting and chopping boards, table tops,
bowls, trays, garbage pails and canisters. They are much less dulling to knives than
metal and more sanitary than wood. Plastics are greatly durable and cheap but may
not last long.

Cutting boards a wooden or plastic board where meat and vegetables can be cut.

10

Dredgers are used to shake flour, salt, and pepper on meat,


poultry, and fish.

Emery boards/sharpening steel is used to sharpen long knives.

Funnels are used to fill jars, made of various sizes of stainless steel, aluminum, or of
plastic.

Garlic Press is a kitchen tool which is specifically designed for the


purpose of pulping garlic.

Graters are used to grate, shred, slice and separate foods


such as carrots, cabbage and cheese.

Handy Poultry and roasting tools make it easier to lift a hot


roasted turkey from the roaster to the serving platter, without it
falling apart.

11

Kitchen shears they are practical for opening food packages,


cutting tape or string or simply to remove labels or tags from items.
Other cutting tools such as box cutters are just as handy,
especially for opening packages.

Pasta spoon or server is used to transfer a little or a lot of


pasta to a waiting plate, without mess. Pasta spoons are
best used with spaghetti or other long pasta noodles. You
can use a large slotted serving spoon for short pastas.

Potato masher is used for mashing cooked potatoes, turnips,


carrots or other soft cooked vegetables.

Rotary egg beater used for beating small amount of eggs


or batter. The beaters should be made of stainless steel.

Scraper- a rubber or silicone tool to blend or scrape the food


from the bowl, metal, silicone or plastic egg turners or flippers

12

Seafood serving tools make the task of cleaning seafood


and removing the shell much easier. For cooking seafood,
utensils will vary depending on what you are cooking.

Serving spoons- utensils consisting of a small, shallow bowl on a


handle used in preparing, serving, or eating food.

Serving tongs enable you to more easily grab and transfer larger
food items, poultry or meat portions to a serving platter, to a hot
skillet or deep fryer, or to a plate. It gives you a better grip, the
longer the tongs, the better, especially when used with a deep
fryer, a large stock pot or at the barbecue.

Soup ladle is used for serving soup or stews, but can also be
used for gravy, dessert sauces or other foods. A soup ladle also
works well to remove or skim off fat from soups and stews.

Spatula is used to level off ingredients when measuring, and to


spread frostings and sandwich fillings.

Spoons solid, slotted, or perforated. Made of stainless steel or


plastic, the solid ones are used to spoon liquids over foods and to
lift foods, including the liquid out of the pot.

13

Two-tine fork used to hold meats while slicing, and to turn solid pieces of meat while
browning or cooking Made of stainless steel and with heat-proof handle.

Temperature scales are used to measure heat intensity.


Different thermometers are used for different purposes in food
preparation for meat, candy or deep-fat frying. Other small
thermometers are hanged or stand in ovens or refrigerators to
check the accuracy of the equipments thermosta

Whisks for blending, mixing used for whipping eggs or


batter, and for blending gravies, sauces, and soups. The
beaters are made of looped, steel piano wires which are
twisted together to form the handle.

Wooden spoons are used for creaming, stirring, and


mixing. They should be made of hard wood.

Measuring Tools
14

1. Measuring cups and spoons for dry ingredients is


used to measure solids and dry ingredients, such as flour, fat
and sugar. It is commonly made of aluminum or stainless
material. Sizes range from 1, 12, 34, and 14 (nested cups)
to one gallon. There are cups made of plastic and come in
different colors, but could only be used for cold ingredients.
They could warp, causing inaccurate measure.

2. Measuring cup for liquid ingredients are commonly made


up of heat-proof glass and transparent so that liquid can be seen.
Quantity of measure of liquid ingredient is different in a dry
measuring cup.

3. Portion scales are used to


weigh serving portions from one
ounce to one pound.

Household Scales are used to weigh large quantity of ingredients in


kilos, commonly in rice, flour, sugar, legumes or vegetables and meat up
to 25 pounds.

Scoops or dippers are used to measure serving of soft


foods, such as fillings, icecream, and mashed potato.
Spoons come in variety of sizes, shapes, materials and
colors. These are used to measure smaller quantities of
ingredients called for in the recipe like: 1 tablespoon of butter
or 14 teaspoon of salt.

There are many kinds of knives, each with a specialized use

15

Butcher knife is used to section raw meat, poultry, and fish. It can be used as a cleaver to
separate small joints or to cut bones. Butcher knives are made with heavy blade with a saber
or flat grind.

French knife is used to


food. Heavy knives have a

chop, dice, or mince


saber or flat grind.

Roast beef slicer is used to slice roasts, ham, and


thick, solid cuts of meats.

Boning knife is used to fillet fish and to remove raw


meat from the bone.

Fruit and salad knife is used to prepare salad greens,


vegetables, and fruits.

Kitchen knives often referred to as cook's or chef's tools,


knives are a must for all types of kitchen tasks, from
peeling an onion and slicing carrots, to carving a roast or
turkey.

16

Citrus knife is used to section citrus fruits. The blade has a two-sided, serrated edge.

Paring knife is used to core, peel, and section fruits and


vegetables. Blades are short, concave with hollow ground.

Vegetable peeler is used to scrape vegetables, such as


carrots and potatoes, and to peel fruits. The best ones
are made of stainless steel with sharp double blade that
swivels.

Equipment
More complicated tools are called equipment. They may refer to a small electrical appliance,
such as a mixer, or a large, expensive, power-operated appliance such a range or a
refrigerator.
Equipment like range, ovens, refrigerators (conventional, convection and microwave) are
mandatory pieces in the kitchen or in any food establishment.

Refrigerators/freezers
are
necessary
in
preventing bacterial infections from foods. Most
refrigerators have special compartment for meat,
fruits and vegetables to keep the moisture content of
each type of food. Butter compartment holds butter
separately to prevent food odors from spoiling its
flavor. Basically, refrigerator or freezer is an insulated
box, equipped with refrigeration unit and a control to
maintain the proper inside temperature for food
storage.

Oven- a chamber or compartment used for


cooking, baking, heating, or drying.
17

Microwave ovens have greatly increased their use in the


food industry. Foods can be prepared ahead of time,
frozen or refrigerated during the slack periods, and cooked
or heated quickly in microwave ovens.

Auxiliary equipment like griddles, tilting skillets,


broilers/grills, steamers, coffee makers, deep-fat fryers, wok,
crockery, cutting equipment (meat slicer, food choppers,
grinders), mixers and bowls, pots and pans are utilized most
commonly in big food establishments, some with specialized
uses and some are optional.

Blenders are used to chop, blend, mix, whip, puree,


grate, and liquify all kinds of food. A blender is a very
useful appliance. They vary in the amount of power
(voltage/wattage).

Activity 2. Entrance, Exit, and Extra Tickets


Directions: Please write down your honest responses to the questions written on
each ticket.
18

Entrance Ticket

What do I know about the


materials and equipment needed in
cooking?

Exit Ticket

What are the three best things I


learned today?

Extra Ticket

If I were to start all over again, what


do I want to think, say, and act?

Reflect and Understanding


Activity 1. Identifying the Uses
19

Directions: From the given equipment/utensils/materials, complete the


table below.
Common Kitchen
Equipment, Utensils
and Materials

Uses

1. Aluminum
2. Measuring spoon
3. Cast Iron
4. Basters
5. Measuring cups

Activity 2. Game (Pinoy Henyo Style)


Directions: Get a partner and decide who will give the answer and
who will ask. (This type of game is made famous in Eat Bulaga).
(The teacher will provide the materials for the
game)

Transfer

Activity 1: Individual work


Directions: Prepare a portfolio of the different tools and equipment in cooking.
Group them according to their use and write your own idea why they
are important in cooking.

Lesson 2: Maintain Kitchen Tools and Equipment

20

Know
CLEANING AND SANITIZING
Cleaning and sanitizing procedures must be a part of the standard operating
procedures that make up your food safety program. Improperly cleaned and
sanitized surfaces allow harmful microorganisms to be transferred from one food to
another.

Activity 1.
Direction: Put a check () mark if the statement is correct and a Cross (X) mark if
incorrect. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.
1.

Utensils need to be thoroughly washed in cold, soapy water.

2.

Follow the instructions on the sanitizers container carefully.

3.

All utensils must be thoroughly dried before they are re-used.

4.

Cleaning will remove most of the dangerous bacteria present in the utensils.

5.
Chemical sanitizer or very hot water can be used in the absence of dish
washer.

Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a
surface, such as a dish, glass, or cutting board. Cleaning is done with a cleaning
agent that removes food, soil, or other substances. The right cleaning agent must be
selected because not all cleaning agents can be used on food-contact surfaces. (A
food-contact surface is the surface of equipment or utensil that food normally comes
into contact.) For example, glass cleaners, some metal cleaners, and most bathroom
cleaners cannot be used because they might leave an unsafe residue on the food
contact surface. The label should indicate if the product can be used on a foodcontact surface. The right cleaning agent must also be selected to make cleaning
easy.

Process
21

Cleaning agents are divided into four categories:


Detergents Use detergents to routinely wash tableware, surfaces, and equipment.
Detergents can penetrate soil quickly and soften it. Examples include dishwashing
detergent and automatic dishwasher detergents.
Solvent cleaners Use periodically on surfaces where grease has burned on.
Solvent cleaners are often called degreasers.
Acid cleaners -- Use periodically on mineral deposits and other soils that detergents
cannot remove. These cleaners are often used to remove scale in washing machines
and steam tables.
Abrasive cleaners -- Use these cleaners to remove heavy accumulations of soil that
are difficult to remove with detergents. Some abrasive cleaners also disinfect. If they
are not properly cleaned, food that comes into contact with these surfaces could
become contaminated.
Sanitizing is done using heat, radiation, or chemicals. Heat and chemicals are
commonly used as a method for sanitizing in a restaurant; radiation rarely is. The
item to be sanitized must first be washed properly before it can be properly sanitized.
Some chemical sanitizers, such as chlorine and iodine, react with food and soil and
so will be less effective on a surface that has not been properly cleaned.
Sanitizing Methods
1.

2.

Heat. There are three methods of using heat to sanitize surfaces steam,
hot water, and hot air. Hot water is the most common method used in
restaurants. If hot water is used in the third compartment of a threecompartment sink, it must be at least 171F (77C). If a high-temperature
ware washing machine is used to sanitize cleaned dishes, the final
sanitizing rinse must be at least 180F (82C). For stationary rack, single
temperature machines, it must be at least 165oF (74C). Cleaned items
must be exposed to these temperatures for at least 30 seconds.
Chemicals. Approved chemicals sanitizers are chlorine, iodine, and
quaternary ammonium. Different factors influence the effectiveness of
chemical sanitizers. The three factors that must be considered are:
a. Concentration -- The presence of too little sanitizer will result in an
inadequate reduction of harmful microorganisms. Too much can be
toxic.
b. Temperature Generally, chemical sanitizers work best in water that
is between 55F (13C) and 120F (49C).
22

c. Contact time -- In order for the sanitizer to kill harmful


microorganisms, the cleaned item must be in contact with the sanitizer
(either heat or approved chemical) for the recommended length of time.
Sanitizer Testing
Every restaurant must have the appropriate testing kit to measure chemical
sanitizer concentrations. To accurately test the strength of a sanitizing solution,
determine which chemical is being used -- chlorine, iodine, or quaternary
ammonium. Test kits are not interchangeable so check with your chemical supplier
to be certain that you are using the correct kit. The appropriate test kit must then be
used throughout the day to measure chemical sanitizer concentrations.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Chemical Sanitizers
Chemical

Concentration

Contact
Time
7
seconds

Advantage

Disadvantage

Chlorine

50ppm in water
between 75%
and 100%

Effective on a wide
variety of bacteria;
highly effective; not
affected by hard water;
generally inexpensive

12.5-25ppm in
water that is at
least 75F

30
seconds

U to 200ppm in
water that is at
least 75F

30
seconds

Forms brown color


that indicates strength;
not affected by hard
water; less irritating to
the skin than is
chlorine; and activity
not lost rapidly in the
presence of the
organic matter.
Non-toxic, odorless,
colorless, noncorrosive, nonirritating; stable to heat
and relatively stable in
the presence of
organic matter; active
over a wide pH range

Corrosive, irritating to the


skin, effectiveness
decreases with increasing
pH of solution; deteriorates
during storage and when
exposed to light; dissipates
rapidly; loses activity in the
presence of organic matter
Effectiveness decreases
greatly with an oncrease in
pH most active at pH 3.0;
very low acting at pH 7.0);
should not be used in water
that is at 120F or hotter; and
might discolor equipment
and surfaces

Iodine

Quaternary
Ammonium
Compounds

Slow destruction of some


microorganisms; not
compatible with some
detergents and hard water.

Cleaning and sanitizing utensils


There are three steps needed to effectively clean and sanitize utensils:
Washing

Sanitizing

Drying

Utensils such as cutting boards, bowls and knives need to be thoroughly


washed in warm soapy water. After washing, the utensils should look clean and
23

there should be no food or anything else visible on them. Effective cleaning will
remove most of the dangerous bacteria present. Sanitizing will then kill any that
might remain.
A dishwasher sanitizes very effective if it has a hot wash and drying cycle. If
you do not have a dishwasher, you will need to sanitize in a sink using a chemical
sanitizer or very hot water. If using a chemical sanitizer such as a sodium
hypochlorite or quaternary ammoniumbased solution, ensure that it can be safely
used for sanitizing eating, drinking and cooking utensils. Follow the instructions on
the container carefully, as different sanitizers work in different ways. If you are using
very hot water, take extra care to avoid being scalded. All utensils must then be
thoroughly dried before they are re-used. Air-drying is best but tea towels can also
be used. Be sure that the tea towels are clean though.
If you are washing up at an event being held outdoors, make sure you have
access to plenty of hot water. If hot water is not available, disposable eating and
drinking utensils should be used and enough cooking utensils provided to last the
duration of the event so that washing up is not necessary.

Cleaning kitchen premises


Cleaning your kitchen regularly is important not only to keep it looking its best,
but also to remove all of the germs and bacteria that accumulate regularly in the
kitchen area. There are several surfaces around the kitchen, and by making a
homemade cleaning solution, you can easily clean most of the surfaces with one
basic mixture of household ingredients that are probably already in your kitchen
cupboards.

Things Youll Need


Broom

Cleaning rags

Bucket

Instructions
1. Collect loose dust by sweeping the kitchen floor daily with a broom or static
sweeper and wiping down counter tops, tables and other surfaces with a
24

cleaning rag. To remove sticky buildup, wipe with a damp cleaning rag and
wipe a damp mop over your kitchen floor.
2. Mix 1 gallon warm water in a bucket with cup white vinegar and 1 tsp. dish
soap. Dip your mop into the bucket, wring the mop out and wipe across your
kitchen floors. The diluted vinegar solution makes it safe for any kitchen floor
surface while still strong enough to clean and disinfect. The dish soap assists
in cutting through any food residue that may be on the kitchen floor. Let your
floor air dry after cleaning.
3. Make an all-purpose cleaner in a spray bottle. Combine 3 cups warm water
with cup white vinegar and 1 tsp. dish soap.
4. Spray this solution onto kitchen surfaces and wipe off with a damp cleaning
rag. This works well on any type of kitchen surface including cabinetry, sinks,
tables, counters and any other area that requires cleaning.
5. Fill a few bowls with about cup each of baking soda. Place these around
your kitchen to absorb odor and keep the kitchen smelling fresh. Open
windows to let fresh air circulate, which is especially useful when cooking
strong-smelling foods.

Reflect and Understand

Activity 1. Organizing
25

Directions: Arrange the following steps chronologically. Use A for the first
step, B for second and so on. Write your answer on a separate
sheet of paper.
_____ Prepare diluted vinegar solution in a bucket. Dip your mop into the bucket,
wring the mop out and wipe across your kitchen floors.
_____ Spray all-purpose cleaner onto kitchen surfaces and wipe off with a damp
cleaning rag.
_____ Collect loose dust by sweeping the kitchen floor daily with a broom or static
sweeper and wiping down surfaces with a cleaning rag.
_____ Fill a few bowls with about 1/2 cup each of baking soda. Place these around
your kitchen to absorb odor and keep the kitchen smelling fresh.
_____ Make an all-purpose cleaner in a spray bottle.

How to Clean and Store Cooking Tools and Equipment


1. After measuring and mixing ingredients, soak all used mixing bowls, spatulas,
measuring spoons and cups and mixer accessories in a tub of warm water (add a
small amount of dishwasher detergent to help start the cleaning). Drop items in
the soak as soon as you are through using them. They will be easier to wash
later on.
2. Use a damp washcloth to wipe off all cake mix splatter from the mixer. While
youre at it, wipe off any stray splatter from the counterpiece and nearby areas. If
necessary, finish off with dishcloth.
3. Return electric mixers and other electronic equipment to their designated storage
spaces.
4. After cooking, soak used cake pans and muffin tins in warm water with
dishwashing solution to soften the baked-on or burnt food.
5. Wash all used baking items and accessories by either handwashing or loading in
a dishwasher (if dishwasher-safe).
6. Dry all baking tools and equipment by air-drying rack or wiping with a dry
dishcloth. Make sure all wooden spoons and accessories are dry before storing.
7. Store all tools and equipment in their designated places. Put frequently used
items in conveniently accessible locations. Gather and secure electrical cords to
prevent entanglement or snagging.
Proper Storage and Handling
Proper storage and handling of cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils is
very important to prevent recontamination prior to use.
Cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils must be:
26

stored on clean storage areas; and


handled properly to minimize contamination of food contact surface.
10 Steps in Organizing Kitchen Cabinets
1. Pretend it has a glass door and that everyone is going to see whats inside.
2. Remove all the equipment and scrub shelves with soapy water.
3. Think about what you reach most often and make sure it gets a position thats
easy to reach.
4. Take a cabinet full of glasses and line them up by color. Make sure all of the
front are facing out and straight. (Jeff Lewis-Style)
5. Take a step back after one shelf is done and make someone else look at what
youve done.
Storing of Washed Utensils
1. They should be stored in a clean dry place
adequately protected against vermin and other
sources of contamination
2. Cups, bowls, and glasses must be inverted for
storage.
3. When not stored in closed cupboards or
lockers, utensils and containers must be
covered or inverted whenever possible.
Utensils must be stored on the bottom shelves
Stacking of chinaware
of open cabinets below the working top level.
4. Racks, trays and shelves must be made of
materials that are imperious, corrosive-resistant, non-toxic, smooth, durable
and resistant to chipping.
5. Drawers must be made of the same materials and kept clean. Full-lined
drawers are not acceptable, but the use of clean and removable towels for
lining drawers is acceptable.

Transfer

Activity 1. Sharing time!

Direction:

Answer the following questions in a clean sheet of paper:


27

1. Why it is important to clean, sanitize, and store equipment properly?


2. Enumerate ways on the proper storage of cleaning equipment.

Activity 2. Visitation
Direction:

Observe how canteen staff clean and sanitize kitchen tools and
equipment. Take note of your observations and make
comments/suggestion on how to improve their methods of cleaning and
sanitizing kitchen tools and equipment. Report in your observations in
the class.

Lesson B: Measuring Recipe and Product Costing

Know
Different people may use the identical recipe for molded desserts; all of their
molded desserts could turn out differently because of different measuring and mixing
techniques.
28

The following section presents some important measuring equivalents, tables


and conversions.

Measuring Ingredients Correctly


Accurate techniques in measuring are as important as the tools for measuring.
Therefore, always observe the following procedures:

Rice and flour. Fill the cup to overflowing, level-off with a spatula or with a straight
edge knife

Sifted flour. Most cake recipes call for sifted flour. In this case, sift flour 2 or 3
times. Spoon into the cup overflowing, level off with a spatula.

Refined sugar. Sift sugar once to take out lumps, if any. Spoon into cup and level
off with a spatula. Do not pack or tap the sugar down.

Brown sugar. Pack into cup just enough to hold its shape when turned out off
cup. Level off with a spatula before emptying.

Level a measuring spoon with straight edge of a knife to measure small amounts
of salt, pepper, leavening agents or solid fats.

Liquid ingredients. Place the cup on a flat, level surface. Hold the cup firmly and
pour the desired amount or liquid into the cup. Lean over and view the liquid at
eye level to make sure it is the proper amount.

Check and calibrate timers/thermometers, scales and other measuring devices


according to manufacturers manual before using.

Ingredients which measure by volume and by weight demand standardized


measuring tools and equipment.
Do not shake the dry measuring cup to level off dry ingredients.

It is easier to weigh fat, butter, margarine if bought in pre-measured sticks. If fat


doesnot come in pre-measured sticks, use a scale to weigh the needed amount.

Liquids should be poured into cup in desired level. Cup should stand on a
flatsurface.

Spring scales should be adjusted so that pointer is at zero (0). Place pan, bowl, or
piece of waxed paper on scale to hold ingredient to be measured.
29

When using balance scales, place the pan on the left-hand side of the balance
and the pan weight on the right-hand side. Add the required weights to the righthand
side and adjust the beam on the bar so that the total is the weight
needed
.
Ranges, sometimes called stoves, provide heat for cooking on top and in the
oven. The controls for range heat must be accurate and easy to operate. Tools
and utensils needed for cooking on the range and work space should be within
easy
reach.

Learn to match the size of pan to the size of the unit and to select the right
amount ofheat for the cooking job to be done.

In microwave cooking, time schedules must be followed exactly because


everysecond is important. The microwaves shut off automatically when the door is
opened.

Refrigerators are operated by electricity. The unit that does the cooling
isunderneath the box behind the grill.

Dishwashers are a great help if food is rinsed from dishes before stacking
them.Follow the plan for stacking as suggested in the direction by manufacturers
manual.

Mixers are the most useful machines in commercial kitchens and even at home. It
isgood for making salad dressings, sandwich fillings, for sauces, mashing
potatoes,beat batter and eggs. Attachments are also available to chop, whip,
squeeze outjuice, and make purees.

Coffee makers mostly are automatic, requiring only the measurement of coffee
and water.

In preparing foods on the range or in the fryer, heat is transferred by conduction

MEASURING AND CONVERSION


These easy-to-use conversion charts can help you convert your recipes to the
measuring system your most familiar with.
TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURE
General Ingredient Equivalent Chart Part I
USING CUPS and SPOONS
30

Common Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Kitchen Term
tbsp. or T
tablespoon
g. or
grams
lb. or
pounds
pt. or
pint
tsp. or t.
teaspoon
c. or
cups
oz. or
ounces
k. or
kilos
qt.
quart
F
degrees Fahrenheit
C degrees
degrees Celsius
pc.
piece or pieces
med.
sec.
min
hr.
sq.

medium
Second
minute
hour or hours
square

gal.

gallon

Standard Weights and Measures


Measure
Equivalent
1 kilo
2.2 pounds
1,000 grams
1 kilo
500 grams
kilo
250 grams
kilo
1 pound
16 ounces
4 pecks
1 bushel
8 qt.
1 peck
4 qt.
1 gallon
2 pt.
1 quart
2 cups
1 pint
16 tbsp.
1 cup
5 tbsp. plus 1
1/3 cup
tsp.
4 tbsp.
cup
1 oz.
2 tablespoons
1 tbsp.
3 teaspoons
1 tsp.
1/3 tablespoon
dash /pinch
less than
teaspoon

All cup and spoon measurements are level


cup

2 fluid ounces

60 ml

1/4/ teaspoon

1 ml

1/3 cup

2 fluid
ounces

85 ml

1/2 teaspoon

2.5 ml

cup

4 fluid ounces

125 ml

1 teaspoon

5 ml

1 cup

8 fluid ounces

250ml

1 tablespoon

15 ml

Reflect and Understand

Activity 1.Conversion of measurements


31

Directions: Convert the following ingredients as stated in each number.


1._______ quart = 4 gallons
2.______ grams = 3.5 Kilos
3. 64 tablespoons = _______ cups
4.______ teaspoons = 15 tablespoon
5._____ tablespoons = 72 ounces

6.16 pounds =_________ ounces


7.___________ tablespoons = 7 cups
8.8 quart = _______________ gallons
9._________cups = 10.5 pint
10.5 kilos = ___________ pounds

Activity 2. Categorizing
Directions: Identify the following ingredients. Write L for Liquid and S for Solid.
Write your answer in your answer sheet.
1. Flour
2. Cornstarch
3. Condensed milk
4. Venigar
5. Skim milk

6. Soy sauce
7. Garlic
8. Cheese
9. Yeast
10. Nuts

11. Sesame seeds


12. Vanilla
13. Ground pepper
14. Coconut milk
15. Refined sugar

Activity 3.Computation
Directions: Compute for the selling price of the following products.
1. Cream Puff
Cost of production : 60.00 Number of pieces / Servings : 50pcs
Cost per price : __________________15%
Profit Per Price :_________________Selling Price :____________________

2. Palitao
Cost of production : 38.50 Number of pieces / Servings : 50pcs
Cost per price : __________________50%
Profit Per Price :_________________ Selling Price :____________________
MEASURING AND CONVERSION
These easy-to-use conversion charts can help you convert your recipes to the
measuring system you're most familiar with.
TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURE
32

General Ingredients Equivalent Chart Part II


USING CUPS and SPOONS
Common Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Kitchen Term
tbsp. or T
tablespoon
g. gram or
grams
lb. pound or
pounds
pt.
pint
tsp. or t.
teaspoon
c. cup or
cups
oz. ounce or
ounces
k. kilo or
kilos
qt.
quart
F
degrees Fahrenheit
C degrees
degrees Celsius
pc.
piece or pieces
med.
medium
sec.
Second
min
minute
hr.
hour or hours
sq.
square
gal.
gallon

Standard Weights and Measures


Measure
Equivalent
1 kilo
2.2 pounds
1,000 grams
1 kilo
500 grams
kilo
250 grams
kilo
1 pound
16 ounces
4 pecks
1 bushel
8 qt.
1 peck
4 qt.
1 gallon
2 pt.
1 quart
2 cups
1 pint
16 tbsp.
1 cup
5 tbsp. plus 1 tsp.
1/3 cup
4 tbsp.
cup
1 oz.
2 tablespoons
1 tbsp.
3 teaspoons
1 tsp.
1/3 tablespoon
dash /pinch
less than teaspoon
Measure
Equivalent

All cup and spoon measurement are level


cup

2 fluid ounces

60 ml

1/3 cup 2 fluid ounces 85 ml

1/4/ teaspoon 1 ml
1/2 teaspoon

2.5 ml

cup

4 fluid ounces

125 ml 1 teaspoon

5 ml

1 cup

8 fluid ounces

250ml

15 ml

1 tablespoon

Process
How to Calculate Markup Percentage
33

Markup is the difference between how much an item costs you, and how
much you sell that item for--it's your profit per item. Any person working in business
or retail will find the skill of being able to calculate markup percentage very valuable.
Instructions
1. Calculate your peso markup. This is done by subtracting your buying price
from your selling price.
Example
Selling price 15.00
Purchase cost/buying price - 10.00
Peso markup 5.00
2. Decide whether you want to calculate your percentage markup based on
cost or selling price. Once you choose which you will be using to calculate, it
is importantyou stick to the method you choose throughout all your
calculations, or you will endup with faulty data. If you decide to calculate your
percent markup based on cost, goon to Step 3. If you decide to calculate your
percent markup based on selling price,go on to Step 4.
3. Calculate percent markup based on cost. This is done by dividing the peso
markup by the cost.
Example
Peso markup 5.00
Purchase cost/buying price 10.00
Percentage mark up .5 or 50%
4. Calculate your percent markup based on selling price. This is done by
dividing the peso markup by the selling price.
Example
Peso markup 5.00
Selling price 15.00
Percentage mark up .33 or 33%

5. Make sure you consistently use either cost of the product or selling price to
find the percent markup on an item. Even though the cost, selling price, and
peso markup will always be the same, the percentage markup will be
drastically different depending on if you calculate it using selling price or
cost. Using selling price will give you a lower percentage markup (assuming
you are making a profit), while using cost will give you a higher percentage
markup.

34

Reflect and Understand

Activity 1. Calculate the Markup Percentage


Directions: Given the following recipe

(Maja Blanca) and its estimated

cost, compute for the total purchase cost and impose a 50% mark-up to
determine the selling price of your product.
Item

Price

2 cups cornstarch

20.00

2 cups white sugar

25.00

7 cups cocomilk

50.00

1 cup evaporated milk

20.00

cup shredded buko

25.00

1 tsp vanilla
TOTAL

5.00
145.00

Selling price = Total cost + Peso mark-up

No. of yield SP= _____

Activity 2. Compute the percentage mark-up


Direction: Complete the following table with the necessary information.

Items
Bibingka

Purchase
cost/buying
price
50.00

Selling price

Peso markup

Percentage
mark up

75.00
35

Suman

10.00

20.00

Puto

30.00

40.00

Sapin-sapin

25.00

55.00

Halaya

55.00

110.00

Transfer

36

Activity 1.
Direction: Provided with materials and equipment, perform proper way of
measuring dry and liquid ingredients.
RUBRICS FOR SCORING
Description

Score

Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with no


mistake

100

Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 1


mistake

95

Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 2


mistakes

90

Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 3


mistakes

85

Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 4


mistakes

80

Activity 2. Interview at least two entrepreneurs in


commercial cooking
Directions: Visit at least 2 native delicacies owner in your locality. Interview on how
they measure ingredients make a narrative report in a bond paper and share
observations in class.

37

LESSON 3: Preparation and Cooking of Native Delicacies

Know

Native delicacies are well-loved by Filipino people. Each region in the


Philippines has its own way of preparing suman, puto, biko, kutsinta, bibingka,
kalamay and other delicacies.
The preparation of native delicacies is easier than other food since
most of them are prepared not in oven or other equipment but in traditional kalan,
kawali, gilingan, kawa or palayok with banana leaves which add flavor to the native
delicacies. These delicacies are sweet and rich with various local ingredients. They
come in various attractive forms at affordable cost that attract people.
Homemakers can add extra to their family income by simply selling
native delicacies in front of their houses, in the market or by supplying schools,
offices, and groceries or even starting a small business of their own.
Kakanin, or native delicacies, are snacks usually made with or
containing any or combination of coconut milk, rice flour, glutinous rice, cassava and
sugar. Kakanin are usually prepared whenever there is a special occasion like fiesta,
birthday, Christmas, anniversary, or just enjoy an afternoon of kakanin party with
your family and friends.

NATIVE DELICACIES RECIPE

or
Bibingka Royale or simply just bibingka
to many, is very popular during
Christmas season. Its like a pancake
with cheese and salted egg, sugar and
grated fresh coconut topping-if only its
as easy as pancake to make at
BIBINGKA

ESPESYAL

(Rice

Cake)

38

home. Bibingka is a special rice cake made of rice dough called


galapong.

Bibingka Batter
Ingredients:
1 cup rice

2 tbsp melted butter

1 cup water

3 eggs, beaten

cup refined sugar

1 cup thick coconut milk

2 tsp baking powder

Utensils:
mixing bowl

wooden ladle

Procedure:
1. Soak one cup of rice in one cup of water overnight.
2. Drain water from the soaked rice. Produce rice flour by grinding the rice
softened by soaking, in a rice grinder. If you dont have a grinder, you can
have the rice ground in the public market.
3. Once the rice flour is ready, mix it with sugar.
4. Add baking powder, melted butter, beaten eggs and thick coconut milk to the
rice flour mixture.
5. Mix the rice flour mixture thoroughly. This will serve as the bibingka batter.

Cooking Bibingka
Ingredients:
bibingka batter

4-5 salted eggs

grated coconut

butter

1 packed white cheese

Utensils:
mixing bowl

ladle or deep-cupped spoon

a pair of tongs
39

stove

measuring cup

improvised basin for live coals

charcoals

banana leaves

turner for frying or toasting

rice caked molder

Procedure
1. Put some coals in the improvised basin made of a piece of G.I. sheet or tin.
Make the coals red hot first.
2. Line the rice cake molder with a piece of banana leaf.
3. Put one cup of rice batter into the molder.
4. Arrange a few pieces of the sliced salted eggs and sprinkle a little amount of
white cheese on top of the batter in the bibingka mold.
5. Put the mold with batter over a stove with live coals and place the improvised
tin basin with live, red hot coal over the mold containing the rice cake batter.
The rice cake should be cooked in this manner: with live coals under and over
the mold.
6. Cook for 10 minutes or until the upper skin of the batter turns golden brown.
7. Once cook, remove bibingka from the stove and transfer it on a plate.
8. Serve bibingka with grated coconut on the side.
(This recipe makes 2-4 medium sized bibingka or rice cake

Scoresheet for Cassava Bibingka


Characteristics

Good
(3)

Fair
(2)

Poor
(1)

Shape: cut easily into well shaped servings


Color: brown or yellowish
Texture: cooked mixtures are soft and runny when
hot, firm after cooking
Flavor: well-blended, pleasing, sweet rich in flavour
40

MAJA BLANCA is a Filipino dessert made primarily

from coconut milk. Also known as coconut pudding,


it is usually served during fiestas and during the
holidays, especially Christmas.
Maja blanca has the consistency of thick gelatine with
a delicate flavour, and is creamy white in colour.
Ingredients:
1/2 cup cornstarch

cup white sugar


2 cups coconut milk
coconut cream from 1 grated coconut

Procedure:
Coconut cream
1.
2.
3.
4.

Extract coco cream and coconut milk from the grated coconut.
Place grated coconut in a muslin bag wrung out of warm water.
Twist the open end and squeeze out the coco cream without adding water.
Set aside for cooking latik.
Coconut milk

1. Add three portions of warm water and squeeze the bag of grated coconut with
every addition of water.
2. Cook coco cream in a frying pan over medium heat until oil and latik form.
3. The latik should have a delicate, golden yellow color and must not be burnt.
4. Transfer latik into a dish separate from oil further heating will turn the latik to
darker shade.
5. Prepare cornstarch-sugar mixture.
6. Boil the rest of the coco milk in a 2- quart saucepan.
7. Add the cornstarch-sugar mixture, stirring with a wire whisk until it boils.
8. Hold for 2 minutes to attain a cooked flavor of the starch.
9. Pour into oiled dishes. Cool completely.
10. Serve hot or chilled.

Variations
Maja blanca can easily be adapted to include various other ingredients.
Examples include squash maja blanca which uses calabazas (Filipino:
kalabasa) and a version of maja maiz that uses butter, resulting in a
distinctive yellow color.
41

Another variation of maja blanca is the maja de ube. It uses ube (purple
yam) as one of the primary ingredients giving it a characteristic deep purple
color.

Score sheet for Maja Blanca (using cornstarch)


Characteristics
Shape: well-formed when served
Color: uniformly blended color or plain
Texture: well-cooked starch, smooth unless with
other ingredients such as buko, corn etc.
Flavor: pleasing coconut flavor for maja and latik

Good
(3)

Fair
(2)

Poor
(1)

PALITAW is a Philippine dessert and snack made

of rice flour dough that is boiled and then coated


with coconut and sesame seeds. The small, flat
rice cakes are traditionally eaten during holiday
festivities but can be enjoyed any time. The
texture of the finished cakes ranges from very
moist and delicate to chewy and rubbery,
depending on the preferences of the cook.
Although there are a few variations, palitaw is
usually prepared according to the same basic
recipe without any changes.

Ingredients:
kilo glutinous rice flour

1 grated mature coconut

3 tablespoons sugar

a tablespoons toasted sesame seeds

pinch of cinnamon (optional)

Procedure:
42

1. Boil water.
2. Shape galapong into small disks. Drop one by one to the boiling water. When
it floats, its already cooked.
3. Remove cooked palitaw with a slotted spoon to drain the water and place on a
bed of niyog. Cover both sides of the palitaw with niyog. Arrange on platter or
banan leaves.
4. Mix sugar, toasted sesame seeds and cinnamon. Sprinkle over the palitaw.

Score sheet for Palitaw


Characteristics
Shape: well-formed when served
Color: uniformly blended color or plain
Texture: well-cooked, good toast of sesame seeds
and good quality grated coconut
Flavor: pleasing sesame seeds with grated coconut

Good
(3)

Fair
(2)

Poor
(1)

(kutsinta) is a type of
kakanin
(Philippines
native
delicacies these are snacks usually
made with or containing any or
combination
of
these:
coconut,coconut milk, rice flour,
glutinous rice, cassava).
CUCHINTA

Ingredients:
1 cup rice flour

2 cups brown sugar

1 teaspoon lye water

freshly grated coconut

3 cups water

Procedure:
1. In a mixing bowl, combine all the ingredients and mix well. Pour into muffin
pans, until half full. Steam in a large pan with a cover; the water should be 2
inches deep. Cook for 30 minutes or until a toothpick inserted comes out
clean. Add more water, if needed until cooking is done.
43

2. Remove from the muffin pans and serve with freshly grated coconut.
Score sheet for Palitaw
Characteristics
Shape: well-formed when served
Color: uniformly blended color or plain
Texture: well-cooked, smooth
Flavor: pleasing sesame seeds with grated coconut

Good
(3)

Fair
(2)

Poor
(1)

Sapin-sapin is a layered glutinous rice and

coconut dessert which is Philippine cuisine. It


is made from rice flour, coconut milk, sugar,
water, and coloring. It has coconut flakes
sprinkled on top. Sapin-sapin means "layers"[2]
and the dessert is recognizable for its layers,
each colored separately.[3] It has been referred
to as "a blancmange of several colored layers,
sweetened and flavored with coconut milk".

Ingredients:
1 cups malagkit dough (galapong)
2 cups white sugar
4 cups thick coconut cream (from 2-3 coconuts)
food coloring, violet & egg-yellow

cup rice galapong


3 cups cooked ubi (mashed)
2 big cans condensed milk

Procedure:
1. Blend all ingredients except for mashed ube and food coloring.
2. Divide into 3 parts:
To one part- add mashed ube To heighten the color of the ubi, add a dash of
violet coloring. Mix well.
To second part- add egg-yellow coloring. Mix well.
To third part-just plain white. Do not add anything.
3. Grease a round baking pan. Line with greased banana leaves. Then, pour the
ube mixture. Spread evenly. Steam for 30 minutes or more, until firm.
Note: cover the baking pan with cheese cloth before steaming.
4. Pour second layer on top of the cooked ube. Cover again and steam for 30
minutes.
5. Lastly, pour the third layer or the plain mixture. Again, steam for 30 minutes or
until firm.
6. Sprinkle with latik.
44

7. Cool before slicing.


8. Serve with budbod or toasted sweetened coconut.
Espasol a native cake of roasted and ground sticky rice with coconut milk and
sugar.

Ingredients:
1 cup malagkit (glutinous rice)
2 cups sugar
1 cups toasted shredded coconut

4 cups rice flour, toasted until light brown


1 cup coconut milk
Anise seeds

Procedure:
1. Boil the malagkit.
2. Place sugar, anise seeds and coconut milk in a saucepan; let it boil until thick.
3. Add toasted shredded coconut and cook for 3 minutes
4. Add boiled malagkit, stir and cook until thick.
5. Remove from fire and add 3 cups of toasted rice flour.
6. Mix with a wooden spoon and pass through a cornmeal grinder.
7. Divide into 2 parts and roll (about 2 inch in diameter).
8. Slice into inch thick pieces.

Ube Halaya is basically a dessert made from purple yam. It's sweet

and usually has milk and sugar.

45

Ingredients:
1 kilo ube or yam

1 can (14ounces) evaporated milk

2 cans (12ounces) condensed milk

cup butter or margarine

teaspoon of vanilla (optional)

Procedure:
1. In a pot, boil the unpeeled ube or yam and simmer for 30 minutes.
Drain and let it cool.
2. Peel and finely grate the ube or yam.
3. Heat a big wok in medium heat.
4. Melt butter or margarine, add the condensed milk and vanilla flavoring.
Mix well.
5. Add the 1 kilo grated ube or yam.
6. Adjust the heat to low.
7. Keep on mixing the ingredients for about 30 minutes or until sticky and a bit
dry (but still moist).
8. Add the evaporated milk and continue to mix for another 15 minutes.
9. Let it cool and place in a large platter.
10. Refrigerate before serving the halayang ube.
Cooking Tips:
You may spread additional butter or margarine on top of the yam before serving.
For the sweet toothed, sprinkle a little sugar on top of the yam after placing on the
large platter.
Instead of manually grating the ube, you may cut it in cubes and use a blender to
powderize the ube.

Reflect and Understand

Activity. Let me share!


Directions: Complete the table below by providing honest responses.

Questions

Responses
46

1.What have you just done


today?

2. How can familiarity in the


various processes and principles
help you in providing quality and
marketable native delicacies,
kakanin?

3. How can your new learning


help
you
be
the
best
manufacturer or producer of
native delicacies?
4. What are your general
impressions about producing or
manufacturing native delicacies?

Transfer

Activity 1: GRASPS Model


Directions: Please prepare a Goal, Role, Audience, Situation, Product and
Performance, and Standards and criteria for success (GRASPS) design in preparing
native delicacies.
47

GRASPS MODEL
Your task is to produce native delicacies.

Goal
Role

You are to prepare native delicacies to sell in school and you need to
come up with the good quality, marketable and profitable kakanin.

Audience

You are to help your classmates and share your skills to your family
to cook the native delicacies.

Situation

The challenges involve in purchasing, preparing, cooking and selling


native delicacies or kakanin, using the concepts and principles you
have learned.

Product and You will cook varied quality, marketable and profitable products
Performance using the concepts and principles you have learned in commercial
arts.

Activity B. Create or innovate your own native delicacies.


1. List down on a clean sheet of bond paper the kitchen materials and utensils
needed, ingredients, and procedures.
2. Prepare all the needed materials and ingredients
3. Cook.

Activity C. Mini-Exhibit
The students output in commercial cooking (native delicacies) will be
showcased in a mini exhibit. Students will be guided by the teacher in planning,
implementing and assesing the said activity.

Lesson 4: UNDERSTANDING THE BASIC KITCHEN LAYOUT

Know
Understanding the basic principles of kitchen layout will help take much of the
mystery out of the design process. One of the most basic layout principles is the
48

work triangle. The work triangle is an imaginary line drawn from each of the three
primary work stations in the kitchen - the food storage, preparation/cooking, and
clean-up stations. By drawing these lines, you can assess the distance required to
move to and from each area and thus determine how well the traffic will flow. To help
avoid traffic flow problems, work triangles should have a perimeter that measures
less than 26 feet.
The three primary kitchen work stations which create the work triangle are:
1. The food storage. Your refrigerator and pantry are the major items here.
Cabinetry like Lazy Susan or swing-out pantry units add function and
convenience. Options like wine racks, spice racks, and roll-out trays help to
organize your groceries.
2. The preparation/cooking. Your range, oven, microwave, and smaller appliances
are found in this area. Counter space is important in this section.Conserve space
by moving appliances off the counter with appliance garage cabinets and spacesaving ideas like towel rods and pot lid racks.
3. The clean-up. Everyone's least favorite activity is one of the kitchen's most
important - clean-up. This area is home to the sink, waste disposal, and
dishwasher. Cabinetry for this station is designed to organize the trash bin
cabinet and roll-out tray baskets for storage convenience

DETERMINING YOUR KITCHENS LAYOUT


After learning about the work triangle in the section "Understanding Basic Kitchen
Layout,"you will now see how the work triangle functions in each layout and the
advantages each layout offers.
There are five primary kitchen layout shapes - the U-Shaped, L-Shaped, Island,
G-Shaped, Corridor/Gallery, and Single Wall shapes.
1.The U-Shaped Kitchen
Named for the "U" shape it resembles, this kitchen is popular in large and small
homes alike.
Perfect for families who use their kitchens a great deal
Provides plenty of counter space
Efficient work triangle
Can convert one cabinet leg into a breakfast bar
2. The L-shaped kitchen-This kitchen shape is one of the most flexible and most
popular, providing a compact triangle.
*Very flexible design lay out
* Major appliances can be placed in a variety of areas
* Work areas are close to each other
*Can easily convert to a U-shape with a cabinet leg addition
3.The Island Option. Islands are extremely popular in homes today and are most
often seen in L-Shaped kitchens. Islands can not only keep work areas traffic-free,
49

but also create a wealth of extra counter and storage space. An island can be an
indispensable food preparation station or act as a butcher block area. The island is
also an ideal place to add an extra sink or an island grill.

4. The G-Shaped Kitchen - Built very much like the U-Shaped with the addition of
an elongated partial wall, the G-Shaped kitchen offers a great deal of space.
*Ideal for larger families needing extra storage space
*Plenty of counter and cabinet space
*Multiple cooks can function well in this layout
*Can convert one cabinet leg into a breakfast bar or entertaining area

5. The Corridor/Galley Kitchen - This style kitchen makes the most out of a smaller
space.
Great for smaller kitchens
Appliances are close to one another
Easy for one cook to maneuver
Can easily convert to a U-Shape by closing off one end
6. The Single Wall/Pullman Kitchen - Designed for homes or apartments, the
single wall kitchen offers a very open and airy feel.
* Ideal for apartments and smaller homes
*Works well with the open designs found in many contemporary homes
*Small moveable table can provide eating space
*Can be enhanced with the addition of an island

50

51

52

Activity 1: Kitchen plan and symbols


Direction: Match Column A to B. Do this activity in a sheet of paper.

53

54

Kitchen Floor Plan Symbols


Scale: = 1

55

Reflect and Understand

Activity 1. Draw the symbol of the following:

1. Refrigerator

2. Free standing stove/oven

3. Sinks

4. Microwave

5. Dishwasher

Activity 2.
Directions: Search on internet and download some more symbols in kitchen layout and report to the class.

56

Transfer

Activity 1 A. Answer what is being ask:(Identification)


1. This kitchen shape is one of the most flexible and most popular providing a
compact triangle.
2. Ideal for larger families needing extra storage space.
3. This kitchen makes the most out of smaller space.
4. A very flexible design layout.
5. Ideal for apartments and smaller home

Activity1 B. When do we use each kitchen layout?

Activity 2. Draw kitchen symbols and plans.

Activity 3. Lay out your dream kitchen. Complete your sketch by placing
the necessary symbols to show the different appliances, counters, areas and the
direction of work flow. Use a separate sheet.

57

Lesson 5: Practice Occupational Safety and Health

Know

Apply health, safety and security procedures in the workplace. Safety


regulations and workplace safety and hazard control practices and procedures are
clarified and explained based on organization procedures. Hazards/risks in the
workplace and their corresponding indicators are indentified to minimize or eliminate
risk to co-workers, workplace and environment in accordance with organization
procedures. Contingency measures during workplace accident, fire and other
emergencies are recognized and established in accordance with organization
procedures.
Running a business or a big food service establishment is a demanding job.
Consider the following responsibilities if you are a worker or an owner of such
business.
Protect your property from fire;
Protect your property from natural hazards;
Protect your property from crime;
Protect your staff and visitors from accidents;
Know the legislation that may affect your business.
Most kitchen fires occur in kitchen ranges, boilers or deep-fat fryers and can often
be traced back to poor cleaning regimes.
A. Protecting Property from Fire

Ensure that cooking ranges, boilers and deep-fat fryers are fitted with thermostats
or emergency cutoff valves to turn off the fuel supply should a fire break out.
Ensure that filters are removed and de-greased frequently to prevent a build up of
greasy deposits.
Cleaning should be done weekly, you may need to consider more frequent
cleaning if the equipment is used for long periods on a daily basis.
Store all combustible materials away from buildings or perimeter fencing
preferably inside locked waste bins or lidded skips. Ensure they are emptied
regularly. If no suitable outside location is available, use a secure internal storage
area.
Be vigilant when you open and close the premises each day look for signs of
potential trouble e.g.graffiti or damage to fences remove graffiti and repair any
damage immediately to deter further damage occurring.

58

Electrical faults
Prevention of faults is the answer here and this can be achieved by:
Frequent visual inspections of all portable electrical items and fixed electrical
wiring.
Regular maintenance of these items by an authorized agency or licensed
electrician should be recorded and monitored.
Smoking
Ideally, smoking should be prohibited throughout the premises (including yards
and open areas) and notices to that effect prominently displayed.
Ensure smoking is restricted to a designated area that is kept free of
combustible items such as paper, curtains, flammable liquids.
Provide metal lidded bins for the disposal of ashtray contents and ensure they
are emptied safely every day. Do not dispose them with other combustible
waste.
B. Protecting establishment from natural hazards Flood
Firstly, check with the local authority whether the property is in a flood risk area.
If it is then you should:
Prepare a flood plan for your business detailing the actions you will need to
take to minimize damage and disruption.
Conduct flood drill, so that you and your staff will be sure it works and have
experience of what to do.

Water Escape/Leakages
Get dripping taps repaired as they can cause damages.
Ensure pipes are properly installed using suitable insulation material.

If your premises are likely to be unoccupied for a longer period e.g. over
Christmas and New Year, turn the water off at the stopcock and drain the
system if possible.

Storm Damage
Making sure your premises are in a good state of repair, it will minimize the
chance of storm damage - check the building regularly (walls, roof and any
outbuildings) and ensure any problems you find are repaired promptly.
Check at least once a year that roof gutters, down-pipes and drainage galleys
are clear and unobstructed and kept free of leaves and vegetation.
59

C. Protecting property from crime


Burglary
Thieves frequently see catering businesses as an easy target and it is wise to
ensure that you have a good level of security.
Locks on external doors should be high standards and quality materials. All
accessible opening windows should be fitted with key-operated locks secluded
windows and roof-lights should be protected with steel bars, grilles or shutters.
Consider fitting shop-fronts with grilles or shutters to deter smash and grab raiders
Given time, almost any physical security can be overcome, consider fitting an
Intruder.
Alarm system which will act as a deterrent and limit the time an intruder will
have on your premises. Any alarm system should be fitted and maintained.
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) can help deter and capture evidence of
robbery. Any system should be fitted and maintained by an installer registered with a
nationally recognized installation body such as - NSI (NationalSecurity Inspectorate)
and SSAIB (Security Systems and Alarms Inspection Board).
When your premises are closed, lock away portable electronic equipment e.g.
laptop computers in a secure cabinet.
Consider fitting access control locks on entrance doors to prevent intimidation
or robbery.
Theft of money
Keeping cash on the premises overnight increases the chance of a break in:
Keep as little cash on the premises as possible and keep it out of public view.
Where possible, cash should not be left on the premises outside business hours.
Empty the cash register overnight and leave the drawer open as this often deters
thieves.
D. Protecting your staff and visitors from accidents. Prevention is better (and
cheaper) than cure.
Slips, Trips and Falls
The most common type of workplace accident can be easily and cheaply
prevented in most cases and often bring other benefits.
o Keeping the premises clean, tidy, congestion-free and well lit will go a long way
to preventing most types of accident.
o Clear up spillage promptly and post warning notices.
o Repair or replace damaged floor coverings immediately especially on
stairways and areas where the public have access.
o Keep a clearly marked first-aid kit available at all times.

60

Electricity
Electricity can, and does, kill and the law insists that electrical installation must
be safe.

Ensure electrical equipment is only used for the purpose for which it was
designed.
Use a qualified electrician for electrical installation work and for regular testing of
portable electrical items to ensure they are in good working order.

Fire safety
Carrying out a fire risk assessment is a legal requirement for all businesses
(even one- person operations), this helps prevent fires and ensures swift evacuation
by employees and the public in the event of a fire.

Ensure you have clearly labeled and unobstructed escape routes and that your
staff are aware of the evacuation procedure. Arrange regular practices to
reinforce this.
Ensure that you make a specific member of your staff responsible for customers
and visitors safety in the event of an emergency evacuation.

Manual handling/lifting
Preventing injuries caused by manual lifting of heavy items is also the subject
of regulations and solutions to this problem can easily be achieved.

If loads must be manually lifted, ensure that they are carried by at least two
people and that training in lifting techniques is provided.
Provide mechanical equipment, e.g. trolleys to assist staff in unloading and
moving deliveries. In addition, ensure deliveries are as close as possible to the
location where they will be stored or used.

Accident reporting and investigation


Make sure that all accidents and incidents are recorded and investigated as
lessons can be learned to prevent them in future. Recording method must accessible
and secured. Computer records are fine.
F. Legislation that may affect business
We have mentioned some areas where legislations may affect your business.
Fire Safety, Food Hygiene and electricity. There may be other regulations from other
regulatory board like Food and Drug Administration (FDA) particularly on
manufacturing, packaging and storing food. Be aware and knowledgeable.
61

Reflect and Understand

Activity 1. Speculative Journal Writing


Directions: Complete the table below with your speculative thoughts and ways to
avoid them.

Types of accident or
disaster

Speculations

Ways to avoid them

1. Fire

2. Floods

3. Customer strain

4. Spillage

5. Riots

Activity 2. Internet-based activities


1. Download the various safety signs and tags. Paste one signage in a paper.

62

Transfer

Activity 1. GRASPS Model


Directions: The class will be divided into 5 groups. Each group will prepare a
brochure for the following:
A. Protecting your property from fire.
B. Protecting your property from natural hazards
C. Protecting your property from crime.
D. Protecting your staff and visitors from accidents
E. Legislation that may affect your business.

SUMMARY
The assessment of your competencies is based on the improvement of your
skills and capabilities in the preparation of dishes. You can be a successful chef, and
possible engagement into self or paid employment.
On the other hand, you need to satisfy the needs and wants of your
customers so that they will continue to patronize products. Assess and evaluate your
customers if they satisfy to the goods and services you offered. Always make sure
that you give the best preparation, services and market.
Providing quality, effective, and efficient commercial cooking requires full
awareness of various underlying concepts and principles of the said course.

63

GLOSSARY
Commercial Cooking. Depending on the context, but it generally refers to any
cooking or food production that happens on a large scale where the product is
intended to be sold at a restaurant or a factory.
Cleaning - a physical removal of visible soil and food
Disinfectant - a substance used to destroy germs and diseases
Exterminate - to destroy totally
Filth - anything that is dirty
Grates - frames of iron bars for holding fuel while it burns
Infestation Kitchen - the state of being infested as with parasites or vermin a room
especially set apart and containing the necessary utensils for cooking food.
Parts per million (PPM) - is commonly used as a measure of small levels of
pollutants in air, water, body fluids, etc. Parts per million is the mass ratio
between the pollutant component and the solution. Usually describes the
concentration of something in water or soil. One ppm is equivalent to 1
milligram of something per liter of water (mg/l) or 1 milligram of something per
kilogram soil (mg/kg).
Pedestal - a base or support
Sanitizer - a chemical agent used for cleansing and sanitizing surfaces and
equipment.
Sanitizing - process of reducing number of harmful organismsto safe level on food
contact services
Stack - a case compose of several rows of shelves.
Work Centers - focused around major appliances-refrigerators-freezers, range, or
sink. Thers centers make possible an orderly flow of activities connected with
food storage, preparation, cooking serving, and clean-up.
Work Flow - where work is done most efficiently when it flows in a natural
progression either from left to right or right to left.
Work Simplification - means doing the job in the easiest, simplest and quickest
way.
Work Station simply means a specific work area where a particular kind of food is
produced or specific job is done.
64

Work Triangle an imaginary line drawn from each of the three primary work stations
in the kitchen, and avoid traffic flow problems.

REFERENCES
Abon, Orlando P., Bacani, Olivia A. and Cornito, Evelyn B. (2010).Entrepreneur
Kids, St. Agustine Publication: Sampaloc, Manila
Amy Brown, Understanding Food, 2nd Edition, Thomson Woodworth
Palacio, Monica Theis, INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SERVICE,
128-130

June Payne,

Mary Frey Ray.Evelyn Jones Lewis.Exploring Professional Cooking, Revised, Chas A.


Bennet Co., Inc., Peoria, Illinois 61614
Sonia Y. de Leon, Libia L. Chavez, Virginia S. Claudia, Matilde P. Guzman, et al., BASIC
FOODS FOR FILIPINOS, 95-100

Tomlinson ,Peter and Haftendorn, Klaus (2005). Entrepreneurship Education in


Schools and Technical Vocational Training Institutions, International Labor
Office: Geneva
http//:www.google.com
http://www.bisnes.com
http://content.cteonline.org/resources/documents/35/35a292d/35a2a92d5da7e3be8da54c72
3bf 67448495382e/KitchenFloorPlanSymbolsAppliances.pdf
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09329.html
http://www.ehow.com/how_4425471_calculate-markup-percentage.html

65

66