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How to Meet Ballast Water Performance

Standards?
Assessing (cost)-efficiency of BWT systems
Ensuring fast ballast water production at high
sediment load
Evaluating latest developments of the North Sea
Ballast Water Opportunity project

Marcel Veldhuis
NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
P.O.box 59
1790AB Den Burg, TEXEL
The Netherlands
Marcel.veldhuis@nioz.nl

Why a concern for ships?


A ship-owners confession !!!
Thank you also for the dinner, gorgeous, not like the information, which will take a lot longer to digest.
I think we may be heading the wrong direction on the whole life battle. We spend a lot of energy combating
growth onboard all ships.
We already use Marine growth prevention systems (MGPS) to prevent fouling of pipe lines. Which are
electrolysis based chlorine producing systems. (The chlorine is not neutralised on these systems)
We use anti fouling paints to prevent growth on the hull, which now are copper based biocides.
We heat the lubrication oil to 95 C to kill any life.
We occasionally have to dose the fuel tanks to prevent 'Bugs', in both gas oil and heavy oil.
Fresh water onboard is chlorinated and UV'ed to death.
Even the cargos are often bombed with 'Phosgene Gas' to kill any stowaways, (of the many legged type)
Port health and Port State inspections ensure the accommodation could be used as an operating theatre.
We are trying to be little sterile pools in an ocean of life. Never going to win.

Region

The problem
Regional Impacts
Ecological
new invasion every 9 weeks

Economical

Mediterranean Sea
North Sea
Atlantic coast
Baltic Sea
Black Sea
Azores
Irish waters & NW UK
Arctic waters
Total

losses in 100s of billions euro/year globally

Total
%
number

662
230
177
170
83
25
51
18
1416

Gollaschetal

Tentative calculation results in documented costs of alien species in


Europe (IEEP-Project):
11.4 billion /year (1.8 control, 9.6 damage)

Human health
paralytic/other shell fish poisoning
Cholera outbreaks ????
3

46,8
16,2
12,5
12,0
5,9
1,8
3,6
1,3
100,0

EU response
EU-Marine Strategy framework Directive (2020)
EU's 6th Environment Action Programme (6EAP)
Biodiversity and bioinvasions

North Sea Ballast Water Opportunity program


(EU-Interreg IVB prog; 2009 - >2014)
www.NorthSeaBallast.eu
7 NS countries; > 40 (sub)partners

(EMSA, IMO, HELCOM, ICES, IUCN, OSPAR etc.)

Belgium, the Netherlands, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway.

Wherepolicymeetsscienceandindustry

Interreg IVB boundaries


an ERDF program

geographical limitations
7 Countries
regions bordering NSR
partners located within those
geographical boundaries

NorthSeaBallastWaterOpportunityproject
facilitate ratification of IMO Ballast Water
Management Convention (BWMC):
Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands

Overcome barriers:
Boost technological innovation
Stimulate maritime industry (ca 40% BWT
systems)
Common standards / uniform implementation
Involvement of stakeholders (public & private)
Knowledge exchange and dedicated research
Develop expertise and knowledge center

Rationale

one of the most densely shipped areas


one ecological zone*
overcome bottlenecks for ratification BWMC

* MCA BaWa Scoping Study


[DNV, 2005]

Impact in the North Sea


North Sea- water masses and remaining
currents

Marine currents
facilitate
further distribution
of invasives.
Supported by model
studies

Purpose of academic research


provide knowledge/expertise/data
survival strategies
mitigation/growth strategies
gaps in knowledges/guidelines

NIOZ; ballast water research centre


fundamental need of biology, chemistry and ecotoxicology (holistic approach)
suitable test site with good facilities
tidal system with coastal water varying in salinity (24 34 PSU) and
turbidity (10 - > 100 mg/l), challenging test water
testing since 2004; 9 land-based certif. testing and > 40 pilot studies
viability of remaining organisms but also vitality of discharged water

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NIOZ; ballast water research centre


testing under realistic conditions ; large biodiversity (viruses, bacteria,
phytoplankton, zooplankton)
different stages (eggs, cysts, larvae, juveniles, adults etc)
development of detection tools for Port State Inspection and monitoring

be ready for the unexpected


reality of the field different from theory and standard artificial test soup
Barnacles (Balanus
(test bugs and standard sediment)
nauplia

cypris larva

11

adult

Bacteria
Viru
ses

12

ballast water treatment

drinking water or
waste water treatment

filtration,
hydrocyclones,

!! Market 8 billion euro !!

heat treatment,

40% of industry in NS region

UV treatment,
ozone treatment,
chemical treatment (chlorine, PERACLEAN Ocean),
Inert gas-systems,

Treatment solutions

combinations of above,

based on killing

silver bullets

ALL organisms

Performance of current BWT systems

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Current status BWT technologies


benchmark: > 50 m organisms
UV

life organisms > 50 Pm

Cl

SEDNA
Ecochlor
BalPure
ERMA-first
Hyde-Guardian
OPS
AquaTricom

number [average /m3]

10

0.1

0.01
1

treated discharge [day 5]


delayedeffectsofUV

Efficiency of BWT systems


Results of current generation of BWT-systems
define common unit
Efficiency : - 10log {# discharge/
0: # intake = # discharge
1: 90 % reduction
2: 99 %
3: 99.9%
etc

# intake}

Current status BWT technologies


benchmark: > 50 m organisms
initial organisms number s efficiency
8
7

control

chlorine

Peraclean Oc.

efficiency

UV

5
4
3
2
1
0
1e+3

1e+4

1e+5

1e+6

total organisms [#/m3]

1e+7

Current status BWT technologies


benchmark: 10 - 50 m organisms (phytoplankton)

Total cell numbers per mL

num bers/m L

100

treated T5

10
1
0.1
0.01
Hamann

Ecochlor

STDN

present but non viable

ERMA Hyde-Guardian Mahle

AquaWorX

delayed effects of UV

Current status BWT technologies


benchmark: 10 - 50 m org. (phytoplankton)
7
6
active substance
V-irradiation
control

efficiency

5
4
3
2
1
0
500

10001500

5000

cell number [#/mL]

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Total bacteria

b a c te ria [n u m b e rs /m L ]

1e+7

1e+6

1e+5
intake - control tank T5
intake - treated T5
intake - Discharge Inc. Tx

1e+4
1e+6
bacteria [numbers/mL]

1e+7

Current detection/inspection technologies and availability


Organism
group

technology

Numbers

Viability

Availability

Degree
expertise

Viruses

FCM

Y(30min)

Bacteria

FCM

Y(30min)

Y(15min)

Bacteria

Plating

Y(>1day)

Y(>1day)

+/_

Electrobeads

Y(<1day;
34hours)

Y(<1day;
34hours)

<2014

Y(15min)

+/_

Microscopy
Y(3 h)
Y(staining)
FCM(Cytobuoy)
Y(15min)
Y (staining)
Holoflow (Ovizio Img) Y(15min?) Y(?)

+
<2014
<2014

+/_
+
+

Binocular
Holoflow (Ovizio)

Y(4H)
Y(15min)

Y(staining)
Y(?)

+
+

(50 800micron)
FlowCam (FluidImg)

Y (2 H)

Y (staining)

+
<2014
<2014
+

heterotrophic

Human
pathogens
Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

(ZebraBioScience)

PAM
fluorometry

+/

On-site & real-time detection/inspection


Large variability in organisms
In terms of size, shape and
viability
Large volumes need to sampled
(statistical representativeness)
Indicative or full scale inspection

Legally defendable !!!!

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Representativeness Biological vs Statistical


Conflicting requirements
Sample Volume/Time; numbers and viability
large Volume/time more organisms;
Higher statistical value,
but decline in viability
small Volume/time less organisms;
Lower statistical value,
but better viability
Sample volume/number in relation to its purpose

Current detection/inspection technologies and availability


atamperproofminiflow
cytometer

Classical plating
Heterotrophic bacteria (CFUs)>
1 day
G0095348.LMD
10

dead bact
FL3 LOG

10

Free-ATP measurement
Hydrolysis of bacteria

10

growing ba
10

live Bact.
0

10
0
10

10

10
FL1 LOG

10

Bacteria Viability: dual staining


File: G0095348 10 l dead/40 l life

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Future
ballast water unavoidable cost factor
revision of BWM Convention based on current expertise
and results
the Phase-2 standard of the USCG
focus on tools for Compliance Enforcement and monitoring
(indicative vs full scale sampling)
exceptional ballasting ships
time for second generation of BWT systems
greensolutions, low energy, no active substances
solve a major hurdle: filters (needed or not)

Current Gaps: exceptional vessels/ballasting


larger ballast water volumes (> 12,000 m3/h), In-tank
treatment !!!

The ultimate filter

The ultimate
test

Thankyouforyourattention

Therewillbenowisdomwithout
ballast
Sorry about the rant, I promise any future
emails will be much more positive.

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Invitation for site visit at research facility of


Royal NIOZ (texel)
Friday May 13th
Lectures and on site information and full scale BWT systems
www.NorthSeaBallast.eu