18 views

Uploaded by al_badwi

security

- UNITwise IASQ
- Dna Based Strong Cipher
- Cns Classical Encryption Technique
- boundary controls-system audit.pptx
- Cryptographic Techniques.pdf
- Cryptography
- The Book Cipher Optimised Method to Implement Encryption and Decryption
- Encryption to learn well
- CS255LectureNotes@Introduction to Cryptography
- Lin
- The effect of Encryption algorithms Delay on TCP Traffic over data networks
- IJCSS-450
- Cryptography
- Chap2 Cryptography
- mahesh
- Advanced Computer Networks - CS716 Power Point Slides Lecture 40
- Cryptography 1
- Key-Aggregate Cryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Cloud Storage
- Dynamic Policy Update on Cloud for File Access
- Steganography

You are on page 1of 30

Systems

CS60002: Distributed Systems

Bhaskar Pal

Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg.,

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Outline

Background

Conventional Cryptography

Modern Cryptography

Private Key

Public Key

Authentication Protocols

System Model

P1

P2

P4

P3

to access information

Role of Cryptography

P1

P2

P4

P3

Goals

Confidentiality of Information

Authentication

Data integrity

KC

Encryption

Algorithm

E

Plaintext P

KD

Ciphertext C

Decryption

Algorithm

D

Plaintext P

P is plaintext

C is ciphertext

KC and KD are encryption and decryption keys

E and D are encryption and decryption algorithms

C= EKC(P) P=DKD(C)= DKD(EKC(P))

Intruder

Intruder

KC

Encryption

Algorithm

E

Plaintext P

KD

Ciphertext C

Decryption

Algorithm

D

Plaintext P

Does not know the Key

The objective of intruder is to interpret the ciphertext

Also it can perform some malicious communication

Cryptographic Systems

Conventional systems

Modern systems

Private key system Public Key system

Conventional Systems

Plain-text a text written in some language. Use a

secret mapping procedure to map a letter (or a set of

letters) to some other letter (s) in the same alphabet

Example: adr pgk

Conventional Cryptography

C=E(P)=(P+3)mod 26

P=D(C)=(C-3)mod26

3 can be replaced by any k, (0<k<26) k is the key

Simple Substitution

Eliminate positional correlation of caeser cipher

Cipher line can be any permutation of the alphabets

frequency distribution of letters are not changed- !attack

Polyalphabetic Ciphers

periodic sequence of n substitution alphabet ciphers

11, 3, 4, 5, 6

Modern Cryptography

Same key is used for encryption and decryption

Keys are kept secret

e.g. DES, AES

Encryption and decryption keys are different

Decryption keys is kept secret i.e. private and the

Encryption key is public

e.g. RSA

the secret key shared between them

Bob know the secret key

Secret key K

Secret key K

Alice

Bob

Encryption

Algorithm

E

Plaintext P

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

C=EK(P)

Decryption

Algorithm

D

P=DK(C)

Plaintext P

ciphertext

Initial Permutation

16 rounds of substitution are performed

Final Permutation

key

keys are applied in reverse order

The crux of the system is the length of the key (56 bits),

the intruder has to search 256 values

with Bobs public key

knows his private key

Bobs public key

Alice

Bob

Encryption

Algorithm

E

Plaintext P

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

C=EBpub(P) Decryption

Algorithm

D

P=DBprv(C)

Plaintext P

C=Me mod n

Decryption is performed as

M = Cd mod n = Med mod n

performing authenticated communication between two

entities

communicating entities to each other

System Model

A set of computers connected by a network

No shared memory

Communication solely by passing messages to each

other

Authentication Services

Both the parties should involve in the communication

Synchronous in nature

Sender and Receiver need not to synchronize

Asynchronous in nature

Example: Electronic Mailing System

Signed Communication

Message is signed by the sender

Senders identity and content of the message can be

authenticated to a third party

Potential Threats

An intruder

Can gain access to any point in the network

Can copy or alter parts of the message

Can replay back an old message

Can transmit erroneous messages

The authentication protocol

Message types

Message sequences and purposes

An Intruder

May involved in an on-going transaction

Can try to prevent a secure authenticated communication

Authentication Servers

authenticated communication

conversation key to X

communication with B

It has to send a message M to B

M must have the following properties

Only B should understand M

B should to able to verify that M is a legitimate message

from A and it is not a replay from an intruder

encryption and decryption

Issues Involved

How A can get the conversation key from AS?

How A can send the received conversation key to B?

A AS : A, B, IA

AS A : EKA(IA, B, CK, EKB(CK, A))

A, B, IA

AS

EKA (IA , B, CK, EKB (CK, A))

(1)

(2)

A B : EKB (CK, A)

B A : ECK (IB)

A B : ECK (IB - 1)

(3)

(4)

(5)

EKB (CK, A)

ECK (IB)

ECK (IB - 1)

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

C B : EKB (CK, A)

B A : ECK (IB)

A B : ECK (IB - 1)

(3)

(4)

(5)

EKB (CK, A)

ECK (IB)

ECK (IB - 1)

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Incorporate Time-stamp in the messages

The new protocol

A AS : A, B

AS A : EKA (B, CK, T, EKB (CK, T, A))

A B : EKB (CK, T, A)

Check at B: | CLOCKB - T | < t1 + t2

t1 : Max discrepancy with the servers clock

t1 : Expected Network Delay

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Main Issue:

No explicit conversation key is required for communication

Public encryption keys are used

Handshake protocol

A doesnt know the public encryption key of B.

However it is known to AS

A B : EPKB (IA, A)

A B : EPKB (IB)

EPKB (IA, A)

EPKB (IB)

A AS : A, B

AS A : ESKAS (PKB, B)

can create it

DPKAS (ESKAS (m)) = m

A, B

A

Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

AS

ESKAS (PKB, B)

Asynchronous

the authenticity of the sender and the message

A AS : A, B, IA

AS A : EKA(IA, B, CK, EKB(CK, A))

A, B, IA

AS

EKA (IA , B, CK, EKB (CK, A))

(1)

(2)

sender

A and B know their public encryption keys

sender

Only A can create ESKA (B)

Nonce identifier I is used to verify the integrity i.e. to

connect the header with that of the mail message

- UNITwise IASQUploaded byAjay Krish
- Dna Based Strong CipherUploaded bypantilt
- Cns Classical Encryption TechniqueUploaded byKssanthosh Kumar
- boundary controls-system audit.pptxUploaded byrajkamalturns19
- Cryptographic Techniques.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Sikandar Dar
- CryptographyUploaded byrijoi
- The Book Cipher Optimised Method to Implement Encryption and DecryptionUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Encryption to learn wellUploaded bylucas
- CS255LectureNotes@Introduction to CryptographyUploaded bySuman Kaur
- LinUploaded byMiguel Arzamendia
- The effect of Encryption algorithms Delay on TCP Traffic over data networksUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- IJCSS-450Uploaded byFajar Fauzi Ramadhan
- CryptographyUploaded byrishi
- Chap2 CryptographyUploaded byHaslina Mahmood
- maheshUploaded byvidyasagaruppu
- Advanced Computer Networks - CS716 Power Point Slides Lecture 40Uploaded byTaran Aulakh
- Cryptography 1Uploaded byAparna Rawat Ganjoo
- Key-Aggregate Cryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Cloud StorageUploaded byNarendra Babu
- Dynamic Policy Update on Cloud for File AccessUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- SteganographyUploaded byAbhijith Rangudu
- Enhancing Data Security in WSN using Symmetric Key AlgorithmUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Security as a New Dimension in Embedded System DesignUploaded byAaron Merrill
- All Unit 2 Mark and 16 mark.pdfUploaded bySubash Prabhu
- Ch 34508510Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Data Aggregation in Reverse Multicast Traffic for Sensor NetworksUploaded byAmitKumar
- lecture+5+-+CryptoUploaded byUtkarsh Shrivatava
- Quantum Key Distribution: A Revolutionary Security TechnologyUploaded bydrg1
- lec2.pdfUploaded byVishnu Kanth Malla
- The Art and Science of Secured CommunicationUploaded byS
- A Comparative Analysis on Encryption and Decryption AlgorithmsUploaded byIJSRP ORG

- Test java 2014Uploaded byal_badwi
- Graphics Re Exam Jan2016Uploaded byal_badwi
- Creating Java EclipseUploaded byal_badwi
- Network Even Exam Jan2015Uploaded byal_badwi
- Port MirroringUploaded byal_badwi
- Port MirroringUploaded byal_badwi
- Lecture5Uploaded byal_badwi
- Oop Re Re Exam2015Uploaded byal_badwi
- Laser Alarm SecurityUploaded byal_badwi
- Network Odd Exam Jan2015Uploaded byal_badwi
- Network I Re Exam Jan2016Uploaded byal_badwi
- Graphics Exam Jan2015Uploaded byal_badwi
- Graphics Exam Jan2015Uploaded byal_badwi
- Preprint Version ISSE WirelessUploaded byal_badwi
- Automata Exam Jan2015Uploaded byal_badwi
- حساب الاحتمالاتUploaded byal_badwi
- toolsUploaded byal_badwi
- جميع الثوابت في الفيزياءUploaded byal_badwi
- PLC DesignUploaded byal_badwi
- My_CVUploaded byal_badwi
- تعاليلUploaded byal_badwi
- الباب السادس1Uploaded byal_badwi
- EUROMIN Booklet StudentsUploaded byal_badwi
- Descri Te Exam 07Uploaded byal_badwi
- Descri Te Exam 07Uploaded byal_badwi
- حساي التكاملUploaded byal_badwi
- Assignment GraphUploaded byal_badwi
- plc notesUploaded byal_badwi
- Multiplication JavaUploaded byal_badwi

- Crypt 21 CipherUploaded byKashif Aziz Awan
- Volume 1 Issue 5Uploaded byIJAET Journal
- ARABIC Cryptography Technique Using Neural Network and Genetic AlgorithmUploaded byIRJCS-INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
- Toshiba E-Studio 306SE Trouble Error Codes List 12pageUploaded bynafees
- ICCME - 2014Uploaded bybkumar43
- BLE SecurityUploaded byMathivanan Elangovan
- EFF: Prosecution ExpertUploaded byEFF
- ANSI ISA 99-00-01 2007.pdfUploaded bysofwest1
- Netwrk Security.less PlanUploaded byPriyaLal
- 3. Global Platform-Card Specification_v2.2.1Uploaded bySajid Ul Islam
- WP #0042 Secret Value Distribution v2Uploaded bycraig
- Common Networking Problems and SolutionsUploaded byBlaga MIhai Raul
- Nms Lab File1Uploaded byVaibhav Sharma
- E Commerce2015 11thEdUploaded bychloesienna
- CSDS Lecture Week 7Uploaded byhadukenryu9761
- CryptographyUploaded byPraneeth Akula Sona
- B.Tech-CSE(S7-S8)-SYL-CP-18-02-2018_DRAFT.pdfUploaded bybinzbinz
- Is Scc 2002 Tutorial 0103 VvUploaded byFrank Niles
- AES Algorithm: Encryption and DecryptionUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- An Overview on Message Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Analysis of Block Cipher AlgorithmUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Spotlight on Unix Getting StartedUploaded byI Made Rothman Nova
- Ewns2011 Poster and Demo ProceedingsUploaded byCurroFA
- sappress_sap_interface_programmingUploaded byTapas Dutta
- Megamos48Uploaded byph0en1x10
- Symmetric EncryptionUploaded byshrik80
- pset2Uploaded byAshok Kumar
- 7 Cryptography Part2Uploaded bySai Krishna
- CRP4Uploaded byAman Roy
- ecomUploaded byC.pramod Gowda
- Hospital ManagementUploaded bybam_transact