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C Free Tutorial

What is Software?
Software:
Digitalised automated process is called software.
Whenever graphic user interface is available then it is called digitalised,
without human interaction, if the process is completed, then it is called
automated process.
A software is a collection of programmes.

A program is a set of instructions which is designed for particular task.


N no of programs combined together like a single unit, it is called
software tool or software component.

History of C Language
History of C Language
The programming language term is started in the year of 1950s with the
language called Aron. From FORTRAN language another programming
language is implemented although.
ALGOL:
An acronym for algorithmic language.
The beginning of c is started in the year of 1968 with the language called
BCPL which is evaluated by Martin Richard

BCPL:
Basic combined programming language.
In the year of 1970 from BCPL another programming language is
implemented called B Language which is developed by Ken Thompson.
In the year of 1972 Dennis Ritchie is implemented C programming
language at AT&T Bell laboratories for developing the system software.
In the year of 1988 c programming language standardised by ANSI-C that
version is called ANSI-C version.

ANSI:
American National Standard Institute.
In the year of 2000 C programming language standardised by ISO that
version is c99.
C+ simula 68 -> c++

Advantages of C Language
Molecularity:
It is a concept of developing an application in sub modules or sub
programmes. I.e. procedure oriented approach.
Midlevel:
C programming language can supports high level instruction with the
combination of assembly language code. So, it is called as midlevel
programming language.
Simple:
This programming language syntactically similar to English and limited
concepts are available.
Applications of c:
C-programming language can be used to design different types of
application like designing the system software like OS & compiler.

Data Types in C
The basic advantage of classifying this many types nothing but utilizing the memory
more efficiently and increasing the performance.
In implementation, when we require character operators then recommended to go for
unsigned cap data type.
In implementation, when we require the numeric values from the range of -128 to 128
then go for char data type in place of constructing an integer, in this case, we require to
use %d format specifier
When we require the numeric values from the range of 0 to 255 then go for unsigned
char data type in place of constructing unsigned integer, in this case we require to use
%u format specifier.
For normal numeric operation, go for an int type, if there is no any negative
representations are available like Employee salary then recommended to go for unsigned
int type.
Signed , unsigned, short and long are called Qualifiors
signed, unsigned indicates sign specifications
short & long indicates size specifications.
This all qualifiers we require to use for an integer data type only. i.e we cant use for
float, double and long double.

Pointers concepts in C Language

Pointers:
A pointer is a derived data type in c which is constructed from fundamental
data type of c language.
A pointer is variable which holds address of another variable.

Advantages:
By using pointer, we can access the data, which is available outside the fn.
By using pointer , we can handle the data structure more effectively.
Pointers can increase the execution speed of the program.
When we are working with the pointers, we require to use following operators.

Operators in C
Assignment operator (=) :It is a binary data category operator
Binary category means it requires two arguments i.e, Left and right side
arguments.
When we are working with Binary operator among those two argument if any
one of the argument is missing then it gives an error.
When we are working with assignment operator left side argument must be a
variable type only & Right side is optional.
Arithmetic operator:In C programming language there are 5 types of arithmetic operators are
available. Multiplication, division, Modus, addition, subtraction All arithmetic
operators are binary operators only which require 2 Arguments. In
implementation whenever an expression contains more than one operator then
in order to evaluate the expression, we require to follow priority of the
operator.

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Issues
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