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Root Locus Examples #4a and #4b


These two examples are nearly identical in terms of the open-loop systems G(s)H(s). The only dierence between the
two is the location of the imaginary parts of the complex-conjugate open-loop poles. The real parts of those poles, the
other poles, and the zero are located at the same places in the two systems. Careful note should be made of the eects
that this change in location of the imaginary part of the poles has on the root locus. Some calculations will produce the
same results; some will produce dierent results. The root locus plots will be dierent because of this, and you should
understand why the calculations produce their respective plots.
A. Example #4a
G(s) =

K (s + 3)
K (s + 3)
=
,
2
s (s + 2) (s + 4s + 5)
s (s + 2) (s + 2 j) (s + 2 + j)
n = 4,

m = 1,

H(s) = 1

(1)

nm=3

(2)

Real axis part of root locus:


2 s 0,

s 3

(3)

Angle of asymptotes:
A =

180 (2l + 1)
,
3

l = 0, 1, 2

A = 60 , 180 , 300 = 60 , 180

(4)

Center of asymptotes:
A =

0 + (2) + (2 + j) + (2 j) (3)
= 1
3

(5)

Break points:

1+

K (s + 3)
s (s + 2) (s2 + 4s + 5)
K
dK
ds
dK
ds
dK
ds

= 0

(6)

(7)

at any closed-loop pole

s (s + 2) s2 + 4s + 5
s4 + 6s3 + 13s2 + 10s
=
(s + 3)
s+3
4

3
2
(s + 3) 4s + 18s + 26s + 10 s + 6s3 + 13s2 + 10s (1)
2

(s + 3)

= 0 = 3s4 + 24s3 + 67s2 + 78s + 30


= 0 = (s + 0.7509) (s + 3.5424) (s + 1.8533 j0.5697)
B = 0.7509, 3.5424

=0

(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)

Angle of departure:
D

= [180 + 90 + p3 + p4 z1 ]

10
10
10

1
1
1
= 270 + tan
+ tan
tan
2 0
2 (2)
2 (3)

= [270 + (26.5651 + 180 ) + 90 45 ] = [270 + 153.4349 + 90 45 ]


= 468.4349

D = 108.4349

(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

Closed-loop transfer function:


TCL (s) =

G(s)
K (s + 3)
= 4
3
1 + G(s)
s + 6s + 13s2 + (10 + K) s + 3K

(16)

Closed-loop characteristic equation:


CL (s) = s4 + 6s3 + 13s2 + (10 + K) s + 3K

(17)

Routh Array:
s4 :
s3 :
s2 :
1

s :
s0 :

c1

1
6
78 (10 + K)
6
c1
3K

78 (10 + K)
(10 + K) 18K
6

78 (10 + K)
6
(K + 61.1248) (K 11.1248)

13
(10 + K)

3K

3K

c1 =

(68 K) (10 + K) 108K


6

(18)
(19)

Limits on K for stability:


s0
s2
s1

:
:
:

3K > 0

K>0
68 K > 0

K < 68
c1 > 0

61.1248 < K < 11.1248


0 < K < 11.1248

Imaginary axis crossing:

At K = 11.1248, the auxiliary equation s2 row in Routh Array is

68 11.1248 2
s + 3 11.1248 = 0 = 9.4792s2 + 33.3744
6
s = j1.8764

(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)

(24)
(25)

The root locus for Example 4a is shown in Fig. 1. Each line (branch of the root locus) represents the movement of
one closed-loop pole as the gain K varies from 0 to . The dashed lines in the figure are the two asymptotes that have
angles of 60 . They are not part of the root locus, but act as guide lines for the root locus branches for large K. The
third asymptote coincides with the negative real axis. Note that the root locus branches do cross the asymptotes for
this system.

Root Locus for G(s) = K(s+3)/[s(s+2)(s+2-j)(s+2+j)]


6

Imag Axis

-2

-4

-6
-6

-4

-2

0
Real Axis

Fig. 1. Root locus plot for Example 4a.

B. Example #4b
G(s) =

K (s + 3)
K (s + 3)
=
,
2
s (s + 2) (s + 4s + 13)
s (s + 2) (s + 2 j3) (s + 2 + j3)
n = 4,

m = 1,

H(s) = 1

nm=3

(26)
(27)

Real axis part of root locus:


2 s 0,

s 3

(28)

Angle of asymptotes:
A =

180 (2l + 1)
,
3

l = 0, 1, 2

A = 60 , 180 , 300 = 60 , 180

(29)

Center of asymptotes:
A =

0 + (2) + (2 + j3) + (2 j3) (3)


= 1
3

(30)

Break points:

1+

K (s + 3)
s (s + 2) (s2 + 4s + 13)
K
dK
ds
dK
ds
dK
ds

= 0

at any closed-loop pole

s (s + 2) s2 + 4s + 13
s4 + 6s3 + 21s2 + 26s
=
(s + 3)
s+3
4

3
2
(s + 3) 4s + 18s + 42s + 26 s + 6s3 + 21s2 + 26s (1)

(31)

(32)

(s + 3)2

=0

(33)

= 0 = 3s4 + 24s3 + 75s2 + 126s + 78

(34)

= 0 = (s + 1.1845) (s + 3.9293) (s + 1.4431 j1.8718)

(35)

B = 1.1845, 3.9293

(36)

Angle of departure:
D

= [180 + 90 + p3 + p4 z1 ]

30
30
30
= 270 + tan1
+ tan1
tan1
2 0
2 (2)
2 (3)

= [270 + (56.3099 + 180 ) + 90 71.5651 ] = [270 + 123.6901 + 90 71.5651 ]


= 412.125

D = 52.125

(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)

Closed-loop transfer function:


TCL (s) =

G(s)
K (s + 3)
= 4
1 + G(s)
s + 6s3 + 21s2 + (26 + K) s + 3K

(41)

Closed-loop characteristic equation:


CL (s) = s4 + 6s3 + 21s2 + (26 + K) s + 3K

(42)

Routh Array:
s4 :
s3 :
s2 :
1

s :
s0 :

c1

1
6
126 (26 + K)
6
c1
3K

126 (26 + K)
(26 + K) 18K
6

126 (26 + K)
6
(K + 70.7494) (K 36.7494)

21
(26 + K)

3K

3K

c1 =

(100 K) (26 + K) 108K


6

(43)
(44)

Limits on K for stability:


s0
s2
s1

:
:
:

3K > 0

100 K > 0
c1 > 0

K>0

K < 100
70.7494 < K < 36.7494

(45)
(46)
(47)

Root Locus for G(s) = K(s+3)/[s(s+2)(s+2-j3)(s+2+j3)]


6

Imag Axis

-2

-4

-6
-6

-4

-2

0
Real Axis

Fig. 2. Root locus plot for Example 4b.

0 < K < 36.7494


Imaginary axis crossing:

At K = 36.7494, the auxiliary equation s2 row in Routh Array is

100 36.7494 2
s + 3 36.7494 = 0 = 10.5418s2 + 110.2483
6
s = j3.2339

(48)

(49)
(50)

The root locus for Example 4b is shown in Fig. 2. Note the similarities and dierences between Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
The root locus branches begin and end at the same points, but the branches that follow the 60 asymptotes are now
coming from the complex conjugate poles rather from the break point in the interval (0, 2) . The values for the angle
of departure D and the j axis crossing are good guides for determining this change to the root locus.