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Root Locus Examples

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These two examples are nearly identical in terms of the open-loop systems G(s)H(s). The only dierence between the

two is the location of the imaginary parts of the complex-conjugate open-loop poles. The real parts of those poles, the

other poles, and the zero are located at the same places in the two systems. Careful note should be made of the eects

that this change in location of the imaginary part of the poles has on the root locus. Some calculations will produce the

same results; some will produce dierent results. The root locus plots will be dierent because of this, and you should

understand why the calculations produce their respective plots.

A. Example #4a

G(s) =

K (s + 3)

K (s + 3)

=

,

2

s (s + 2) (s + 4s + 5)

s (s + 2) (s + 2 j) (s + 2 + j)

n = 4,

m = 1,

H(s) = 1

(1)

nm=3

(2)

2 s 0,

s 3

(3)

Angle of asymptotes:

A =

180 (2l + 1)

,

3

l = 0, 1, 2

(4)

Center of asymptotes:

A =

0 + (2) + (2 + j) + (2 j) (3)

= 1

3

(5)

Break points:

1+

K (s + 3)

s (s + 2) (s2 + 4s + 5)

K

dK

ds

dK

ds

dK

ds

= 0

(6)

(7)

s (s + 2) s2 + 4s + 5

s4 + 6s3 + 13s2 + 10s

=

(s + 3)

s+3

4

3

2

(s + 3) 4s + 18s + 26s + 10 s + 6s3 + 13s2 + 10s (1)

2

(s + 3)

= 0 = (s + 0.7509) (s + 3.5424) (s + 1.8533 j0.5697)

B = 0.7509, 3.5424

=0

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

Angle of departure:

D

= [180 + 90 + p3 + p4 z1 ]

10

10

10

1

1

1

= 270 + tan

+ tan

tan

2 0

2 (2)

2 (3)

= 468.4349

D = 108.4349

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

TCL (s) =

G(s)

K (s + 3)

= 4

3

1 + G(s)

s + 6s + 13s2 + (10 + K) s + 3K

(16)

CL (s) = s4 + 6s3 + 13s2 + (10 + K) s + 3K

(17)

Routh Array:

s4 :

s3 :

s2 :

1

s :

s0 :

c1

1

6

78 (10 + K)

6

c1

3K

78 (10 + K)

(10 + K) 18K

6

78 (10 + K)

6

(K + 61.1248) (K 11.1248)

13

(10 + K)

3K

3K

c1 =

6

(18)

(19)

s0

s2

s1

:

:

:

3K > 0

K>0

68 K > 0

K < 68

c1 > 0

0 < K < 11.1248

68 11.1248 2

s + 3 11.1248 = 0 = 9.4792s2 + 33.3744

6

s = j1.8764

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

The root locus for Example 4a is shown in Fig. 1. Each line (branch of the root locus) represents the movement of

one closed-loop pole as the gain K varies from 0 to . The dashed lines in the figure are the two asymptotes that have

angles of 60 . They are not part of the root locus, but act as guide lines for the root locus branches for large K. The

third asymptote coincides with the negative real axis. Note that the root locus branches do cross the asymptotes for

this system.

6

Imag Axis

-2

-4

-6

-6

-4

-2

0

Real Axis

B. Example #4b

G(s) =

K (s + 3)

K (s + 3)

=

,

2

s (s + 2) (s + 4s + 13)

s (s + 2) (s + 2 j3) (s + 2 + j3)

n = 4,

m = 1,

H(s) = 1

nm=3

(26)

(27)

2 s 0,

s 3

(28)

Angle of asymptotes:

A =

180 (2l + 1)

,

3

l = 0, 1, 2

(29)

Center of asymptotes:

A =

= 1

3

(30)

Break points:

1+

K (s + 3)

s (s + 2) (s2 + 4s + 13)

K

dK

ds

dK

ds

dK

ds

= 0

s (s + 2) s2 + 4s + 13

s4 + 6s3 + 21s2 + 26s

=

(s + 3)

s+3

4

3

2

(s + 3) 4s + 18s + 42s + 26 s + 6s3 + 21s2 + 26s (1)

(31)

(32)

(s + 3)2

=0

(33)

(34)

(35)

B = 1.1845, 3.9293

(36)

Angle of departure:

D

= [180 + 90 + p3 + p4 z1 ]

30

30

30

= 270 + tan1

+ tan1

tan1

2 0

2 (2)

2 (3)

= 412.125

D = 52.125

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

TCL (s) =

G(s)

K (s + 3)

= 4

1 + G(s)

s + 6s3 + 21s2 + (26 + K) s + 3K

(41)

CL (s) = s4 + 6s3 + 21s2 + (26 + K) s + 3K

(42)

Routh Array:

s4 :

s3 :

s2 :

1

s :

s0 :

c1

1

6

126 (26 + K)

6

c1

3K

126 (26 + K)

(26 + K) 18K

6

126 (26 + K)

6

(K + 70.7494) (K 36.7494)

21

(26 + K)

3K

3K

c1 =

6

(43)

(44)

s0

s2

s1

:

:

:

3K > 0

100 K > 0

c1 > 0

K>0

K < 100

70.7494 < K < 36.7494

(45)

(46)

(47)

6

Imag Axis

-2

-4

-6

-6

-4

-2

0

Real Axis

Imaginary axis crossing:

100 36.7494 2

s + 3 36.7494 = 0 = 10.5418s2 + 110.2483

6

s = j3.2339

(48)

(49)

(50)

The root locus for Example 4b is shown in Fig. 2. Note the similarities and dierences between Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

The root locus branches begin and end at the same points, but the branches that follow the 60 asymptotes are now

coming from the complex conjugate poles rather from the break point in the interval (0, 2) . The values for the angle

of departure D and the j axis crossing are good guides for determining this change to the root locus.

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