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Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor

Complete Streets Traffic Study


Columbus, Ohio

January 2012

Prepared by:

Stantec Consulting Services Inc.

Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

1. Purpose
The purpose of this traffic study is to evaluate the Fourth Street and Summit Street
corridors in Columbus, Ohio relative to the implementation of Complete Street
improvements between I 670 and Hudson Street. This evaluation will be used to determine
if the number of through travel lanes for automobile traffic can be reduced from three to
two and whether the existing 90 second signal timing cycle used during the afternoon peak
could be reduced to a shorter 75 second cycle. These changes are intended to enhance non
motorized travel in the corridor, including the addition of bike lanes, and encourage self
enforcement of traffic regulations thus creating a safer corridor for all users.
2. Background/Existing Conditions
The Weinland Park Community Mobility Plan recommends the implementation of
Complete Streets type improvements along Fourth Street and Summit Street to enhance
the non motorized travel modes and encourage self enforcement of traffic regulations,
creating a safer corridor for all users. Non motorized travel is especially important along this
corridor, as car ownership is significantly lower in the study area neighborhoods with less
than 62 percent of the population owning a vehicle.
The recommendations of the Weinland Park Community Mobility Plan include the removal
of some or all parking restrictions along the existing curb lanes. The resulting section on
these two streets will be one bike lane, two through travel lanes along with on street
parking on both sides. At signalized intersections turn lanes will be included along with
parking restrictions on one side. The Fourth Street bike lane is planned to run from Goodale
Street to Hudson Street. On Summit Street, the bike lane is planned to extend from Warren
Avenue to Hudson Street. Improving pedestrian safety will improve safety for transit,
automobile, and bike modal users as many trips begin and end by walking within the
corridor.
Fourth Street and Summit Street are a one way couplet through the Weinland Park area of
Columbus. These streets each have three through travel lanes during peak periods. Though
most sections of Fourth and Summit are wide enough for three through lanes and two
parking lanes, narrower sections allow parking in the third lane. Where this is the case, peak
period parking restrictions are used to ensure the third travel lane is available during peak
periods.
Geometric and vehicular conditions within the Fourth and Summit Corridor are having an
adverse impact to safety and mobility within the corridor. Both the speed and volume of
vehicular traffic and corridor crash history have created an inhospitable environment for
those choosing to travel by other modes. Though the posted speed for these streets is 35
mph, the 85th percentile speeds range from 37mph to 47mph. At 40 mph, there is an 85%
likelihood that a pedestrian crash would result in a fatality.

Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

3. Study Area
The study area for evaluating the traffic signals along Fourth Street and Summit Street
ranges from 1st Avenue to 17th Avenue. The study area for analyses of traffic crashes on
these two corridors ranges from Warren Street to Hudson Street
4. Data Collection
Traffic Counts
As part of the Weinland Park Community Mobility Plan, peak hour turning movement
counts were collected in the fall of 2008 at the intersections of Fourth Street & 5th Avenue,
Fourth Street & 11th Avenue, Summit Street & 5th Avenue, Summit Street & 7th Avenue, and
Summit Street & 11th Avenue. New peak hour turning movement counts were collected in
September 2010 at the following intersections:
Summit Street & 1st Avenue
Summit Street & 2nd Avenue
Summit Street & Chittenden Avenue
Summit Street & 12th Avenue
Summit Street & 15th Avenue
Summit Street & 17th Avenue

Fourth Street & 1st Avenue


Fourth Street & 2nd Avenue
Fourth Street & 7th Avenue
Fourth Street & Chittenden Avenue
Fourth Street & 17th Avenue

Copies of the traffic counts are included in Appendix A.


It should be noted that construction on SR 315 was on going during the collection of the
traffic counts in September 2010, which may have caused a significant increase in traffic
along this corridor. This is based on comparing 2010 counts with 2008 counts. For example,
on Summit Street south of 2nd Avenue, the AM peak (8 AM to 9 AM) count taken on
8/31/2010 was 1,479 vehicles while the AM peak (8 AM to 9 AM) count taken on 10/1/2008
was 1,132 vehicles. Similarly, on Fourth Street south of 2nd Avenue, the PM peak (5 PM to 6
PM) count taken on 9/1/2010 was 1,757 vehicles while the PM peak (5 PM to 6 PM) count
taken on 9/29/2008 was only 1,239 vehicles.
Study Years
The year 2023, projected as ten years from opening day, was identified as the design year
because the proposed improvements are mostly striping changes, not major construction.
Other analysis years include 2010 (existing volumes) and 2033 (20 year horizon volumes).
As the study progressed the opening year changed, this affected the analysis years for
Alternative B. Alternative B analysis years were revised to 2027 and 2035, reflecting the
12 year design life of resurfacing projects. The alternatives are discussed further below.
Study Alternatives
Initially two alternatives were analyzed, 0 and A. After a thorough review of these two
alternatives, a third alternative (B) was evaluated. Alternative 0 represents the existing
conditions, including the existing 2010 volumes, existing lane assignments and existing
signal timings. Alternative A represents the reduced through lanes on Summit Street and
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Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

Fourth Street, future 2023 traffic volumes, an exclusive (all) pedestrian phase at the Summit
Street & 7th Avenue intersection, a 3 lane cross section on 5th Avenue, and modified signal
timings using a 75 second cycle. Alternative B is similar to Alternative A with the
exception of traffic volumes and the lane configuration along Fifth Avenue. Alternative B
traffic volumes were developed with the MORPC Model constrained to two lanes on Fourth
Street and Summit Street. The lane configurations for these three alternatives are depicted
in the attached schematics.
Volume Projections
Traffic volume projections were developed from the collected traffic counts (2008 and
2010) and traffic growth rates. A separate growth rate was applied to the AM and PM peak
periods. A 1.7% compounded annual growth rate was used for the AM peak volumes, while
a 0.9% compounded annual growth rate was used for the PM peak volumes. The 2008
volumes were smoothed with respect to the 2010 volumes by the addition of a constant
through traffic volume where needed.
The 1.7% and 0.9% compounded annual growth rates, identified for this study as the
Contract Rates, were extracted from previous studies conducted in this corridor. Because
these growth rates were developed several years ago, MORPC was contacted for validation
of these rates. Using the regional travel model, MORPC provided growth rates for
Alternative 0, A, and B conditions. These alternative conditions are described in a
later section. A comparison of the contract rates and the rates information provided by
MORPC is summarized in attached tables.
Traffic Signal Data
Existing signal operation data for the intersections within the study area was provided by
the City of Columbus.
Traffic Crash Data
Traffic crash data was supplied by ODOT for the three year period of 2007 through 2009.
This data was provided in ODOTs Crash Analysis Module (CAM) Tool spreadsheet program.
The data was reviewed thoroughly to identify relevant crashes and eliminate ones that were
not within the 4th and Summit corridors.
5. Traffic Analyses
Capacity Analysis
Capacity Analysis of Alternative 0 and Alternative A were completed using Synchro and
HCS software, only Synchro was used for Alternative B. As part of Synchro analyses the
signals were coordinated along Fourth Street, Summit Street, 5th Avenue and 11th Avenue.
The Synchro analyses will be provided in electronic format to the City at conclusion of this
project. Because the purpose of the proposed Fourth Street and Summit Street
improvements is to better balance mobility within the study corridor, intersection Level of
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Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
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Service (LOS) D was identified as the acceptable LOS threshold. The Synchro results for
intersection and approach LOS, delays, and 95th percentile queues are tabulated in the
attached tables.
The capacity analyses results indicate that both Alternative 0 and Alternative A will
operate well with respect to LOS for vehicular traffic and the 2010 traffic volumes. Because
part of the purpose of the capacity analysis portion of this study was to determine how the
study intersections would perform with the implementation of Alternative A or B no
further analyses of Alternative 0 were completed as part of this study.
For Alternative A, the results indicate that the proposed improvements will operate
satisfactorily at most of the intersections with the year 2023 volumes. However, these
results show that the Summit Street & 7th Avenue intersection will operate a LOS F in the
AM Peak in year 2023 with the proposed exclusive pedestrian phase. Additional analyses of
this intersection were completed analyzing this intersection without the exclusive
pedestrian phase and with the exclusive pedestrian and a longer cycle length. The second
analyses would represent the signal at this intersection dropping out of coordination with
the other signals on the Summit Street corridor when the pedestrian phase is called and
serviced. The analysis results for the operation of this intersection without the exclusive
pedestrian phase is LOS B with the 2023 AM Peak volumes. The analysis results for the
longer cycle length indicate that that the intersection will operate at LOS E with the 2023
AM Peak volumes. Because the analysis results for Alternative A with the 2023 PM Peak
volumes were acceptable, the additional analyses were only completed for the 2023 AM
Peak volumes.
The capacity results also show that the Summit Street & 5th Avenue intersection will operate
at LOS E with the eastbound approach operating at LOS F in year 2023 with the proposed
lane configuration of Alternative A. Additional analyses of the 5th Avenue intersection
indicate that this intersection will operate at LOS D in year 2023 if the existing lane
configuration on 5th Avenue is maintained. The lane configuration on 5th Avenue associated
with the 3 lane cross section would include an eastbound right turn lane on 5th Avenue at
Summit Street and westbound right turn lane on 5th Avenue at Fourth Street. These right
turn lanes would require reconstruction of the sidewalk and possibly right of way.
The 2033 capacity analysis results for Alternative A indicate that the intersections of
Summit Street & 7th Avenue, Summit Street & 5th Avenue, and Fourth Street & 5th Avenue
will operate poorly. Though the additional analyses mentioned above for the 2023 volumes
at these intersections were not completed for the 2033 volumes, it is assumed that these
would yield similar results if completed for the 2033 volumes.
Our recommendation is that the proposed Complete Streets improvements of Alternative
B be implemented along Fourth Street and Summit Street. The exclusive pedestrian
phase at the intersection of Summit Street & 7th Avenue should be implemented as an
actuated phase, so that it is only called when pedestrians are present to cross Summit
Street.
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Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

Traffic Crash Analyses


For the three year period of 2007 through 2009, there were 945 crashes along Summit
Street and Fourth Street from I 670 to and including Hudson Street. The number of crashes
was fairly evenly distributed between the two streets, with 461 crashes on Summit Street
and 484 crashes on Fourth Street.
The following table outlines the 2007 2009 crash rate and relative severity index for the
study corridor.
Street
Summit Street

Crash Rate

Relative Severity Index

16.71

26,587

Fourth Street

16.44

25,475

Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

As illustrated by the following table, Summit Street has 12 intersections or segments on


ODOTs 2009 HSP List, while there were eight intersections or segments from Fourth Street
on that listing.
2009 HSP Ranking (Summit Street)
2009 HSP
Ranking

Begin Log

End Log

120
309
320

1.94
0.87
15.08

1.94
0.87
15.08

Summit Street & 5th Avenue


Summit Street & 17th Avenue
Fourth Street & Hudson Street

357
594
599

13.13
1.58
1.41

13.13
2.16
1.41

Fourth Street & 5th Avenue


Summit Street (8th Avenue to 3rd Avenue)
Summit Street & 11th Avenue

730

13.65

13.65

Fourth Street & 11th Avenue

794

12.99

14.13

Fourth Street (Detroit Ave to 17th Avenue)

873
1002
1445
1534
1675
1851
1931

14.13
0.24
1.14
0.79
13.86
2.52
1.06

14.13
1.41
1.14
0.79
13.86
2.52
1.06

Fourth Street & 17th Avenue


Summit Street (Maynard Ave To 11th Ave)
Summit Street & 14th Avenue
Summit Street & 19th Avenue
Fourth Street & 13th Avenue
Summit Street & Warren Street
Summit Street & 15th Avenue

1970

13.78

13.78

Fourth Street & 12th Avenue

1986
2054
2186

2.01
1.35
13.71

2.01
1.35
13.71

Summit Street & 4th Avenue


Summit Street & Chittenden Avenue
Fourth Street & Chittenden Avenue

2214

2.35

2.35

Summit Street & 1st Avenue

Description

Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
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Of the 945 crashes on Fourth Street and Summit Street, 408 of them occurred at signalized
intersections while 273 crashes occurred at stop controlled intersections and 264 crashes
where non intersection related. The highest concentration of crashes took place at the
intersections with roadways that connect to I 71; 5th Avenue, 11th Avenue, 17th Avenue and
Hudson Street. These are the highest volume intersections along the corridor. The 313
crashes at these intersections represent 77 percent of the signalized intersection crashes.
Cross Street

Summit Street

Fourth Street

Total

Hudson Street

52

54

17th Avenue

34

36

70

11th Avenue

35

44

79

5th Avenue

68

42

110

Total

139

174

313

Approximately 90 percent of the crashes were sideswipe passing (266), angle (238),
involved a parked vehicle (200), or were rear end (146) type crashes. Angle and sideswipe
passing were the most prevalent intersection related crashes, while over half of the non
intersection related crashes involved parked vehicles.

Number of Crashes (Type of Crash vs. Intersection vs. Non Intersection and Traffic Control
300
250

NON INTERSECTION

200

STOP

150

SIGNAL

100
50
0

Eleven pedestrian involved crashes occurred along Summit Street, while there were only
three pedestrian crashes on Fourth Street.
The number of crashes is increased on Saturday and Friday, when compared with the other
days of the week. The number of crashes on these two days of the week is 25 to 30 percent
than the other days of the week.

Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

Number of Crashes by Day of Week and Street


200
SUMMIT STREET

180

4TH STREET

160
140

87

90

120

62

100

71

80

44

51

69

68

75

80

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY

THURSDAY

FRIDAY

56

60
40
20

51

52

SUNDAY

MONDAY

89

0
SATURDAY

When examined by time of day, the number of crashes directly correlates to the volume
increases associated with the PM peak period. The other noticeable trend is that the
number of late night crashes is relatively high with 163 accidents occurring between 11 PM
and 3 AM. Over half of these crashes were related to the weekend.
Number of Crashes by Time of Day and Street
80
SUMMIT STREET

70

4TH STREET
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Fourth Street and Summit Street Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Streets Traffic Study
Columbus, Ohio

6. Conclusions
1. The capacity analyses results indicate that the proposed Complete Streets
improvements of Alternative B can be implemented along Fourth Street and
Summit Street with acceptable levels of service. Additionally, the exclusive
pedestrian phase at the intersection of Summit Street & 7th Avenue should be
implemented as an actuated phase, so that it is only called when pedestrian are
present to cross Summit Street.
2. A significant proportion of the people living in the study area are dependent upon
non motorized travel as statistics indicate that 38% of those living in the in the
Weinland Park study area do not own a vehicle.
The implementation of Complete Streets improvements along Fourth Street and
Summit Street will enhance the non motorized travel modes and encourage self
enforcement of traffic regulations thus creating a safer corridor for all users.
3. Conditions within the Fourth and Summit Corridor are having an adverse impact to
safety and mobility within the corridor. The speed and volume of vehicular traffic, as
well as the crash history have created an inhospitable environment for other modal
users. Though the posted speed for these streets is 35 mph, the 85th percentile
speeds range from 37mph to 47mph in sections of the corridor. At 40 mph, there is
an 85% likelihood that a pedestrian crash would result in a fatality.
The reduction in the number of through travel lanes on these corridor streets will
create larger traffic platoons, reduce travel speeds, and increase safety for
pedestrians and bicyclists in the corridor.
4. Because of the historic development pattern in the study area, the lack of adequate
off street parking forces many residents and visitors to rely upon critically needed
on street parking spots. However, there were 200 crashes involving parked vehicles,
representing more than 21 percent of the crashes along corridor.
The addition of bike lanes on both Fourth Street and Summit Street will help to
create a greater seperation between through traffic and parked vehicles, on one side
of the street. Any remaining pavement width may be able to be allocated to create
buffer space for the other side of the street. These enhancements should reduce the
amount and severity of these types of crashes.