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Pronunciation Foundations

Student Edition

Elective Class WSU 2015


2015
Woosong University
Paul R. Friesen

A Google website is available at


https://sites.google.com/site/pronunciationfoundations/

Contents Pronunciation Foundations Elective

Contents
Foundations 1
Pronunciation: Changing Meaning through Word Stress

(Worksheet)

Intonation and Stress in English

Different length same time


o Negative and positive

Stressed and Non-stressed


o Content and Function

Worksheets
o Fonetics.com

American stress and tone

How to Improve Your Pronunciation


Rules for Pronunciation
Sound Scripting Word Stress and Intonation (with audio)

Mark-up paragraph Add paragraphs for students to mark-up as


homework.

Word Syllable Stress Patterns in English

Listen and repeat exercises. (with audio)Add worksheets for inclass work.

o Englishclub.com
o Englishzone.com

stress patterns

o Englishzone.com

maze game

Homework drama Stress and communication


You want me to give you money
Pronunciation Help - Sentence Stress (worksheet- about.com)

Contents Pronunciation Foundations Elective


o Content and Function focus

(worksheet about.com)

o Pronunciation Help Sentence Stress


Foundations 2

Make Pronunciation Simple (book / Lesson 1)


o Pronouncing the vowels in English
Pronouncing front /back vowels (picture)
Vowel Practice
o Diphthongs / Monophthongs (list)
Pronunciation Exercises
o Sound Stress, intonation
o Pronunciation
o Introducing letter and sounds (bye / buy) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 1
o Pronouncing the verb TO BE (She was First) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 35
o Introducing Syllables ( Eye, my, mine) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 21
o Introducing WORD stress (Saturday September 13th) (Pronunciation in
use 2003) Unit 22
o Stress in longer words (Unforgettable) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 30
o Stress in longer words 2 (Public, publicity) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 31
o Introducing SENTENCE Stress (Remember, he told her) (Pronunciation
in use 2003) Unit 23

Rhythm (pollnoll.com)
o Syllable rhythm rules
o Limericks
Rhythm
Clarity, Voicing, and Length of Syllable
Clarity; Contrast between Stops and Continsuants.
Clarity; Puffs of Air.
Stress patterns
English Rhythm
Word stress patterns
Sentence stress patterns
Limerick patterns

Contents Pronunciation Foundations Elective

The Schwa (BBC)


o Words with Schwa
o The Schwas sound
o Pronunciation of the schwa (with answers)
The color vowel chart (empty chart as worksheet)
o Sample lesson
American English ( fonetiks.org)
o Single vowel sounds
o The invisible vowel sounds (schwa)
o Vowel exercises
o Team challenge ( 1 A4 12 point conversation using the two columns of
contrasting words.
Stress in two-syllable words (Record, reCORD (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 28
Pronouncing short words (a, of, or) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 37

Consonants

Consonant at the start of syllables (Oh, no snow!) (Pronunciation in use 2003)


Unit 24
Consonant sat the end of syllables (Go goal gold) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 25

Joining words

Joining words 1 (Pets enter, pet center) (Pronunciation in use 2003)


Unit 38
Joining words 2 (After eight, after rate) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 39
Joining words 3 (Greet guests, Greek guests) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 40

Ending ED

(englishforeveryone.org) Worksheet
Three ways to pronounce ed - Worksheet

Triple Consonant Blend Word Endings


- Worksheet w/answers

(NCH / TCH / RCH)

Contents Pronunciation Foundations Elective


Conversation

Sentences with all the words stressed (Dont look now) (Pronunciation in use
2003) Unit 32
Emphasizing contrasting alternatives (Chips or Salad (Pronunciation in use
2003) Unit 52
Emphasizing added details (Schwartz Pedro Schwartz Salad (Pronunciation in
use 2003) Unit 50
Emphasizing corrections (Fifty? No, fifteen!) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 53
Emphasizing important words (I think youre in my seat) (Pronunciation in use
2003) Unit 51

Grouping Words

Grouping words (A shirt and a tie / a shirt and tie) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 43
Understanding small talk ( I mean, its sort of like ) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 46
Showing that you want to continue ( Ehm ,,, ) (Pronunciation in use 2003)
Unit 44
Reading aloud: pronouncing punctuation ( Was that the questions? he
(Pronunciation in use 2003) Unit 42
The FINAL test

Homework Schedule for WSU 2015-1


Professor Paul R. Friesen

Pronunciation Elective

A list of Homework /Participation tasks


Week 2

Quiz 1

Copy ~ This is a short quiz. Points are not given, but will count toward the participation total.

Week 3

Week 4

Homework 1 / DRAMA ~ You want to give me money ~


10 points
For information look in
http://www.eslcafe.com/idea/index.cgi?display:990687901-7981.txt
This drama is outlined in the manual and has a rubric.

Bridge activity / Photo fun


Students will take photos of different age technology and discuss it in class
using a prescribed script base.
Points will be assessed as part of the participation total.

Week 5

Homework 2 / DRAMA

The Hamburger

10 points

Students will review a video file of the Pink Panther Hamburger episode. (A link
will be sent the students for review.) The students will then choose another 3 or
more syllable word and emulate the video. The key is to create different
variations of sounds for each syllable. A sample is included and a rubric score
required.

Week 7

Limericks

10 points

Students will be required to write and present three (3) limericks. Students will
be strongly encouraged to send to the Woosong Review for publication.
Rubric points will be considered for the point value.

Week 9

Conversation
Students will make a conversation comprised of 10 questions and answer
sequences. Suggestions are included in the manual. Participation points will be
given for this in-class task.

Pretest
Also a goodgle form

12/22/2014

PronunciationPrequestionnaire

Editthisform

Pronunciation Pre-questionnaire
Your username (paulfriesen@woosong.org) will be recorded when you submit
this form. Not paulfriesen? Sign out
* Required

I am a *
what year are you in school. 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
frehsman
sophomore
junior
senior

I have lived more than ______ ________ in a different country. *


months or years

My goal is to study in a foreign country where English is important. *


yes
no
https://docs.google.com/a/woosong.org/forms/d/1NXMajFyn5TfkcYFfscSt6UGZ3cq5g24kEJreqHoc1o/viewform

1/4

12/22/2014

PronunciationPrequestionnaire

How many languages have you studied? What are they? *

What problems do you have in pronunciation? *

I want to ONLY have fun in this class. *


yes
no

I think this class will be hard.


yes
no
i am confident it will be a challenge.

I like studying in __________


teams
as an individual
pairs

I think my English level is


low
high
intermediate
confident

I listen to English TV everyday for ______ than 1 hour.


more
less
never
https://docs.google.com/a/woosong.org/forms/d/1NXMajFyn5TfkcYFfscSt6UGZ3cq5g24kEJreqHoc1o/viewform

2/4

12/22/2014

PronunciationPrequestionnaire

What different ideas have you studied in English


debate, presentation etc

This class is ________ important to me.


very
not very
somewhat
not

I am interested in a ______ technical class style.


more
less
none

I want to join a __________ English club outside of class.


conversation, debate, etc

I think I am a confident person in English conversation because

I want to be a leader in my future job.


yes
no
any job is ok
https://docs.google.com/a/woosong.org/forms/d/1NXMajFyn5TfkcYFfscSt6UGZ3cq5g24kEJreqHoc1o/viewform

3/4

12/22/2014

PronunciationPrequestionnaire

I want to participate in Star English.


yes
no

I work part-time and come to school.


yes
no
I am not interested in these otions.

Homework is a ________ way to learn.


easy
good
hard
not very
Send me a copy of my responses.
Submit

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4/4

Week 1

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Objective
Students will understand the question, Why intonation is
important? and use it effectively through practice.

Outcomes

Students will have a better understanding of why intonation and


stress helps / hinders their communication.
Students will communicate through better use of intonation
and stress in their conversations and presentations.

Process

Students will be required to read about pronunciation stress and


intonation for test 1.

Students will be required to do worksheets for participation/practice/


and testing.
Students will view selected videos relevant to the daily topic.

Students will be required to do selected homework tasks for points,


scored by a rubric.

Pronunciation Foundations
Professor Paul R. Friesen

2015 WSU Elective Class

Dear Students,
They say that pronunciation is often missed when you learn English. There are so many ideas to
learn and the rules of English hard to understand. In this class you will be challenged to say
things right, have fun doing the homework, and be required to do ALL the work in the student
book. You will see video and websites to bookmark so you can continue learning.
You will look at only a few of the things you may struggle with. Your participation score will
reflect what you do in class. Ask questions, write new words, work hard on the assignments,
and be ready for every class. You will be asked to make a limerick and post to the Woosong
Review website. This will give you a published article to put on your resume and show your
parents and friends.
Pronunciation can be boring, but we want to have a bit of fun. Over the last two semesters, the
students learned many words that they didnt know before. They learned them because they
didnt know that if they pronounce them wrong, people would think wrong. This made the
learning more challenging and expanded their vocabulary understanding.
In this class, you will hear the stress on intonation and rhythm often. This is because this is very
important to communication. If you hear right you can respond with intelligence. If you hear
wrong, you will sound silly.
Pronunciation is the most important part of communication. Work to improve your stress and
intonation which is different from you natural speaking style. Learn how you can continue
improving even after the semester is over. You do not always have time to go to a class, but you
can always keep improving by learning small practice ideas from class.
Lets have fun together,
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 1
Day 1
Introduction
Syllabus
Rubrics
Homework
Reading
Tests

Day 2
Meaning change Worksheet
Reading / speed /stress
Can / cant
Activity phone call worksheet
Worksheet / Stress and Tone fonetiks.com
Video x 2 - Lesson 11 a/b - CAN_ CAN'T
English Pronunciation (American Accent training)

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Pronunciation: Changing Meaning


through Word Stress
Word Stress Explanation and Exercise

By Kenneth Beare English as 2nd Language Expert

http://esl.about.com/cs/pronunciation/a/a_wordstress.htm

When you are speaking English the words you stress can change the underlying meaning of a
sentence. Let's take a look at the following sentence:
I don't think he should get the job.
This simple sentence can have many levels of meaning based on the word you stress. Consider
the meaning of the following sentences with the stressed word in bold. Read each sentence aloud
and give a strong stress to the word in bold:

I don't think he should get the job.


Meaning: Somebody else thinks he should get the job.

I don't think he should get the job.


Meaning: It's not true that I think he should get the job.

I don't think he should get that job.


Meaning: That's not really what I mean. OR I'm not sure he'll get that job.
I don't think he should get that job.
Meaning: Somebody else should get that job.
I don't think he should get that job.
Meaning: In my opinion it's wrong that he's going to get that job.
I don't think he should get that job.
Meaning: He should have to earn (be worthy of, work hard for) that job.
I don't think he should get that job.
Meaning: He should get another job.
I don't think he should get that job.
Meaning: Maybe he should get something else instead.

As you can see, there are many different ways this sentence can be understood. The important point to
remember is that the true meaning of the sentence is also expressed through the stressed word or
words.

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Worksheet
Here is an exercise to help you develop the art of correct word stress. Take the following sentence:
I said she might consider a new haircut.
Say the sentence aloud using the stress word marked in bold. Once you have spoken the sentence a few
times, match the sentence version to the meaning below.

I said she might consider a new haircut.


I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.

Not just a haircut.


It's a possibility.
It was my idea.
Not something else.
Don't you understand me?
Not another person.
She should think about it. Its a
good idea.

Answers to the word stress exercise:


I said she might consider a new haircut. / It was my idea. / Don't you understand me? /
Not another person. / It's a possibility. / She should think about it. it's a good idea. /
Not just a haircut. / Not something else.
Exercise: Write out a number of sentences. Read each of them stressing a different word each time you
read them. Notice how the meaning changes depending on which word you stress. Don't be afraid to
exaggerate the stress, in English we often use this device to add meaning to a sentence. It's very
possible that when you think you are exaggerating, it will sound quite natural to native speakers.
Sentence. __________________________________________________________-Meanings.
_______________________________________________________________________-_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Intonation and Stress in English


Key to Understanding and Being Understood

By Kenneth Beare

http://esl.about.com/od/speakingadvanced/a/timestress.htm

Correct intonation and stress are the key to speaking English fluently with good
pronunciation. Intonation and stress refers to the music of the English language. Words
that are stressed are key to understanding and using the correct intonation brings out
the meaning. After students have learned basic consonant and vowel sounds, they
should move on to learning to differentiate between individual sounds by using minimal
pairs. Once they are comfortable with individual words, they should move on to
intonation and stress exercises such as sentence markup. Finally, students can take the
next step by choosing a focus word to help further improve their pronunciation.
The following exercise can be used by students and teachers to further help with
pronunciation by focusing on the stressing content words rather than function words in
the exercise below.

Intonation and Stress - Exercise Introduction

Say this sentence aloud and count how many seconds it takes.
The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. ( 5 seconds )
Now, try speaking this sentence aloud.
He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework
in the evening. ( 5 seconds )

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.

He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the


evening

This simple exercise makes a very important point about how we speak and use English.
Namely, English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are
considered syllabic.

What does that mean? It means that, in English, we give stress to certain words while
other words are quickly spoken (some students say eaten!). In other languages, such as
French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress, but each
syllable has its own length).

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Many speakers of syllabic languages don't understand why we quickly speak, or


swallow, a number of words in a sentence. In syllabic languages each syllable has
equal importance, and therefore equal time is needed. English however, spends more
time on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other, less important,
words.
Let's look at a simple example: the modal verb "can". When we use the positive form
of "can" we quickly glide over the can and it is hardly pronounced.
They can come on Friday. (stressed words underlined)
On the other hand, when we use the negative form "can't" we tend to stress the fact
that it is the negative form by also stressing "can't".
They can't come on Friday.
As you can see from the above example the sentence, "They can't come on Friday" is
longer than "They can come on Friday" because both the modal "can't" and the verb
"come" are stressed.
So, what does this mean for my speaking skills?
Well, first of all, you need to understand which words we generally stress and which we
do not stress. Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as:

Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter


(most) principal verbs e.g. visit, construct
Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting
Adverbs e.g. often, carefully

Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as:

Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few


Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were
Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite
Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as

Pronouns e.g. they, she, us

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Let's return to the beginning example to demonstrate how this affects speech.
The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. (14 syllables)
He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the
evening. (22 syllables)

Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the
sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words
in each sentence. From this example, you can see that you needn't worry about
pronouncing every word clearly to be understood (we native speakers certainly don't).
You should however, concentrate on pronouncing the stressed words clearly.

Now, do some listening comprehension or go speak to your native English speaking


friends and listen to how we concentrate on the stressed words rather than giving
importance to each syllable. You will soon find that you can understand and
communicate more because you begin to listen for (and use in speaking) stressed
words. All those words that you thought you didn't understand are really not crucial for
understanding the sense or making yourself understood. Stressed words are the key to
excellent pronunciation and understanding of English.

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

American English.......Stress & Tone

http://www.fonetiks.org/engsou7am.html

Tone

She's divorced.

Draw lines to show


the intonation of each
sentence or word.

She is married, isn't she?

Check the url to see


how you did.

She isn't married, is she?


Would you like some?
Yes, please. No, thank you
Yes please!
No thanks!
I'd love some!
Excuse me.
Sorry.
Sorry?
Cool.
Cool!
desert, dessert
establish
establishment
establishmentarian
unreal!

Week 1
Introduction and review of the class.
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 2

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Objective
Students will understand the idea of content and function and which
to stress for best communication.

Outcomes

Students will have a better understanding of content and function and their
relationship to the stress.

Students will understand the rules of stress and intonation through sound
scripting of paragraphs improving their reading skills.

Process

Students will be required to learn rules about pronunciation stress and intonation
for test 1.

Students will be required to do worksheets for participation/practice/


and testing.

Students will view selected videos relevant to the daily topic.

Students will be required to do selected homework tasks for points,


scored by a rubric. (Drama: You want to give me money)

A short quiz

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
How to improve your pronunciation
Rules
Content / Function

Sound Scripting

Game ~ Find the Rule

Day 2
Word Syllable Stress Patterns in English

Listen and repeat exercises. (with audio) Add worksheets for


in-class work.

Englishclub.com

Englishzone.com

Stress patterns

Rebus Rhyme / Song

Game: Maze

Homework : Drama ~ You want to give me money


(due next class)

Quiz 1

Englishzone.com

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

How to Improve Your Pronunciation


By Kenneth Beare

http://esl.about.com/cs/pronunciation/ht/ht_prononce.htm

One of the most important aspects of learning English is pronunciation.


Without clear pronunciation, it is difficult to make yourself understood. However,
you might be surprised by the following statement: Pronouncing every word correctly
leads to poor pronunciation!
Good pronunciation comes from stressing the right words - this is because English
is a time-stressed language.
In other words, some words - the content words receive more focus, whereas other
words - function words - are less important.
Learn more below.

Difficulty: Hard

Time Required: Varies

Here's How:
1. Learn the following rules concerning pronunciation.
2. English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are
considered syllabic.
3. In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal
importance (there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).
4. English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over
the other, non-stressed, words.
5. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter - (most)
principal verbs e.g. visit, construct - Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting - Adverbs e.g.
often, carefully.

6. Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e.g. the, a Auxiliary verbs e.g. am, were - Prepositions e.g. before, of - Conjunctions e.g. but,
and - Pronouns e.g. they, she

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

7. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the
distance.
8. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't
have to do any homework in the evening.
9. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well!
10. Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the
sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words
in each sentence.
11. Write down a few sentences, or take a few example sentences from a book or
exercise.
12. First underline the stressed words, then read aloud focusing on stressing the
underlined words and gliding over the non-stressed words.
13. Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed
words, non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature.
14. When listening to native speakers, focus on how those speakers stress certain words
and begin to copy this.
Tips:
1. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often 'swallowed' in
English.
2. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well, non-stressed words can be
glided over.
3. Don't focus on pronouncing each word. Focus on the stressed words in each
sentence.

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Sound Scripting Word Stress and Intonation


http://esl.about.com/od/speakingadvanced/a/sscripting.htm

Word stress and intonation within sentences is very important to correct English
pronunciation. Recently, while creating a course on presentation skills in English, I
came across a wonderful book by Mark Powell entitled Presenting in English. In it, there
are "sound scripting" exercises which help learners become more expressive by taking
sentence intonation skills to the next level.
These examples use a method of bolding key content words and CAPITALIZING the
most important words chosen for the best emotional impact.
This starts off with a simple sentence paragraph that an intermediate student might use
to practice and ends with a more advanced selection that is typical of a presentation.

Paragraph to be Read
Our school is the best in town. The teachers are friendly, and very knowledgeable about
English. I've studied at the school for two years and my English is becoming very good.
I hope you will visit our school and try an English class. Maybe we can become friends,
too!
Paragraph with Sound Scripting Markup
Our school is the BEST in town. The teachers are friendly, and VERY
KNOWLEDGEABLE about English. I've studied at the school for two years and
my English is becoming VERY GOOD. I hope you will visit our school
and try an English class. MAYBE we can become FRIENDS! - Listen to Example

scripting_1.mp3

Paragraph to be Read

In this day and age, facts, statistics and other numbers are used to prove everything.
Intuition, gut feelings and personal preferences are all out the door. Of course, there are
some who are trying to battle this trend. Recently, Malcolm Gladwell wrote Blink, a bestseller which explores the usefulness of making split-second decisions based on intuition
rather than careful consideration of all the facts and figures.

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

In this book, Gladwell argues that initial impressions - or gut-feelings - are quite rational.
However, that this "split-second" thinking process moves faster than what we usually
associate with thinking. If you are one of these people - and there are many of us - Blink
provides "proof" that you're actually quite a rational human being.
Paragraph with Sound Scripting Markup
In this day and age, facts, statistics and other numbers are used to prove
EVERYTHING. Intuition, gut feelings and personal preferences are all OUT THE
DOOR. Of course, there ARE some who are trying to battle this trend.
Recently, Malcolm Gladwell wrote BLINK, a best-seller which explores the
USEFULNESS of making SPLIT-SECOND DECISIONS based on INTUITION rather than careful
consideration of all the facts and figures.
In his book, Gladwell argues that INITIAL IMPRESSIONS - or GUT-FEELINGS - are quite rational.
However, that this "split-second" thinking process moves FASTER than what we usually
associate with thinking. If YOU are one of these people - and there are MANY of us - Blink
provides "PROOF" that you're actually quite a RATIONAL HUMAN BEING. scripting_2.mp3

Listen to Example

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Have students make a rule to follow.


Make two groups and have students play one round for each rule.

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 2

REBUS RHYME
Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet,
Eating her curds and whey.
There came a big spider,
He sat down beside her.
And frightened Miss Muffet away!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Song
Pop ! Goes the Weasel
All around the mulberry bush,
The monkey chased the weasel.
The monkey thought 'twas all in fun.
Pop ! goes the weasel.
A penny for a spool of thread,
A penny for a needle.
That's the way the money goes.
Pop ! goes the weasel.
Up and down the city road,
In and out of the eagle,
That's the way the money goes.
Pop ! goes the weasel.
Half a pound of tuppenney rice,
Half 1/2 a pound of treacle,
Mix it up and make it nice,
Pop ! goes the weasel.

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Word Syllable Stress Patterns in English


A syllable is a unit of sound which includes a vowel sound. You can check how many
syllables a word has by putting your hand under your chin. Each time your chin moves
to make a vowel sound count a syllable. For example, the word 'difficult' moves your
chin three times. Therefore, 'difficult' is three syllables. This guide will help you
recognize the most common syllable stress patterns in English for words with more than
one syllable.
In multi-syllable words the stress falls on one of the syllables while the other syllables
tend to be spoken over quickly. This leads to sounds that are not clear (muted) on
unstressed syllables. In order to improve your pronunciation, focus on pronouncing
the stressed syllable clearly. However, don't be afraid to "mute" (not say clearly) the
other unstressed vowels. Listen to the examples by clicking on "listen".
For example:
wordstress1.mp3

Listen to these specific examples:

PersonNEL

TOtally

InDUstrial

ToMAto

FanTAstic

Unstressed syllables keep the correct sound, but sound muted. Sometimes,
unstressed vowels become a schwa sound - like a soft "uh" sound.
For example:
wordstress2.mp3

Little

Listen to these specific examples:


Repeat

Tomato

At other times, the vowel is pronounced but not stressed.


For example:
wordstress3.mp3

Listen to these specific examples:

Industrial

Noisily

With this in mind, here are the eight common word stress patterns in English.
One Syllable - Stressed

All one syllable words have the stress on the one syllable.
The intonation should go down.
EAT

DRINK

SIGN

WELL

wordstress4.mp3

Listen to the general pattern.

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen
Two Syllable - First Syllable Stressed

wordstress5.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

Giant

PICture

HEAting

Two Syllable - Second Syllable Stressed

wordstress6 second syllable.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

toDAY

aHEAD

aLLOW

Three Syllable - First Syllable Stressed

wordstress7 3 syllable first.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

ENergy

Operate

ORganize

Three Syllable - Second Syllable Stressed


wordstress8 3 syllable second.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

meMORial

asSUMPtion

caNAdian

Three Syllable - Third Syllable Stressed

wordstress8 3 syllable third.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

employEE

japanESE

voluntEER

Four Syllable - Second Syllable Stressed

wordstress10 four syllable second stress.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

psyCHOLogy

eVAporate

cerTIficate

Four Syllable - Third Syllable Stressed

wordstress11 four syallable thrid stress.mp3

Listen to the general pattern and these specific examples:

poliTIcian

indiVIdual

repuTAtion

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 2
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Homework drama Stress and communication


http://www.eslcafe.com/idea/index.cgi?display:990687901-7981.txt

Ok, I got the idea from a book called Teaching Oral English K-8, but I've used it with my
undergrad and adult learners, all to wonderful effect.
1) Explain that in English you have to give stress to certain words to deliver certain meanings:
review examples like "Oh" and give emphasis to disappointment, anger, surprise, grasp idea
etc...
2) Model a sentence like

You want me to give you money

Throwing emphasis first on MONEY? and then GIVE? and YOU? etc...
3 ) This simple dialog can be committed to memory:
A: Hi, how are you?
B: Fine, thank you. And you?
A: Just great. What have you been doing lately?
B: Oh, not much. But I've been keeping busy.
A: Well...it's been good to see you.
B: Yes, it has...well, bye!
A: Goodbye.
Do group choral response till they seem to know it, then have them practice in pairs, still
keeping an uninflected normal neutral tone.
THEN: give each pair a situation, emphasizing that it's SECRET and they musn't show it to
anyone else, that they will act it out and others will have to GUESS who they are by their
inflection, gestures and body language. (I suggest writing the situations on index cards, very
simply: "You are two people who have just met but don't really know each other, and feel
obliged to make small talk on an elevator"....)
Some situations (be creative!):
1) Two athletes (boxers?) who will compete in a match tomorrow
2) A sick person in hospital and friend who visits

Week 3

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Objective
Students will understand how to form the mouth for different
sounds.

Outcomes

Students will have a better understanding of how to form the mouth for different
sounds.

Students will strengthen their understanding of content and function.

Process

Students will be practice forming their mouth for different sounds,

Students will be view different videos related to different sounds..

Students will practice through alliterations / spoonerisms /

Students will present their drama: You want to give me money)

Students will be challenged through the game of Dominoes

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
Drama Presentation
Pronunciation Help - Sentence Stress
Day 2
Foundations II

Mouth Formation (Making Pronunciation Simple)

Video - Pronunciation_ , r, d, TH, f, , n, t, k & icebreaker

Pronouncing the vowels in English

Alliterations

Spoonerisms

Game four-sided dominoes (copy /laminate / cut )


o One copy per pair of students

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1 start with Drama Presentations with Rubric.


Worksheet About.com
Stress

Pronunciation Help - Sentence

Take a look at the following list of stressed and non-stressed word types.
Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS
Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter
(most) principle verbs e.g. visit, construct
Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting
Adverbs e.g. often, carefully
Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS
Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few
Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were
Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite
Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as
Pronouns e.g. they, she, us
Mark the stressed words in the following sentences.
After you have found the stressed words, practice reading the sentences
aloud.

John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework


together.

Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.

We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling


through the back roads of France.

Jack bought a new car last Friday.

They are looking forward to your visiting them next January.

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Exciting discoveries lie in Tom's future.

Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?

They have been having to work hard these last few months on their
challenging experiment.

Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.

As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to


the problem

Pronunciation Help - Sentence Stress


Take a look at the following list of stressed and non-stressed word types.
Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as .

Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter


(most) principle verbs e.g. visit, construct
Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting
Adverbs e.g. often, carefully

Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as

Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few


Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were
Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite
Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as
Pronouns e.g. they, she, us

Mark the stressed words in the following sentences. After you have found the stressed words,
practice reading the sentences aloud.

John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.

Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.

We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the
back roads of France.

Jack bought a new car last Friday.

They are looking forward to your visiting them next January.

Exciting discoveries lie in Tom's future.

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?

They have been having to work hard these last few months on their challenging
experiment.

Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry. As you might have expected, he


has just thought of a new approach to the problem.

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Foundations II

Make Pronunciation Simple

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Spoonerisms ~~ Give students the left side only


fighting a liar

lighting a fire

you hissed my mystery lecture

you missed my history lecture

cattle ships and bruisers


nosey little cook
a blushing crow
tons of soil
our queer old Dean
we'll have the hags flung out
you've tasted two worms
our shoving leopard
a half-warmed fish
is the bean dizzy?
know your blows
go and shake a tower
tease my ears
nicking your pose

battle ships and cruisers


cosy little nook
a crushing blow
sons of toil
our dear old Queen
we'll have the flags hung out
you've wasted two terms
our loving shepherd
a half-formed wish
is the Dean busy?
blow your nose
go and take a shower
ease my tears
picking your nose

you have very mad banners

you have very bad manners

lack of pies
it's roaring with pain
sealing the hick
go help me sod
pit nicking
bowel feast
I'm a damp stealer
hypodemic nurdle
wave the sails

pack of lies
it's pouring with rain
healing the sick
so help me God
nit picking
foul beast
I'm a stamp dealer
hypodermic needle
save the whales

chipping the flannel on TV

flipping the channel on TV

mad bunny
I'm shout of the hour
lead of spite
this is the pun fart
I hit my bunny phone
flutter by

bad money
I'm out of the shower
speed of light
this is the fun part
I hit my funny bone
butterfly
wedding bells

bedding wells

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 3
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Objective
Students will understand how to form the mouth for different
phonetic sounds and increase vocabulary and vowel stress.

Outcomes

Students will have a better understanding of monophtongs and dipthongs


phonetic vowel sounds.

Students will strengthen their understanding of syllables and phonetic vowel


sounds.

Process

Students will be practice diphthongs and monophthongs ,

Students will view videos relate to vowel sounds.

Students will practice with minimal pairs.

Students will increase their vocabulary of single syllable words.

Students will be introduced to intonation.

Students will be challenged through the game of phonetic corssword

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
Mono /Dipthong review
Movie - Vowel Sounds Part 1: Monophthongs
Minimal Pairs introduction and practice
Single syllable review
Game - Phonetic Crossword
Day 2
Pronunciation Exercises
Introducing letters and sounds (Unit 1 Buy /bye)
Video - Diphthongs Vowels & Diphthongs - English
Pronunciation & Listening Practice (Part 2)
American English stress and tone
Bridge activity Fun with photography
(conversation making using technology with the letter B)

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Practice

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Minimal pairs
Intonation

Stress and intonation: One of the biggest problems that every ESL student faces is
putting the right emphasis on the right part of the word. This is something you can
learn by listening carefully and marking written words.

Consonant blends: If you are not accustomed to putting "t" and "h" together to form
"th", this can be a very difficult sound to reproduce. There are many consonant blends
that are difficult for ESL students. Again, this tends to depend on what their mother
tongue was.

Vowel blends: Sounds like "ou" and "ea" can be confusing to the ESL student, as well.
Native English speakers usually speak so quickly that it can be very difficult to pick
up the subtle blends of two or more vowels, making it even harder to repeat.

Depending on the student`s original language the following can also be issues: Certain
consonants: Japanese, Koreans and other Asian nationalities often have difficulties
pronouncing or distinguishing "l" and "r". Arabic speakers may confuse "z" with "j"
and Spanish speakers frequently use "b" when they are trying to say "v". German
speakers find it difficult to use the "d" sound, usually substituting "t" instead.

Adding or removing sounds: For some students, new sounds slip into words. For
example, French speaking students often add an "r", saying "hurt" instead of "hut".
Both Russians and the French tend to drop the "k" in blended endings, such as with
"link". Instead, they might say "lin" or even "ling".

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 2

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

American English.......Stress & Tone

http://www.fonetiks.org/engsou7am.html

Tone

She's divorced.

Draw lines to show


the intonation of each
sentence or word.

She is married, isn't she?

Check the url to see


how you did.

She isn't married, is she?


Would you like some?
Yes, please. No, thank you
Yes please!
No thanks!
I'd love some!
Excuse me.
Sorry.
Sorry?
Cool.
Cool!
desert, dessert
establish
establishment
establishmentarian
unreal!

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Fun with Photography

--

How many B words can you use when you ask/answer these questions. Points
will be given for each B word used. Collect them and WIN
Posted in Conversation Lesson Plans, Lesson Plans on Jul 14th, 2010
This is another one-hour conversation activity. For an introduction to the series, click here. Enjoy.
Name: Fun with Photography

Prep Time: None

Materials: None for you, but at least one in every three students should have a cell phone with a camera
Primary Objective: Discuss technology
Other Benefits: This a nice lesson for practicing giving details on a given theme

Plan:
Pre-Speaking (20 minutes)
Write the word Technology on the board. Ask the class to give you some examples of different
technologies. Write a few on the board. Now, have the students each make a list of ten different
technologies.
Next, have them share their lists with the students around them. Ask some of the quieter and lower
level students to share some of the things on their lists. Write those things on the board too.
Now, ask the students to raise their hand if they have a camera on their cell phone. If everyone has a
camera, then there is no need to create groups. However, if someone doesnt have a camera, theyll
need to get into a group with someone who does. Create as many groups as are necessary (but no
more).
Finally, explain to the students that they should leave the classroom and take pictures of five different
technologies with their cameras. Tell them they have ten minutes to return to the classroom.
Speaking (30 minutes)
While the students are gone, write the following questions (and sample answers) on the board:
Is your technology big or small? It is big. / It is small. It is medium-sized.
Is your technology old or new? Its new. Its old.

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen
When was your technology invented? It was invented about XX years ago.
Do most people use your technology? Yes, most people use this. / No, most people dont use it.

http://blog.stuartmillenglish.com/2010/07/14/fun-with-photography/ 2/5

When the students return, put them in pairs (or pair up the groups). Without
showing the pictures, they should ask each other questions that will help them
guess what the technology is. (Like twenty questions) After the item is guessed,
they should show their partner/other group the picture and do the next item.
(Before they start, model the activity with a couple students.)
For example
A: Is your technology big or small?
B: It is small.
A: Is your technology old or new?
B: It is pretty new.
A: When was your technology invented?
B: It was invented about 30 years ago.
A: Is it a computer mouse?
B: Yes! Here, look at the picture.

After the students finish, have them switch to a new person/pair and repeat the
process. While the students work on this, write the following on the board: Look
at your pictures. With a partner discuss these questions:
Which technology is your favorite? Why?
Which technology is the most important? Why?
How often do you use each technology?
Some technologies, like typewriters, arent used very much anymore. Which of these
technologies is the most likely to disappear in the future?
Who uses these technologies more: younger or older people?

Week 4
Foundations 1
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

After the students finish, have them switch to a new person/pair and discuss the questions
again.
Post-Speaking (10 minutes)
Now, ask the questions above to a few students and ask them follow-up questions as well. The
rest of the class should listen.
Finally, go around the class and ask each student to say one thing that they learned during this
activity. It can be anything, but everyone should say something.
Extension
Have the students draw a pictures of a future technologies. Then, they should get in groups and
ask each other the first set of questions above before showing their pictures to each other. For
time, have them draw several pictures.
Notes:
Ideas for Homework/Another Extension: Have the students take more pictures of technology, but make
it a scavenger hunt. For instance, tell them they have to take pictures of at least one technology that is:
older than 100 years, less than 10 years old, bigger than a house, smaller than a cell phone, colored blue,
etc.
Modification for Lower Levels: Youll have to adjust the questions so that your students can handle them
and probably do a lot more modeling than is suggested above, but the basics should be OK.
Modification for Higher Levels: Add discussion questions that force a bit more complex thought/complex
grammar/complex vocab (e.g. How did people get by without this technology? How could this
technology be improved? etc.) And/or have the students write some more technology discussion
questions of their own.
Modification for Small Groups: For small groups, you can still do everything, but everyone will need a
camera. Also, you should probably just discuss everything as a class. Finally, youll likely need to do the
extension activity.
Modification for Different Themes: Instead of having the students take pictures of different technologies,
have them take pictures on your theme. Amongst many others, food, transportation, and clothing would
all work. Youll have to adjust the questions for your theme.

Week 5

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Objective
Students will understand the different pronunciations of the ed
ending, and the stress of the verb To Be

Outcomes

Students will have practiced and become better in the use of the ed changes in
words.

Students will strengthen their understanding of syllables and words ednign in ed


and the use of the long E.

Process

Students will review the video about ed sounds.

Students will view videos

Students will practice with Pronouncing the verb TO BE - Unit 35 and 21 introduction to

syllables.

Students will increase understanding of the -ed pronunciation with worksheets.

Students will be challenged through the game Phonetic Code.

Students will review the video clip Hamburger to write their presentation script
for homework. (sample incuded)

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
Review video Pronouncing the Flap T
Review Unit 35 She was first
Worksheets 3 ways to pronounce T/D w/ answers
Fill in the blank
English club
Option video (Content and Function Bills Eng)
Day 2
Video review My Bike
Review Unit 21 Introducing Syllables
Game phonetic code B16 (copy)
Worksheets Stress patterns
Long E sound
Video for homework Hamburger
(send to students for review)
Sample script included due next class.

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 2

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 5
Ed plus To Be
How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Hamburger homework sample (2 person)


(View the video for reference)
Instructions choose a 3+ syllable word.
create a script for presentation that reflects different
sounds from each syllable.
present with your partner in class.
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an elmeggform
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an aliphone
Nonono lets break it down
I I
I I
Would odd
Would wood
Would weird
Would would
like lake
like like
to to
to to
to to
buy bay
buy boy
buy bebe
a a
elephant ollehvent
elephant elendfront
elephant eliefont
el el
e e
phant front
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an illehfant
Its not illehfant, elephant Im not saying illefant I said I would like to buy a illehfant
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an elendfin
elephant I would like to buy a eilendfont
maybe we should stop we dont quit we do not quit again again
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an elenphone
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an aleggfrongt
I would like to buy an elephant I would like to buy an eliendfan
I would like to buy an elephant eldoehvant

Week 6

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6
Objective
Students will understand how to use stress in words and sentences
correctly enabling rhythm to become more natural.

Outcomes

Students will have a better understanding of syllable stress in longer words.

Students will strengthen their understanding of syllables and stress in different


positions of words.

Process

Students will view videos related tot stress.

Students will practice with worksheets.

Students will increase understanding through review of select units focused on


word and word position stress.

Students will be challenged through the game used to and would.

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
Video - English Pronunciation Vowel Length
Affected by Ending Consonant American Accent
Review Unit 22 Word stress
Worksheet Word Stress 5
Review Unit 30
Worksheet Word Stress 9
Day 2
Video Word stress sentence position
Review Unit 31
Game Used to / Would
Review Unit 23
Worksheet Stress and tone

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 2

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 6 Word Stress


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7
Objective
Students will understand the shwa and how important it is to English
pronunciation.

Outcomes

Students will understand the places where the voice produces


Students will strengthen their understanding of syllables and stress in relation to
their pronunciation rhythm.

Process

Students will view videos related to connected speech.

Students will practice with worksheets.

Students will increase understanding through writing limericks.

Students will be will be challenged to use their rhythm through homework.

Students will fill out a chart for vowel sounds.

Students will do in-class worksheets related to the schwa.

Review for test. (Written)

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
Video Worksheet
Limerick writing homework review

Day 2
Introduction to Vowels (schwa)
Worksheet _ Vowel chart
Video The Schwa
Review for test

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 1
Rhythm

pollnoll.com

A. Each language has its own rules for rhythm. Clear English speech depends on
the way varying lengths of syllables produce a characteristic rhythm. You will be
much easier to understand if you use a proper English rhythm.
Syllable rhythm rules:
1. Clear vowels are full (long).
Unclear vowels are reduced (short).
._____
along

_____
above

_____
around

2. Vowels in succession are usually of different length.


a. ____
mama

_______
banana

b. ___ _______
a basket

____
Alaska

_______
Nebraska

___ ______
the record

c. _______ _____ _____


absolute Have some

_____
fruit.

__________
impossible

___ _______
It's possible.

.
3 When two or more full vowels are spoken in succession, length is added to
each vowel. This makes the speech sound emphatic (strong).
a.
_____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
passport
mailbox
airport
maintain
B. Listen to the following limerick to practice rhythm.
A STUdent was SENT to TACOma
InTENding to EARN a diploma
He SAID, "With the RAIN,
I don't WANT to reMAIN,
I THINK I'd preFER OklaHOma."

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Clear English Rhythm -- Page 17

C. In the following sentences, the last three words are dramatically slowed
down because there are three vowels in succession. Practice saying
them.
1. Give me your permission to go right now.
2. We're all very proud of that fine young man.
3. The government intends to stop all drugs.

D. Practice the rhythm of the following words.


3 syllables

reduction

suggestion

correction

obligation

registration

intention

frustration

4 syllables

opposition

dedication

interaction

5 syllables

administration

examination

simplification

clarification

justification

6 syllables

identification

reinterpretation reunification

8 syllables

internationalization
~~~~~~~~~~~

reexamination

rejustification

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Limericks
Clear English Review -- Page 18

A. English Rhythm
Listen to this limerick and practice the rhythm. Notice that "young maid" and "most" are
lengthened because they have full vowels in succession. This makes them more emphatic.
There was a young maid from Madras
Who had a most magnificent ass;
Not rounded and pink,
As you probably think--It was grey, had long ears, and ate grass.

B. Clarity; Voicing and Length of Syllable


Practice the following words. Lengthen the vowel before the final voice sound.

1. have half

2. save safe

3. use (verb) -- use (noun)

4. prove proof

5. rode wrote

6. bed bet

7. rag rack

8. bug buck

9. cab cap

10. close (verb) close (adjective)

C. Clarity; Contrast between Stops and Continsuants


Practice saying these sentences.
1. What color is rust? Usually orange.
2. What color is dust? Usually gray.
3. Tammy thinks they teach that theory too much.

D. Clarity; Puffs of Air


Practice saying these word pairs.

1. pan ban

2. pole bowl

6. tense dense

3. pace base

7. came game

4. tie die

8. could good

5. toe doe
9. cash dash

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Clear English Review -- Page 19

E. Stress Patterns
Practice saying these words.

relative

photograph

photography

discipline

arrangement

automatic

indication

agency

participate

anyhow
alternate

argumentative

agreement
economic

absolutely

F. English Rhythm
A word said by itself is like a small sentence.
It must have all the rhythm and emphasis of a sentence.
Word Stress

1. atTRACtive
2. absoLUTE
3. reSPONsible
4. ElectrifiCAtion
Sentence Stress

5. It is ACtive.
6. Have some FRUIT.
7. It's POSSible.
8. She went to the STAtion.

G. Limericks
Practice the following limericks. Tap the emphasis to be sure of the rhythm.
I KNEW a MAN from ArkanSAS
Who ATE a ROCK
that BROKE his JAW.
"WHAT do you THINK"
He SAID with a WINK,
"PerHAPS it's BAD
to EAT them RAW."

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

There was a young lady one fall


Who wore a newspaper dress to a ball.
The dress caught fire
And burned her entire
Front page, sporting section and all.
Once in the rain I saw a man,
Strolling with an umbrella in hand.
When I said it was insane
To walk in the rain, He said "Well then,
I'll just stand.

Homework
Write 3 limericks or 1 three verse limerick for publication in the Woosong Review (optional in
classes outside of Woosong)
Present one or whole to the class for scoring. Scoring will focus on the use of rhythms and
word stress combined with the story and rhyme.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Day 2
The Schwa

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

Schwa The Invisible Vowel Sound


The schwa // is the most important sound in English for three simple reasons:

It is always weak

It is the most common vowel sound (1 in every 3 vowels we say is a schwa)

It is neutral the tongue lips and jaw are relaxed.


The key problem for learners of English pronunciation, is that the schwa is also invisible!
It can be spelt with any of the vowels of English:
a as in amazing /mez/
e as in father /f:/

Week 7 Rhythm / Limericks


How to Improve your Pronunciation
Pronunciation Elective 2015-1 WSU
Professor Paul R. Friesen

i as in lentil /lentl/
o as in computer /kmpju:t/
u as in supply /spla/
How can a student of English master the schwa sound?
Firstly, learn to pronounce it. Relax the jaw, lips and tongue and say //.
(Download the free sample of The Sound of English to hear it).
Secondly, look for the stress in a word the schwa is never stressed, it will only appear
on weak syllables.
Thirdly, make friends with your dictionary. The IPA transcriptions will show you exactly
where to pronounce the schwa eg. /f:/
Fourthly, listen carefully. Remember that one in three vowels in English speech is a
schwa, so try and train your ear to hear it.
EXERCISE
In the following words there is one schwa sound can you spot where it is? If you
cannot, use a dictionary to help:
alert
cupboard

corrupt

submit

perhaps

ankle
fossil

London

water

persist

compile

collide

Schwa is covered extensively in The Sound of English as a sound and a structure of speech.

Review for test.