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Engineering Formula Sheet

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Statistics

Mode

Mean

Mode = most frequently occurring value

x

= mean value

xi = sum of all data values (x1, x2, x3,

n = number of data values

(x

Median

Place data in ascending order.

If n is odd, median = central value

If n is even, median = mean of two central values

Standard Deviation

data set is bimodal.

If three or more values occur at the maximum

frequency the data set is multi-modal.

= standard deviation

xi = individual data value ( x1, x2, x3,

Range

xmin = minimum data value

Probability

Independent Events

P (A and B and C) = PAPBPC

Frequency

events A and B and C occurring in sequence

PA = probability of event A

fx = relative frequency of outcome x

nx = number of events with outcome x

n = total number of events

Px = probability of outcome x

fa = frequency of all events

Binomial Probability (order doesnt matter)

P (A or B) = PA + PB

P (A or B) = probability of either mutually exclusive

event A or B occurring in a trial

PA = probability of event A

xi = sum of all data values (x1, x2, x3,

n = number of data values

Conditional Probability

p = probability of a success

q = 1 p = probability of failure

k = number of successes

n = number of trials

PLTW, Inc.

( | )

( )

( )

( | )

( | )

( )

( |

P(A) = probability of event A occurring

P(~A) = probability of event A not occurring

P(D|~A) = probability of event D given event A did not occur

Engineering Formulas

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

Plane Geometry

Ellipse

Rectangle

2b

Circle

Perimeter = 2a + 2b

Area = ab

2a

Triangle

Parallelogram

h

Area = bh

a = b + c 2bccosA

2

2

2

b = a + c 2accosB

2

2

2

c = a + b 2abcosC

A

b

Regular Polygons

Right Triangle

2

Area = bh

c =a +b

n = number of sides

a

h

Trapezoid

Area = (a + b)h

h

h

b

h

Solid Geometry

Cube

Sphere

Volume = s

2

Surface Area = 6s

Volume

r

Surface Area = 4

Rectangular Prism

Cylinder

h

Volume = wdh

Surface Area = 2(wd + wh + dh)

Volume = r h

Surface Area = 2

r h+2

h

Irregular Prism

r

Volume = Ah

A = area of base

Pyramid

h

A = area of base

PLTW, Inc.

Constants

2

-11

3

2

G = 6.67 x 10 m /kgs

= 3.14159

Engineering Formulas

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

Conversions

Mass

Force

Area

2

1 acre = 4047 m

2

= 43,560 ft

2

= 0.00156 mi

1 kg

= 2.205 lbm

1 slug = 32.2 lbm

1 ton = 2000 lbm

1N

1 kip

Energy

= 0.225 lbf

= 1,000 lbf

1J

= 0.239 cal

-4

= 9.48 x 10 Btu

= 0.7376 ftlbf

1kW h = 3,6000,000 J

Pressure

Length

1m

1 km

1 in.

1 mi

1 yd

1 atm

Volume

= 3.28 ft

= 0.621 mi

= 2.54 cm

= 5280 ft

= 3 ft

1L

1mL

= 0.264 gal

3

= 0.0353 ft

= 33.8 fl oz

3

= 1 cm = 1 cc

1psi

= 1.01325 bar

= 33.9 ft H2O

= 29.92 in. Hg

= 760 mm Hg

= 101,325 Pa

= 14.7 psi

= 2.31 ft of H2O

Defined Units

1J

1N

1 Pa

1V

1W

1W

1 Hz

1F

1H

Time

Temperature Change

1K

= 1 C

= 1.8 F

= 1.8 R

1d

1h

1 min

1 yr

= 24 h

= 60 min

= 60 s

= 365 d

Power

1W

= 3.412 Btu/h

= 0.00134 hp

= 14.34 cal/min

= 0.7376 ftlbf/s

= 1 Nm

= 1 kgm / s2

= 1 N / m2

=1W/A

=1J/s

=1V/A

= 1 s-1

= 1 As / V

= 1 Vs / V

SI Prefixes

Numbers Less Than One

Power of 10

Prefix

Abbreviation

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

10-15

10-18

10-21

10-24

decicentimillimicronanopicofemtoattozeptoyocto-

Equations

d

c

m

n

p

f

a

z

y

Power of 10

Prefix

Abbreviation

101

102

103

106

109

1012

1015

1018

1021

1024

Temperature

TK = TC + 273

M = VDm

TR = TF + 460

decahectokiloMegaGigaTeraPetaExaZettaYotta-

da

h

k

M

G

T

P

E

Z

Y

Force

F = ma

F = force

m = mass

a = acceleration

W = mg

W = VDw

V = volume

Dm = mass density

m = mass

Dw = weight density

g = acceleration due to gravity

PLTW, Inc.

TK = temperature in Kelvin

TC = temperature in Celsius

TR = temperature in Rankin

TF = temperature in Fahrenheit

Engineering Formulas

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

MP = 0

Fy = force in the y-direction

MP = moment about point P

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

Equations (Continued)

Energy: Work

Electricity

Ohms Law

Fluid Mechanics

V = IR

P = IV

W = work

F = force

d = distance

RT (series) = R1 + R2+ + Rn

L

L

(Guy-L

Power

P1V1 = P2V2

P = power

E = energy

W = work

t = time

= torque

rpm = revolutions per minute

Efficiency

y

Pout = useful power output

Pin = total power input

B y L

Q = Av

IT = I1 + I2 + + In

or

A1v1 = A2v2

VT = V1 + V2 + + Vn

or

absolute pressure = gauge pressure

+ atmospheric pressure

P = absolute pressure

F = Force

A = Area

V = volume

T = absolute temperature

Q = flow rate

v = flow velocity

V = voltage

VT = total voltage

I = current

IT = total current

R = resistance

RT = total resistance

P = power

Thermodynamics

Mechanics

(where acceleration = 0)

Energy: Potential

(where acceleration = 0)

U = potential energy

m =mass

g = acceleration due to gravity

h = height

L

L

A1v1 = A2v2

v = v0 + at

Energy: Kinetic

d = d0 + v0t + at

2

v = v0 + 2a(d d0)

K = kinetic energy

m = mass

v = velocity

Energy: Thermal

Q = thermal energy

m = mass

c = specific heat

T = change in temperature

PLTW, Inc.

= dFsin

s = speed

v = velocity

a = acceleration

X = range

t = time

d = distance

g = acceleration due to gravity

d = distance

= angle

= torque

F = force

Engineering Formulas

Q = thermal energy

A = Area of thermal conductivity

U = coefficient of heat conductivity

(U-factor)

T = change in temperature

R = resistance to heat flow ( R-value)

k = thermal conductivity

v = velocity

Pnet = net power radiated

= 5.6696 x 10

-8

e = emissivity constant

T1, T2 = temperature at time 1, time 2

v = flow velocity

POE 4 DE 4

Section Properties

Moment of Inertia

Rectangle Centroid

h

x

xx

about x-x axis

and y

and y

x

and y

Semi-circle Centroid

x x

y y

xi = x distance to centroid of shape i

yi = y distance to centroid of shape i

Ai = Area of shape i

x x

y y

Structural Analysis

Material Properties

Beam Formulas

Reaction

Stress (axial)

B

L

Moment

Deflection

= stress

F = axial force

A = cross-sectional area

B

L

Moment

Reaction

= strain

L0 = original length

= change in length

Moment

(between loads)

Deflection

( L L

Moment

E = modulus of elasticity

= stress

= strain

A = cross-sectional area

F = axial force

= deformation

PLTW, Inc.

and

Deformation: Axial

= deformation

F = axial force

L0 = original length

A = cross-sectional area

E = modulus of elasticity

Engineering Formulas

) (at center)

Deflection

(at

(at center)

Reaction

Modulus of Elasticity

(at center)

Deflection

L

Reaction

Strain (axial)

Truss Analysis

2J = M + R

J = number of joints

M =number of members

R = number of reaction forces

POE 5 AE 4 CEA 4

Simple Machines

Inclined Plane

Mechanical Advantage (MA)

y (

)

Wedge

AMA = Actual Mechanical Advantage

DE = Effort Distance

DR = Resistance Distance

FE = Effort Force

FR = Resistance Force

Lever

Screw

1st

Class

IMA =

Pitch =

2nd

Class

C = Circumference

r = radius

Pitch = distance between

threads

TPI = Threads Per Inch

3rd

Class

Compound Machines

MATOTAL = (MA1) (MA2) (MA3) . . .

Belts Ratios

Effort at Axle

(

Compound Gears

B

GRTOTAL = ( ) (

Effort at Wheel

Pulley Systems

IMA = Total number of strands of a single string

supporting the resistance

IMA =

PLTW, Inc.

GR = Gear Ratio

in = Angular Velocity - driver

out = Angular Velocity - driven

Nin = Number of Teeth - driver

Nout = Number of Teeth - driven

din = Diameter - driver

dout = Diameter - driven

in = Torque - driver

out = Torque - driven

Engineering Formulas

POE 6

Structural Design

Steel Beam Design: Shear

qnet = qallowable - pfooting

Vn = 0.6FyAw

Mn = FyZx

Vn = nominal shear strength

v = 1.5 = factor of safety for shear

Fy = yield stress

Aw = area of web

Mn = nominal moment strength

b = 1.67 = factor of safety for

bending moment

Fy = yield stress

Zx = plastic section modulus about

neutral axis

Storm Water Drainage

Q = CfCiA

Cf = runoff coefficient adjustment

factor

C = runoff coefficient

i = rainfall intensity (in./h)

A = drainage area (acres)

Runoff Coefficient

Adjustment Factor

Return

Period

Cf

1, 2, 5, 10 1.0

25

1.1

50

1.2

100

1.25

Water Supply

Hazen-Williams Formula

L

hf = head loss due to friction (ft of H2O)

L = length of pipe (ft)

Q = water flow rate (gpm)

C = Hazen-Williams constant

d = diameter of pipe (in.)

Dynamic Head

Categorized by Surface

Forested

0.0590.2

Asphalt

0.70.95

Brick

0.70.85

Concrete

0.80.95

Shingle roof

0.750.95

Lawns, well drained (sandy soil)

Up to 2% slope

0.050.1

2% to 7% slope

0.100.15

Over 7% slope

0.150.2

Lawns, poor drainage (clay soil)

Up to 2% slope

0.130.17

2% to 7% slope

0.180.22

Over 7% slope

0.250.35

Driveways,

0.750.85

walkways

Categorized by Use

Farmland

0.050.3

Pasture

0.050.3

Unimproved

0.10.3

Parks

0.10.25

Cemeteries

0.10.25

Railroad yard

0.20.40

Playgrounds

0.20.35

(except asphalt

or Districts

Business

concrete)

Neighborhood

0.50.7

City (downtown)

0.70.95

Residential

Single-family

0.30.5

Multi-plexes,

0.40.6

detached

Multi-plexes,

0.60.75

attached

Suburban

0.250.4

Apartments,

0.50.7

condominiumsIndustrial

Light

0.50.8

Heavy

0.60.9

bearing pressure

qallowable = total allowable soil

bearing pressure

pfooting = soil bearing pressure

due to footing weight

tfooting = thickness of footing

q = soil bearing pressure

P = column load applied

A = area of footing

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

CEA 5

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

CEA 6

Hazen-Williams Constants

T = 0.693 (RA + 2RB)C

y y

T = period

f = frequency

RA = resistance A

RB = resistance B

C = capacitance

Boolean Algebra

Boolean Theorems

Commutative Law

Consensus Theorems

X 0 = 0

XY = YX

X1 = X

X+Y = Y+X

X X =X

Associative Law

X(YZ) = (XY)Z

X+0=X

X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y) + Z

X+1=1

DeMorgans Theorems

X+X=X

Distributive Law

X(Y+Z) = XY + XZ

(X+Y)(W+Z) = XW+XZ+YW+YZ

(

fm = ftntN

Plunge Rate = fm

N = spindle speed (rpm)

CS = cutting speed (in./min)

d = diameter (in.)

fm = feed rate (in./min)

ft = feed (in./tooth)

nt = number of teeth

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

DE 5

CIM 4

Aerospace Equations

Propulsion

(

Orbital Mechanics

)

Forces of Flight

L

L

CL = coefficient of lift

CD = coefficient of drag

L = lift

D = drag

A = wing area

density

Re = Reynolds number

v = velocity

l = length of fluid travel

= fluid viscosity

F = force

m = mass

g = acceleration due to gravity

M = moment

d = moment arm (distance from

datum perpendicular to F)

FN = net thrust

W = air mass flow

vo = flight velocity

vj = jet velocity

I = total impulse

Fave = average thrust force

t = change in time (thrust

duration)

Fnet = net force

Favg = average force

Fg = force of gravity

vf = final velocity

a = acceleration

t = change in time (thrust

duration)

easily confused.

Energy

= eccentricity

b = semi-minor axis

a =semi-major axis

T = orbital period

a = semi-major axis

gravitational parameter

F = force of gravity between two

bodies

G = universal gravitation constant

M =mass of central body

m = mass of orbiting object

r = distance between center of two

objects

Ber oullis L w

(

PS = static pressure

v = velocity

y

Atmosphere Parameters

K = kinetic energy

m =mass

v = velocity

U = gravitational potential energy

G = universal gravitation constant

M =mass of central body

m = mass of orbiting object

R = Distance center main body to

center of orbiting object

E = Total Energy of an orbit

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

T = temperature

h = height

p = pressure

density

AE 5

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