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Shanghai, China

## Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

(English Edition, Vol. 18, No. 10, Oct. 1997)

MODIFICATION

IN THE THEORY
BUCKLING

ON FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL

OF STRUCTURES

E Guokang (3P!Zi&)
(Received Aug. 1, 1995; Communicated by Dai Shiqiang)
Abstract
In this paper,

the problems

buckling

of structures

restricted

to certain

existing

in the present

## are discussed, and the buckling

development

order of displacements

Abstract

## theory. A fresh idea is, therefore, proposed for

theory

on flexural-torsional

procedure
and rotations

the mathematical

is found

to be

by the present

description

of actual

buckling of
procedure
of structures.
New geometric
Theflexural-torsional
one-dimensional problem
the motion
of a rigid flying
plate underequations
explosiveareattack has
formulated
set of the
new polytropic
potential variational
equation andproducts
neutral equals
equilibriumto three. In
an analytic
solution and
onlya when
index of detonation

general, a equations
numericalareanalysis
In this buckling
paper, however,
by structures.
utilizing the
"weak" shock
got for istherequired.
flexural-torsional
analysis of
Examples
behavior of
the
reflection
shock
in
the
explosive
products,
and
applying
the
small
parameter
purare given
to detect the numerical difference between the modtfied theory and the
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
present accepted theory.
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
Key words
flexural-torsional
geometric
an analytic formula
with two
parameters of buckling,
high explosive
(i.e. equation,
detonationrotations,
velocityorder
and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
I. Introduction
It was until 1899 that the first treatment
was published of flexural-torsional
buckling by
1. Introduction
MicheW who considered the lateral buckling of beams of narrow rectangular cross-section and
flying-plate
ffmds its toimportant
use effects
in the study
of behavior
whose Explosive
work wasdriven
extended
in 1905 technique
by Timoshenkot]
include the
of warping
torsion ofin
materials
under
intense
impulsive
shock
synthesis
of
diamonds,
and
explosive
welding
I-section beams. Subsequent work in 1929 by Wagnerc41 and later work by others led toand
the
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
development of a general theory of fiexural-torsional
buckling, as stated by Timoshenko and
of common interest.
incorporated
in
the
textbooks
of
Timoshenkot31
and
Bleicht].
then,
all plate,
the works
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation Since
and rigid
flying
the normal
flexural-torsional
buckling
analysis
of structures
have.
based
this system
generaloftheoryt631.
approach of solving
the problem
of motion
of flyor
is been
to solve
the upon
following
equations
The displacements
the flexural-torsional
structures
are(Fig.
shown
governing
the flow field ofofdetonation
products behind
the flyor
I): in Fig. 1.

--ff
ap +u_~_xp+
au

au

aS

as

au

y1

=o,

=0,
(i.0

a--T
=o,
p =p(p, s),
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
trajectory F of flyor as another
Both are
the position of R and the state paraFig. 1 boundary.
Displacements
andunknown;
rotations
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and
by initial
stageof,ofMacau.
motionP.of0. flyor
position of F and the state parameters of products
FST,
University
Box also;
3001, the
Macau
975

293

E Guokang

976

The centroidal axis is denoted as 2 axis. The X and Y axes represent the two principal
axes of the cross-section of the flexural-torsional
member, respectively. The origin is at the
centroid of the cross-section. The shear center of cross-section is S(3c,,, yO). The rotation of
the cross-section of the flexural-torsional member around the shear center axis perpendicular
to the cross-section is denoted as \$. The shear center displacements u, ZT,zea are along the
directions of Xa, Ya and Zs axes, respectively. For the present adcepted theory, the
displacements of an arbitrary point P(x, y) on the cross-section of the flexural-torsional
member are as foIlows1131
up=u-O(Y-YJ,
vJp=w&-u~x-x~

~P=~+\$b-Kl)

-~(Y--Y,~l--u'~Y-Y,+~(~-~,)l+~~'

>

(1.1)

from which the normal strain at the point P with the assumption of inextensional neutral axis
Abstract
can be derived as
&pEone-dimensional
( - x11 -yv+w~)+[u2+v2+(X2+y2)~2]/2-Xovcp+yOU~
The
problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic -x(x,cb'"+~~")~y(-yy,gi'2+~u")
solution only when the polytropic index
of detonation products equals to three. In
-t-(x2SyZ)~'~/2
(1.W
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior
in which of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to (1
three.
.zb)
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic
formula
parameters ofPO
high
explosive
(i.e. detonation
andshear
polytropic
where
A is the
area with
of thetwo
cross-section,
is the
perpendicular
distance velocity
from the
center
index)
for
estimation
of
the
velocity
of
flying
plate
is
established.
to the mid-thickness tangent of cross-section, s is the distance along the mid-thickness line, w
is the warping displacement and ( ) represents the derivative of ( ) with respect to z.
1. Introduction
Based on equation (1.2a), the following
flexural-torsional buckling equation for structures
with monosymmetric cross-section subjected to bending moment M, and axial force N is
driven flying-plate
ffmds its
important use in the study of behavior of
derivedExplosive
with variational
principle oftechnique
total potential
energy[:
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach +~SLM,(2~+P,9")d~+~~
of solving the problem of motion of
is to solve the following
system of equations
% flyor
(YP -Yo)9zdr++C
Qg(Y*-YoM2=0
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
0.3)

--ff
=o, load on the beam-column in the
in which gr, 4~ are the concentrated
and+ distributed
+u_~_xp
au
direction of y axis respectively; UQ and Y B are the distances of the points of application of the
au
au
1
=0, G is shear modulus; I,, I,, J
loads aI and 4r to centroidai axis; E is ffexuraiy modulus:
(i.0
and I, are moments of inertia, polar aSmomenta s of inertia and warping constant of cross-section;
=o, of the beam-column;
rC = (1,+1,)/A
; A is the area of a--T
the cross-section
p

=p(p, s),

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively,
the trajectory
R of reflected
shock of detonation
D as a boundary
the
With thewith
calculus
of variations,
the differential
equilibrium wave
equations
for the and
buckled
trajectorycan
F of
as another
boundary.
Both
position
be flyor
derived
from equation
(1.3)
to are
be unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
i*Nof(u+yoqs)
-Gf,&>
(1.4a)
D and (EIrUfl)
by initialfl=stage
motion of Iflyor
also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
(El&)
v - (GJ&) =[N(r~+21;;)g,1+(NUou)M2.u -I-(M,jJ,#)
(1,4b),
293

## Theory for Flexural-Torsional

977

Buckling of Structures

The buckling load, as it is well- known, can be calculated with assumed mode of
displacement u and rotation
\$. The present accepted theory of flexural-torsional buckling of
structures is just based upon equations (1.3) and (1.4).
II.

Problems

in the Present

In the following

Accepted

Theory

## U, o and Q are assumed to be small.

If the original shear center axis is defined as the rotational axis around which the crosssection rotates by 4, the displacements u and Z( are defined as the shear center displacements
of the cross section in the directions of the Xs and Ys axes, respectively, the displacements
of point P(x, y) on the cross-section can be got in two ways according to rotational orders.
In one way, the cross-section rotates around original shear center axis by 4 before it rotates
around theXsandY8
axes by V and u, respectively, which means that the rotational order
other way, the cross-section rotates around Xs and
of the crosssection is 4, u 3 II. In the Abstract
--Y
and
u.
respectively
before
it rotates around the original shear center axis by
axes
by
ys
The one-dimensional
motion
of cross-section
a rigid flying plate
has
\$, which
means that theproblem
rotationalof the
order
of the
is u,under
v, explosive
4. It is attack
interesting
an
analytic
solution
only
when
the
polytropic
index
of
detonation
products
equals
to
three.
to note that different displacements of point p(x, y) will be resulted from different orders Inof
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
rotational development.
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur1. If method,
rotations an develop
the order
of 4, utsolution
V , the
coordinates
displaced
point
terbation
analytic, in
first-order
approximate
is obtained
for theofproblem
of flying
P(X,y)
is
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
Xp=U+ToT.T,(X
-X0)(i.e.+X0
(2. la>
an analytic formula with two parameters
of high explosive
detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for
of the velocity
of flying
plate Pis established.
where
Xp estimation
is the coordinate
vector
of point
after the development of displacements and
rotations; and X, is the coordinate vector of shear center in the centroid-original coordinate
Introduction
system OXYZ
U is the displacement1. vector
of shear center;
T,, To-, and T, are the
coordinate-transformational
matrices corresponding to rotational angles I(, -v and
4,
Explosive
driven
in the
of behavior
of
respectively,
which
are flying-plate
expressed, iftechnique
only the ffmds
terms itsupimportant
to seconduse
order
are study
retained,
as follows:
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimationx0 of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
U=
Yo
9
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion 0of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
1--u2/2field of 0detonation
u
~
1 flyor (Fig.
0
0
governing thec flow
products
behind the
I):

xp={
;;},x\$ }Jo=
i I
T, = I

-u

1
0

I -cj5/2
T,=

r\$
0

In the following

,
0
I
T,== I o
l--uf2/2 --ff
0
ap +u_~_xp+ au

-f\$

0au

1 -p/2
0

analysis.

01

1 aS

au

y1

I--v~/~

=o, -u

1 -v

2/z

(2. lb)

=0,
(i.0

as

a--T
=o,
. , p(~~1
U s),
, v, 4)
=p(p,

## products of 21, J and Q and / or their higher order terms.

where
p, p, S, u are
pressure,
and particle expressions
velocity of detonation
gquations
(2. la)
and density,
(2. lb) specific
the following
for the products
displaced
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
coordinates:
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293

978

E Guokang

where Z=O. Equations (2.1~) with z=O would be the basis for the present accepted theory if
far, faz, fas and fah wereignored.
2. If the rotations develop in the order of u/; v, I\$, the coordinates of displaced point
P(x, y) can be expressed as
&=tJ+T~T,L(X-X,)

+X,

(2.2a)

Equations (2:lb) and (2.2a) lead to the following expressions for the displaced coordinates:

xp=x+u-qqy-y,)
&=y+V++(x-x0)

zp=z+w~-u(x-xJ

+Uz+fal(4
+vZ+fWb;
--u b--L4

## u, v, 4) (x-d +fbl(E2; u, v, \$1(y-y,)

u, v, (t) b-x,) +fbr(&j u, v, #) (y-y,)
I

+a#)
(224

Equations (2.2b) are different from equations (2. Ic) and f a. is generally different from f b . .
Abstract
The above strange paradoxical phenomena is actually from the misunderstanding and
false The
description
on the problem
flexural-torsional
buckling
procedure
of under
structures
in the
present
one-dimensional
of the motion
of a rigid
flying plate
explosive
attack
has
accepted
theory.
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
general,
analysis
is required.axes
In are
this given,
paper, the
however,
utilizing theorder
"weak"
shockto
Aftera numerical
the definitions
of rotational
differentby rotational
behavior
of
the
reflection
shock
in
the
explosive
products,
and
applying
the
small
parameter
purdifferent coordinates of displaced point P(x, y) and subsequently leading to different results
terbation
method,
an
analytic,
first-order
approximate
solution
is
obtained
for
the
problem
of
flying
of the flexural-torsional buckling analysis shows that the buckling of structure is relevant to
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
the
rotations
of agree
the cross-section.
other words,
present accepted
Finaldevelopment
velocities oforder
flyingofplate
obtained
very well withInnumerical
results the
by computers.
Thus
theory
is
just
valid
for
some
development
orders
of
rotations
of
the
cross-section,
does
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and which
polytropic
not
coincide
with theof-physical
behavior
flexural-torsional
index)
for estimation
the velocity
of flyingof plate
is established. buckling of structures. Actually,
the procedure of buckling is free of the development order of the rotations, whic?r means that
the rotations develop simultaneously and
with ea&h other during the buckling. Because
1. interact
Introduction
an order for the development of rotations was implicitly given to the buckling procedure in the
ffmds its important
of
presentExplosive
accepteddriven
theory,flying-plate
the deformations
4, a, vuseorin the
4, study
u, v ofofbehavior
the crossmaterialsofunder
intense impulsive
shock synthesis
diamonds,andandthe
explosive
welding
and
section
flexural-torsional
structure
one afterof another
interaction
among
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
them not be correctly taken into account.
of common interest.
Under
the assumptions
of one-dimensional
III.
Modification
in Geometric
Equations plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
As discussed
above,
the problem
is resulted
the false description
and
governing
the flow field
of detonation
products behind
the flyorfrom
(Fig. I):
misunderstanding on the flexural-torsional
buckling procedure of structures. In order to solve
the problem, the fact that the displacements
u, v and rotation
6 develop simultaneously,must
--ff
=o,
ap
+u_~_xp
+
au
be reflected in the mathematical description of the coordinates of displaced point P(x, y).
au above
au would
always
y1
=0, exist no matter how u, v, \$
are defined.
(i.0
as
In the following analyses, the aS
above mentioned
assumption that the deformations U, v
a--T
=o,
and 4 are small will not be used any more. The small deformation will just be considered as a
p =p(p, s),
special case.
Before solving the problem, the definitions of u, v and 4 must be given first. Then, the
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
development
of u, VI and \$ will be mathematically described in a way that will makeu, n
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
and
4 develop
simultaneously
so that the
subsequent
results
be free
thethe
development
trajectory
F of flyor
as another boundary.
Both
are unknown;
the will
position
of Rofand
state paraorder
of
u
,
v/and
9.
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and
initial stageangle
of motion
flyor also;
position
F andthe
thecross-section
state parameters
of products
Thebyrotational
4 is of
defined
as thetheangle
by of
which
rotates
around
original shear center axis. The displacements u and ZI are defined as the shear center
293

## Theory for Flexural-Torsional

Buckling of Structures

979

displacements of the cross-section along the directions of Xs and Ys axes, respectively. The
shear center moves during deformations, so does the shear center axis. The shear center axis is
defined as the axis that passes the shear center and is always parallel to the original shear
center axis, and is denoted as zs. The axes with origin at shear center and always
perpendicular to Xs and Y, during deformations are denoted as x8 and YS, respectively.
The axes with origin always at centroid and perpendicular to X, Y and 2 axes during
defomafions are denoted as x, y and z axes, respectively. It is obvious. that X,Syszs and
XYZ
are two orthogonal coordinate systems and U and -V are the tangent values of the
angles by which the cross -section rotates around 3cB and .Y,s axes, respectively. The
developments of P;, --u 1 and u are from 0 to 4, 0 to --it f and 0 to U , respectively. Each
and [ 0, ZI1 is separated into n sub-intervals, with the
interval of [0, 61, [0, --VI]
length of each sub-interval of LO, 41 being 4/n, that of [ 0, -u ] being --rl/n and that
of [O, u] being u//n. It is assumed thatAbstract
the shear center displacements U, u and rotation
4
of the cross-section develop from zero to final values in n steps with the increases of
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
-u f /n and Q/n. in each step. Not losing general sense, arbitrary order of 4/n, -d/n,
O/n,analytic
an
solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
a//n
considered analysis
here foris the
first step
rotations
around
all the the
axes"weak"
are fromshock
zero
general,
ais numerical
required.
In that
this the
paper,
however,
by utilizing
-v/n
and
u/
n,
respectively.
After
the
first
step,
the
coordinates
of
point
P(x,
behavior
to rbln, of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-y)
terbation
method,
analytic,tofirst-order
is obtainedwarping
for the problem
of flyingas
can be got,
with an
reference
equations approximate
(2.1~) and solution
(2.2b) excluding
displacement,
plate
by various
high explosives
indices
nearly
equal to
three.
followsdriven
because
the rotational
angles with
4/n, polytropic
--u /n and
uJnother
are than
very but
small
for large
value
n:
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
1.

Introduction

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
(3.1)
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
where cr:is a parameter which reflects the difference between equations (2.1~) and (2.2b);fi,f&
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
f3 and .f4the
areflow
algebraic
of the products
u, (Fig.
u and
governing
field ofexpressions
detonation products
behind theofflyor
I): 4 and / or their higher
order terms. The application of parameter CIand terms jr; jz, fs and -64 to equations (3.1)
means that equations (2.1~). (2.2b) or any other equations resulting from certain deformation
--ff
=o,
ap +u_~_xp
+ au
orders may be used here For the following
derivation.
Equation (3.1) can be expressed in the
following form:
au
au
1

X*1==; u+T,(x--X,!

=0,

(i.0
sx,aS = 4+(1~~T,+~T,)(X-xa)+X,
(3.2)
as
a--T
=o,
Tn=T(uIi
n, u//n,
p =p(p,
s), \$/n); Tz is also a square matrix, the

## in which square matrix

components of which are algebraic expressions of the products of u, u and \$J and / or their
where
p, S, terms;
u are pressure,
density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
higher p,order
and
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
xP1--x,--u/n,

change of

P(x,

293

## y)due to the rotations of thecross-

980

E Guokang

section by u/n,
-v//n
and 4/n,
is actually the results of the operation of operator T, on
X-X,
. The coordinate changes of point P(x, y) due to rotations of cross section after
second step, i. e., Xp2 -X0--2U/n,
are the results of the operation of T, on T,,(X-X0),
and so forth, so that
X n=zU/n.+T:,(X-X&+X,,
Xp,=3U/n+T:(X-X,)4-X,
(3.4)

.. .
XPn=

U+T:(X-Xo)+Xr,

## That 6 Y u and v develop simultaneously means 1~33

free of the development order of 4, ZJ and v; Because

## which makes the buckling procedure

Abstract
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an
solution
only y)
when
polytropic index
detonation
products
three.
the analytic
coordinates
of P(x,
afterthedisplacements
u, v,of zusand
rotations
u, equals
vand to (b
are In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior of the reflection shock inXp=U+exp[TI](X-X,)4-X0
the explosive products, and applying the small parameter (3.6)
purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
For small displacements U, v and \$, Xp may be approximated as
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained
agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
Xp=U+(l+T,+T:/2)(X-Xo)+Xo
(3.7)
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
Equation
(3.7), together
warping
displacement
G\$ and z=O, leads to the following final
index)
for estimation
of thewith
velocity
of flying
plate is established.
displacements of point P(x, Y>:

uP=xP-x=ll-qgy-ylJ)-(qb~+u~)(x-xo)~~-uv(y-yo)/2
1. Introduction
vP=YP-y=v+~(x-xo)-u'v'(x-xo)/2-(~2+v'2)(y-yo)/2
Explosive
driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
wp=zp-z=ulg
-~rx-x,-~(y-yJ/2l--u[y-y,+~(x-x,)/2l
+a4
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
i
=~-u(x-&//2)-v(y+~x/2)+w~
The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
(3.W
Under
the
assumptions
of
one-dimensional
plane
detonation
and
rigid
flying
plate,
the
normal
in which w is the longitudinal displacement of centroid and is expressed as
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation
products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
w=w,+u(x,-ctyo/2)+v(Yo+~xo/2)
(Wb)
The above derivation makes the buckling procedure free of the development order of
and v I or makes the deformations --ff
U, V + orau4, =o,
14I, v develop simuhaneously,
ap4, +u_~_xp
coincides with the physical behavior au
of flexural-torsional
buckling of structures.
au
1
The length of the deformed element at pointy P(x, =0,y) can be expressed in terms
change rate of UP, VP, wp as follows:aS
as

a--T
=o,
p =p(p, s),

(1 +Ep)dz=&/(dZ+W;dZ)2+

(u;dz)24+J~dZ)2

4, U
which
of the
(i.0
(3.9)

in which EP is the normal strain at point P(x, y). Substituting equations (3.8a) into the
equation
to the following
expression
for normal
strainvelocity
at pointof P(x,
y): products
where p, p,(3.9)
are pressure,
density, specific
entropy
and particle
detonation
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
Ep=-.(ZII-X1(/
+ [u2+v2+
(x; \$y~)~2~/~-xovQ)+you~
trajectory
F of flyor as-yoi-my)
another boundary.
Both are unknown;
the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
--x stage
x06++/5v+v)
]-y[ the position
y&b/i)- of~(du-~~u/)]+~(X2+y2)~12
D and by initial
of motion of flyor also;
F and the state parameters of products
I
293
(3.101

## Theory for Flexural-Torsional

Buckling of Structures

981

## in which only the terms up to the second order are retained.

Because geometric equations are independent of material properties, equations (3.8) and
(3.10) are actually suitable for any material, i. e., elastic or plastic material and so forth.
IV.

Modification

in Pstential

Variatiohal

Equation

## The total potential UT of structure is given by up=u

f v, in which U is the strain energy
stored in the structure, and V is the potential energy of the loading system. They are expressed
as

u=+\L\,(
5

v,-

)g,u~+qzur,)dz-

(4.1)

(Qrvq+Qzw--&)

Abstract
For equilibrium
of a deformed position, the principle of virtual work requires that
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
cwr= 0 for all sets of virtual deformations 6u, &Y, Bzar, 64,
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
For aneutral
equilibrium
(buckling)
general,
numerical
analysis is
required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-f d2UT
+av+ solution
6V)is =o
(4.28)
terbation method, an analytic, first-order
approximate
obtained for the problem of flying
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final
velocities
of flying
plate obtained
for any
set of virtual
deformations
Bs, agree
&I, very
&u, well
84. with
Now numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
1.

Introduction

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

6*&p=dx*+cYv2+
(4 +y:)6~2-2x~Bv8~f+2y~~u8~f
--ff
=o,
ap +u_~_xp+ au
4 (&W
-dddv)]
-y[,y,B~*-(8~6u8--~6uf)]
au
cyyp=o,
c~~=N/A-kMzy/l~, au T~=O
y1
=0,

--X[2xod42

+ (X+y*)&*

(i.0

(4.3b)
aS
as
a--T ~P=N/A,
=o, hf+=qr=QI=O
(a) For an axially loaded column.
and ~ZP;B=#wg=o
due to equation (3.8a). It assumedp that
during
buckling,
the
centroidal
strain remains zero
=p(p, s),
(inextensional buckling), so that the column buckles under constant force N. The inextensional
where
S, u arelp~
pressure,
density,
specific
andorder
particle
velocity with
of detonation
bucklingp, p,requires
in equation
c3.10)
to beentropy
of small
compared
the other products
buckling
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
and therefore,
-i \LEAwd*the position
arisingof R
from
(4.2bj
deformations
trajectory
F of U,
flyorV, asd,another
boundary. the
Bothterm
are unknown;
and equation
the state parameters
it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
can be on
ignored.
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
If the buckling deformations
{au, &J, 6w, cS\$} are rewritten as {ti, U, zw, d}, then
293
substituting equations (4.3) into equation (4.2) leads to

E Guokang

982

## f\, (EI,uv2 +EIIvf12

+ GJc,hr2+EI,#2)dz

+\$\L~rrll2-tv2+

(4.4)

in which
t-j =I,/A

5 rZ=IplA,

r;=r:+rp,

t-i= I A ddA

## There is no difference between equation (4.4) and the corresponding

conventional
equati&l,
which shows that the modified geometric equations do not affect the buckling
(b) For structures with monosymmetricAbstract
cross-section (i. e., x,=0 ) under the action of
due to equation (3.8b)
axial load N and bending moment M, , we know that 82~q=d2wg=0
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
and analytic
from equation
an
solution(3.8a),
only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

general,c%J+
a numerical
analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
-(X-X,)(Buav~+BU~v)-2(~u-yll)(s~s~+6uBu)
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur6% method,
*=-(x--x,)6u6v-(y*-~o)6~2
(4.5)
terbation
an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
cYvg=by- various
(x-x,)&80
- (&?-y,)&d2
plate driven
high explosives
with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
It is assumed
buckling, the
centroidal
strain
the curvature
thepolytropic
principal
an analytic
formulathat
withduring
two parameters
of high
explosive
(i.e. and
detonation
velocityinand
index)
for estimation
of the
of flying
plate is established.
YZ plane
remain zero,
sovelocity
that the
beam-column
buckles under constant axial force N and
bending moment
M,. In this case, the buckling displacements 6~ and 6~ are of a small
order as compared with the other buckling
displacements 6~ and ?\$ in equations (4.3), and
1. Introduction
{u, v, w, d}, then
after rewriting the buckling displacements {&, 6v, 6w, Sd} as
Explosive
driven flying-plate
technique
its important
use into the
of behavior
of
substituting
equations
(4.3) and (4.5)
into ffmds
equations
thestudy
following
essential
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
forr&la for the buckling of a monosymmetric beam-column with inextensional neutral axis:
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

--ff
ap +u_~_xp+
in which

au

au

aS

as

au

y1

=o,
(4.6)

=0,
(i.0

a--T
=o,
p =p(p, s),
and the first underlined term is different from its counterpart in equation (1.3), while the
where p,underlined
p, S, u are term
pressure,
specific
entropy
and particle
velocity
of .modified
detonation varitional
products
second
is andensity,
term.
Equation
(4.6) is
just the
respectively,
with
the
trajectory
R
of
reflected
shock
of
detonation
wave
D
as
a
boundary
equation of total potential energy for flexural-torsional buckling analysis of structures. and the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters
on it are governed
by the flow field
I of central rarefaction
the detonationbeamwave
V.
Modification
in Differential
Equilibrium
Equations wave
of behind
Monosymmetric
D andColumn
by initialforstage
motion of Position
flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
theof Buckled
The buckling equilibrium

beam-column

293

## Theory for Flexural-Torsional

can be obtained
which the functions U, 4 which make

Buckling of Structures

983

according to

(5.1)

stationary

## satisfy the conditions

-&(jg)+\$\$(gQ=o,

(5.2)

-g---&(g-)+&(-\$+o

## With equations (4.2a), (4.69, (5.1) and (5.2), we get

(5.3aj

Abstract

(5.3b)

of theequations
motion offor
a rigid
plate
under explosive
has
which The
are one-dimensional
the differential problem
equilibrium
the flying
buckled
position
U, #J forattack
bending
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
about the y axis and torsion. The underlined parts in equations (5.3) are different from their
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
underlined
equations
(1.4j. Equations
just the
modified
differential
behavior of counterparts
the reflection in
shock
in the explosive
products,(5.3)
and are
applying
the small
parameter
purequilibrium
equations
of
monosymmetric
beam-column
for
buckled
position.
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
VI.
Examples
and Comparisons
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic
with two
parameters
of high with
explosive
(i.e.symmetrical
detonation velocity
and polytropic
1. The formula
first example
a cantilever
double
cross-section
subjected
index)
for
estimation
of
the
velocity
of
flying
plate
is
established.
to a concentrated bending moment M, and a concentrated lateral force P at the free end,
respectively, with YP=UJI=Y,;
==u* as is shown in Fig. 2.
1. Introduction

l+----LA
(b)

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
2 the flyor (Fig. I):
governing the flow field of detonation productsFig.
behind

Because the difference of the new formula from the present accepted formula is from the
--ff
=o,
underlined term in equation (4.6) and
is equal
ap #?=
+u_~_xp
+ to
au zero for double symmetrical cross-secticn,
it is only necessary for us to compare
results1 from the underlined term in equation (4.6)
au the au
with those from its counterpart in equation (1.3) ify only =0,
one mode shape function is chosen for
the description of II and #. For aS
the cantilever,
the lateral displacement
as
a--T
=o,
assumed as follows:
u=uo[

p =p(p, s),
l-cos(?ccz/nl)],

and rotation

(i.0

are

&=q5,( I-COS(.7tZj2L)l

p, S, u are
density,
entropyand
and rotation
particle velocity
of detonation
products
inwhere
whichp, uO,
arepressure,
the shear
center specific
displacement
of cross-section
at free
end: L
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
is the span length of the beam. Substituting the above two mode-shape functions into equation
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para(Imeters
.?) andonequation
to flow
the following
relativerarefaction
buckling wave
it are governed
by the
field I of central
D and by initial stage of motion
of flyor also; the position
of F and the
Mcr/Mcro=0.554,
Pc,/Pc,o=
1.162state parameters of products
where the numerator

is the buckling load got with the new formula. w.hiie the denominator

293

is

984

E Guokana

## the buckling load got with present accepted theory.

2. Another example is about a simple beam with double symmetrical cross-section
subjected toconcentrated bending moment M at its two ends and concentrated lateral force P
at the midspan, respectively, with y~=yr=y,=O,
as is shown in Fig. 3.

e-4

(at

k----L------+(
(b)
Fig.
3

## The lateral displacement and rotation are assumed

Abstractas follows:

u=u,sin(m/l),

\$=&sin

(m/L)

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an which
analytic
whencenter,
the polytropic
indexandof rotation
detonation
products equals
to three. InL
4, are only
the shear
displacement
of cross-section
at mid-span,
in
u,, solution
general,
a
numerical
analysis
is
required.
In
this
paper,
however,
by
utilizing
the
"weak"
shock
is the span length of the beam. Substituting the above two mode-shape functions into equation
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur(1.3) and equation (4.6) leads to the following relative buckling loads:
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate driven by various high explosives
with 1,
polytropic
indices other
than but nearly equal to three.
Pcr/Pcro=
1,203
M crIMcro=
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
in
theformula
symbolswith
usedtwo
areparameters
of the same
as those(i.e.
useddetonation
in example
1. and polytropic
an which
analytic
of means
high explosive
velocity
From
the above ofexamples,
it is
that isthe
index)
for estimation
the velocity
of known
flying plate
established.
may be increased or decreased by about twenty percent and sometimes keep unchanged as
compared to those got with equation (1.3).
1. Introduction
VII.

Conclusions
Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials
intenseexisting
impulsive
shock
synthesis
of diamonds,
and explosive welding
and
1. Theunder
problems
in the
present
accepted
theory
on the flexural-torsional
buckling
of
metals.
The
method
of
estimation
of
flyor
velocity
and
the
way
of
raising
it
are
questions
analysis of structures are discussed and indicated through detailed analysis on the formulation
of common
of
geometric interest.
equations. Based on the analysis it can be concluded that the present accepted
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
theory makes the buckling procedure restricted to certain order of development
of
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
displacements
andfield
rotation,
so the products
present behind
accepted
theory(Fig.
canI):not reflect actual buckling
governing the flow
of detonation
the flyor
behavior.
2. A. fresh idea is proposed for the mathematical description of actual flexural-torsional
--ff
=o,
ap geometric
+u_~_xp+ equations
au
buckling procedure of structures. New
are formulated and new formulae
au
au
1 of structures. The conventional potential
are got for the flexural-torsional
buckling
analysis
y
=0,
variational equation and differential equilibrium equations are modified, which leads to (i.0
a set
aS
a s differential equilibrium equations which can
of new potential variational equation
and
a--T
=o,
reasonably reflect the buckling procedure.
3. The geometric equations got p in=p(p,
this s),
paper are not based upon the small deformation
assumption. In other words, the geometric equation (3.6) can also be used for large
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
deformation analysis of flexural-torsional structures. The grometric equations got here can be
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
used
not only
flectural-torsional
buckling
of sutrctures
but of
a&oR for
flexuraltrajectory
F of for
flyor
as another boundary.
Both analysis
are unknown;
the position
and other
the state
paratorsional
analyses.
e.
g..
static
analysis,
dynamic
analysis
and
elasto-plastic
analysis
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation waveof
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
structures.
4. Additional term in the potential variational equation is found, which can not be taken
293

## Theory for Flexural-Torsional

Buckling of Structures

985

into account with conventional geometric equations. This term in- equation (4.6) shows the
influence of the external bending moments on potential variational equation due to. the offset
of their application axis to centroid.
5. Examples are given to detect the numerical difference between the new equations and
the present accepted equations. From the numerical comparisons, it is known that buckling
loadings got with the new equation will be larger than those in some cases and less than those
in others got with that in present accepted theory. There is also the case in which both the
buckling loadings calculated with both equation (1.3) and equation (4.6) are of same value.
From the modified neutral equilibrium equations (5.3), we know that if the internal bending
moment is constant, the modified neutral equilibrium equations are the same as conventional
ones. In this case, the buckling loadings calculated with both the modified and conventional
potential variational equations should be equal to each other if the assumed buckling mode
Abstract
shape functions are accurate. This case has
already been shown by example 2 with a simple
beam in pure bending. But in example 1 with a cantilever in pure bending, the buckling
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
loading calculated with the modified potential variational equations is smaller than that
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
calculateda numerical
with conventional
This Inphenomena
from
the fact the
that"weak"
the assumed
general,
analysis is one.
required.
this paper,appears
however,
by utilizing
shock
mode
shape
functions
in
example
1
are
inaccurate.
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation
analytic,
first-order
obtained
for the problem
flying
6. If method,
there isanno
external
bendingapproximate
moment orsolution
lateral is force
subjected
to the of
structure,
plate
driven(4.6)
by various
high explosives
withconsistent
polytropicwith
indices
other than
nearly
equal to three.
equation
and equations
(5.3) are
equation
(1.3) but
(with
u-concerned
terms
Final
velocities
of
flying
plate
obtained
agree
very
well
with
numerical
results
by
computers.
Thus
ignored) and equations (1.4), respectively. This shows that the modification here is just in some
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
terms that
are relevant
to velocity
bending ofmoment
and islateral
forces.
index)
for estimation
of the
flying plate
established.
7. The idea proposed here is also suitable for the lateral buckling analysis and flexuraltorsional analysis of curved beam. The results got here can be extended without difficulty to
1. Introduction
modifying the theory on lateral buckling analysis and flexural-torsional
anslysis of curved
beams.Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

## materials under intense impulsive

shock
diamonds,
Acknowledgment
is grateful
to synthesis
Professor ofDai
Shiqiangandofexplosive
Shanghaiwelding
Instituteand of
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
Applied Mathematics
and Mechanics for his review for this manuscript and his kind
of common interest.
recommendation
in publishingof one-dimensional
this paper.
Under the assumptions
plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
References
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
[ l] A. G. Ml Michell, Elastic stability of long beams under transverse forces, Philosophical


## Magazine, 48 (1899), 298-309. --ff

=o,
+u_~_xptorsion,
+ au and buckling
S. P. Timoshenko, Theory of ap
bending,

of thin-walled

members of

au Papea.s
au of 1Ste\$en, P. Timoshenko, McGraw-Hill,
open cross-section, in Col!ecretl
New
y
=0,
(i.0
York (1953), 559-609.
aS
as
[ 3] S. P. Timoshenko, Theor]* oj- Elastic
Srabiiir,~,,
2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,
New York (1961).
a--T
=o,

H. Wagner, Torsion and buckling of open cross-sections. NACA Technical Memorandum
p =p(p, s),
807 (1936).
[ 51 F. Bleich. Buckling Strerigth of Metal Structures, McGraw-Hill,
New York (1952).
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
[respectively,
61 R. S. Barsoum
R. H.R Gallagher.
analysis
and torsionalwith the and
trajectory
of reflectedFinite
shock element
of detonation
waveofDtorsional
as a boundary
and the
flexural
stability
problems,
Int.
Journal
of
hiwmrical
Methods
in
Engineering,
2 (1970),
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state
parameters
it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
335on-3.52.
initial
of flyor
also; the
position
F and the
state parameters
products of
[D71andY.by B.
Yangstage
andof motion
S. R. Kuo,
Static
stability
of ofcurved
thin-walled
beams,ofJournal
293
Enginroiq:
A4crhmic.c. A SCE, 112, 8 (1956). 52 1 -84 1.

986
[S]

E Guokang
N. S. Trahair and J. P. Papangelis, Flexural-torsional buckling of monosymmetiic
Journal qf Structural Engineering, ASCE, 113, 10 (1987). 2271-2288.

arches,

[ 91

## Y. B. Yang and S. R. Kuo, Use of straight-beam approach to study buckling of curved

.beams, Jourrzal of Structural Engineering, AXE, 117, 7 (199 l), 1963 - 1978.
[lo] S. R. Kuo and Y. B. Yang, New theory on buckling of curved beams, Journnl of
&gineeriug Medumics, ASCE, 117, 8 (1991); 1698- 1717.
[ll]
N. S. Trahair, Flesural-Torsional Buckling of Structures, CRC Press Inc. (1993).
 Y. L. Pi and N. S. Trahair. Nonlinear inelastic analysis of steel beam-columns-theory.
Jour~rtrl c?fStructrud Engineeri~lg, A SCE, 120, 7 (1994). 204 1-206 1.
 Y. L. Pi and N. S. Trahair, Nonlinear
in elastic analysis of steel beam-columns
applications, Journal qf Structurd Engineering, ASCE, 120, 7 (1994), 2062- 2085.

Abstract
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
1.

Introduction

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

--ff
ap +u_~_xp+
au

au

aS

as

au

y1

=o,

=0,
(i.0

a--T
=o,
p =p(p, s),
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
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