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theory of creep and shrinkage of concrete for different material properties

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Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Outline 5

Outline 5

Creep and Shrinkage Deformation

Creep of concrete

o Concrete under stress undergoes a gradual increase of strain with

time. The final creep strain may be several times as large as the initial

elastic strain.

o Creep is the property of materials by which they continue deforming

over considerable length of time under sustained stress.

o Relaxation is the loss of stress by time with constant strain.

o In concrete, creep deformations are generally larger than elastic

deformation and thus creep represents an important factor affecting

the deformation behavior.

o Concrete under constant axial compressive stress

loaded constantly

creep

creep

recovery

elastic

deformation = inst

permanent or

residual deformation

Time

not exceeding 0.5 f c' creep strains are directly proportional to

stress that is a linear relationship between and cr .

1 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

o Two phenomena are involved:

1. Time dependent deformation that occurs when concrete is loaded

in a sealed condition so that moisture cannot escape. basic

creep

2. Creep of the material when moisture exchange is permitted.

drying creep

o Basic creep is primarily influenced by the material properties only,

while drying creep and shrinkage also depend on the environment and

the size of the specimen.

o The real situation might be the combination of the two phenomena,

sometimes, one being the dominating factor.

o Creep deformation contains three regions:

1. Primary creep initial increase in deformation

2. Secondary creep relatively a steady deformation region

3. Tertiary creep leads to creep fracture

Specific creep

o

sp =

c

,

Stress levels above 0.8f c' creep produces failure in time.

o Relationship between f c' and sp :

f c' (psi)

sp ( 106

per psi)

Final strain

( 10

per psi)

3.1

3000

1.0

4000

0.80

2.9

6000

0.55

2.4

8000

0.40

2.0

2 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

Creep coefficient

o

Ct =

c

inst

o Internal factors (composition)

Creep

Water/cement ratio

Creep

Aggregate permeability

Creep

Aggregate creep

Creep

Aggregate stiffness

Creep

Cement

Size

Shape

Cross-section

Stress intensity

Creep

Creep

deformation (strain).

age of loading

o Strain decomposition

The total strain of concrete may be decomposed as

= + 0 = ( E + C ) + 0 = ( E + C ) + ( S + T ) = E + "

3 / 11

Creep

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

E = reversible strain,

C = creep strain,

0 = stress-independent inelastic strain,

S = shrinkage strain,

" = inelastic strain.

o Incremental formulation of stress-strain relation

{ d } = [ D ] { d }

where {d } = change in stress tensor,

[ D]

{d }

deformation:

changes from one time step to the next as proportional to the

elastic modulus. Applicable to homogeneous materials.

is different and not proportional to the elastic modulus from one

time step to another. Applicable to non-homogeneous materials.

= J + 0

= a column matrix consisting of the stress increments, and

4 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

increments.

o Effective modulus method

Total stress-strain relation:

(t ) = D

1

(t ) + 0 (t )

'

Eeff ( t , t )

t ' = the time at which the instantaneous elastic modulus is

characterized,

D=

sym.

0

0

0

1 +

0

0

0

for the case of isotropy,

0

0

1 +

0

0

0

0

1 +

E (t ' )

1

Eeff ( t , t ) =

=

= effective modulus of elasticity,

J (t, t ' ) 1 + (t, t ' )

'

1 + (t, t

1

'

J (t, t ) =

+

C

t

,

t

=

(

)

E (t ' )

E (t ' )

'

'

E ( t ' ) = modulus of elasticity characterizing the instantaneous

the creep deformation to the initial elastic deformation, and

5 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

C (t, t ) =

'

(t, t ' )

E (t

'

Spring 2004

Outline 5

c 1

'

inst E ( t )

sp ).

Incremental strain

The method is applied incrementally from t0 to t if the structural

system is changed after t0 .

( t0 )

1

+ 0 ( t )

( t ) = D

+

,

t

t

(

)

(

)

0

'

E ( t0 )

Eeff ( t , t )

strain, and

t0 = time of first loading.

Effective modulus method is exact when the stress is constant from

t ' to t .

jumps to the value of a, apply linear variation of strain from t0 to t

and obtain the following expression:

( t ) 0 ( t ) = a + c ( t , t0 )

The stress for t0 > t is

( t ) = ( a c ) R ( t , t0' ) + cE ( t0 )

where a, c = constants.

One can then obtain by algebraic manipulation the basic incremental

stress-strain relation of the age-adjusted effective modulus.

6 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

Effective elastic modulus with a correction of the creep coefficient:

E ( t , t0 ) =

E ( t0 )

1 + ( t , t0 )

effective modulus) = 0.5~1.0.

The quasi-elastic incremental stress-strain relation of the ageadjusted effective modulus:

( t ) =

1

E ( t , t0 )

( t ) =

D ( t ) + ( t )

( t , t0 )

E ( t , t0 )

D ( t0 ) + 0 ( t )

where ( t ) = ( t ) ( t0 ) .

We assume isotropic material with a constant Poissons ratio, which is

approximately true for concrete.

o Considering the specific strain function expressed as

( t , ) =

E ( )

+ C ( t , )

That is strain per unit stress at time t for the stress applied at age .

o The specific creep function

C ( t , ) = F ( ) f ( t )

o Forms of the aging function F ( ) and f ( t ) :

F ( )

7 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Power law: F ( ) = a + b c

Exponential law: F ( ) = a + be c

Spring 2004

Outline 5

f (t )

Power law: f ( t ) = a ( t )

f c'

< 0.4

Experimental data is used to obtain coefficients.

o Prediction of creep deformation:

creep curves to be used in long-term prediction.

a relevant code. Various code recommendations have been quite

controversial.

( t t 0 ) , t

( t , t0 ) =

( 0)

0.6

10 + ( t t0 )

0.6

K1 and K2 relate to curing process, K3 relates to the

thickness of member, K4 , K5 , and K 6 relate to concrete

composition. ( = 2.35)

Principle of superposition

For analysis and design purposes the time dependent linear

relation between stress and creep strain can be written in the

following way:

8 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

cr ( t ) = f 0 sp ( t , ) + F ( i ) sp ( t , i )

i =

time ,

time < i < t ,

i > t .

of stress applied at any time are independent of the effects of any

other stress increment applied earlier or later than time .

stress-strain curves of a shape similar to experimental results. It is

assumed that the concrete creeps in tension at the same rate as it

creeps in compression.

appropriate creep curves introduced for corresponding changes in

stress at different time intervals. This is true if creep is

proportional to applied stress.

o Creep takes place in tension in the same manner as in compression.

The magnitude in tension is much higher.

o Creep occurs under torsional loading.

o Under unaxial compression, creep occurs not only in the axial but

also in the normal directions.

9 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

Spring 2004

Outline 5

stresses in other normal stresses.

o The influences of

Temperature dependence

Shrinkage

Cross coupling of creep with shrinkage or thermal expansion.

o Cracking or strain-softening

o Cyclic loading

o High stress and multiaxial viscoplasticity

on deformation and failure behavior

o Thermal effect (pressure vessels, process vessels)

o Segmental concrete bridge deformation (construction and service

stages)

Shrinkage deformation

o Shrinkage is basically a volume change of the element which is

considered to occur independently of externally imposed stresses.

This volume change can also be negative and is then called swelling.

Thin sections are particularly susceptible to drying shrinkage and

therefore must contain a certain minimum quantity of steel. In

restrained concrete shrinkage results in cracking, before any loading.

The minimum reinforcement is provided to control this cracking.

o Causes of shrinkage:

10 / 11

Prof. Oral Buyukozturk

o ACI 209 Committee suggests:

sh = sh ,u St S h Sth S s S f S e S c

where sh ,u = ultimate factor of shrinkage,

St = factor of time,

S h = factor of humidity,

Sth = factor of thickness,

S s = factor of slump,

S f = factor of fineness,

S c = factor of cement property.

11 / 11

Spring 2004

Outline 5

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