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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
is defined as the production of an induced
e.m.f. in a conductor/coil whenever the
magnetic flux through the conductor/coil
changes.

CHAPTER 20:
Electromagnetic induction
(6 Hours)

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.0 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

20.1 Magnetic flux

20.2 Induced emf

20.3 Self-inductance

20.4 Mutual Inductance

20.5 Energy stored in inductor

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
Learning Outcome:
20.1

Magnetic flux (1/2 hour)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define and use magnetic flux,


B A BA cos

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.1 Magnetic flux


20.1.1 Phenomenon of electromagnetic induction

Consider some experiments were conducted by Michael


Faraday that led to the discovery of the Faradays law of
induction as shown in Figures 7.1a, 7.1b, 7.1c, 7.1d and 7.1e.

v0
No movement

Figure 7.1a
4

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
v

N
I

Move towards the coil

I
Figure 7.1b

v0
No movement

Figure 7.1c
5

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
v

S
I

Move away from the coil

I
Figure 7.1d

Move towards the coil

I
Simulation 7.1

Figure 7.1e

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

From the experiments:


When the bar magnet is stationary, the galvanometer not
show any deflection (no current flows in the coil).
When the bar magnet is moved relatively towards the coil,
the galvanometer shows a momentary deflection to the right
(Figure 7.1b). When the bar magnet is moved relatively
away from the coil, the galvanometer is seen to deflect in the
opposite direction (Figure 7.1d).
Therefore when there is any relative motion between the
coil and the bar magnet , the current known as induced
current will flow momentarily through the galvanometer.
This current due to an induced e.m.f across the coil.
Conclusion :
When the magnetic field lines through a coil changes
thus the induced emf will exist across the coil.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. depends on the


speed of the relative motion where if the
induced emf increases
v increases

v decreases
induced emf decreases
Therefore v is proportional to the induced emf.
20.1.2 Magnetic flux of a uniform magnetic field

is defined as the scalar product between the magnetic flux


density, B with the vector of the area, A.
Mathematically,


B A BAcos

where

(7.1)

: magnetic flux

: angle between the direction of B and A


B : magnitude of the magnetic flux density
A : area of the coil
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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

It is a scalar quantity and its unit is weber (Wb) OR tesla


meter squared ( T m2).

Consider a uniform magnetic field B passing through a surface


area A of a single turn coil as shown in Figures
7.2a and 7.2b.

A
area

Figure 7.2a
From the Figure 7.2a, the angle is 0 thus the magnetic flux is
given by

BAcos
BA cos 0
maximum
BA

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

90
area

Figure 7.2b

From the Figure 7.2a, the angle is 90 thus the magnetic flux
is given by

Note:

BA cos

BA cos 90
0

Direction of vector A always perpendicular (normal) to


the surface area, A.
The magnetic flux is proportional to the number of
field lines passing through the area.
10

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.1 :
A single turn of rectangular coil of sides 10 cm 5.0 cm is placed
between north and south poles of a permanent magnet. Initially, the
plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic field as shown in Figure
7.3.

N
S

Figure 7.3
If the coil is turned by 90 about its rotation axis and the magnitude
of magnetic flux density is 1.5 T, Calculate the change in the
magnetic flux through the coil.

11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution : B 1.5 T
The area of the coil is

Initially,

A 10 10 2 5.0 10 2 5.0 10 3 m 2

From the figure, =90 thus the initial


A
B magnetic flux through the coil is

i BA cos
BA cos 90

Finally,

From the figure, =0 thus the final


magnetic flux through the coil is

f BA cos
1.5 5.0 10 3 cos 0

Therefore the change in magnetic flux through the coil is

f i

7.5 10 0

12

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.2 :
A single turn of circular coil with a diameter of 3.0 cm is placed in
the uniform magnetic field. The plane of the coil makes an angle
30 to the direction of the magnetic field. If the magnetic flux
through the area of the coil is 1.20 mWb, calculate the magnitude of
the magnetic field.
Solution : d 3.0 10 2 m; 1.20 10 3 Wb

30

30

The area of the coil is

d
A
4

coil

3.0 10

2 2

4
A 7.07 10 4 m 2
13

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution : d

3.0 10 2 m; 1.20 10 3 Wb

The angle between the direction of magnetic field, B and vector of


area, A is given by

90 30 60
Therefore the magnitude of the magnetic field is

BA cos
1.20 10 3 B 7.07 10 4 cos 60

14

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.3 :

Figure 7.4
The three loops of wire as shown in Figure 7.4 are all in a region of
space with a uniform magnetic field. Loop 1 swings back and forth
as the bob on a simple pendulum. Loop 2 rotates about a vertical
axis and loop 3 oscillates vertically on the end of a spring. Which
loop or loops have a magnetic flux that changes with time? Explain
your answer.
15

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution :
Only loop 2 has a changing magnetic flux.
Reason :
Loop 1 moves back and forth, and loop 3 moves up and down,
but since the magnetic field is uniform, the flux always
constant with time.
Loop 2 on the other hand changes its orientation relative to the
field as it rotates, hence its flux does change with time.

16

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
Learning Outcome:
20.2

Induced emf (2 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Use Faradays experiment to explain induced emf.

State Faradays law and use Lenzs law to determine the


direction of induced current.

Apply induced emf,

d

dt
17

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
Learning Outcome:
20.2

Induced emf (2 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Derive and use induced emf :

in straight conductor,

lvB sin

in coil,

dB
NA
dt

OR

dA
NB
dt

in rotating coil,

NAB sin t
18

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.2 Induced emf


20.2.1 Faradays law of electromagnetic induction

states that the magnitude of the induced emf is proportional


to the rate of change of the magnetic flux.
Mathematically,

d
d
OR


dt
dt
where d : change of the magnetic flux
dt : change of time
: induced emf

(7.2)

The negative sign indicates that the direction of induced emf


always oppose the change of magnetic flux producing it
(Lenzs law).
19

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

For a coil of N turns, eq. (7.2) can be written as

d
N
dt

Since

(7.3)

d f i, then eq. (7.3) can be written as

f i
N
dt

where

(7.4)

f : final magnetic flux


i : initial magnetic flux

For a coil of N turns is placed in the changing magnetic


field B, the induced emf is given by

d
N
dt

and

BA cos
20

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
d BA cos
N
dt
dB
NAcos
dt

(7.5)

For a coil of N turns is placed in a uniform magnetic field B


but changing in the coils area A, the induced emf is given
by
d
and BA cos
N

dt
d BA cos
N
dt
dA
NBcos
dt

(7.6)
21

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

For a coil is connected in series to a resistor of resistance

R and the induced emf exist in the coil as shown in Figure 7.5,
the induced current I is given by

d
N
dt
d
IR N
dt

and

IR
(7.7)

Figure 7.5
Note:
To calculate the magnitude of induced emf, the negative sign
can be ignored.

For a coil of N turns, each turn will has a magnetic flux of


BAcos through it, therefore the magnetic flux linkage (refer to
the combined amount of flux through all the turns) is given by

magnetic flux linkage N


22

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.4 :
The magnetic flux passing through a single turn of a coil is
increased quickly but steadily at a rate of 5.0102 Wb s1. If the coil
have 500 turns, calculate the magnitude of the induced emf in the
coil.
d
Solution : N 500 turns;
5.0 10 2 Wb s 1

dt

By applying the Faradays law equation for a coil of N turns , thus

d
N
dt

500 5.0 10 2

23

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.5 :
A coil having an area of 8.0 cm2 and 50 turns lies perpendicular to a
magnetic field of 0.20 T. If the magnetic flux density is steadily
reduced to zero, taking 0.50 s, determine
a. the initial magnetic flux linkage.
b. the induced emf.
Solution : A 8.0 10 4 m 2 ; N 50 turns; Bi 0.20 T; Bf 0;

dt 0.50 s

a. The initial magnetic flux linkage is given by

initial magnetic flux linkage Ni


NBi A cos

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PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 20
A 8.0 10 4 m 2 ; N 50 turns; Bi 0.20 T; Bf 0;
dt 0.50 s

50 0.20 8.0 10

a.

cos 0

b. The induced emf is given by

dB
NA cos and dB Bf Bi
dt
Bf Bi
NA cos

dt
4
0 0.20
50 8.0 10 cos 0

0.50

25

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.6 :
A narrow coil of 10 turns and diameter of 4.0 cm is placed
perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of 1.20 T. After 0.25 s, the
diameter of the coil is increased to 5.3 cm.
a. Calculate the change in the area of the coil.
b. If the coil has a resistance of 2.4 , determine the induced
current in the coil.
Solution : N 10 turns; d i 4.0 10 2 m; d f 5.3 10 2 m;

B 1.2 T; dt 0.25 s

Initial

Final
26

PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 20
N 10 turns; di 4.0 10 2 m; d f 5.3 10 2 m;
B 1.2 T; dt 0.25 s

a. The change in the area of the coil is given by

dA Af Ai
d f 2 d i 2

4 4

2
2
df di
4

2 2
2 2
5.3 10
4.0 10

27

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution :

N 10 turns; di 4.0 10 2 m; d f 5.3 10 2 m;


B 1.2 T; dt 0.25 s

b. Given R 2.4
The induced emf in the coil is

dA
NBcos
dt
4

9.5 10

10 1.2 cos 0

0
.
25

2
4.56 10 V

Therefore the induced current in the coil is given by

IR
4.56 10 2 I 2.4

28

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.2.2 Lenzs law


states that an induced electric current always flows in such
a direction that it opposes the change producing it.
This law is essentially a form of the law of conservation of
energy.
An illustration of lenzs law can be explained by
the following experiments.
1st experiment:
Direction of
In Figure 7.6 the magnitude induced current
of the magnetic field at the Right hand grip
solenoid increases as the
rule.
I
bar magnet is moved
North pole
towards it.

An emf is induced in the


solenoid and the
galvanometer indicates that
a current is flowing.

I
Figure 7.6

29

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

To determine the direction of the current through the


galvanometer which corresponds to a deflection in a particular
sense, then the current through the solenoid seen is in the
direction that make the solenoid upper end becomes a
north pole. This opposes the motion of the bar magnet and
obey the lenzs law.

2nd experiment:
Consider a straight conductor PQ
is placed perpendicular to the
magnetic field and move the
conductor to the left with constant
velocity v as shown in Figure 7.7.

When the conductor move to the


left thus the induced current
needs to flow in such a way to
oppose the change which has
induced it based on lenzs law.
Hence galvanometer shows a
deflection.

X QX

X FX

XvX

X PX

Figure 7.7
Simulation 7.2

30

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

To determine the direction of the induced current (induced


emf) flows in the conductor PQ, the Flemings right hand
(Dynamo) rule is used as shown in Figure 7.8.

(motion )

induced I OR
induced emf
Figure 7.8

Note:
Thumb direction of Motion
First finger direction of Field

Second finger direction of induced


current OR induced emf

Therefore the induced current flows from Q to P as shown in


Figure 7.7.

Since the induced current flows in the conductor PQ and is


placed in the magnetic field then this conductor will
experience magnetic force.

Its direction is in the opposite direction of the motion.

31

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

3rd experiment:

Consider two solenoids P and Q arranged coaxially closed to


each other as shown in Figure 7.9a.

ind

N
P
I Switch, S

N
+

I ind

S
-

I ind

Figure 7.9a

At the moment when the switch S is closed, current I begins


to flow in the solenoid P and producing a magnetic field inside
the solenoid P. Suppose that the field points towards the
solenoid Q.
32

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
The magnetic flux through the solenoid Q increases with
time. According to Faradays law ,an induced current due to
induced emf will exist in solenoid Q.
The induced current flows in solenoid Q must produce a
magnetic field that oppose the change producing it (increase
in flux). Hence based on Lenzs law, the induced current flows
in circuit consists of solenoid Q is anticlockwise (Figure 7.9a)
and the galvanometer shows a deflection.

ind

N
P
I Switch, S

S
-

I ind

N
+

I ind

Figure 7.9b
33

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
At the moment when the switch S is opened, the current I
starts to decrease in the solenoid P and magnetic flux through
the solenoid Q decreases with time. According to Faradays
law ,an induced current due to induced emf will exist in
solenoid Q.
The induced current flows in solenoid Q must produce a
magnetic field that oppose the change producing it (decrease
in flux). Hence based on Lenzs law, the induced current flows
in circuit consists of solenoid Q is clockwise (Figure 7.9b) and
the galvanometer seen to deflect in the opposite direction of
Figure 7.9a.

Simulation 7.3
34

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.7 :
A single turn of circular shaped coil has a resistance of 20 and an
area of 7.0 cm2. It moves toward the north pole of a bar magnet as
shown in Figure 7.10.

Figure 7.10
If the average rate of change of magnetic flux density through the
coil is 0.55 T s1,
a. determine the induced current in the coil
b. state the direction of the induced current observed by the
observer shown in Figure 7.10.
35

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution : N 1 turn; R 20 ; A 7.0 10 4 m 2 ;


a. By applying the Faradays law of induction, thus

d
and BA cos180
N
dt
d
N BA
dt
dB
NA
dt
1 7.0 10 4 0.55
3.85 10 4 V

dB
0.55 T s 1
dt

Therefore the induced current in the coil is given by

IR
3.85 10 4 I 20

36

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution :
b. Based on the lenzs law, hence the direction of induced current is
clockwise as shown in figure below.

S I ind

37

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.2.3 Induced emf in a straight conductor


Consider a straight conductor PQ of length l is moved
perpendicular with velocity v across a uniform magnetic field B
as shown in Figure 7.11.

X X X X X X PX X B
X

X
v

X indX

x X QX

lX

Area, A

ind

Figure 7.11

When the conductor moves through a distance x in time t, the


area swept out by the conductor is given by

A lx

38

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Since the motion of the conductor is perpendicular to the


magnetic field B hence the magnetic flux cutting by the
conductor is given by

BA cos and 0
Blx
Blx cos 0

According to Faradays law, the emf is induced in the conductor


and its magnitude is given by

dt
d
Blx
dt
dx
dx
v
Bl and
dt
dt

Blv

(7.8)
39

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

In general, the magnitude of the induced emf in the straight


conductor is given by

lvB sin

(7.9)

: angle between v and B

Note:

where
This type of induced emf is known as motional induced emf.
The direction of the induced current or induced emf in the
straight conductor can be determined by using the Flemings
right hand rule (based on Lenzs law).
In the case of Figure 7.11, the direction of the induced current or
induced emf is from Q to P. Therefore P is higher potential than
Q.

Eq. (7.9) also can be used for a single turn of rectangular coil
moves across the uniform magnetic field.

For a rectangular coil of N turns,

NlvB sin

(7.10)
40

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.8 :
A 20 cm long metal rod CD is moved at speed of 25 m s1 across a
uniform magnetic field of flux density 250 mT. The motion of the rod
is perpendicular to the magnetic field as shown in Figure 7.12.

25 m s 1

Figure 7.12

D
a. Calculate the motional induced emf in the rod.
b. If the rod is connected in series to the resistor of resistance
15 , determine
i. the induced current and its direction.
41
ii. the total charge passing through the resistor in two minute.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution : l 20 10 2 m; v 25 m s 1; B 250 10 3
a. By applying the equation for motional induced emf, thus

T;

lvB sin and 90


2
3

20 10 25 250 10 sin 90

b. Given R 15
i. By applying the Ohms law, thus

IR

1.25 I 15

By using the Flemings right hand rule, the direction of the


induced current is from D to C.
ii. Given t 2 60 120 s
The total charge passing through the resistor is given by

Q It

Q 8.33 10 120
2

42

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.2.4 Induced emf in a rotating coil


Consider a rectangular coil of N turns, each of area A, being

rotated mechanically with a constant angular velocity in a


uniform magnetic field of flux density B about an axis as shown

in Figure 7.13.

coil
Figure 7.13: side view

When the vector of area, A is at an angle to the magnetic


field B, the magnetic flux through each turn of the coil is given
by
BA cos and t

BA cost

43

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

By applying the equation of Faradays law for a coil of N turns,


thus the induced emf is given by

d
N
dt
d
N BA cos t
dt
d
NBA cos t
dt

NBA sin t

where t : time
The induced emf is maximum when

max NBA
where

(7.11)

sin t 1 hence

2
2f
T

(7.12)

44

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Eq. (7.11) also can be written as

NBA sin

: angle between A and B

(7.13)

where
Conclusion : A coil rotating with constant angular velocity in a
uniform magnetic field produces a sinusoidally alternating emf
as shown by the induced emf against time t graph in Figure
7.14.
V
Simulation 7.4
max sin t

Note:

max

This phenomenon
was the important
0
part in the
development of
max
the electric
generator or
dynamo.

0.5T

1.5T

2T

B
Figure 7.14

45

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.9 :
A rectangular coil of 100 turns has a dimension of 10 cm 15 cm. It
rotates at a constant angular velocity of 200 rpm in a uniform
magnetic field of flux density 5.0 T. Calculate
a. the maximum emf produced by the coil,
b. the induced emf at the instant when the plane of the coil makes
an angle of 38 to the magnetic field.
Solution : N 100 turns; B 5.0 T
The area of the coil is

A 10 102 15 102 1.5 102 m2


and the constant angular velocity in rad s1 is

200 rev 2 rad 1 min


1 min 1 rev 60 s
1
20.9 rad s
46

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution : N 100 turns; B 5.0 T


a. The maximum emf produced by the coil is given by

max NBA

1005.0 1.5 102 20.9

b.

38

From the figure, the angle is

90 38 52

Therefore the induced emf is given by

NBA sin

1005.0 1.5 102 20.9sin 52

47

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Exercise 20.1 :
1.

A bar magnet is held above a loop of wire in a horizontal


plane, as shown in Figure 7.15.
The south end of the magnet is toward the
loop of the wire. The magnet is dropped
toward the loop. Determine the direction of
the current through the resistor
a. while the magnet falling toward the loop,
b. after the magnet has passed through the
loop and moves away from it.
(Physics for scientists and engineers,6th
edition, Serway&Jewett, Q15, p.991)

ANS. : U think
Figure 7.15
48

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

2.

A straight conductor of length 20 cm moves in a uniform magnetic


field of flux density 20 mT at a constant speed of 10 m s-1. The
velocity makes an angle 30 to the field but the conductor is
perpendicular to the field. Determine the induced emf.
ANS. : 2.0102 V
3. A coil of area 0.100 m2 is rotating at 60.0 rev s-1 with the axis of
rotation perpendicular to a 0.200 T magnetic field.
a. If the coil has 1000 turns, determine the maximum emf
generated in it.
b. What is the orientation of the coil with respect to the
magnetic field when the maximum induced emf occurs?
(Physics for scientists and engineers,6th edition,Serway&Jewett, Q35,
p.996)

ANS. : 7.54103 V
4. A circular coil has 50 turns and diameter 1.0 cm. It rotates at a
constant angular velocity of 25 rev s1 in a uniform magnetic field of
flux density 50 T. Determine the induced emf when the plane of
the coil makes an angle 55 to the magnetic field.
49
ANS. : 1.77105 V

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
Learning Outcome:
20.3

Self-inductance (1 hour)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define self-inductance.

Apply self-inductance,

dI dt

0 N A
2

for a loop and solenoid.

50

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.3 Self-inductance
20.3.1 Self-induction

Consider a solenoid which is connected to a battery , a switch S


and variable resistor R, forming an open circuit as shown in
Figure 7.16a.
When the switch S is closed, a current

I begins to flow in the solenoid.

N
I

The current produces a magnetic


field whose field lines through the
solenoid and generate the magnetic
flux linkage.

If the resistance of the variable


resistor changes, thus the current
flows in the solenoid also changed,
then so too does magnetic flux
linkage.

Figure 7.16a: initial

51

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

According to the Faradays law, an emf has to be induced in


the solenoid itself since the flux linkage changes.
In accordance with Lenzs law, the induced emf opposes the
changes that has induced it and it is known as a back emf.
For the current I increases :

ind

SN

+
SN

I ind

I
I ind

Figure 7.16b: I increases


Direction of the induced emf is in the
opposite direction of the current I.
52

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

For the current I decreases :

+
SS
I ind

ind

NN
I
I ind

Figure 7.16c: I decreases

Direction of the induced emf is in the


same direction of the current I.

This process is known as self-induction.


Self-induction is defined as the process of producing an
induced emf in the coil due to a change of current flowing
through the same coil.
53

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Self-induction experiment
The effect of the self-induction can be demonstrated by the
circuit shown in Figure 7.17a.
switch, S

iron-core

lamp A1

coil, L

lamp A2

Figure 7.17a
Initially variable resistor R is adjusted so that the two lamps
have the same brightness in their respective circuits with steady
current flowing.
When the switch S is closed, the lamp A2 with variable resistor R
is seen to become bright almost immediately but the lamp A1
with iron-core coil L increases slowly to full brightness.
54

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Reason:
The coil L undergoes the self-induction and induced emf
in it. The induced or back emf opposes the growth of
current so the glow in the lamp A1 increases slowly.

The resistor R, however has no back emf, hence the lamp


A2 glow fully bright as soon as switch S is closed.

This effect can be shown by the graph of current I against


time t through both lamps in Figure 7.17b.

I
I0

lamp A2 with resistor R

lamp A1 with coil L

t
Figure 7.17b
55

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.10 :
A circuit contains an iron-cored coil L, a switch S, a resistor R and
a dc source arranged in series as shown in Figure 7.18.
The switch S is closed for a long
time and is suddenly opened.
Explain why a spark jump across the
switch contacts S .

Figure 7.18

switch, S

coil, L

Solution :
When the switch S is suddenly opened, the current in the
circuit starts to fall very rapidly and induced a maximum
emf in the coil L which tends to maintain the current.
This back emf is high enough to break down the insulation of
the air between the switch contacts S and a spark can easily
appear at the switch.
56

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.3.2 Self-inductance, L

From the self-induction phenomenon, we get

L I

L LI
where

(7.14)

L : self - inductance of the coil

I : current

L : magnetic flux linkage

From the Faradays law, thus

d L

dt
d
LI
dt
dI
L
dt

(7.15)
57

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Self-inductance is defined as the ratio of the self induced


(back) emf to the rate of change of current in the coil.
OR

dI / dt

For the coil of N turns, thus

dI
d
and L
N
dt
dt
dI
d
L N
dt
dt
L dI N d
magnetic flux linkage
LI N
N L
(7.16)
L

I
I
58

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

It is a scalar quantity and its unit is henry (H).


Unit conversion :

1 H 1 Wb A 1 1 T m 2 A 1

The value of the self-inductance depends on


the size and shape of the coil,

the number of turn (N),

the permeability of the medium in the coil ().


A circuit element which possesses mainly self-inductance is
known as an inductor. It is used to store energy in the form of
magnetic field.
The symbol of inductor in the electrical circuit is shown in Figure
7.19.

Figure 7.19
59

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.3.3 Self-inductance of a solenoid

The magnetic flux density at the centre of the air-core


solenoid is given by NI

The magnetic flux passing through each turn of the solenoid


always maximum and is given by

BA cos 0
0 NI

A
l

0 NIA
l

Therefore the self-inductance of the solenoid is given by

N
L
I

N 0 NIA
L

I l

0 N 2 A
l

(7.17)
60

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.11 :
A 500 turns of solenoid is 8.0 cm long. When the current in the
solenoid is increased from 0 to 2.5 A in 0.35 s, the magnitude of the
induced emf is 0.012 V. Calculate
a. the inductance of the solenoid,
b. the cross-sectional area of the solenoid,
c. the final magnetic flux linkage through the solenoid.
(Given 0 = 4 107 H m1)
Solution : N 500 turns; l 8.0 10 2 m; I i 0; I f 2.5 A;

dt 0.35 s; 0.012 V

a. The change in the current is

dI I f I i

dI 2.5 0
dI 2.5 A

Therefore the inductance of the solenoid is given by

dI
L
dt

2.5
0.012 L

0.35

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
500 turns; l 8.0 10 2 m; I i 0; I f 2.5 A;
dt 0.35 s; 0.012 V

Solution : N

b. By using the equation of self-inductance for the solenoid, thus

0 N 2 A

l
2
7

4 10 500 A
3
1.68 10
8.0 10 2

c. The final magnetic flux linkage is given by

L f

LI f

1.68 10 3 2.5
62

www.kms.matrik.edu.my/physics

PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
Learning Outcome:
20.4

Mutual inductance (2 hours)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define mutual inductance.

Use mutual inductance of two coaxial coils,

N 212 0 N1 N 2 A
M 12

I1
l

Explain the working principle of transformer.

63

PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
20.4 Mutual inductance
20.4.1 Mutual induction

Consider two circular closepacked coils near each


other and sharing a common
central axis as shown in
Figure 7.20.

A current I1 flows in coil 1,


produced by the battery in
the external circuit.

The current I1 produces a


magnetic field lines inside
it and this field lines also
pass through coil 2 as
shown in Figure 7.20.

B1

B1

I1
Coil 1

Coil 2

Figure 7.2064

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

If the current I1 changes with time, the magnetic flux through


coils 1 and 2 will change with time simultaneously.

Due to the change of magnetic flux through coil 2, an emf is


induced in coil 2. This is in accordance to the Faradays law
of induction.

In other words, a change of current in one coil leads to the


production of an induced emf in a second coil which is
magnetically linked to the first coil.
This process is known as mutual induction.
Mutual induction is defined as the process of producing an
induced emf in one coil due to the change of current in
another coil.
At the same time, the self-induction occurs in coil 1 since the
magnetic flux through it changes.

65

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.4.2 Mutual inductance, M

From the Figure 7.20, consider the coils 1 and 2 have N1 and
N2 turns respectively.

If the current I1 in coil 1 changes, the magnetic flux through coil


2 will change with time and an induced emf will occur in coil 2,
2 where
dI1

dt

dI1
2 M 12
dt

If vice versa, the induced emf in coil 1, 1 is given by

dI2
1 M 21
dt

(7.21)

(7.22)

where M 12 M 21 M: Mutual inductance


66
It is a scalar quantity and its unit is henry (H).

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Mutual inductance is defined as the ratio of induced emf in a


coil to the rate of change of current in another coil.
From the Faradays law for the coil 2, thus

d 2
2 N2
dt
dI1
d 2
M 12
N2
dt
dt
M12 dI1 N 2 d 2

M 12 I1 N 2 2
N 2 2
M 12
I1
and

N11
M 21
I2

magnetic flux linkage magnetic flux linkage


through coil 1
through coil 2

N 2 2 N11
M

I1
I2

(7.23)
67

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.4.3 Mutual inductance for two solenoids


Consider a long solenoid with length l and cross sectional area
A is closely wound with N1 turns of wire. A coil with N2 turns
surrounds it at its centre as shown in Figure 7.21.

A
N1

N2

N1: primary coil


I1

I1

N2: secondary coil

l
Figure 7.21

When a current I1 flows in the primary coil (N1), it produces a


magnetic field B1,
0 N1I1

B1

68

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

and then the magnetic flux 1,

1 B1 A cos 0

0 N1I1 A

If no magnetic flux leakage, thus

1 2

If the current I1 changes, an emf is induced in the secondary


coils, therefore the mutual inductance occurs and is given by

N 2 2
M 12
I1
N 2 0 N1I1 A

M 12
l
I1

M 12 M

0 N1 N 2 A

(7.24)

l
69

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.12 :
A current of 3.0 A flows in coil C and is produced a magnetic flux
of 0.75 Wb in it. When a coil D is moved near to coil C coaxially, a
flux of 0.25 Wb is produced in coil D. If coil C has 1000 turns and
coil D has 5000 turns.
a. Calculate self-inductance of coil C and the energy stored in C
before D is moved near to it.
b. Calculate the mutual inductance of the coils.
c. If the current in C decreasing uniformly from 3.0 A to zero in
0.25 s, calculate the induced emf in coil D.

3.0 A; C 0.75 Wb; D 0.25 Wb;


N C 1000 turns; N D 5000 turns

Solution : I C

a. The self-inductance of coil C is given by

N C C
LC
IC

LC

1000 0.75

3.0

70

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
I C 3.0 A; C 0.75 Wb; D 0.25 Wb;
N C 1000 turns; N D 5000 turns

Solution :

a. and the energy stored in C is

1
2
U C LC I C
2
1
2
250 3.0
2
b. The mutual inductance of the coils is given by

N D D
M
IC

5000 0.25

3.0

71

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20
I C 3.0 A; C 0.75 Wb; D 0.25 Wb;
N C 1000 turns; N D 5000 turns

Solution :

c. Given dt 0.25 s; dI C 0 3.0


The induced emf in coil D is given by

3.0 A

dIC
D M
dt

3.0
417
0.25

72

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.4.4 Transformer

is an electrical instrument to increase or decrease the emf


(voltage) of an alternating current.
Consider a structure of the transformer as shown in Figure 7.22.
laminated iron core

alternating
voltage source
primary coil

NP

NS

turns turns

secondary coil

Figure 7.22

If NP > NS the transformer is a step-down transformer.

If NP < NS the transformer is a step-up transformer.

73

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

The symbol of transformer in the electrical circuit is shown in


Figure 7.23.

Figure 7.23
Working principle of transformer
When an alternating voltage source is applied to the primary
coil, the alternating current produces an alternating magnetic
flux concentrated in the iron core.
Without no magnetic flux leakage from the iron core, the same
changing magnetic flux passes through the secondary coil and
inducing an alternating emf.
After that the induced current is produced in the secondary coil.
74

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

The characteristics of an ideal transformer are:


Zero resistance of primary coil.
No magnetic flux leakage from the iron core.
No dissipation of energy and power.
Formula of transformer
According to the mutual inductance, the induced emf in the
primary and secondary coils are given by

and

d P
P NP
dt
d S
S NS
dt

(7.25)

(7.26)

For an ideal transformer, there is no flux leakage thus

d P d S

dt
dt
75

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

By dividing eqs. (7.25) and (7.26), hence

d P
NP
P
dt

S N d S
S
dt

There is no dissipation of power for the ideal transformer,


therefore
P P where P : power of primary
P

I P P I S S
P IS

S IP

P NP

S NS
P

PS : power of secondary

In general,

P VP N P I S

S VS NS I P

(7.27)
76

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Energy losses in transformer


Although transformers are very efficient devices, small energy
losses do occur in them owing to four main causes:
Resistance of coils
The wire used for the primary and secondary coils has
resistance and so ordinary (I2Rt) heat losses occur.
Overcome : The transformer coils are made of thick
copper wire.
Hysteresis
The magnetization of the core is repeatedly reversed by
the alternating magnetic field. The resulting expenditure
of energy in the core appears as heat.
Overcome : By using a magnetic material (such as
Mumetal) which has a low hysteresis loss.
Flux leakage
The flux due to the primary may not all link the secondary.
Some of the flux loss in the air.
Overcome : By designing one of the insulated coils is
wound directly on top of the other rather than having two
separate coils.
77

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.13 :
In an alternating current (ac) transformer in which the primary and
secondary windings are perfectly coupled, there is no current flows
in the primary when there is no load in the secondary. When the
secondary is connected to resistors, a current of 5 A is observed to
flow in the primary under an applied voltage of 100 V. If the primary
contains 100 turns and the secondary 25000 turns, calculate
a. the voltage,
b. the current in the secondary.
Solution : I P 5 A; VP 100 V; N P 100 turns;

NS 25000 turns

a. By applying the formula of transformer,

VP N P

VS N S

100
100

VS 25000
78

PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 20
I P 5 A; VP 100 V; NP 100 turns;
NS 25000 turns

b. The current in the secondary coil is given by

NP

NS
100

25000

IS
IP
IS
5

79

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Exercise 20.2 :
1.

The primary coil of a solenoid of radius 2.0 cm has 500 turns


and length of 24 cm. If the secondary coil with 80 turns
surrounds the primary coil at its centre, calculate
a. the mutual inductance of the coils
b. the magnitude of induced emf in the secondary coil if the
current in primary coil changes at the rate 4.8 A s1.
ANS. : 2.63102 H; 0.126 V
2. A transformer, assumed to be 100% efficient, is used with a
supply voltage of 120 V. The primary winding has 50 turns.
The required output voltage is 3000 V. The output power is
200 W.
a. Name this type of transformer.
b. Calculate the number of turns in the secondary winding.
c. Calculate the current supplied to the primary winding
ANS. : 1250 turns; 1.67 A
80

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

3.

A transformer with a 100 turns primary coil and a 500 turns


secondary coil is connected to a supply voltage of 2.0 V.
Calculate the output voltage and the maximum current in
secondary coil if the current in primary coil is to be limited to
0.10 A.
ANS. : 10 V; 0.020 A

81

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PHYSICS
CHAPTER 20
Learning Outcome:
20.5

Energy stored in an inductor ( hour)

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Derive and use the energy stored in an inductor,

1 2
U LI
2

82

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

20.5 Energy stored in an inductor

Consider an inductor of inductance L. Suppose that at time t,


the current in the inductor is in the process of building up to its
steady value I at a rate dI/dt.
The magnitude of the back emf is given by

dI
L
dt

The electrical power P in overcoming the back emf in the circuit


is given by
P I

dI
P LI
dt
Pdt LIdI and Pdt dU
(7.18)
dU LIdI

83

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

The total energy stored in the inductor, U as the current


increases from 0 to I can be found by integrating the eq. (7.18).
I
Thus U

dU L IdI
0

1 2
U LI
2

(7.19)

and analogous to

1
U CV 2
2

in capacitor

For a long air-core solenoid, the self-inductance is

0 N 2 A
l

Therefore the energy stored in the solenoid is given by

1 2
U LI
2

1 0 N 2 AI 2
U
2
l

(7.20)
84

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Example 20.14 :
A solenoid of length 25 cm with an air-core consists of 100 turns
and diameter of 2.7 cm. Calculate
a. the self-inductance of the solenoid, and
b. the energy stored in the solenoid,
if the current flows in it is 1.6 A.
(Given 0 = 4 107 H m1)
Solution : N 100 turns; l 25 102 m; d 2.7 102 m
a. The cross-sectional area of the solenoid is given by

2.7 10
4

2 2

5.73 104 m 2

Hence the self-inductance of the solenoid is

0 N 2 A
l

4 10 100 5.73 10
L
7

25 10 2

85

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Solution : N 100 turns; l 25 102 m; d 2.7 102 m


b. Given I 1.6 A
By applying the equation of energy stored in the inductor, thus

1 2
U LI
2
1
2
5
2.88 10 1.6
2

86

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Exercise 20.3 :
Given 0 = 4 107 H m1
1. An emf of 24.0 mV is induced in a 500 turns coil at an instant
when the current is 4.00 A and is changing at the rate of
10.0 A s-1. Determine the magnetic flux through each turn of
the coil.
(Physics for scientists and engineers,6th edition,Serway&Jewett,
Q6, p.1025)

ANS. : 1.92105 Wb
2. A 40.0 mA current is carried by a uniformly wound air-core
solenoid with 450 turns, a 15.0 mm diameter and 12.0 cm
length. Calculate
a. the magnetic field inside the solenoid,
b. the magnetic flux through each turn,
c. the inductance of the solenoid.
ANS. : 1.88104 T; 3.33108 Wb; 3.75104 H
87

PHYSICS
3.

CHAPTER 20

A current of 1.5 A flows in an air-core solenoid of 1 cm radius


and 100 turns per cm. Calculate
a. the self-inductance per unit length of the solenoid.
b. the energy stored per unit length of the solenoid.
ANS. : 0.039 H m1; 4.4102 J m1
4. At the instant when the current in an inductor is increasing at
a rate of 0.0640 A s1, the magnitude of the back emf is
0.016 V.
a. Calculate the inductance of the inductor.
b. If the inductor is a solenoid with 400 turns and the current
flows in it is 0.720 A, determine
i. the magnetic flux through each turn,
ii. the energy stored in the solenoid.
ANS. : 0.250 H; 4.5104 Wb; 6.48102 J
5. At a particular instant the electrical power supplied to a
300 mH inductor is 20 W and the current is 3.5 A. Determine
the rate at which the current is changing at that instant.
88
ANS. : 19 A s1

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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 20

Next Chapter
CHAPTER 21 :
Alternating current

89