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Masonry Design Guide

BOOK

New South Wales

Structural, Fire and Acoustic

Updated May 2008

PAGE

A2
PAGE

PAGE

BOOK

Introduction
Contents

Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2

Products @ a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4

Fast Find Product and Application Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A3

About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6

A
B

Introduction

Structural Design

Introduction to the Structural Design of Masonry . . . . . . . . B2

Energy Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B7

Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B2

Reinforced Masonry Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B9

Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B5

Design of Core Filled and Steel Reinforced


Masonry Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B10

Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B5
Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B6

Structural Design Guidelines for


Core Filled and Steel Reinforced
Masonry Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B12

Durability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B6
Movement (Control Joints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B6

Fire Design

Masonry Design for Fire Resistance (FRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2

Effect of Chases on Fire Rated Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4

Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL . . . . . . . . . . . C2

How to Select Boral Masonry Units for


Fire Rated Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C5

Masonry Design for Integrity FRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3


Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs and Tables . . . . . . . . C8
Masonry Design for Insulation FRL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4
Index to Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs . . . . . . . . . . C8

Acoustic Design

Acoustic Performance Ratings (STC and Rw) . . . . . . . . . . . . D2

Guidelines for Optimum Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D4

Designing Masonry Walls for


Acoustic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D3

Acoustic Performance On-site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D5


Home Cinema Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D6

Fire and Acoustic Systems

Finding Acoustic Systems and


Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E2

Basalt-Concrete Bricks (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E12


Standard Grey Block and Designer Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E16

FireBrick (F) Scoria Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E4


Acousticell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E18
FireBlock - Scoria Blend Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E7
FireLight Bricks (FL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E9

The information presented herein is supplied in good faith and to the best of our knowledge was accurate at the time of preparation. No responsibility can be accepted by
Boral or its staff for any errors or omissions. Users are advised to make their own determination as to the suitability of this information in relation to their particular purpose
and specific circumstances. Since the information contained in this document may be applied under conditions beyond our control, no responsibility can be accepted by us
for any loss or damage caused by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of this information.

PAGE

BOOK

Introduction
Fast Find Guide

A3

NLB = Non-loadbearing
LB = Loadbearing

W
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Fa
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FI
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A

BORAL
MASONRY
BLOCK &
BRICK
PRODUCTS

ry

The quickest way to find a Boral Masonry Structural, Fire or Acoustic Wall Solution.
Simply follow the FAST FIND GUIDE on the right hand side of the table.

NLB LB NLB LB NLB LB NLB LB NLB LB

FireBrick (F) Scoria Blend

E4

E4

E4

Scoria Blend Blocks

E7

E7

E7

FireLight Bricks (FL)

E9
x

E9
x

E9
x

E21

E21

Acousticell

Fast Find
a Boral
Solution
1

2
Basalt-Concrete (B)
Designer Block
Standard Grey Block
Core Filled Block

E19 E19
y y

E12 E12 E12 E12 E12 E12

E19 E19 E19 E19 E19 E19

E19 E19
y y

E19 E19 E19 E19 E19 E19 E19 E19 E19 E19

x
y

For technical support and sales office details please refer to the outside back cover

Select your application


criteria from the top of
the table

Go straight to the section


letter and page number
indicated at the
intersection of product
rows and application
columns (e.g. Section E,
Page E12 in this example)
Best performance is achieved
with plasterboard lining
Please refer to MDG Book 2, Boral
Masonry Block & Brick Guide

PAGE

BOOK

Products @ a Glance

A4

Boral Engineered Blocks


for Structural, Fire & Acoustic Wall Systems

Standard Grey and Designer Block


Hollow Concrete Block suitable for loadbearing
and non-loadbearing applications. 60 minute
insulation FRL as hollow blockwork. Higher FRLs
are achieved when reinforced and core-filled.

Scoria Blend High Fire Rated Block


Manufactured in a unique Scoria Blend material
offering Fire Resistance Levels (FRLs) to 240
minutes without core-filling. Ideal for high rise
buildings with reinforced concrete frames or
portal frame buildings. Suitable for nonloadbearing walls. If used for light load
construction, the lower slenderness ratios of
Designer Block apply.

Core Fill Block


Grey Concrete Block or Designer Block coloured
and textured finishes for reinforced retaining
walls and loadbearing walls requiring increased
robustness.

Acousticell
Engineered block for premium sound absorption
and attenuation of low frequency industrial and
commercial noise.

PAGE

BOOK

Introduction
Products @ a Glance

A5

Boral Engineered Bricks


for Structural, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems

Basalt-Concrete Brick (B)


Standard Size, Brick-and-a-Half (119mm high) and Double
(162mm high) in Concrete-Basalt material for good fire
performance and loadbearing characteristics.

FireLight Brick (FL)


FireLight Brick for non-loadbearing fire and/or
acoustic systems (high rise) where weight
saving is important. Double Brick format
(162mm height) for faster, more cost effective
construction.

FireBrick (F)
Medium weight Scoria Brick for non-loadbearing
fire and/or acoustic systems. Double Brick
format (162mm height) for faster, more cost
effective construction.

PAGE

BOOK

About This Guide

A6

Boral Masonry
Commercial Construction Solutions

Whats in this Guide

This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive Boral


Product Reference Guide. It does not attempt to cover all the
requirements of the Codes and Standards which apply to
masonry construction for structural, fire or acoustic
applications. All structural, fire and acoustic detailing should
be checked and approved by appropriately qualified engineers
before construction. Boral reserves the right to change the
contents of this guide without notice.

The Boral Masonry Structural, Fire & Acoustic guide


provides a summary of important design information for
structural, fire and acoustic masonry applications and an
extensive range of fire and acoustic systems.

Please note that this guide is based on products available at


the time of publication from the Boral Masonry New South
Wales sales region. Different products and specifications may
apply to Boral products sourced from other regions.

Section B Structural Design

Additional Assistance & Information

Section B discusses design issues relevant to the selection


of Boral Masonry products for structural adequacy, based on
appropriate wall design criteria.

Contact Details: Please refer to the outside back cover of


this publication for Boral Masonry contact details.

Boral Masonry NSW offers a comprehensive range of proven


products and systems including Masonry Blocks, Masonry
Bricks, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems, Segmental Block
Retaining Walls and Segmental Paving Products.

Section C Fire Design


Section C discusses the relevant design processes for the
selection of Boral Masonry Products for fire rated applications.
This section includes a step-by-step selection guide and a
series of tables and graphs which can greatly speed up the
preliminary selection and comparison of suitable designs
and products.

Section D Acoustic Design


Section D provides a brief overview of acoustic rating methods,
relevant considerations for acoustic design and guidelines
for good acoustic design and detailing methods.

Section E Fire & Acoustic Systems


Section E of this guide provides an extensive range of fire
and acoustic wall system solutions supported by test results
and acoustic performance estimates.

Colour and Texture Variation: The supply of raw


materials can vary over time. In addition, variation can
occur between product types and production batches. Also
please recognise the printed colours in this brochure are
only a guide. Please, always ask to see a sample of your
colour/texture choice before specifying or ordering.
Terms and Conditions of Sale: For a full set of Terms
and Conditions of Sale please contact your nearest Boral
Masonry sales office.

Masonry Design Guide

BOOK

New South Wales

1B

SECTION

STRUCTURAL, FIRE & ACOUSTIC

Structural Design

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B2

Introduction to the Structural


Design of Masonry
The following design information is based on Australian
Standard AS3700:2001 Masonry structures. Reference to
Clauses and Formulae are those used in AS3700. This
information is provided as a guide only to the processes
involved in designing masonry. All masonry should be
designed by a suitably qualified structural engineer.

Legend to Symbols used in Robustness Calculations:


H

tr

Robustness

for a member without top horizontal support, the


overall height from the bottom lateral support, in
metres

the minimum thickness of the member, in metres

in cavity-wall construction, the minimum thickness


of the thicker leaf

or in diaphragm wall construction, the overall


thickness of the wall, in metres
=

a thickness coefficient, values as given in AS3700


Table 7.2 (see the end of this section)

Cv,Ch =

robustness coefficient, values as given in AS3700


Table 4.2 (see end of this section) for edge restraints
at top, bottom and vertical sides (either separately
or in combination)

the clear length of the wall between vertical lateral


supports, in metres; or

for a wall without a vertical support at one end or


at a control joint or for walls containing openings,
the length to that unsupported end or control joint
or edge of opening, in metres.

kt

The following section is laid out with AS3700 formulae and


explanation in the left hand column, while worked examples
can be found in the adjacent right hand column.

the clear height of a member between horizontal


lateral supports, in metres;

or two thirds the sum or thicknesses of the two leaves,


whichever is greater, in metres

AS3700, Clause 4.6.1 requires walls to have an adequate


degree of Robustness. Robustness is a minimum design
requirement, and may be overridden by Fire, Wind, Snow,
Earthquake, Live and Dead Load requirements.
In robustness calculations, there are height, length, and panel
action formulae. By reworking the standard formulae provided
and inserting known data, it is possible to determine whether
a chosen design and Boral masonry product will provide
adequate robustness. Should the initial product selected not
provide a suitable solution, then a thicker Boral masonry
product more suited to the application should be evaluated,
or alternatively, add extra restraints or reinforcement.

Lr

Formulae and Explanation

Worked Examples

Isolated Piers

Aim:

Formula 4.6.2 (1) is used for isolated piers. Masonry with


a length less than one fifth of its height and free ends,
is considered to be an isolated pier.
Formula (1) is:

H
tr

Cv

By re-working formula (1), the maximum height for an


isolated pier can be determined:
H tr x Cv

To determine the Maximum Wall


Height of an Isolated Pier

H 0.23 x 13.5
H 3.105m (maximum wall height)
Example 2: Minimum wall thickness, tr = 140mm
A single leaf structure, reinforced, then
Cv = 30
H 0.14 x 30
H 4.200m (maximum wall height)

Formulae and Explanation

Worked Examples

Wall with Free Ends

Aim:

Formula 4.6.2 (2) is used for walls spanning vertically


(i.e. wall with free ends).

Criteria:

H
Cv
kt x tr

By re-working formula (2), the maximum wall height is:


H kt x tr x Cv.
Where kt is obtained from AS3700 Table 7.2 (Refer to Page
B5)
or
By re-working formula (2), the minimum wall thickness
is:
kt x tr

H
Cv

B3

Example 1: Minimum wall thickness tr = 230mm


A single leaf structure, unreinforced, then
Cv = 13.5

Where Cv is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2 (Refer to


Page B5).

Formula (2) is:

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

To determine the Maximum Height of


a Wall with Free Ends
Minimum wall thickness, tr = 110mm
kt = 1 (wall without piers)

Example 1: If wall is freestanding, then Cv=6


(must be checked by an engineer for
wind loads etc.)
H 1.0 x 0.11 x 6
H 0.660m
Example 2: If wall is laterally restrained along its top,
then Cv=27
H 1.0 x 0.11 x 27
H 2.970m
Example 3: If wall is laterally restrained along its top
and supports a slab, then Cv=36
H 1.0 x 0.11 x 36
H 3.960m

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B4

Formulae and Explanation

Worked Examples

Wall with Restraint at End or Ends

Aim:

Formula 4.6.2 (3) is for walls spanning horizontally [i.e.


restrained end(s)]. Walls that have one or both ends
laterally restrained and
L
Ch
tr

To determine the Maximum Length


of a Wall with Restraint at End or
Ends

Criteria:

Wall thickness tr = 110mm

Example 1: If wall is restrained along one end, then


Ch = 12

i.e. L tr x Ch
Where Ch is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2. (Refer to
Page B5)
H
tr

L 0.11 x 12
L 1.320m
Example 2: If wall is restrained along both ends, then
Ch = 36

NOTE: This means that although the wall height is not


limited by its thickness, the wall length is limited. Stair
wells and chimneys work to this formula.

L 0.11 x 36
L 3.960m
NOTE: If the wall exceeds the permitted length, then a
thicker wall is required or formula 4.6.2 (4) governs and
H will be limited. (See below).

Formulae and Explanation

Worked Examples

Wall with Restraint at Top and End or Ends

Aim:

Formula 4.6.2 (4) is for walls spanning vertically and


horizontally (i.e. with restraint along the top and one or
two ends) and length L > tr x Ch.

To determine the Maximum Height of


a Wall with Restraint at Top and End
or Ends

Criteria:

Wall thickness tr = 110mm


Wall length = 2m

= no limit

Where Ch is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2. (Refer to


Page B5)
Formula (4) is:

tr

Cv +

Ch
Lr Chtr

By re-working formula (4), the maximum wall height is:


H

( C + L C C t ) t
v

hr

NOTE: Control joints, and openings greater than one fifth


of wall height are treated as free ends unless specific
measures are taken to provide adequate lateral support.

Example 1: If wall supports a slab, then Cv = 36, and


if restrained along one end, then Ch = 12
H

( 36 + 2 1212x 0.11 ) 0.11

H 5.9m

Table B1 (Extract from AS3700 : Table 4.2)


Cv
Top and bottom edge
restraints to wall panels

Vertically
unreinforced

Vertically reinforced
or prestressed

12 with
reinforcement
continuous into
support. Otherwise
6.

Free

SUPPORT

Load other than


concrete slab or no load
Lateral
Support

27

36

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B5

Strength
Compressive strength is resistance to load, measured by the
amount of pressure to crush a masonry unit. The pressure,
usually measured in megapascals (MPa), is the force in
kilonewtons (kN) x 1000, divided by the loaded area in square
mm.
Unconfined compressive strength is compressive strength,
multiplied by an aspect ratio, Ka. (Details are in AS4456.4,
Table 1). The unit height divided by its thickness is used to
determine the aspect ratio.

SUPPORT

48

A solid brick will give a lower compressive strength if crushed


on its end rather than on its flat, as normally laid. In theory,
the aspect ratio will convert both tests to the same unconfined
compressive strength.

30

The strength of hollow blocks is calculated by dividing the


force by the face shells only. A 90mm hollow and 90mm solid
block are both 10MPa, but since the area of the face shells
on the hollow block is about half the area of the solid block,
the hollow will only carry half the load of the solid.

Concrete Slab
Lateral
Support

36
SUPPORT

ISOLATED PIERS
Lateral
Support

13.5
SUPPORT

Ch
Horizontally
unreinforced

Horizontally
reinforced or
prestressed

12

24 with
reinforcement
continuous past
support.
Otherwise 16

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Edge restraints on
vertical sides of
wall panels

36

48

Table B2 (Extract from AS3700 : Table 7.2)


Thickness Coefficient (kt) for Walls Stiffened by
Monolithically Engaged Piers
Pier Spacing/Pier Width

Thickness Coefficient (kt)

(Refer to Note 1)

Pier Thickness Ratio (twp/t)


1
2
3
1.0
1.4
2.0
1.0
1.3
1.7
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.0

6
8
10
15
20 or more

NOTES: 1. Pier spacing is taken as the distance between centrelines of piers.


2. Linear interpolation may be used.
twp

t
Wall Leaf

Pier Width
Pier Spacing

Characteristic Unconfined Compressive Strength of


masonry UNITS is uc.
uc is the average of crushing forces divided by loaded areas,
multiplied by the aspect ratio, minus the standard deviation
x 1.65.
Characteristic Compressive Strength of a masonry
WALL is m.
m is the square root of uc, multiplied by Km (a mortar
strength factor), multiplied by Kh (a factor for the amount of
mortar joints) as per AS3700, 3.3.2.
The Km factor is 1.4 for M3 mortar on solid and cored units
and is 1.6 for the face shells of hollow units. For the richer
M4 mortar it is 1.5. (Details are in AS3700, Table 3.1).
The Kh factor is 1 for 76mm high units with 10mm mortar
beds and is 1.3 for 190mm units with 10mm mortar beds.
In other words, a wall of 190mm high units is 30% stronger
than a wall of 76mm high units of the same uc.

Bending
Characteristic Flexural Tensile Strength is mt.
Masonry is good in compression but poor in tension. Mortar
joint strength is generally zero or 0.2MPa for loads from wind,
earthquake etc. Higher bending forces may require masonry
to be partially reinforced.

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B6

Shear
Characteristic Shear Strength is ms.
At damp course, it is zero unless tested. Elsewhere, mortar
joints have ms values of between 0.15 and 0.35MPa.
As with tension, high shear loads may require partially
reinforced masonry.

Durability
Masonry designed for Durability is deemed to satisfy when
it meets the requirements of AS3700 Section 5, which details
what areas require Exposure, General Purpose and Protected
grades. Assessment of these grades is defined in
AS/NZS4456.10 Resistance to Salt Attack.
AS3700 defines the usage of each of these grades as:
Protected Grade (PRO)
Elements above the damp-proof course in non-marine exterior
environments. Elements above the damp-proof course in other
exterior environments, with a waterproof coating, properly
flashed junctions with other building elements and a top
covering (roof or coping) protecting the masonry.
General Purpose Grade (GP)
Suitable for use in an external wall excluding severe marine
environment.
Exposure Grade (EXP)
Suitable for use in external walls exposed to severe marine
environments, i.e. up to 100m from a surf coast or up to 1km
from a non surf coast. The distances are specified from mean
high water mark.
Mortar mix requirements for durability are detailed in AS3700
Table 10.1. Mortar joints must be ironed.
Salt attack is the most common durability problem. The salt
in salt water is in solution. It can be absorbed into masonry
or at least, its mortar joints. When the water evaporates, it
migrates towards the outside face taking the salt with it until
the amount of water left is saturated. It can no longer hold all the
salt in solution and salt crystals begin to form.
The salt crystals then take up space, sometimes more than
the texture of the masonry will allow. The crystal then pops
a piece of the outer surface off to make room and salt attack
begins.
Walls below damp course also require greater durability.

Even if they are well away from the coast, they may be subjected
to acidic or alkaline soils. In any case, moisture in the ground
is absorbed into the masonry, creating an environment ideal
for bacteria, which feeds lichens and algae which can
eventually be detrimental.
AS/NZS4456.10 gives methods of testing and definitions for
durability (salt tests). An alternative to testing is a history of
survival in a marine environment. Concrete masonry has been
used for Surf Club construction around Australia for decades.

Movement
In general, concrete units contract as they cure while clay units
will expand. They both expand as they take up water and
contract as they dry. They both expand as they get hot and
contract as they cool.

Curing Movement in Concrete Units


AS/NZS4456.12 gives methods for determining coefficients
of curing contraction and coefficients of drying contraction
for concrete units.
Drying Contraction
The drying contraction test on masonry units is an indication of
their maximum amount of movement from totally saturated to
ambient dry. A typical result is 0.5mm/m but can be as high as
1mm/m for lightweight units that are more absorptive. For
example, a drying contraction of 0.5mm/m, in an 8m panel of
masonry, has the potential to shrink 4mm from saturated
condition to dry.

External Control Joints


AS3700, Clause 4.8 requires control joint spacing to limit
panel movement to: 10mm maximum for opening of control joints,
15mm maximum for closing of control joints, and
5mm minimum when closed.
The Australian Masonry Manual recommends control joints
at 8m centres for concrete units, 6m centres for lightweight
(<1600kg/m3) units and at potential points of cracking such
as at openings and at steps in the masonry.
The Concrete MasonryAssociation of Australia Design Manual
MA40 permits 16m spacing for bond beams and for panels
with horizontal and vertical reinforcement.
Spacing should be measured around corners, not from corners.
Ideally, the control joint is located near the corner, concealed
behind a down pipe.

External control joints should be finished with a flexible


sealant.
Control joints create a free end in terms of robustness and
FRLs for structural adequacy, so their positioning is critical
to the overall design of the structure.
In portal frame construction, the control joint is positioned
at a column so that both ends can be tied to the column
flanges. The mason and renderer must keep the control joint
clean, otherwise, bridging mortar or render will induce cracks
from those points as the masonry moves. If ties are used over
control joints, they must be sleeved to allow movement.
Adding extra cement to mortar or render causes more
shrinkage. Lightweight units are only 5MPa, so are susceptible
to cracking if laid in rich mortar or rendered with a cementrich mix.

Internal Control Joints


The Australian Masonry Manual specifies the spacing of
internal control joints for concrete units at 12m maximum.

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B7

Energy Efficiency for Class 2,


3 & 4 buildings in ACT
The Building Code of Australia (BCA) 2005,Volume 1, requires
the walls of Canberra home units, hotels and similar dwellings
to have:Total R-Value rating of 1.9 (Climate Zone 7) or
Wall mass > 220kg/m2 and include insulation with an
R value not less than 1.
Total R-Value means the sum of thermal resistances
(m 2.K/W) of wall components including air spaces and
associated surface resistances.
In BCA Specification J1.5 Wall Construction, options (a) (b)
& (c) for concrete masonry give their Total R-values without
insulation.
The R-value of the insulation needed to make up the required
Total R-value for masonry veneer in Zone 7 is R1.5. Masonry
minimum thickness is 90mm. The insulation is usually placed
between the studs.
Alternative verification can be achieved through a 4 star
assessment for Class 2 & 4 buildings using calculations defined
in BCA Clause JV1, and for Class 3 buildings, calculating energy
consumption to meet values as per Clause JV2 or comparison
with a reference building as per Clause JV3.

Energy Efficiency for ACT Houses


In the ACT, houses are required to have a 4 star rating as
assessed by an accredited ACT House Energy Assessor or by
equivalent assessment with R1.5 insulation material in the
external walls of brick veneer construction. Cavity brick of 2
x 90mm minimum thicknesses is exempt.

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B8

NSW Energy Efficiency: Class


1, 2, 3 & 4 buildings
Class 1, 2 and 4 buildings
The Building Code of Australia (BCA) 2005,Volume 1, requires
the walls of home units in Sydney (and progressively elsewhere
in NSW) to comply with BASIX (building sustainability index),
a web-based planning tool at www.basix.nsw.gov.au

Class 3 buildings
Walls of Class 3 buildings (hostels, hotels, motels) are required
by the BCA, J1.5 to have one or a combination of the following:
Total R-Value rating of 1.4 in Climate Zone 2 & 5 (North Coast
to Sydney)
A rating of 1.7 in Climate Zone 4 & 6 (Western NSW)
A rating of 1.9 in Climate Zone 7 (Armidale & Sthn Highlands)
A rating of 2.8 in Climate Zone 8 (Thredbo)

Options for Increasing R values


The insulating properties of masonry walls may be increased
by the following means:
The addition of polyester or glasswool insulation between
studs for masonry veneer construction.
The addition of polystyrene sheets between wall ties for
cavity masonry construction.
The addition of polyester or glasswool insulation behind
plasterboard, between battens on inside face of masonry.
(Battens eliminate the need for chasing for plumbing and
electrical services).
Incorporating reflective insulation within the cavity.
Incorporating foam insulation, pumice orvermiculite within
the cores of the units or in the cavity.

or

Using masonry units with a rough surface. (This traps a


thicker air film at the surface).

Wall mass > 220kg/m2 in Climate Zone 4 & 5 and in Zone


6, 7 & 8, include insulation with an R value not less than 1
(floor system in Zone 6 to be slab on ground).

Using masonry units made from less dense material. (Tiny


air pockets within the material disrupt the flow of heat
energy through the wall).

Total R-Value means the sum of thermal resistances


(m 2.K/W) of wall components including air spaces and
associated surface resistances.

Using thicker walls.

In Specification J1.5 Wall Construction, options (a) (b) & (c)


for concrete masonry give their Total R-values without
insulation.
The R-value of the insulation needed to make up the required
Total R-value for masonry veneer is:
R1.0 in Climate Zone 2 & 5
R1.3 in Climate Zone 4 & 6
R1.5 in Climate Zone 7 and
R2.4 in Climate Zone 8.
The insulation is usually placed between the studs.
For cavity brick, these insulation R-values can be 0.3 lower
than for brick veneer. The insulation is between battens on
the inside face, under 10mm plasterboard.
Minimum masonry thickness is 90mm.
For 190mm hollow concrete blocks, partially core filled and
with a bond beam at the top, the insulation R-values can be
0.1 lower than for brick veneer.

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B9

Reinforced Masonry Lintels


Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 150 Blocks (140mm leaf)
Vertical

NOTES

Vertical

Vc = Shear capacity (kN)

Bars

Vc

Mc

Bars

Vc

Mc

N12
N16

5.1
6.3

2.6
2.6

N12
N16

12.5
13.7

9.3
16.0

Mc = Moment capacity (kNm)


Mortar type, M3
Block characteristic compressive strength,
uc = 15MPa
Grout compressive strength,
c = 20MPa

Horizontal
Bars
N12
N16

100

Vc
5.1
6.3

Mc

Cement content min. (Grout) = 300kg/m3

Cut on-site

2.0
2.9

Horizontal
300

15.12

Bars
N12
N16

70

Vc
10.2
12.6

Mc
4.0
4.7

15.12
70

Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 200 Blocks (190mm leaf)
Vertical

Vertical

Bars

Vc

Mc

Bars

N12
N16
N20

7.9
10.2
13.1

3.6
3.6
3.6

N12
N16
N20

Vc
6.4
7.6
9.1

Mc
2.9
3.6
3.6

Horizontal

Horizontal
Bars

100

N12
N16
N20

20.12

Vc
8.2
9.3
10.6

Mc
4.0
6.9
9.9

Bars
100

Vc
17.9
20.2
23.1

Mc
2.9
5.0
6.5

95

Vertical

N12
N16
N20

Vc
6.4
7.6
9.1

20.12

129 (N12 bars)


127 (N16 bars)
125 (N20 bars)

Bars

N12
N16
N20

Vertical
Mc
18.0
30.2
32.2

Bars
N12
N16
N20

Vc
16.4
17.6
19.0

20.20 or
20.01 cut
on-site

Bars
N12
N16
N20
20.12

Vc
16.4
18.6
21.3

Horizontal

300
Mc

Bars

8.0
13.4
17.2

N12
N16
N20
20.12

129 (Y12 bars)


127 (Y16 bars)
125 (Y20 bars)

9.5
16.6
24.4

20.20 or
20.01 cut
on-site
Horizontal

300

Mc

95

Vc
12.9
15.2
18.1

Mc
5.7
9.5
9.9

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B10

Design of Core Filled &


Steel Reinforced Masonry
Retaining Walls

Boundary

Introduction
Backfill

The information presented here is supplied in good faith and


to the best of our knowledge was accurate at the time of
preparation. However, from time to time, additional or modified
data may be released by the CMAA. Any such information
will supersede the information presented in this guide.
This section provides specifications, design tables and typical
details for a range of reinforced concrete masonry retaining
walls and their associated reinforced concrete bases. It is
intended as a general guide for suitably qualified and
experienced professional engineers, who for any particular
proposed retaining wall, must accept the responsibility for
carrying out a comprehensive site investigation, determining
the soil characteristics and other design parameters of the
particular site, and for designing and detailing the structures.

Ground level
Base Type 1
Foundation

Fig B1 Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 1

Boundary

It is important for the professional engineer to determine the


strength and stability of the foundation material and the
drainage system required to ensure there will not be a build
up of hydrostatic pressure behind the wall.
Backfill

All designs are based on:


Reinforced Concrete Masonry Structures AS3700 : 2001
SA Masonry Code.
Reinforced Concrete Base AS3600 : 1988 Concrete
Structures.
Reinforcement AS1302 : 1982 Steel Reinforcing Bars for
Concrete.

Ground level
Base Type 2

Concrete Blocks AS4455 : 1997 Concrete Masonry Units.

Wall Types
Design tables in this section are given for walls up to 3.4
metres high and for two base types:

Loading Conditions
These tables cover:
Sloping backfill (up to 1 in 4) without any surcharge
or

Foundation

Fig B2 Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 2

Construction
Recommendations
General

Level backfill with a 5kPa surcharge

Recommendations specifically applicable to reinforced


masonry retaining walls include:

Since typical cases only are presented, these tables may not
provide an ideal solution for a particular application.

The provision of clean-out openings in the bottom course


to permit removal of mortar droppings and other debris

and to allow vertical reinforcement to be positioned and


tied. These openings should be closed (generally done with
formwork) before grouting.

B11

Impermeable
layer sloping
to drain
Drain

The use of H blocks above the first course. These blocks


are easier to fill with grout which provides the required
continuous protection to the reinforcement. If rebated
flush-ended blocks are used in lieu of H blocks, they should
be laid with alternate courses inverted to provide grout
cover to horizontal reinforcement, which should be
supported 20mm clear of the webs of flush-ended blocks.
The forming of weepholes by leaving out mortar in the vertical
joints at the required locations. Where H blocks are used,
and weepholes are required, they may be provided by placing
25mm diameter PVC pipes through the vertical joint at the
required locations. Alternatively, flush-ended blocks may be
placed on either side of the required weephole location so
a mortar-free joint may be formed.

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

Backfill

Fig B3 Sealing Backfill Surface

Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill


The accurate positioning of reinforcement to give a
minimum of 55mm of cover to the face of the bar and its
secure tying before placing concrete or grout.
The removal of mortar dags protruding into cores before
grouting.

This can be achieved by placing free-draining gravel or crushed


stone to a width of approximately 300mm immediately behind
the wall with a continuous agricultural pipe located at the
base of the wall. The outlets of the pipe must be beyond the
ends of the wall unless the pipe is connected to a proper
stormwater drainage system.

The use,wheneveravailable, of ready-mixed grout to workability


specifications given in AS3700 should be used. Site-mixed
grout, if used, should be mixed thoroughly in a tilting-drum
mixer to the same specification as ready-mixed grout.

Vertical layer of
granular material

The filling of all cores with grout, whether reinforced or


not. This is essential to bond and protect horizontal
reinforcement, to provide a full barrier against water
penetration and to give maximum weight for stability.
The thorough compaction of the grout so voids are not left.
Compaction may be achieved with a high-frequency pencil
vibrator, used carefully. (The main vertical reinforcing bars
should not be used to compact the grout). Control joints
should be built into the masonry at all points of potential
cracking.

Backfill Drainage
It is essential that steps be taken to prevent the backfill behind
the wall from becoming saturated. These steps should include:
Sealing Backfill Surface
To prevent saturation of backfill by surface run-off, the surface
of the backfill should be sealed by covering it with a compacted
layer of low permeability material. The surface should be
sloped towards an open drain.

Continuous
agricultural pipe
drain surrounded
by free-draining
gravel or crushed
stone

To prevent clay or
silt infiltrating the
drainage system a
geofabric material
may be wrapped
around the gravel
and/or the pipe

Fig B4 Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill


Walls with Base Type 1

For higher walls, or in cases where excessive groundwater


exists, it may be necessary to provide another agricultural
pipe drain at mid-height of the wall.
Care must be taken to ensure that clay and silt do not infiltrate
the drainage material or agricultural pipe. The use of a
geofabric envelope around the gravel and/or a geofabric sock
over the pipe may assist.

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B12
Backfill

Free draining
granular material

Locate the
continuous drain
at the bottom of
the base

Free-draining
gravel or stone
Weepholes
between
blocks
Drain

Fig B5 Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill


Walls with Base Type 2
Fig B7 Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill
Walls with Base Type 1

Water Penetration

Extra
agricultural
pipe drain

If it is considered necessary to reduce the passage of


moisture through the wall, for aesthetic or other reasons
such as aggressive groundwater, the earth face of the wall
should be treated with an appropriate sealer such as waterresistant render or water-resistant paint, or by tanking with
bituminous materials.

Structural Design Guidelines


Acceptable Soil Combinations
For retaining walls founded on sand (Type A soil), the
retained material must be similar and with a friction angle
of 38 or greater, eg Type A soil clean sand or gravel.
Fig B6 Continuous Drainage for High Walls
and/or Excessive Groundwater

Weepholes
Weepholes should be provided above the finished ground
level. A drain should be provided in front of the wall to
prevent saturation of the ground.
The horizontal spacing of the weepholes depends on the
provisions made for directing water towards the holes. The
simplest, but most effective, method is to place one or two
buckets of free-draining gravel or crushed stone around the
intake end of each hole. In this case, the horizontal spacing
should not exceed 1.5 metres. If the layers of draining
material are continuous for the full length of the wall,
weephole spacing may be increased to an extent depending
on the quantity of water expected.
Note: For walls higher than 2200mm, a second row of
weepholes may be required. However, staining of the wall
could result.

For retaining walls founded on other soils, the retained


material must be a free draining material with a friction
angle of 27 or greater, eg Type A soil clean sand or gravel,
Type B soil coarse grained with silt or some clay.

55mm cover to
wall reinforcement

30mm

Clean-out
course

50mm cover to all


base reinforcement

Fig B8 Typical Set-out Detail

Sloping
backfill or
surcharge

Sloping
backfill or
surcharge

140

Vertical reinforcement:
N12 @400 cts
190

H = 2200
to 3400

450
min
lap

N12 @400
cts

Optional
capping
H = 800
to 1200

Height
of
190mm
blocks

Longitudinal
reinforcement:
N12 in
alternate
courses
commencing
from top
course. Omit
on top of
clean-out
block

K Bars

H = 1400
to 2000

290

N12 @400
cts
Height of
290mm
blocks

600
min
lap

V Bars

450
min
lap

B13

Longitudinal
reinforcement: N12 in
alternate courses
commencing from top
course. Omit on top of
clean-out block

Optional
capping
Longitudinal reinforcement:
N12 in alternate courses
commencing from top course.
Omit on top of clean-out block

Sloping backfill
or surcharge

Optional
capping

190

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

V Bars

V Bars
X Bars

X Bars

X Bars

200

250

300

400

350

550
180

N16 @400

N12 @400

N16 @400

230

330
B

Fig B9 Construction Guidelines for Reinforced & Core Filled Retaining Walls with Base Type 1

Table B3 Design Guidelines for Reinforced & Core Filled Retaining Walls with Base Type 1
Wall Height
Total
Height
(mm)
H
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400

150
Series
800
1000
1200

Height of Blockwork
200
Series

1400
1600
1800
2000
1400
1600
1600
1800
2000
2000
2000

Reinforcement

300
Series

800
800
1000
1000
1000
1200
1400

X-Bars
and
V-Bars
N12 at 400
N12 at 400
N12 at 400
N12 at 400
N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N16 at 200
N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N20 at 400
N20 at 400
N16 at 200
N20 at 200
N20 at 200

K-Bars

N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N20 at 400
N20 at 400
N16 at 200
N16 at 200
N16 at 200

Base Dimensions
Width, B (mm)
with following backfill conditions
Level
Max 1 in 4 Slope
800
1000
1000
1200
1100
1500
1300
1700
1400
2000
1600
2200
1700
2500
1900
2800
2000
3100
2200
3300
2400
3600
2600
3900
2800
4200
2900
4500

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B14
Surcharge or
sloping backfill
(1 in 4 max.)
Surcharge or
sloping backfill
(1 in 4 max.)

Optional
capping
N16 in top course only

190
Height of
190mm
blocks

Optional
capping
Longitudinal
reinforcement
N12@400cts.
commencing from
top course. Omit on
top of clean-out
course

N12@400 cts
Longitudinal reinforcement:
N12@400

N16 in top
course only

190

Surcharge or
sloping backfill
(1 in 4 max.)
140

Longitudinal
reinforcement
N12@400 cts.
Omit on top of
clean-out course

Optional
capping

600
min.
lap

H = 2200
to 3400

Longitudinal reinforcement
2 x N12@400cts. Omit on
top of clean-out course

N12@400 cts
H = 1400
to 2000

290

N12@400 cts

H = 800
to 1200

K Bars

V Bars

Height of
290mm
blocks

V Bars

V Bars

600
min.
lap

450
min.
lap

SL72 Fabric

SL72 Fabric

250

250
D

SL72 Fabric

300
D

N16@400

N16@400

N16@400

N12@400
N12@400
W

W
B

Fig B10 Construction Guidelines for Reinforced & Core Filled Walls with Base Type 2

Table B4 Design Guidelines for Reinforced & Core Filled Walls with Base Type 2
Wall Height
Total
Height
(mm)
H
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400

Height of Blockwork
150
200
300
Series
Series
Series
800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

1400
800

1600
800

1600
1000

1800
1000

2000
1000

2000
1200

2000
1400

Reinforcement

V-Bars
N12 at 400
N12 at 400
N12 at 400
N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N16 at 200
N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N20 at 400
N20 at 400
N16 at 200
N20 at 200
N20 at 200

K-Bars

N16 at 400
N16 at 400
N20 at 400
N20 at 400
N16 at 200
N16 at 200
N16 at 200

Base Dimensions
Max. 1 in 4
Level Backfill
Sloping Backfill
Heel Width Base Width Heel Depth Base Width Heel Depth
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
W
B
D
B
D
450
600
500
800
500
450
800
500
1000
500
450
1000
500
1200
600
450
1200
500
1400
600
450
1400
600
1600
700
450
1600
700
1800
800
600
1800
700
2000
800
600
2000
800
2200
900
600
2200
900
2400
1000
900
2400
900
2600
1000
900
2600
900
2800
1100
900
2800
1000
3000
1200
900
3000
1100
3200
1300
900
3200
1200
3400
1500

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B15

190

Starter bar to match


wall reinforcement
above

Floor slab reinforcement


N12 at 200 cts

One-course bond
beam with N12 bar

20.20 knock-out block


saw-cut at floor soffit level

Series 200
blocks

2700 max.

Horizontal
reinforcement,
N12 at 400 cts

Note:
Wall blocks and
reinforcement as
for 'Typical Details'

Tanking to back face of wall


e.g. Bituminous coating

Vertical
reinforcement:
N16 @400 cts,
central

False wall

Floor slab
reinforcement

Drained cavity

200

55mm
cover

N16 @400 cts or


N12 at 200 cts

N12 @400 cts

Ag. drain

200

Ag. drain

1000

Fig B11 Typical Details


Fully Propped Wall

Fig B12 Alternative Details


Fully Propped Wall

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B16

290
190
140

190

Timber floor
Timber floor

One-course
bond beam using
20.20 knock-out block
with 1xN12 bar

Pole plate fixed


to bond beam

65mm cover to
back face
Vertical reinforcement
N16 at 400 cts, central

2700 max.
Natural
soil
Note:
Reinforcement as
for Typical Details

Series 200
blocks

Tanking to
back face
of wall

Horizontal reinforcement,
N12 at 400 cts

1200

290

65mm cover
to back face

Series 300
blocks

False wall
Clean-out
course

Natural
soil

Floor slab
reinforcement

Drained cavity

300

N12 at 400 cts

1500

N16 at 200 cts


or N20 at 400 cts

55mm cover

Fig B13 Typical Details


Unpropped or Partially Propped Wall

300

Ag. drain

Ag. drain

Fig B14 Alternative Details


Unpropped or Partially Propped Wall

NOTE: Backfill must be completed prior to construction of timber floor.

190

Note:
Retaining wall shall be propped prior to
backfilling and remain in place for a
minimum of 7 days after placing floor slab

Floor slab reinforcement


to suit site conditions
450
lap

Knock-out block
saw-cut at floor
soffit level

Vapour barrier and


sand bedding under slab

N12 at same spacing as


vertical reinforcement
N12 at same spacing as vertical
reinforcement (spacing 'S')
lapped 450 in wall and floor

Horizontal
reinforcement,
N12 at 400 cts

Free-draining gravel
Vertical
reinforcement:
N12 at spacing 'S',
centrally placed

'H' (2200 max.)


Natural soil

Ag. drain 65m


fall at 1:100 to
outlet

Use Double-U or H
blocks for
sub-floor wall
section

Bars
450 lap
Clean-out course

Starter bars,
N12 @ spacing 'S',
centrally placed

450 min.

600 min.

Note:
Footing size and
reinforcement to suit
site conditions

Fig B15 Typical Details Subfloor Retaining Walls

Vertical Reinforcement Spacing


Height H(mm)

Spacing S(mm)

1500

600

> 1500 2200

400

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B17

NOTES

PAGE

BOOK

Structural Design

B18

Masonry Design Guide

BOOK

New South Wales

1C

SECTION

STRUCTURAL, FIRE & ACOUSTIC

Fire Design

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C2

Masonry Design for


Fire Resistance

Masonry Design for


Structural Adequacy FRL

Fire Resistance Levels (FRL)

Legend for the following formulae

FRL come from the Building Code of Australias (BCA) tables


for Type A, B or C construction. The Type of construction
depends on the Class of building and the number of stories
or floors.

Srf = the slenderness ratio in design for fire resistance for


structural adequacy. See table C2 on page C7 for
maximum Srf.
avf = 0.75 if the memberis laterallysupported along its top edge.

There are 3 figures in the Fire Resistance Level.


= 2.0 if the member is not laterally supported along its
top edge.

eg: FRL 60/120/120 meaning Structural Adequacy for 60


minutes / Integrity for 120 minutes / Insulation for 120 minutes.

Structural Adequacy
This governs the wall height, length, thickness and restraints.
Masonry unit suppliers do not control the wall height, length
or restraints, therefore do not control Structural Adequacy.
However, information that is useful in the design of masonry
walls is the maximum Slenderness ratio (Srf). Boral Masonry
provides Srf information for all of its masonry units, and its
use is discussed in more detail later.

H = the clear height of a member between horizontal lateral


supports; or
= for a memberwithout top horizontal support, the overall
height from the bottom lateral support.
t

= the overall thickness of the member cross-section


perpendicular to the principal axis under consideration;
for members of cavity wall construction, the wall
thickness assessed is in accordance with AS3700
Clause 6.3.2.1(a) and (b).

Integrity
This is the resistance to the passage of flame or gas. To
provide integrity, masonry walls must be structurally
adequate because cracks that form when it bows can allow
flame through the wall. Since the masonry unit supplier does
not control Structural Adequacy, they cannot control integrity
either.

Insulation
This is resistance to the passage of heat. Insulation is governed
by the type and thickness of the material used to produce the
masonry unit. This is controlled by the masonry unit
manufacturer. In relation to FRL, masonry must always provide
Insulation to an equal or better level than is required for
Integrity.

ah = 1.0 if the member is laterally supported along both its


vertical edges.
= 2.5 if the member is laterally supported along one
vertical edge.
L

= The clear length of a wall between vertical lateral


supports; or
= for a wall without vertical support at one end or at a
control joint or forwalls containing openings, the length
to that unsupported end or control joint or edge of
opening.

NOTE: A control joint in a wall, or an edge to an opening in


a wall, shall be regarded as an unsupported edge to the wall
unless specific measures are taken to provide adequate lateral
support at the edge.
Structural Adequacy may be overridden by design for
robustness; wind; live or earthquake loads.
A fire on one side of a wall will heat that side, making it
expand and lean towards the fire. When the lean or bow
reaches half the thickness of the original wall, the wall
becomes structurally inadequate. The formulae in AS3700,
Clause 6.3.2.2 limits masonry panel size, depending on its
restraints and thickness.

The Slenderness ratio (Srf) of the proposed wall is calculated


as per Clause 6.3.2.2. If this value is less than the maximum
Srf in Table 6.1 [or the Srf calculated from Fire Tests and
Clause 6.3.3(b)(ii)], then the wall complies. If the Srf of the
wall is greater than the maximum permissible, it is
recalculated for an increased thickness and/or extra restraints.
There are 4 formulae for calculating Srf: 6.3.2.2 (1) and (2)
are the HEIGHT formulae.
FORMULA 1 and 2 is:

Srf =

avf H
t

6.3.2.2 (3) is the PANEL ACTION formula.


FORMULA 3 is:

Srf =

0.7
t

avf H ah L

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C3

For cavity walls, two thirds of the total thickness can be used
for t, provided that BOTH leaves are restrained in the same
positions (eg: external leaf stops at slab also). If the external
leaf is a veneer to the slab edge, the internal leaf must provide
the Structural Adequacy FRL on its own.
For reinforced masonry, the Srf of 36, from Table C2 on
page C7 may be used. Reinforcement can be horizontal, as
bond beams when spanning between columns. Reinforcement
can be vertical, as filled cores when spanning between slabs.
In either case, reinforcement can be spaced up to 2m apart,
depending on span. This reinforcement stiffens the masonry
and resists bowing. Reinforced walls with Srf < 36 have a 240
minute FRL for Structural Adequacy.
All calculations should be checked by an engineer. Other
loads may supersede Structural Adequacy requirements.

6.3.2.2 (4) is the LENGTH formula.


FORMULA 4 is: S = a
rf
h

L
t

The actual Srf is the lesser of the resulting figures.


Formula (1) and (2) always govern where there is no end
restraint, and often govern where walls are long, relative to
their height. Projects with multiple wall lengths (eg: home
units) can use this formula as a one size fits all method of
calculating the masonry thickness.
Formula (3) allows a wall to exceed the height given by formula
(1) and (2) provided at least one end is restrained as well as
the top.
Formula (4) governs the wall length, often where there is no
top restraint (eg: portal frame factories) and where walls are
short, relative to their height (eg: a lift well or vent shaft).
From a suppliers perspective, it is helpful to be able to calculate
the maximum height* for a given thickness (masonry unit),
eg:

H =

Srf x t
avf

and calculate the thickness from a given wall size.


t =

avf x H
Srf

where t is the OVERALL thickness, whether the units are


solid or hollow.
NOTE:* Refer to the Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs
on pages C9 to C20 for maximum height values.

Masonry Design for


Integrity FRL
It is impractical to provide test results for all possible masonry
wall designs, and therefore Integrity must be proved in some
other way. With masonry wall design, the most practical way
to prove Integrity is to prove Structural Adequacy and
Insulation equal to or better than the Integrity requirement.
(Logically, if the wall is designed to minimise bowing it will
not crack and therefore resist the passage of flame and gas
for the specified time).
This method is also the best way to prove integrity even
when a wall may not be required to comply with a structural
adequacy FRL value, such as is the case with non loadbearing
walls. eg: if the BCA requires an FRL of -/90/90, the wall has
no actual structural adequacy requirement, but to prove
integrity of 90 minutes, the wall must be structurally adequate
for 90 minutes.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C4

Masonry Design for


Insulation FRL

Effect of Chases on Fire Rated


Masonry

Insulation is the one FRL component that a masonry unit


manufacturer does control. It is governed by the type of
material and the material thickness.

Structural Adequacy FRL

Material thickness is defined in AS3700, Clause 6.5.2 as the


overall thickness for solid and grouted units and units with
cores not more than 30% of the units overall volume.
For hollow units (cores > 30%), the material thickness is the
net volume divided by the face area.
For cavity walls, t = the sum of material thicknesses in both
leaves, (not two thirds as for the Structural Adequacy FRL).

Options for Increasing FRLs


The Structural Adequacy FRL can be increased by adding
wall stiffeners, by increasing the overall thickness, by adding
reinforcement or by protecting the wall with Boral Plasterboard
FireStop board, fixed to furring channels (on both sides of
the wall if a fire rating is required from both sides).
Integrity FRLs are increased by increasing the other two FRL
values to the required Integrity FRL.
Insulation FRLs can be increased by core filling, by adding
another leaf of masonry, by rendering both sides of the wall
if the fire can come from either side. NOTE: Only ONE
thickness of render is added to the material thickness and
that must be on the cold side because the render on the
exposed face will drop off early in a fire).
Boral FireStop plasterboard on furring channels can increase
the Insulation FRL from either side. Unlike render, the Boral
FireStop and furring system does not drop off the hot side
so quickly due to the boards fire resistance, the mechanical
fixing of the board to furring and the furring to the wall.

To assess the effect of chases on Structural Adequacy FRLs,


the direction in which the wall spans must be taken into
account.
Walls spanning vertically may be chased vertically. The
horizontal chase is limited to 4 times the wall thickness.
Walls spanning vertically and horizontally may be chased
horizontally up to half the wall length. Horizontal chases
should be kept to a bare minimum. Walls spanning vertically
and horizontally may be chased vertically up to half the wall
height.
If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness
must be reduced by the depth of the recess or, in the case of
vertical chases, designed as 2 walls with unsupported ends
at the chase.
Integrity and Insulation FRLs
Maximum depth of recess is 30mm. Maximum area is
1,000mm2. Total maximum area on both sides of any 5m2 of
wall is 100,000mm2
If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness
must be reduced by the depth of the recess.

Recesses for Services


Recesses that are less than half of the masonry thickness and
are less than 10,000mm2 for both sides within any 5m2 of
the masonry, do not have an effect on fire ratings.
If these limits are exceeded, the masonry design thickness
must be reduced by the depth of the recess.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C5

How to Select Boral Masonry Units for Fire Rated Walls


All design information, table data and graphs in this guide
are derived from formulae in AS3700 : 2001 Masonry
Structures, Part 6.3 for Structural Adequacy Fire Resistance
Levels (FRL) and Part 4.6 for Robustness.

Step 1

Tables and graphs assume all walls are built on concrete


slabs or broad footings and have adequate restraints. Piers,
cavity walls, freestanding walls, earthquake, wind and other
loads are not addressed in this guide. All fire rated walls
should be designed by a suitably qualified engineer.

Example

Determine required wall FRL from the Building Code


of Australia (BCA).
The Building Code of Australia (BCA), Section C defines
the CLASS and TYPE of building and designates the
required Fire Resistant Level (FRL) in terms of three
criteria. See adjacent example.

NOTE: For masonry wall design, the FRL for any given wall
must comply with:
Structural Adequacy Integrity Insulation

eg: 120/60/60
Insulation
Integrity
Structural Adequacy

eg. If the BCA required FRL is: /120/60


Then the chosen wall design must have an
actual FRL of: 120/120/120 or better.

Refer to the section Design for Integrity on page C3 for


additional explanation.

Worked Example
A 6m high, 6m long fire rated, non-loadbearing wall in a
3 storey warehouse. BCA specifies Class 7, Type b
Construction.
BCA Section C1.1, Table 4 specifies an FRL 240/240/240.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C6

Step 2

Worked Example

Select an appropriate Boral Masonry Unit based on


the FRL Insulation Requirement.

From Table C1, the following units all achieve 240 minutes
FRL for Insulation:

The third figure in an FRL rating is the Insulation.


Table C1 provides the Insulation values for the various
Boral units.
Check the Materials Attributes (see notes below the table)
to ensure the selection is fit for its purpose.

Scoria Blend 15.401, 20.401, and 11.119F


Calcium Silicate Basalt 165S119B
Grouted Masonry (190mm) 20.42 and 20.91.
If the wall is non loadbearing, the use of Scoria Blend may
be the more cost effective.

Table C1 FRL Insulation Values for Boral Masonry Units (New South Wales)
Fire
INSULATION FRL (minutes)
Test
30
60
90
120
180
240
Material
Product Code/Type
Yes
FireBlock/FireBrick (F) Scoria Blend 10.201; 15.201; 20.201; 9.162F
Yes
FireBlock/FireBrick (F) Scoria Blend 10.331; 15.301; 20.301
Yes
FireBlock/FireBrick (F) Scoria Blend 15.401; 20.401; 11.119F
Yes
FireLight (FL)
10.01FL; 15.01 FL: 20.01FL; 9.162FL
Yes
FireLight (FL)
10.119FL; 11.162FL
d.t.s.
Basalt-Concrete (B)
15.01B
d.t.s.
+render
Basalt-Concrete (B)
10.01B; 10.31B; 20.01B; 9.162B
d.t.s.
Basalt-Concrete (B)
10.119B
d.t.s.
+render
Basalt-Concrete (B)
11.119B + other 110mm cored
d.t.s.
Calcium Silicate Basalt
M3H119B; + other 90mm
d.t.s.
Calcium Silicate Basalt
S3H119B; + other 110mm
d.t.s.
Calcium Silicate Basalt
140S119B; + other 140mm
d.t.s.
Calcium Silicate Basalt
165S119B
d.t.s.
DesignerBlockand Standard Grey Concrete 15.01.
d.t.s.
+render
DesignerBlockand Standard Grey Concrete 10.01; 10.31; 20.01
d.t.s.
+render
Grouted Masonry 140mm
15.42; 15.91
d.t.s.
Grouted Masonry 190mm
20.42; 20.91
d.t.s. deemed to satisfy. +render = 10mm render both faces
* Product Codes listed are for the Full Size Unit. Fractional size blocks in the same range have the same FRL rating.

Material Attributes (New South Wales)


Scoria Blend High Fire Rated Block uc = 4MPa.
Offers excellent Insulation and Structural AdequacyFRLs forNONLOADBEARING fire rated walls. 10% lighter than Standard Grey
units. Scoria Blend is hard,durable and suitable forpaint orrender.
Acoustic performance with plasterboard linings is excellent. Acoustic
performance with render is medium range.

for LOADBEARING walls. Acoustic performance with


plasterboard is excellent. Acoustic performance with render
is excellent.
Designer Block uc = 15MPa.
Blocks provide a 60 minute Insulation FRL. Suitable for
LOADBEARING applications.
Standard Grey Block uc = 10MPa.

FireLight (FL) uc = 3MPa


Insulation FRL of 90 to 120 minutes. High slenderness ratio
(S rf ) for Structural Adequacy FRL. Suitable for NON
LOADBEARING fire rated walls. Lightweight, 35% lighter than
Standard Grey units. Acoustic performance with plasterboard
linings is excellent.
Basalt (B) uc = 10MPa for blocks and 12MPa
for bricks
Offers excellent Srf values for Structural Adequacy FRL. Suitable

Suitable for LOADBEARING walls. 60 minute insulation FRL


as hollow blockwork.
Reinforced Grout Filled Masonry uc = 15MPa.
AS3700 allows an Srf value of 36 for reinforced masonry. This
in turn allows for the largest walls to be built using the thinnest
masonry option. Suitable for LOADBEARING applications.
Grout strength to be 20MPa. 240 minute insulation FRL as
fully grout filled blockwork.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C7

Step 3

Worked Example

Check the Structural Adequacy of the selected units.

The calculated Srf value for your wall design MUST NOT
EXCEED the value from the accompanying table.

The Slenderness ratio (Srf) of a fire rated wall is calculated


as per AS3700 : 2001, Clause 6.3.2.2, and must not exceed
the Srf values given in AS3700 or calculated from Fire Tests.
Table C2 provides the maximum Srf values for Boral masonry
units.

See following page for an explanation on using the Boral


Srf graphs to assist preliminary selection.
eg. Scoria Blend required to provide Structural Adequacy
for 240 minutes has an Srf = 24. (refer to Table C2 below).
Also refer to the previous explanation and AS3700 for Srf
calculation methods.
In this example, the 6 x 6m wall, with lateral restraint on 4
sides, 190mm thick has an S rf = 19.2. as per formula
6.3.2.2 (3).
Alternative is 20.91 with reinforcement and core filling,
however, as the wall in this example is non-loadbearing, the
Scoria Blend 20.401 is the more economical solution.

Table C2 Maximum Srf Values for Boral Masonry Units


Srf Values
Fire
FRL (minutes) for Structural Adequacy
Test
30
60
90
120
180
240
Yes
25.9
25.9
25.9
25.9
25.9
24
Yes
20.4
20.4
20.4
20.4
20.4
20.4
Yes
29
29
26.9
24.9
22.2
20.3
d.t.s.
25
22.5
21
20
18
17
d.t.s.
25
22.5
21
20
18
17
d.t.s. 19.5
18
17
16
15.5
15
d.t.s.
36
36
36
36
36
36
d.t.s.= deemed to satisfy, as per AS3700 : 2001, Table 6.1.

Material
Scoria Blend (F) FireBrick/FireBlock
Custom Scoria Blend (S)
FireLight (FL)
Basalt-Concrete (B)
Calcium Silicate-Basalt
Standard Grey and Designer Block
Reinforced & Grouted Masonry

Condition of use
Non loadbearing ONLY
Loadbg 110mm made to order
Non loadbearing ONLY
Any
Any
Any
Any

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C8

Boral Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs & Tables


To assist with the preliminary selection of Boral masonry
units for fire rated walls, a graphical selection method based
on Srf values has been developed.
The following pages provide graphs and tables for a selection
of Boral masonry units where at least one end of the wall has
lateral restraint.

IMPORTANT
The following selection graphs are based on Specific
Products manufactured at New South Wales Boral
Plants. Should these units be sourced from other plants,
the specification should be checked with the respective
supply plant.

Additional tables are provided for walls with no end restraint


and for reinforced/grout filled masonry, following these graphs.

How to Use the Boral Structural Adequacy FRL Graphs


Scoria-Blend

Worked Example
1. Select the appropriate masonry unit material.

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
240 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

2. Select the appropriate page with Structural


Adequacy for the required minutes. (240 minutes
for this example).
3. Select the appropriate graph for the chosen wall
restraint (support) criteria. (Support on both sides,
top and bottom for this example).

6
190mm
5
4

140mm

110mm
90mm

2
1
0
0

4. Plot the intersection of the Wall Height and the


Wall Length on the graph. (For this example 6m
height x 6m length).
5. The result MUST FALL BELOW the coloured line
indicated for the chosen masonry unit thickness.
In this example, the result is above the line for
140mm units but below the line for 190mm units.
Therefore 190mm units would be suitable. (140mm
units would not be suitable for this example).

Length of wall between supports (m)

Index to Structural Adequacy FRL Graphs & Tables


Product Group

FRL Minutes (Structural Adequacy)

Page

NSW Firebrick/Fireblock Scoria Blend Masonry (F)


NSW Firebrick/Fireblock Scoria Blend Masonry (F)
FireLight Brick (FL)
FireLight Brick (FL)
Basalt Concrete Masonry (B)
Basalt Concrete Masonry (B)
Calcium Silicate Basalt Masonry
Calcium Silicate Basalt Masonry
Calcium Silicate Basalt Masonry
Calcium Silicate Basalt Masonry
Standard Grey and Designer Block
Standard Grey and Designer Block
Walls Restrained at Top (Unrestrained Ends)
Reinforced Masonry Walls

60 180
240
90
120
60
90
60
90
120
180
60
90
60 240
60 240

C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C9

NSW FireBrick/FireBlock Scoria Blend Masonry (F) -

Srf = 25.9

Structural Adequacy
60 180 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

Leaf
Thickness

8
190mm

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

3
2
1
0
1

5
4
3
2

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

0
0

SUPPORT

6
190mm
5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
5

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

9
8

Laterally supported
one end top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 180 minutes FRL

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

140mm
110mm
100mm
90mm

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
60 180 minutes FRL

190mm

SUPPORT

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 180 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 60-180 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

6
5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90/100mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C10

NSW FireBrick/FireBlock Scoria Blend Masonry (F) -

Srf = 24

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

7
190mm

6
5

140mm
4
110mm
100mm
90mm

3
2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

5
4
3

1
0
0

SUPPORT

6
190mm
5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
240 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

190mm
140mm
110mm
100mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
240 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
240 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
240 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 240 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

6
5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90/100mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

FireLight Bricks (FL) -

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C11

Srf = 26.9

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

3
2
1
0
1

5
4
3

190mm

140mm
110mm
100mm
90mm

1
0
0

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

SUPPORT

190mm

5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
4

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness
190mm

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90/100mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C12
FireLight Bricks (FL) -

Srf = 24.9

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

Leaf
Thickness

190mm

6
5

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

3
2
1
0
1

6
5
4
3
190mm
2
1
0
0

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

SUPPORT

6
190mm
5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
4

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end top free

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

140mm
110mm
100mm
90mm

SUPPORT

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 120 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

6
5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90/100mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

Basalt-Concrete Masonry (B)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C13

Srf = 22.5

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free
Leaf
Thickness

6
190mm
5
140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

3
2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

5
4
3

1
0
0

SUPPORT

6
190mm
5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

6
5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C14
Basalt-Concrete Masonry (B) -

Srf = 21

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free
Leaf
Thickness

190mm
5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3

1
0
0

SUPPORT

190mm

5
4

140mm

110mm
100mm
90mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

Calcium Silicate-Basalt Masonry (Boral Calsil) -

C15
Srf = 22.5

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

5
140mm

110mm

90mm

2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3
2

0
0

SUPPORT

5
4

140mm

110mm
90mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

140mm
110mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
140mm
110mm
90mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C16

Calcium Silicate-Basalt Masonry (Boral Calsil) -

Srf = 21

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

5
4

140mm

110mm
90mm

2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3
2

0
0

SUPPORT

5
4

140mm

110mm
90mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

140mm
110mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
140mm
110mm
90mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C17

Calcium Silicate-Basalt Masonry (Boral Calsil) -

Srf = 20

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

5
4

140mm

110mm

2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3
2

0
0

SUPPORT

5
4

140mm

110mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

140mm
110mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
120 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 120 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
140mm
110mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C18

Calcium Silicate-Basalt Masonry (Boral Calsil) -

Srf = 18

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

5
4
140mm
3
110mm
2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3
2

0
0

SUPPORT

5
4
140mm
3
110mm
2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
180 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

140mm
110mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
180 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
180 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
180 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 180 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
140mm
110mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

Standard Grey and Designer Block

C19

Srf = 18.0

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

5
190mm
4
140mm
3
110mm
90mm

2
1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3
2

0
0

SUPPORT

5
190mm
4
140mm
3
110mm
90mm

2
1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
60 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C20
Standard Grey and Designer Block

Srf = 17.0

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends, top free

5
190mm

4
3

140mm

110mm
90mm

1
0
1

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end and top

4
3
2

0
0

SUPPORT

5
190mm

4
3

140mm

110mm
90mm

1
0
6

Length of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
one end, top free

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

Length of wall between supports (m)

Leaf
Thickness

190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

Leaf
Thickness

Length of wall between supports (m)

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Leaf
Thickness

Height of wall between supports (m)

Height of wall between supports (m)

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Laterally supported
both ends and top

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy
90 minutes FRL

SUPPORT

Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL)

Leaf
Thickness

5
4
3
2
190mm
140mm
110mm
90mm

1
0
0

Length of wall between supports (m)

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

Walls Restrained at Top (Unrestrained Ends)

C21
SUPPORT

Walls without restraint to the ends, but with lateral restraint along their top have
maximum heights irrespective of their length as detailed in the following table. (Most
doorways and windows create free ends).

SUPPORT

These heights can be exceeded when one or both ends are restrained as well as the top.
Material

Thickness
60

Maximum Wall Height (metres)


Structural Adequacy (FRL minutes)
90
120
180

240

Scoria Blend/FireBrick

90mm

2.430

2.430

2.430

2.430

2.430

Scoria Blend/FireBrick

100mm

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

Scoria Blend/FireBrick

110mm

2.970

2.970

2.970

2.970

2.970

Scoria Blend/FireBrick

140mm

3.780

3.780

3.780

3.780

3.780

Scoria Blend/FireBrick

190mm

5.130

5.130

5.130

5.130

5.130

FireLight (FL)

90mm

2.430

2.430

2.430

2.430

2.430

FireLight (FL)

100mm

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

FireLight (FL)

110mm

2.970

2.970

2.970

2.970

2.970

FireLight (FL)

140mm

3.780

3.780

3.780

3.780

3.780

FireLight (FL)

190mm

5.130

5.130

5.130

5.130

5.130

Basalt-Concrete (B)*

90mm

2.430

2.430

2.400

2.160

2.040

Basalt-Concrete (B)*

100mm

2.700

2.700

2.667

2.400

2.267

Basalt-Concrete (B)*

110mm

2.970

2.970

2.933

2.640

2.493

Basalt-Concrete (B)*

140mm

3.780

3.780

3.733

3.360

3.173

Basalt-Concrete (B)*

190mm

5.130

5.130

5.067

4.560

4.307

Calsil-Basalt*

90mm

2.430

2.430

2.400

2.160

2.040

Calsil-Basalt*

110mm

2.970

2.970

2.933

2.640

2.493

Calsil-Basalt*

140mm

3.780

3.780

3.733

3.360

3.173

Calsil-Basalt*

165mm

4.455

4.455

4.400

3.960

3.740

Standard Grey and Designer Block

90mm

2.160

2.040

1.920

1.860

1.800

Standard Grey and Designer Block

110mm

2.640

2.493

2.347

2.273

2.200

Standard Grey and Designer Block

140mm

3.360

3.173

2.987

2.893

2.800

Standard Grey and Designer Block

190mm

4.560

4.307

4.053

3.927

3.800

Reinforced & Grout Filled*

140mm

5.040

5.040

5.040

5.040

5.040

Reinforced & Grout Filled*

190mm

6.840

6.840

6.840

6.840

6.840

*Governed by Robustness. Can be higher if supporting a slab.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire Design

C22

Reinforced Masonry Walls


Reinforced cores spanning vertically,
ie. restraint top and bottom

Reinforced bond beams spanning horizontally,


ie. restraint bottom and both ends

Structural Adequacy
60 240 minutes FRL

Structural Adequacy
60 240 minutes FRL

Single Steel reinforced

Single Steel reinforced and


Core fill
spacing

and fully grouted cores

Slab or broad footing

Maximum
Wall Height
(metres)

Lateral support at both ends

fully grouted bond beams

SUPPORT

Steel

Core Fill
Spacing (metres)

Leaf
Thickness
(mm)

4.000

N12

Every 10th core (2m)

5.040

N16

4.800

Slab or broad footing

Maximum
Wall Length
(metres)

140

Every 10th core (2m)

N12

6.400
6.840

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

SUPPORT

Lateral support along top

Bond beam spacing

SUPPORT

Steel

Bond Beam
Spacing (metres)

Leaf
Thickness
(mm)

4.000

N12

Every 10th course (2m)

140

140

5.040

N16

Every 10th course (2m)

140

Every 10th core (2m)

190

4.800

N12

Every 10th course (2m)

190

N16

Every 10th core (2m)

190

6.400

N16

Every 10th course (2m)

190

N16

Every 8th core (1.6m)

190

6.840

N16

Every 8th course (1.6m)

190

Maximum vertical load on wall = 11.25 H kN/m where H is in metres.

Masonry Design Guide

BOOK

New South Wales

1D

SECTION

STRUCTURAL, FIRE & ACOUSTIC

Acoustic Design

PAGE

BOOK

Acoustic Design

D2

Acoustic Performance Ratings


STC and Rw.
STC (Sound Transmission Class) and Rw (Weighted Sound
Reduction Index) are similar in that they are a single number
evaluation of STL (Sound Transmission Loss) measurements
over 16 frequencies.
The use of STC was changed to Rw in BCA Amendment 6,
issued in January 2000.
The lowest frequency measured in Rw is 100Hz. (STC started
at 125Hz).
The highest frequency measured in Rw is 3150Hz. (STC
finished at 4000 Hz).
AS1276 gives a set contour that is positioned over the STL
results so that the total of points above the results and below
the contour (deficiencies) does not exceed 32.
Rw is then read off where the contour crosses the 500Hz
line. The maximum 8dB deficiency, which pulled the STC
contour down, is not used for Rw.
Instead, there are two numbers after Rw, eg: Rw45 (-1; -5).
The first figure in the brackets is an indication of deterioration
due to high frequency noise (eg. a blender). The second figure
indicates deterioration due to low frequency noise (eg. low
speed trucks, bass guitar, or home cinema speakers).

Masonry with Plasterboard Systems


Daub-fixed Plasterboard
The cornice cement daubs, used to fix plasterboard to masonry,
create a small cavity in which resonances can occur. The
more dense, smooth and impervious the masonry is the more
it will bounce or resonate the sound, allowing the plasterboard
to re-radiate the sound.
Tests on linings with extra daubs (spacing was halved) gave
lower performances, presumably due to extra bridges through
the daubs.
Concrete masonry has a coarser texture and is more porous
than clay.
The noise energy that gets through the wall and bounces
off the plasterboard is re-absorbed into the concrete, where
it dissipates, as a tiny amount of heat.
Lightweight concrete masonry performs relatively poorly when
bare. When lined, it gives a vast improvement. Higher density
concrete units improve the Rw of the bare wall, but when
plasterboard is daub fixed, the amount of improvement
decreases as the concrete units begin to behave similarly to
clay.

Masonry with Plasterboard on Furring


Channels

From May 2004, the BCA required impact rated walls to be


of discontinuous construction.

Furring channels are rollformed galvanised metal battens to


which plasterboard can be fixed, using self tapping screws.
Popular products include Rondo rollformed steel furring
channel (N129 which is 28mm deep) or (N308 which is
16mm deep).

An impact rating is required for walls where a wet area


(including a kitchen) is opposite a habitable room in an
adjoining apartment.

Furring channels increase the gap between masonry and


plasterboard, making it harder for resonating energy to build
up pressure on the board.

Masonry with Render

Plumbing and electrical services can be fitted into this gap,


avoiding the need to chase recesses into the masonry.

Impact Sound Resistance

Acoustic performance with single leaf rendered masonry


follows the Mass Law. The acoustic performance of these
walls depends on their mass. More mass gives better
performance. The relationship is logarithmic: If a 110mm wall
gives Rw45, a 230mm wall of the same brick may give Rw57,
and a 450mm wall may give Rw63.
Cavity walls behave differently. Sound waves can resonate in
cavities. The narrower the cavity becomes, the more resonance
occurs. Insulation in the cavity helps absorb resonating sound.
Narrow cavities should have bond breaker board to prevent
mortar from providing a bridge for sound to travel between
leaves.

A further increase of 3 or 4dB can be achieved with Tontine


TSB3 polyester (or equivalent) insulation in the cavity between
the plasterboard and masonry.
Another increase of 3 to 5dB can be achieved with a second
layer of plasterboard, fixed with grab screws to the first layer,
(and no gaps).
Boral Plasterboard now make SoundStop, a higher density
board.

Masonry with Plasterboard on Stud


Framing

PAGE

BOOK

Acoustic Design

D3

How loud is noise?

In this system, vibrations are isolated by the gap between


the masonry and the stud frame.
Plasterboard is screw fixed to the outside of a stud wall, which
is positioned 20mm from one face of the masonry.
An extra 6dB can be gained by placing Tontine TSB5 insulation
between the studs. The other side of the masonry can be
lined with daub fixed plasterboard or rendered. 13mm render
can add an extra 1dB more than daub fixed board.
This system complies with the BCA requirement of
discontinuous construction for impact rated walls.

Designing Masonry Walls for


Acoustic Performance
Building acoustics is the science of controlling noise in
buildings, including the minimisation of noise transmission
from one space to another and the control of noise levels and
characteristics within a space. The term building acoustics
embraces sound insulation and sound absorption. The two
functions are quite distinct and should not be confused.
Noise has been defined as sound which is undesired by the
recipient, but it is very subjective and it depends on the
reactions of the individual. However, when a noise is
troublesome it can reduce comfort and efficiency and, if a
person is subjected to it for long enough periods, it can result
in physical discomfort or mental distress.
In the domestic situation, a noisy neighbour can be one of
the main problems experienced in attached dwellings. The
best defence against noise must be to ensure that proper
precautions are taken at the design stage and during
construction of a building. This means that the correct acoustic
climate must be provided in each space and that noise
transmission levels are compatible with the usage. Remedial
measures, after occupation, can be expensive and
inconvenient. Ideally, the sound insulation requirements for
a building should take into account both internal and external
sound transmission.

Sound Insulation
Any wall system that separates one dwelling from another,
or that separates one room from another, should be selected
to provide a sufficient level of insulation against noise.
There are two types of noise transfer through partitions,
airborne transfer, and structure-borne transfer. Both may
need to be considered in order to achieve the desired result.
Noise sources, such as voices, televisions and musical
instruments, generate noise in the air in one room, and this
noise passes through the partition and into the room on the
other side. This is known as airborne noise.
As we know, some partitions are better than others at isolating
airborne noise. In order to simply compare the isolating
performance of partitions Rw rating was developed. A partition
with a high Rw rating isolates sound better than a partition
with a low Rw rating. If we compare two partitions, and one
has an Rw which is 10 rating points higher, then the noise
passing through the wall with the higher Rw will be about
half the loudness when compared with the noise passing
through the wall with the lower Rw.
The Rw ratings are obtained from tests carried out in certified
laboratories, under controlled conditions. When identical
partitions are part of buildings and tested in-situ, it is often
found that the actual Rw rating obtained, usually called the
Weighted Standardised Level Difference (Dnt,w), is lower than

PAGE

BOOK

Acoustic Design

D4

the laboratory Rw. This reduction in performance can be due


to flanking paths (that is to say that noise also passes through
other parts of the building) or may be due to poor detailing
such as incorrect installation of pipes, power points etc.

Structure-borne Noise & Weighted Normalised


Impact Sound Pressure Level (Ln,w)
When a building element is directly, or indirectly, impacted
or vibrated then some of the energy passes through the
partition and is re-radiated as noise to the room on the other
side. This is called structure-borne noise or impact noise.
For walls, the most common sources of structure-borne
noise are:
Cupboard doors, fixed to party walls, being closed

energy absorbed over a range of frequencies between 250Hz


and 2000Hz.
Boral Acousticell blocks have extremely high absorption rates
(90%) at low frequency. Refer to Acousticell product page in
this guide and the Boral Masonry Block Guide.
The porous surface and lightweight aggregates in lightweight
masonry give it high sound absorption values (> 50%) across
all frequencies. Refer to the Lightweight product page in the
Fire Rated Walls section of this guide.

Sound Isolation Criteria


In May 2004, the Building Code of Australia (BCA)
specifications for minimum levels of sound isolation were
increased. These increased specifications are:

Kitchen appliances being used on benches touching walls

Unit to corridor or stairs

Rw 50

Plumbing fittings, particularly taps, being connected


to walls

Unit to unit

Rw + Ctr 50

Light switches being turned on and off, and


Dishwashers, washing machines, clothes dryers etc.
touching walls
Walls satisfy impact or structure-borne noise isolation either
by conforming to the deemed to satisfy provisions of the
Building Code ofAustralia Impact SoundorTest of Equivalence,
using a single number description for impact insulation or the
Opinion of a suitably qualified acoustic engineer.
The generally accepted test for impact is Weighted Normalised
Impact Sound Pressure Level or Ln,w. In this method of
interpreting impact sound resistance, lowervalues represent
better impact insulation.

Where a wet area of one unit adjoins a habitable room


in another unit, the wall construction must be of a
discontinuous type.

Guidelines for Optimum


Performance
To achieve the optimum performance for a wall system, the
exact construction as specified including perimeter sealing
must be adopted.
Anyvariations from the systems detailed in this guide should
be approved by the project acoustic consultant as it can
increase or decrease the acoustical isolation of wall systems.

Installation
Another single number description used for impact is the
Impact Insulation Class or IIC. When used for walls it may be
called WIIC for laboratory testing or WFIIC for field testing.
Unfortunately, as there are different test methods used to
obtain the impact rating for walls, results cannot always be
directly compared.
The larger the value of the WIIC the better the impact insulation.

Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)


Designers of theatres, music rooms, power transformer
enclosures, etc, may often choose materials which have an
efficient sound absorption value and incorporate them within
the building design. The level of sound absorption for material
is stated as the NRC (Noise Reduction Coefficient). This value
is derived as a result of acoustic testing on the material, and
determined by calculation from the average amount of sound

Unless careful attention to installation detail is followed, significant


reductions in sound isolation can occur, particularly with high
performance walls. The following need to be taken into account.

Perimeter Acoustical Sealing


It should be noted that as the sound isolation performance
of a partition increases, then the control of flanking paths
becomes more critical. Consequently, the perimeter sealing
requirements for a low sound rating wall, such as Rw30, are
much less than for a high sound rating wall, such as Rw60.
However, it is neither necessary, nor is it cost effective, to
provide very high perimeter acoustic sealing for a low rating
R w wall. The perimeter isolation for each leaf must be
commensurate with the acoustic isolation of the leaf. It cannot
be over emphasised, however, that for high performance walls,
the sealing of each leaf must be virtually airtight.

PAGE

BOOK

Acoustic Design

D5

For a sealant to be effective at controlling noise passing


through gaps, it must have the following properties.

IMPORTANT: The use of expanding foam sealants is not


acceptable.

Good flexibility, elastic set

Reference should be made to the manufacturer to ensure the


particular type or grade of sealant is suitable for the purpose.

Low hardness
Excellent adhesion, usually to concrete, timber, plaster and
galvanised steel
Minimal shrinkage (less than 5%)
Moderate density (greater than 800kg/m3), and
Fire rated where required (All walls required by the BCA
to be sound rated also have fire ratings)
All of the above properties must be maintained over the useful
life of the building, that is, greater than 20 years.
Examples of a suitable sealant include:
Bostik Findley Fireban One
Boral Plasterboard Fyreflex
Boral Plasterboard WR Sealant
Tremco synthetic rubber acoustical sealant
Some silicone sealants and
Some acrylic latex sealants

Noise Flanking
It is beyond the scope of this manual to provide full details
for control of all flanking paths. However, flanking can
significantly reduce the perceived isolation of a wall system
and should therefore be given careful consideration.
Typical flanking paths are shown in the Fig D1.

Acoustic Performance On-Site


Laboratory Test results are achieved under ideal controlled
conditions, and estimates are calculated from known
performance, experience and computer simulation programs.
To repeat the performance in the field, attention to detail in the
design and construction of the partition and its adjoining floor/
ceiling and associated structure is of prime importance. Even
the most basic principles, if ignored, can seriously downgrade
the sound insulation performance of a building element.

Through ventilation
and service ducts

Through windows, doors,


gaps and air leaks

Through
ceilings and the
above ceiling
cavity

Through
perimeter joints
between the wall
and floor, or the
wall and ceiling
(or underside of
the floor slab) or
wall junctions

Through back to
back cupboards
Through light
switches, or GPO's,
located in the wall,
poor sealing at
penetrations

Through floors
and the below
floor crawl
space
Through shared building elements such as floor boards, floor
joists, continuous plasterboard walls, continuous plasterboard
ceilings, and even continuous concrete walls and floors

Fig D1 Flanking Paths

PAGE

BOOK

Acoustic Design

D6

Boral Masonry cannot guarantee that field performance ratings


will match laboratory or estimated opinions. However, with
careful attention during erection of the wall, correct installation
to specification and proper caulking/sealing, the assembly
should produce a field performance close to and comparable
with tested or estimated values. Apart from installation
procedures, workmanship and caulking, the following items
can also affect the acoustic performance on site.

Doors
Hollow, cored and even solid doors generally provide
unsatisfactory sound insulation between rooms. Doors can
also provide direct air leaks between rooms thus having a
bad effect on the overall sound insulation of the partition in
which they are inserted. The higher the insulation of the
partition, the worse is the effect of doors.
Where sound insulation is important, specialised heavyweight
doors or, preferably, two doors separated by an absorbent
lined airspace or lobby should be used.

Lightweight Panels Above Doors


These are often incorporated for aesthetic reasons, however,
the performance of a partition with good sound insulation can
be considerably degraded by lightweight panels.

Air Paths Through Gaps, Cracks or Holes


Gaps, cracks or openings, however small, readily conduct
airborne sounds and can considerably reduce the sound
insulation of a construction.

Noise paths
through vents
or lightweight
decorative panels

Appliances
In cases where sound insulation is important, noise producing
fixtures or appliances such as water closets, cisterns, water
storage tanks, sluices, dishwashers, washing machines and
pumps should be repositioned or isolated from the structure with
resilient mountings and flexible service leads and connections.
Where fittings are duplicated on opposite sides of partitions,
they should be offset.

Electrical Outlets & Service Pipes


Electrical outlets, switch boxes and similar penetrations should
not be placed back-to-back. If power outlets are installed
back-to-back, they will create a flanking path or sound leak.
Seal backs and sides of boxes and the perimeter of all
penetrations with acoustic sealant.
Penetrations should be avoided where sound insulation is
important. This includes recessed fittings or ducts such as
skirting heating, electrical or telephone wiring trunking, light
fittings, inter-communication systems and alarms, medical
and laboratory gas outlets. Plumbing connections between
fittings or appliances on opposite sides of a partition offer a
path for transmission of sound and should be sealed. If possible
introduce discontinuity in the pipework between fittings, such
as a flexible connection within or on the line of a partition.

Home Cinema Rooms


Boral Masonry and Plasterboard divisions have a number
of high performance wall systems which have been
specifically developed for home cinema applications. Please
contact Boral Masonry for additional assistance and
information on the available solutions, or visit the website:
www.boral.com.au/cinemazone for solutions using Boral
masonry products.

Noise paths
through lightweight
panel doors

Noise paths
through vents

Noise paths
through gaps

Fig D2 Flanking Paths

Fig D3 Acoustic Performance Overview

Masonry Design Guide

BOOK

New South Wales

1E

SECTION

STRUCTURAL, FIRE & ACOUSTIC

Fire & Acoustic Systems

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E2

Boral Fire & Acoustic Masonry Wall Systems


This section of the Boral Masonry Design Guide contains
detailed information on the fire and acoustic performance of
Boral masonry products, and provides System Solutions for
fire and acoustic wall designs.

The following illustration details typical page layouts and the


type and location of information you may need to complete
your product selection and wall design.

Finding Acoustic Systems &


Technical Specifications

Product Icons
with dimensions
for products
available in your
region/state

Product
Name

Product
Introduction and
Application
Information

Product Specific
Acoustic Test Results
and Wall Lining
System Information

Wall Cross
section Icon
and Overall
System
Thickness

Availability
information
for your
region/state

Product
Specifications

Product
Identification

Fire
Performance
Data

Acoustic
Performance
Data

Acoustic Test
Result (Rw) and
Impact Isolation
Information (IIC)

Lining, Framing and


Insulation Description
for each side of the wall

Acoustic Systems Data

Alternatively, you may be referred to more detailed test


information and alternative lining systems.

WALL LINING

Refer to
product pages

The following Table details the wall lining and insulation


information for these six systems, and provides thickness
information to assist wall thickness calculation.
Acoustic performance estimates have been calculated by
Wilkinson Murray (Acoustic Consultants).

BORAL MASONRY
BRICK OR BLOCK

WALL LINING

As per product pages

13mm Render

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

E3

When information is provided in the table, it is tabulated,


under the System Headings of , , , , and .

Acoustic performance information for six of the most popular


wall lining systems may be provided within the Product
Specification Tables on the following product pages.

LINING
SYSTEM

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

Masonry
Thickness
+26mm

Masonry
Thickness
+32mm

13mm Render

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

Masonry
Thickness
+59mm

Masonry
Thickness
+84mm
or
+77mm
for
Villaboard

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


or 1 x 6mm Villaboard screw fixed over
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

Masonry
Thickness
+98mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

Masonry
Thickness

+140mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
20mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

Acous
tic Est
imates
with t
hese L
ining S
ystem
s

Read off
Acoustic
Performance
(Rw) from
intersection
of product
row and
lining
system
column

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E4

119

90

162

INTRODUCTION
Boral FireBrick is a non-load bearing,
medium density scoria-blend
material which provides high fire
rated performance.

290
290

90

9.119F

9.162F

UNIT-TO-CORRIDOR/STAIR
WALLS
These walls require a minimum
Rw 50 (no Ctr).

For larger masonry panel


applications, also refer to Scoria
Blend blocks on pages E7 and E8.

390
100

10.119F

119

230

11.119F

10.119F with the lining system on


page E5, detail 5 is the thinnest option.

FIRE DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
Boral FireBrick utilises a unique
scoria-blend material which has been
shown through fire testing to
provide excellent fire insulation
characteristics (see table below).

162

230

110

DUCTS IN A HABITABLE ROOM.


The BCA requires a minimum of
Rw + Ctr 40 for walls around waste
pipes etc. in habitable rooms.
The first detail shows an option for
render and an option for
plasterboard. If the vent is in a wet
area, only one layer of 13mm
plasterboard is required.

ACOUSTIC DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS

11.162F

The BCA:2005 requires party walls


to have a minimum sound rating of
Rw + Ctr 50 and if they separate
a wet area from a habitable room,
they must also be of discontinuous
construction.

Colour & Availability


No minimum order quantities apply.
Lead time 0-2 weeks.

Natural Grey

Specifications

Fire
N
per
m2
25.8

Acoustics

Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf)

Insulation (minutes)
N
FRL (minutes)
per
Pallet 60
90
120 180 240

Product
Code

TxLxH
(mm)

uc
MPa

Unit
Wt
kg

9.119F

90x290
x119

4.4

9.162F

90x290
x162

6.4

19.4

288

25.9

25.9

10.119F

100x390
x119

6.9

19.4

198

25.9

25.9

11.119F

110x230
x119

4.3

32.3

350

25.9

25.9

110x230
x162

11.162F

10.119F masonry lining systems that


satisfy this requirement are on page
E5, detail 7 (rendered cavity wall),
details 9; 10 and 11. The last detail
is the thinnest option for wet-to-wet
and habitable-to-habitable partywalls.

FireBrick is ideal for large


commercial, industrial and high-rise
home unit buildings.

119

110

FireBrick (F) Scoria Blend

336

25.9

25.9

25.9

25.9

25.9

25.9

25.9

Rw (Estimate or *Tested)
With Lining System


45* 47* 48*

57

55

60

24.0

45

57

55

60

25.9

24.0

48* 48* 52* 60*

56

61

50

25.9

25.9

24.0

47*

25.9

47

48

See tested systems page D7

240
25.9

24.0

180

300

Impact

120

24.2

Ctr

for

120

5.8

Rw +

25.9
240

49

52

59

57

61

50

See tested systems page D8


25.9

24.0

47

49

52

59

57

61

See tested systems page D8

Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. Impact = Complies with BCA 2005 requirement for Impact Sound Resistance.
Additional Insulation with Lining System (13mm render both sides). = Quantity may vary from plant to plant.

50

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E5

Acoustic Systems - 10.119F FireBrick


ACOUSTIC
RATING
Rw
+ Ctr Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

100mm FIREBRICK
SCORIA-BLEND

WALL LINING

Boral Test N
(-2, -5)
Test 211

40

13mm Render

45
OR
(-1, -5)
Estimated from 1 x 16mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Test 202

113mm
Duct wall in a
habitable room

Nil

119mm

47

(-1, -6)
Test 212
(-2, -6)
Test 213

48
(-2, -7)
Test 201

13mm Render

13mm Render

129mm
126mm

OR
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

132mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


190mm

52

(-3, -10)
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Estimated from
Test 203

159mm

54

(-3, -10)
Test 203

55
51

(-1, -4)
Impact
Test 261

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


171mm

13mm Render
2 leaves of 10.119F FireBrick
(no wall ties)

261mm

57

50

(-3, -10)
Test 208

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


190mm

60
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
(-3, -10)
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Impact
Boral Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Estimated from
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity
Test 208
59

50

(-3, -9)
Impact
Test 259

51

(-3, -9)
Impact
Test 209

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
35mm cavity with Tontine TBL 10/25
insulation and MPB board
13mm Render
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
20mm gap
228mm Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity
35mm cavity with Tontine TBL 10/25
insulation and MPB board in cavity

1
x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard
267mm
daub fixed

13mm Render

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap use 20mm for impact rating
187mm
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

2 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
184mm Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

60
(-4, -10)
Test 205

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


daub fixed
2 leaves of 10.119F FireBrick
(no wall ties)

60

50

13mm Render
OR

51
(-3, -9)
Test 206

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

Impact = Systems comply with BCA 2005 requirements for Impact Sound Resistance.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

E6

Acoustic Systems - 11.119F/11.162F FireBrick


ACOUSTIC
Rw RATING
+ Ctr Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

110mm FIREBRICK
SCORIA-BLEND

WALL LINING

Boral Test N

47

(-1, -5)
Test 22

46

(-2, -7)
Test 13

13mm Render

13mm Render
136mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


10mm packer daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


10mm packer daub fixed
170mm

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
200mm 10mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


daub fixed

1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed over


51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap
196mm
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

50

60
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
(-3, -10)
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Impact
Boral Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Estimated from
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
Test 263

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw


fixed
64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
250mm 20mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

51

61
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
(-3, -10)
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Impact
Boral Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Estimated from
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
Test 264

1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed


64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
246mm 20mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

57

(-3, -10)
Test 263

58

(-3, -10)
Test 264

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


daub fixed

2 x 16mm Boral Firestop Plasterboard


screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
219mm 10mm gap use 20mm for impact rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


daub fixed

1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed over


1 x 16mm Boral Firestop Plasterboard
screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
212mm
10mm gap use 20mm for impact rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


screw fixed
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity

2 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
228mm 10mm gap use 20mm for impact rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

63
54

(-3, -9)
Impact
Test 267

64
55

(-3, -9)
Impact
Test 266

65
55

(-3, -10)
Impact
Test 279

Impact = Systems comply with BCA 2005 requirements for Impact Sound Resistance.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E7

FireBlock Scoria-Blend Blocks


190

190

390

390

90

90

10.201 Full

10.331 Full Solid

390

FIRE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

190

390

140

15.201 Full

FireBlock is ideal for large commercial,


industrial, high-rise buildings and portal
framed and concrete framed structures.
190

190

140

INTRODUCTION
Boral FireBlock is a non-loadbearing,
medium density, scoria blend material
which provides high fire rated
performance.

390

140

15.301 Full

Boral FireBlock utilises a unique scoria


blend material, which has been shown
through fire testing to provide excellent
fire insulation characteristics.

15.401 Full

Core filling is not required to achieve


the insulation FRLs detailed in the
specification table.
190

190

390

20.201 Full

190

190

390

190

20.301 Full

20.401Full

Specifications
Product
Code

TxLxH (mm)

390

190

Fire

uc
MPa

Unit
Wt
kg

N
per
m2

Acoustics

Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf)

Insulation (minutes)
N
FRL (minutes)
per
Pallet 60
90
120 180 240

10.201
Full

90x390x190

9.5

12.5

180

25.9

25.9

10.331
Full Solid

90x390x190

12.3

12.5

144

25.9

25.9

15.201
Full

140x390x190

15.301
Full

140x390x190

14.0

12.5

120

25.9

25.9

15.401
Full

140x390x190

14.2

12.5

120

25.9

25.9

25.9

20.201
Full

190x390x190

12.8

12.5

90

25.9

25.9

20.301
Full

190x390x190

20.401
Full

190x390x190

Rw (Estimate or *Tested)
With Lining System


Impact

25.9

25.9

24.0

45

46

48

55

53

58

25.9

25.9

24.0

46

48

51

58

56

61

25.9

25.9

24.0

46*

25.9

25.9

24.0

48

49

52

59

57

62

25.9

24.0

48

49

52

59

57

62

25.9

25.9

24.0

47

48

51

58

56

61

25.9

25.9

24.0

47

48

51

58

56

61

25.9

24.0

48

49

52

59

57

62

120
180
4

11.3

12.5

120

25.9

25.9
120

47* 50
57
55
60
See tested systems page E8

180
240
120
4

14.5

12.5

90

25.9

25.9

180
4

14.9

12.5

Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3.


= Quantity may vary from plant to plant.

90

25.9

25.9

25.9
240

Impact = Complies with BCA 2005 requirement for Impact Sound Resistance.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E8

Acoustic Systems - 15.201 FireBlock Scoria-Blend Blocks


ACOUSTIC
RATING
Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

140mm FIREBLOCK
SCORIA-BLEND

WALL LINING

Boral Test N

45
(-2, -6)
Test 140

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

Nil
156mm

46
(-1, -4)
Test 147

13mm Render

13mm Render
166mm

47
(-1, -5)
Test 139

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


172mm

52
(-2, -6)
Test 143

13mm Render
(Impact test applied to rendered side)
208mm

52
(-2, -7)
Test 141

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


211mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

119

90

162

290

90

9.119FL

9.162FL

119

ACOUSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
The BCA:2005 requires walls
between sole occupancy units to
have a minimum sound rating of
Rw + Ctr 50 and if they separate
a wet area from a habitable room,
they must also be of discontinuous
construction.

Boral FireLight is ideal for concrete


framed office buildings and highrise home units.

390

The 10.119F masonry lining system


that satisfies this requirement is on
page E10, detail 7.

100

FireLight is manufactured in 90, 100


and 110mm thicknesses and in a
range of size formats to suit all types
of fire and/or acoustic wall
construction.

10.119FL

119

110

162

230

110

11.119FL

UNIT-TO-CORRIDOR/STAIR
WALLS
These walls require a minimum
Rw 50 (no Ctr).

FIRE DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
FireLight is a fire tested lightweight
concrete which is unique to Boral,
and provides excellent fire rating
characteristics.

230

11.162FL

E9

FireLight Bricks (FL)


INTRODUCTION
Boral FireLight bricks are
manufactured from a low-density
material which provides high fire
rated performance and minimum
weight for non-loadbearing
applications.

290

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

See 10.119FL with the lining system


on page E10, detail 3.
DUCTS IN A HABITABLE ROOM
The BCA requires a minimum of
Rw + Ctr 40 for walls around waste
pipes etc. in habitable rooms.
See 10.119FL lining, detail 2.

Colour & Availability

If the vent is in a wet area, only one


layer of 13mm plasterboard is
required.

No minimum order quantities apply.


Lead time 0-2 weeks.

Natural Grey

Specifications

Fire

25.8

Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf)

Insulation (minutes)
N
FRL (minutes)
per
Pallet 60
90
120 180 240

Product
Code

TxLxH
(mm)

uc
MPa

Unit
Wt
kg

9.119FL

90x290
x119

3.4

9.162FL

90x290
x162

4.5

19.4

288

29.0

10.119FL

100x390
x119

5.1

19.4

231

11.119FL

110x230
x119

3.1

32.3

350

110x230
x162

11.162FL

N
per
m2

Acoustics

336

29.0

Rw (Estimate or *Tested)
With Lining System

Rw +
Ctr

for

Impact

26.9

24.9

22.2

20.3

45

48

55

53

59

26.9

24.9

22.2

20.3

45*

48* 55

53

59

29.0

26.9

24.9

22.2

20.3

45*

51* 58*

55

61

52

29.0

26.9

24.9

22.2

20.3

90
90
120

See tested systems page E10

120
4.5

24.2

300

Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3.


= Quantity may vary from plant to plant.

29.0

26.9
120

47

52

58

56

61

52

See tested systems page E11


24.9

22.2

20.3

47*

52* 58

56

61

See tested systems page E11

Impact = Complies with BCA 2005 requirement for Impact Sound Resistance.

52

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E10

Acoustic Systems - 10.119FL FireLight


ACOUSTIC
RATING
Rw
+ Ctr Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

Boral Test N

100mm FIRELIGHT
LIGHTWEIGHT
CONCRETE

WALL LINING

45

(-3, -8)
Test 229

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


132mm

46
40

(-1, -6)
Test 236

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard grab screw
fixed

51

(-2, -8)
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Estimated from
Test 232

(-2, -8)
Test 232

(-3, -9)
Test 234

(-2, -9)
Test 230

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap
191mm
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

60
51

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
160mm Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Wet Area Plasterboard


screw fixed over
185mm 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

58

Nil

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

58

129mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
172mm Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

53

Duct wall in a
habitable room

(-2, -9)
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Impact
Estimated from
Test 230

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
20mm gap
214mm Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

Impact = Systems comply with BCA 2005 requirements for Impact Sound Resistance.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

E11

Acoustic Systems - 11.119FL/11.162FL FireLight


ACOUSTIC
Rw RATING
+ Ctr Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

110mm FIRELIGHT
LIGHT CONCRETE

WALL LINING

Boral Test N

45

(-1, -6)
Test 289

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

Nil

126mm

46

40

Duct wall in a
non-habitable
room

1 x 16mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


(-1, -6)
or
Estimated from
2 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Test 289

Duct wall in a
habitable room
130mm or Nil
139mm for
2 x 13mm

47

(-2, -8)
Test 288

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


142mm

52

(-4, -11)
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Estimated from
Test 290

169mm

54

(-4, -11)
Test 290

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


181mm

59
50

(-3, -9)
Impact
Test 300

13mm Render
(Impact test applied to render side)

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw


fixed
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
(-4, -12)
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Test 229
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
62
fixed
(-4, -12)
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Impact
Estimated from Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Test 229
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
65
fixed
(-5, -12)
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Impact
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Test 295
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity

197mm

60

50

53

67
53

(-6, -14)
Impact
Test 294

67
54

(-5, -13)
Impact
Test 297

1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed over


16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
fixed
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity

215mm

238mm

211mm

207mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw


fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap use 20mm for impact rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw
fixed
64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
20mm gap
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity
1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap use 20mm for impact
rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity
1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed over
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
10mm gap use 20mm for impact
rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

1 x 9mm Villaboard screw fixed over


1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
51mm steel studs at 600mm centres
224mm 10mm gap use 20mm for impact rating
Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

Impact = Systems comply with BCA 2005 requirements for Impact Sound Resistance.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E12

119

90

162

INTRODUCTION
Boral Basalt-Concrete bricks have
an uc of 12MPa, making them
excellent for loadbearing or nonloadbearing applications. They
provide good fire and acoustic
performance where minimising
weight is not a primary consideration.

290
290

90

9.119B

9.162B

76

119

390
100

10.119B

11.76BS

119

110

230

11.119B

230

11.162B

No minimum order quantities apply.


Lead time 0-2 weeks.

Natural Grey

Specifications

Fire

Product
Code

TxLxH
(mm)

uc
MPa

Unit
Wt
kg

9.119B

90x290
x119

12

5.6

9.162B

90x290
x162

12

7.6

19.4

10.119B

100x390
x119

12

7.9

11.119B

110x230
x119

12

5.1

110x230
x162

12

110x230
x76

12

11.76BS

For a thinner option, see Lining


System 6 in the table below and page
E3 for lining details.
UNIT-TO-CORRIDOR/STAIR
WALLS
These walls require a minimum
Rw 50 (no Ctr).
11.119B with the lining system on page
E13, detail 4 is the thinnest option.
DUCTS IN A HABITABLE ROOM
The BCA requires a minimum of
Rw + Ctr 40 for walls around waste
pipes etc. in habitable rooms.
The first detail shows options of
16mm or 2 x 13mm plasterboard. If
the vent is in a wet area, only one
layer of 13mm plasterboard is
required.

ACOUSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
The BCA:2005 requires walls
between sole occupancy units to
have a minimum sound rating of
Rw + Ctr 50 and if they separate

Colour & Availability

11.162B

11.119B masonry lining systems that


satisfy this requirement are on page
E13, detail 6, 7, 8 9 and 10.

FIRE DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
Boral Basalt-Concrete bricks have a
basalt content > 45% which provides
good fire performance characteristics
in loadbearing conditions.

162

110

a wet area from a habitable room,


they must also be of discontinuous
construction.

Boral Basalt-Concrete bricks are a


popular choice for walls in high-rise
units where they are commonly used
with a rendered finish. They are also
commonly used for loadbearing walls
in 3-storey unit construction with
plasterboard or render finish.

230

110

Basalt-Concrete Bricks (B)

N
per
m2
25.8

Acoustics

Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf)

Insulation (minutes)
N
FRL (minutes)
per
Pallet 60
90
120 180 240
336

22.5

21.0

Rw (Estimate or *Tested)
With Lining System


46

60

20.0

18.0

17.0

See tested systems page D13


46* 47* 49 57 56 60

21.0

20.0

18.0

17.0

46

48

50

59

57

62

50

21.0

20.0

18.0

17.0

48* 46*

50

59

57

62

50

21.0

60

19.4

165

22.5

32.3

350

22.5

56

17.0

22.5

57

Impact

18.0

240

49

Ctr

for

20.0

60

47

Rw +

See tested systems page D13

90

90
6.8

19.4

250

22.5

21.0

48.4

500

22.5

18.0

17.0

90
4.0

20.0

See tested systems page D14

21.0

20.0

48

46

50

59

57

62

18.0

17.0

48

46

50

59

57

62

Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. Impact = Complies with BCA 2005 requirement for Impact Sound Resistance.
Additional Insulation with Lining System (13mm render both sides). = Quantity may vary from plant to plant.
90

50

See tested systems page D14


50

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E13

Acoustic Systems - 11.119B/11.162B Basalt-Concrete


ACOUSTIC
RATING
Rw
+ Ctr Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

BASALT-CONCRETE
110mm

WALL LINING

Boral Test N

46

2 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


(-2, -6)
or
Estimated from
1 x 16mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Test 184

Duct wall in a
habitable room
139mm or Nil
129mm for
1 x 16mm

46

(-1, -5)
Test 183

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


142mm

48

(-2, -6)
Test 197

13mm Render

50

(-2, -8)
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed
Estimated from
Test 185

52

(-2, -8)
Test 185

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

59
55

(-1, -4)
Impact
Test 237

Nil Lining
2 leaves 11.119B Basalt-Concrete Bricks
30mm cavity with Tontine TBL 10/25
insulation and MPB board

62
50

(-4, -12)
Estimated
from Tests
299 and 185

62
53

(-3, -9)
Impact
Test 239

64
55

(-4, -9)
Impact
Test 238

59

(-2, -7)
Impact
Test 240

66

13mm Render
136mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
169mm
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity
1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed
28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
181mm Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

Nil Lining
250mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


64mm steel studs at 600mm centres
20mm gap
250mm Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity

Nil Lining
2 leaves 11.119B Basalt-Concrete Bricks
30mm cavity between the Tontine TBL
10/25 insulation and MPB board

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


screw fixed
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
281mm Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


screw fixed
16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity
2 leaves 11.119B Basalt-Concrete Bricks

30mm cavity between with Tontine TBL


10/25 insulation and MPB board
1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard
screw fixed
312mm
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity

Nil Lining
2 leaves 11.119B Basalt-Concrete Bricks
30mm cavity between with Tontine TBL
10/25 insulation and MPB board

1 x 13mm Boral Soundstop Plasterboard


16mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Standard Clips at 1200mm centres
294mm
Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity

Impact = Systems comply with BCA 2005 requirements for Impact Sound Resistance.

PAGE

BOOK

Fire & Acoustic Systems

E14

Acoustic Systems - 9.119B/9.162B Basalt-Concrete


ACOUSTIC
RATING
Rw (c, ctr)

WALL LINING

90mm
BASALT-CONCRETE

WALL LINING

Boral Test N

45
(-1, -5)
Test 162

13mm Render

Nil
103mm

46
(-1, -4)
Test 163

13mm Render

13mm Render
116mm

46
(-1, -5)
Test 156

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

Nil
106mm

47
(-1, -6)
Test 161

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

13mm Render
119mm

47
(-1, -5)
Test 155

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


122mm

51
(-2, -7)
Test 159

13mm Render

158mm

51
(-3, -9)
Test 157

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed


161mm

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed


28mm furring channel at 600mm centres
Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres
Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity

E15

Series 100, 150 and 200


Basalt-Concrete Blocks (B)

190

390

INTRODUCTION
Boral Basalt-Concrete blocks have
an uc of 10MPa, making them
excellent for loadbearing or nonloadbearing applications. They
provide good fire performance
and acoustic performance
characteristics where minimising
weight is not a primary
consideration.

90

10.01B Full

190

390

140

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

15.01B Full

FIRE DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
Boral Basalt-Concrete blocks
comprise of > 45% basalt which
provides a better Structural
Adequacy FRL than Standard Grey
blocks.

Boral Basalt-Concrete blocks are a


popular choice for walls in factories
and warehouses requiring a fire
rating of FRL 60/60/60.
190

390

190

20.01B Full

Colour and Availability


Basalt-Concrete Blocks are manufactured at the Boral
Somersby plant only, and are made to order.

Natural Grey

Specifications

Fire
N
per
m2

Acoustics

Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf)


N
Insulation (minutes)
FRL (minutes)
per
Pallet 60
90
120 180 240

Rw (Estimate or *Tested)
With Lining System

Rw +

Product
Code

TxLxH
(mm)

uc
MPa

Unit
Wt
kg

10.01B

90x390
x190

10

11.5

12.5

180

22.5

21.0

20.0

18.0

17.0

46

46

50

57

55

60

15.01B

140x390
x190

10

13.0

12.5

120

60
22.5

21.0

20.0

18.0

17.0

47

47

51

58

56

61

20.01B

190x390
x190

10

15.0

12.5

90

60
22.5

21.0

20.0

18.0

17.0

48

48

52

59

57

62

50

60

Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3.


Additional Insulation with

Lining System (13mm render both sides)

= Quantity may vary from plant to plant.

Ctr

for
Impact

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

E16
Standard Grey, Core-Fill and
Designer Blocks

190

390

INTRODUCTION
Boral concrete blocks have been
an integral part of Australias
construction industry for more
than 3 decades, and continue to
provide cost effective, practical
and engineered solutions for the
full spectrum of construction
applications.

90

10.01

190

90

390

10.31

All Boral Standard Grey,


Designer Block and Core Fill
Block products are manufactured
to AS/NZS4455 Masonry units
and segmental pavers 1997 using
modern high pressure moulding
techniques and controlled denseweight concrete materials.

190

140

390

15.01

190

190

All Boral concrete blocks have


inherent fire and acoustic
performance properties which
allocates them deemed-to-satisfy
values for fire performance.

390

20.01

Boral concrete blocks are


manufactured in 90, 140, 190, and
290mm thicknesses to suit most
wall construction applications.

190

140

390

15.91

190

190

390

20.91

190

290

390

30.91

Colour and Availability


Please refer to the Boral Masonry Blocks Guide for detailed
availability and colour information on these products.

FIRE DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
The fire resistance performance of
Boral concrete blocks is determined
as per AS3700 : 2001 Section
6. These products can provide
adequate fire performance for
many common fire rated wall
applications. Please also refer to
fire performance graphs and design
information in Sections B and C of
this guide for additional selection
information.

ACOUSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
The BCA:2005 requires walls
between sole occupancy units to
have a minimum sound rating of
Rw + Ctr 50. Core-filled and
reinforced 20.91 masonry with
10mm of render on both sides
complies with this.
Townhouse party walls with an
adjacent stairway and timber floor
may require this system to satisfy
the Structural Adequacy FRL as
the wall may have span up to 6.8m
high, from the ground floor to roof
truss.
If the wall separates a wet area from
a habitable room, it must also be
of discontinuous construction.
Core-filled and reinforced 15.91 or
20.91 masonry with Lining System
6 (details on page E3) complies
with this.

Specifications

Fire
N
per
Pallet

E17

Acoustics

Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf)


N
per
m2

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

Rw (Estimate or *Tested)
With Lining System

Rw +

Product
Code

TxLxH
(mm)

uc
MPa

Unit
Wt
kg

10.01
Hollow

90x390
x190

10

11.1

12.5

180

18.0

17.0

16.0

15.5

15.0

46

46

50

57

55

60

10.31
Solid

90x390
x190

10

14.2

12.5

144

60
18.0

17.0

16.0

15.5

15.0

47

47

51

58

56

61

17.0

16.0

15.5

15.0

47

47

51

58

56

61

Insulation (minutes)
FRL (minutes)
60
90
120 180 240

Ctr

for
Impact

15.01
140x390
Hollow
x190
(without grout fill)

10

12.5

12.5

120

60
18.0

15.91
140x390
Groutx190
filled and reinforced

15

12.5

12.5

120

60
36.0

36.0

36.0

36.0

36.0

53

51

56

63

61

66

52

20.01
190x390
Hollow
x190
(without grout fill)

10

14.2

12.5

90

18.0

120
17.0

16.0

15.5

15.0

48

48

52

59

57

62

50

20.91
190x390
Groutx190
filled and reinforced

15

14.4

12.5

90

60
36.0

36.0

36.0

36.0

36.0

56* 55

60

67

65

69

54

30.91
290x390
Hollow
x190
(without grout fill)

15

17.6

12.5

60

18.0

17.0

240
16.0

15.5

15.0

49

49

54

61

59

63

50

30.91
290x390
Groutx190
filled and reinforced

15

17.6

12.5

60

60
36.0

36.0

36.0

36.0

36.0

59

59

64

71

69

72

56

240
Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3.

*Rw + Ctr = 50

Additional Insulation with

Lining System (13mm render both sides).

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

E18
Acousticell
190

INTRODUCTION
Boral Acousticell is a purpose
designed block which combines
excellent acoustic absorption
and sound transmission loss
characteristics.
Boral Acousticell has been
successfully integrated into a wide
variety of industrial and commercial
acoustic applications, providing
both acoustic performance and
unique and attractive aesthetic
qualities.

390
140

Acousticell
Full

The face slots and closed core


base of the Boral Acousticell block
form Helm-Holtz absorbers which
control low frequency noise where
other walling materials reflect
noise, adding to the original noise
source.

Availability

All Acousticell blocks are made-to-order


Lead time 6-8 weeks.
Minimum quantities apply.
Part size blocks are best cut/bolstered on-site to maintain
colour consistency. Part size blocks can be cut-to-order.
Contact Boral Masonry for further details.

Typical applications include


auditoria, theatres, radio, television
and cinema studios, churches,
schools, canteens, plant rooms,
factories and workshops, sports
centres, multi-purpose centres and
wherever sound reverberation can
cause problems.
Boral Acousticell Blocks are
compatible with Series 150 bond
beams and part size blocks.

Essential Colours

Alabaster

Almond

Pearl Grey

Charcoal

Natural Grey

SOUND ABSORPTION
Boral Acousticell blocks combine
the high transmission loss
characteristics generally associated
with a dense, non-porous material
(concrete block) with efficient
absorption of sound, resulting in
a very low radiated sound level
and effective control of both high
frequencies and troublesome low
frequency noise. Boral Acousticell
blocks provide maximum absorption
in the frequency range of 80Hz to
500Hz, peaking at 1.0 at 200Hz
and providing absorption of 0.6 at
100Hz.
Where high frequency noise is to be
absorbed, fibreglass insulation pads
can be inserted into the Helm-Holtz
cells. In this case, absorption of low
frequency noise drops slightly, but
absorption of other frequencies
improves. (Note: Fibreglass is not
suitable for external use. Carbon
fibre pads are more suitable in
external situations).
Refer to accompanying absorption
graph for application results.
COLOURS
Boral Acousticell Block is Madeto-Order and can therefore be
manufactured in any of the Boral
Designerblock colours. Minimum
order quantities apply to all
colours.

Accent Colours

Sandune

Rust

Paperbark

Wilderness

Terrain

Midway

Specifications
Code

Product Description

150mm

Acousticell Full

MPa

Wt kg

N/Pallet

10

14.0

120

PAGE

BOOK

Fire and Acoustic Systems

E19

Acousticell Acoustic Performance


Sound Transmission Loss for Acousticell is similar to
standard dense-weight concrete masonry. Refer to Fig E1.
Rw Contour Line
Acousticell Test Results

50

Before construction of Boral Acousticell enclosure

40

After construction of Boral Acousticell enclosure


30

70

20
60
10
0

125

250

1K

500

2K

5K

Centre Frequency of Octave Band (Hz)

Fig E1 Sound Transmission Characteristics of


Boral Acousticell Block

It is the absorption characteristics of Acousticell that make


the difference where noise is to be controlled within a room
or prevented from bouncing around an enclosure wall and
escaping over the top.

Sound pressure level in dB

Sound Transmission Loss (dB)

60

Boral Acousticell has also been shown to provide a


proven and practical solution for Transformer Sub-Station
Enclosures.
The test results from one such installation are shown in
Fig E3, and comments from the project acoustic engineers
are provided below the figure.

50

40

30

20

10
4

16 31.5 63 125 250 500 1K

2K

4K

8K 16K 32K

Octave band centre frequency Hz (CPS)

Boral Acousticell is an excellent choice for generator,


pump and plant rooms, as it offers maximum absorption in
the frequency region 80Hz to 500Hz (which is also peak
acoustical range for most diesel engines) providing better
noise reduction than that offered by alternative construction
systems. Refer to Fig E2.
as
1.1
1.0

Sound Absorption

0.9

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

Louis A Challis and Associates Pty Ltd.


Consulting Acoustical and Vibration Engineers.

0.1
4

COMMENTS ON THE RESULTS.


The measurement results show a dramatic reduction
in noise level from the transformers, especially under
conditions when the internal cooling fans, together with
secondary ventilation fans fitted into the enclosure were
operating.
The result is a situation where there is now negligible
annoyance to surrounding residences from the transformers.
Previously the level of low frequency noise was such that
special double glazing of both doors and windows would
have been necessary to achieve acceptable community
noise levels.

0.8

Fig E3 Octave Band Analysis of Noise Level from


large distribution transformer before and after fitting
Boral Acousticell Masonry Enclosure

16

31.5

63

125

250

500

1K

2K

4K

8K

1/3 Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz (CPS)

Fig E2 Sound Absorption Characteristics of


Boral Acousticell Block

Because the transmission loss through the main wall


structure is typically 44 STC or greater, noise reductions
as high as 40 decibels or more can be readily designed and
achieved in practice.

Customer support

New South Wales

1. Stock colours Colours other than stock colours are made to order. Not all

6. Important notice Please consult with your local council for design

colours displayed in this brochure are available in

regulations prior to the construction of your wall. Councils in general require

all states. (Contact your nearest Boral Masonry office for your areas stock

those walls over 0.5m in height and/or where there is loading such as a car or

colours.) A surcharge applies to orders less than

house near the wall be designed and certified by a suitably qualified engineer.

the set minimum quantity.

Acousticell, Designer Block and FireLight are registered trademarks of

2. Brochure colours The printed colours in this Masonry Design Guide are only
a guide. Please ask to see a sample of your colour/texture before specifying or

Boral Masonry Limited.


Boral Masonry all rights reserved 2006.

ordering.
3. Colour and texture variation The supply of raw materials can vary over
time. In addition, variation can occur between product types and production
batches.
4. We reserve the right to change the details in this publication without notice.
5. For a full set of Terms and Conditions of Sale please contact your nearest
Boral Masonry sales office.

Orders, product samples


and sales enquiries

Other regional sales offices

NSW

VIC

QLD

NQ

Clunies Ross Street,

Level 1

62 Industrial Ave,

Cairns

Prospect,

17-47 Turner Street,

Wacol,

8 Palmer Street,

NSW 2148

Port Melbourne,

QLD 4076

Portsmith,

Tel (02) 9840 2333

VIC 3207

Tel (07) 3271 9292

QLD 4870

Fax (02) 9840 2344

Tel (03) 9681 9722

Fax (07) 3271 1815

Tel (07) 4035 1888

ACT
16 Whyalla Street,

Fax (03) 9681 9766

Fax (07) 4035 1208

SA

Townsville

Fyshwick,

Main North Road,

ACT 2609

Pooraka,

Tel (02) 6280 8259

SA 5095

Fax (02) 6280 6262

Tel (08) 8262 3529


Fax (08) 8260 3011

360 Bayswater Road,


Garbutt,
QLD 4814
Tel (07) 4725 6285
Fax (07) 4725 6043
Mackay
David Muir Street,
Slade Point,
QLD 4740
Tel (07) 4955 1155

Call Specifier Line on 1300 360 255


Visit www.boral.com.au/masonry

Revised 270508

For technical assistance:

eBC 03761 May08

Fax (07) 4955 4130