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Tutorial ODE

Tutorial Ordinary Differential Equations


1. Find a function that satisfies the given differential equation
dy
= 2e2x
dx
dy
(b)
= x2 x
dx
1
dy
=
(c)
dx
x1
(d) y 00 = 24x
(a)

ans: (a) e2x + c, (b) 13 x3 12 x2 + c, (c) 2 x 1 + c, (d) 4x3 + cx + d


2. By using the method of separation of variables, find the general solution of the following differential
equations:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
ans:

dy
= xy
dx
p
dy
= 1 y2
2 x
dx
dy
= 2y
(1 x2 )
dx
dy
= (y 4 1) cos x
y3
dx

2
|1+x|
(a) cex /2 , (b) sin( x + c), (c) A |1x|
, (d) (e4 sin x+c + 1)1/4

3. By using the method of separation of variables, solve the following initial value problems:
(a) y 0 = y 2 + y 6, y(5) = 10
x
, y(5) = 2
(b) 2yy 0 =
2
x 16

5(x5)
ans: (a) 26+24e
, (b) ( x2 16 + 1)1/2
138e5(x5)
4. Is the given function u(x, y) a potential function of the given differential equation?
(a) xy 2 dx + (x2 y 3)dy = 0, u =

x2 y 2
3y
2

(b) 2e2x y dx e2x dy = 0, u = e2x y


5. Show that each of the following differential equations is exact and thus obtain the general solution for
(a) and the particular solution for (b).
(a) ((x + 1)ex ey ) dx xey dy = 0
(b) 3x2 (y 1)2 dx + (2x3 (y 1) + y)dy = 0, y(1) =
ans: (a) x(ex ey ) = c, (b) x3 (y 1)2 +

y2
2

1
2

3
8

6. Show that the given function is an integrating factor of the corresponding differential equation.
(a) 2ydx + xdy = 0, (x) = x
(b) y 2 dx + (1 + xy)dy = 0, (x, y) = exy
R

N
(y)dy
where
7. By using the formula for integrating factor e (x)dx where (x) = N1 [ M
y x ] or e
1 N
M
(y) = M [ x y ], find an integrating factor of the following differential equations and thus solve
these differential equations:

Tutorial ODE

(a) (y + 1)) dx (x + 1)dy = 0


(b) ydx + x ln x dy = 0, x > 0
(c) (1 x z) dx + dz = 0
1
ans: (a) (x+1)
2 , general solution is
solution is (x + z)ex = c

y+1
x+1

= c, (b)

1
x,

general solution is y ln x = c, (c) ex , general

8. Find general solutions of the following linear differential equations. If initial condition is given, find
the corresponding particular solution.

(a) 2xy 0 + y = 10 x
(b) y 0 + y = ex , y(0) = 1
(c) (1 + x)y 0 + y = cos x, y(0) = 1, x > 1

ans: (a) y = 5 x + cx , (b) y = 12 (ex + ex ), (c) y =

1
1+x (sin x

+ 1)

9. Newtons law of cooling states that the rate of the temperature of the body changes is proportional
to the difference between the instantaneous temperature of the body and the temperature of the
environment. Given that a body with initial temperature of 100o C is allowed to cool in air which
remains at temperature 25o C. It is observed that in 20 minutes, the body has cooled down to 60o C,
find the temperature of the body as a function of time.
10. Solve the following Bernoulli equations:
(a)

dy
1
+ y = , y(0) = 2
dt
y

(b) x2 y 0 + 2xy = 5y 3
y
(c) y 0 + = x2 y 2
x

1/2

x
ans: (a) y = 1 + 3e2t , (b) y = 2+cx
, (c) y =
5

2
x3 +cx

11. Find a general solution of the following homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients:
(a) y 00 + 7y = 0
d2 y
dy
+ 25y = 0
6
2
dx
dx
(c) y (iv) 29y 00 + 100y = 0

ans: (a) y = A cos 7x+B sin 7x, (b) y = e3x (A cos 4x+B sin 4x), (c) y = Ae2x +Be2x +Ce5x +D5x
(b)

12. Solve the following initial value problems:


(a) y 00 + 4y 0 + 5y = 0, y(0) = 3, y 0 (0) = 0
(b) y 000 3y 00 + 3y 0 y = 0, y(0) = 2, y 0 (0) = 2, y 00 (0) = 10
(c) y (iv) + 3y 00 4y = 0, y(0) = 0, y 0 (0) = 10, y 00 (0) = 0, y 000 (0) = 40
ans: (a) y = 3e2x (cos x + 2 sin x), (b) y = (2 + 4x2 )ex , (c) y = 5 sin 2x

Tutorial ODE

13. By using the method of undetermined coefficients, find the particular solution yp of the following
inhomogeneous differential equations:
(a) y 00 + 2y 0 + 3y = 1 + xex
(b) y 00 + y = sin x + x cos x
(c) y 00 + y 0 + y = sin2 x
(d) y 00 y 0 6y = 2 sin 3x
ans: (a)

1
3

+ ( 61 x 91 )ex , (b)

x
4 (x sin x

cos x), (c)

1
2

3
26

cos 2x

1
13

sin 2x, (d)

1
39 (cos 3x

5 sin 3x)

. Solve the following initial value problems:


14.
(a) y 00 + 4y = 2x, y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 2
(b) y 00 + 9y = sin 2x, y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 0
(c) y 00 2y 0 + 2y = x + 1, y(0) = 3, y 0 (0) = 0
ans: (a) cos 2x +

3
4

sin 2x + 12 x, (b) cos 3x

15. Consider a power series solution y =

2
15

sin 3x +

1
5

sin 2x, (c) ex (2 cos x

5
2

sin x) + 12 x + 1

cn xn of the differential equation

n=0

(1 + x2 )y 00 + 2xy 0 2y = 0.
(a) Show that c2 = c0 , c3 = 0 and ck+2 = (k1)
(k+1) ck , k 2.
(b) Find the first five terms of the series solution.
ans: y = c0 (1 + x2 31 x4 + 51 x6 ) + c1 x
16. Suppose that the linear differential equation
y 00 + x2 y 0 3xy = 0
has a power series solution y =

cn xn .

n=0

(a) Show that c2 = 0, c3 =


(b) Show that

1
2 c0

k4
and ck+2 = (k+2)(k+1)
ck1 , k 2.

1 7
1 10
1
1
x +
x + ...
y = c0 1 + x3 + c1 x + x4
2
6
252
5670

17. Find the first six terms of the power series solution for the following differential equation about x0 = 1
y 00 + xy = 0.

1
1
ans: y = c0 1 21 (x 1)2 16 (x 1)3 + 24
(x 1)4 + 30
(x 1)5 . . .
1
1
.
+c1 (x 1) 16 (x 1)3 12
(x 1)4 + 120
(x 1)5 . . .