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1.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID


AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE
1.1 LIQUID FLOW
The principles of the flow of a substance in a pressurised pipeline are governed by the
basic physical laws of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The conservation
laws are expressed mathematically by means of balance equations. In the most general
case, these are the differential equations, which describe the flow process in general
conditions in an infinitesimal control volume. Simpler equations may be obtained by
implementing the specific flow conditions characteristic of a chosen control volume.
1.1.1 Conservation of mass
Conservation of mass in a control volume (CV) is written in the form: the rate of mass
input = the rate of mass output + the rate of mass accumulation. Thus
d ( mass )
= (qoutlet qinlet )
dt
in which q [kg/s] is the total mass flow rate through all boundaries of the CV.
In the general case of unsteady flow of a compressible substance of density , the
differential equation evaluating mass balance (or continuity) is

G G
+ . ( V) = 0
t

(1.1)

G
in which t denotes time and V velocity vector.

For incompressible ( = const.) liquid and steady (/t = 0) flow the equation is
given in its simplest form
v x v y v z
+
+
=0
x
y
z

(1.2).

The physical explanation of the equation is that the mass flow rates qm = VA [kg/s]
for steady flow at the inlet and outlet of the control volume are equal. Expressed in
terms of the mean values of quantities at the inlet and outlet of the control volume,
given by a pipeline length section, the equation is

1.1

CHAPTER 1

1.2

qm = VA = const.

(1.3).

(VA)inlet = (VA)outlet

(1.4)

Thus

qm

V
A

mass flow rate


density of flowing liquid
mean velocity in a pipe cross section
area of a pipe cross section

[kg/s]
[kg/m3]
[m/s]
[m2].

In practice volumetric flow rate Q is often used in place of mass flow rate q. The
volumetric flow rate Q = q/ = VA. For a circular pipeline of two different diameters
D1 and D2 (see Fig.1.1) the mass balance claims V1D12 = V2 D 22 .

V1

D1

D2

V2

Figure 1.1. Application of continuity equation.


1.1.2 Conservation of momentum

A momentum equation is an application of Newton's second law of motion. The


summation of all external forces on a control volume filled with a substance is equal
to the rate of change of momentum of the substance in the control volume. The sum
of the external forces acting on the control volume is counterbalanced by the inertial
force proportional to the momentum flux of the control volume
d (momentum)
= Fexternal .
dt
The external forces are
- body forces due to external fields (gravity, magnetism, electric potential) which act
upon the entire mass of the matter within the control volume,
- surface forces due to stresses on the surface of the control volume which are
transmitted across the control surface.
Gravity is the only body force relevant to the description of the flow of a substance in
a conduit. Surface forces are represented by the force from the pressure gradient and
by friction forces from stress gradients at the control volume boundary.
In an infinitesimal control volume filled with a substance of density the force
balance between inertial force, on one side, and pressure force, body force, friction

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.3

force, on the other side, is given by a differential linear momentum equation in vector
form
G G G
G
G
G G
G
V + V. V = P gh .T
t

( )

( )

(1.5)

G
G
where h denotes the elevation above a datum, V the velocity vector and T the stress
tensor.

To apply the momentum equation to pipeline flow it is convenient to replace the


infinitesimal control volume by a macroscopic one given by a straight piece of pipe of
the differential distance dx, measured in the downstream direction (Fig. 1.2). The
momentum equation written for this control volume is simpler because quantities in
the equation are averaged over the pipeline cross section. The momentum equation is
obtained by integrating the differential linear momentum equation over the pipe cross
section. For the one-dimensional liquid flow it has the form (Longwell, 1966 or
Shook & Roco, 1991)
o
V
h P
V

+V
+g +
+4
=0
t
x
x x
D

V
g
h
P
o
D

density of flowing liquid


mean velocity in a pipe cross section
gravitational acceleration
elevation above a datum
mean pressure in a pipe cross section
shear stress at the pipe wall
pipe diameter

(1.6).
[kg/m3]
[m/s]
[m/s2]
[m]
[Pa]
[Pa]
[m]

The shear stress at the pipe wall, o, is defined below by Eq. 1.15.

Figure 1.2. Control volume (CV) for analysis of force balance in flow
in a circular pipe.

Additional conditions (incompressible liquid, steady and uniform flow in a horizontal


straight pipe) make it possible to obtain a simple form of the linear momentum
equation for liquid flow. Under the chosen conditions, the momentum flux at the
control volume inlet is equal to that at the control volume outlet and the inertial force

CHAPTER 1

1.4

in the control volume is zero. In this case the integrated form of the linear momentum
equation relates the driving force generated by the pressure gradient over the pipe
distance dx and the cross section area A (and the perimeter O) to the resisting force
due to viscous friction at the flow boundary, which is a pipe wall. The balance is

dP
A = oO
dx

(1.7),

i.e. for a pipe of a circular cross section and internal diameter D

dP
=4 o
D
dx

(1.8).

This equation shows that the wall shear stress must be correlated with the flow
conditions to solve the pressure drop due to friction in pipeline flow.
1.1.3 Friction in pipeline flow of liquid

The Eq. 1.8 is not only valid for a pipe flow boundary; it can also be generalized to
flow within each cylinder of radius r coaxial with a cylindrical pipe. It then provides
an equation for shear stress distribution in the pipe cross section (see Fig. 1.3) that is
valid for both laminar and turbulent liquid flow. This is

dP
2
=
dx
r

(1.9).

Figure 1.3. Stress and velocity distributions in pipe flow of liquid.

Newton's law of liquid viscosity is


dv
= f x
dr

vx
f

local shear stress within liquid stream


local liquid velocity in the pipe-axis direction
dynamic viscosity of liquid

(1.10),
[Pa]
[m]
[Pa.s]

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.5

where and vx are at the position given by the radius r in a pipe cross section.

In laminar flow, the equation for a shear stress distribution (Eq. 1.9) and Newton's law
of liquid viscosity (Eq. 1.10) determine a velocity profile vx(r) of liquid flow. Its
integration over a pipe cross section
1
8 D/2
Vf = v x dA =
v x rdr
AA
D2 0

(1.11)

provides a relationship between pressure drop dP/dx and mean velocity Vf


D2
Vf =
32 f

dP

dx

(1.12).

Shear stress at the pipe wall is thus determined as


o = f

8Vf
D

(1.13).

This procedure cannot be used for turbulent flow because the relation between shear
stress and strain rate in the turbulent flow is not fully described by the Newtonian
viscous law. In a turbulent stream, the local velocity of the liquid fluctuates in
magnitude and direction. This causes a momentum flux between liquid laminae in the
stream. The momentum exchange has the same effect as a shear stress applied to the
flowing liquid. These additional stresses set up by the turbulent mixing process are
called apparent shear stresses or Reynolds stresses. They predominate over the
Newtonian, purely viscous stresses in the turbulent core of the liquid flow. In a fully
developed turbulent flow the turbulent core usually occupies almost the entire pipe
cross section, excepting only the near-wall region. A turbulent flow regime is typical
for pipelines of an industrial scale.
Thus shear stress 0 for turbulent flow cannot be determined directly from Newton's
law of viscosity and the force balance equation (Eq. 1.9). Instead, it is formulated by
using dimensional analysis. A function
0 = fn(f, Vf, f, D, k)
o
f
Vf
f
D
k

shear stress at the pipe wall


density of liquid
mean velocity in a pipe cross section
dynamic viscosity of liquid
pipe diameter
absolute roughness of the pipeline wall

is assumed. This provides a relation between dimensionless groups

(1.14)
[Pa]
[kg/m3]
[m/s]
[Pa.s]
[m]
[m]

CHAPTER 1

1.6

= fn Re,

1
f Vf2
2

(1.15).

The dimensionless group Re, Reynolds number of the pipeline flow, relates the
inertial and viscous forces in the pipeline flow
Re =

Vf D f
Vf D
=
f
f

Re
f

Reynolds number of the pipeline flow


kinematic viscosity of liquid f/f

(1.16).
[-]
[m2/s]

The dimensionless parameter on the left side of the equation 1.15 is called the friction
factor. It is the ratio between the wall shear stress and kinetic energy of the liquid in a
control volume in a pipeline
o

ff =

(1.17).

1
V2
2 f f

The parameter f is known as Fanning friction factor. Darcy obtained a friction


coefficient (called sometimes Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient)
f =

8 o
f Vf2

(1.18).

Thus the friction coefficient f = 4ff.


The equation for the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient, combined with the
integrated linear momentum equation for pipeline flow (Eq. 1.8), gives the equation
first published by Weisbach in 1850
2
dP f f Vf

=
dx
D
2
that is for

(1.19)

P P1 P2
dP
=
written as
(see Fig. 1.4)
L
L
dx

P1 = P2 +

f f Vf2
L
D 2
P1
P2
f
L

absolute pressure at beginning of pipe section


absolute pressure at end of pipe section
Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient
length of pipe section

(1.20).
[Pa]
[Pa]
[-]
[m]

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.7

This equation is known as the Darcy-Weisbach equation for the determination of the
frictional head loss If in liquid flow in a pipeline.

P1

P2

t0
V

t0
L
Figure 1.4. Flow in a straight horizontal pipe of constant diameter.

For laminar flow, an equation for friction coefficient f (or ff) is calculated
theoretically from the equation for pressure drop (Eq. 1.12) giving
f =

64
Re

(1.21).

In turbulent flow there is no simple expression linking the velocity distribution with
the shear stress (and so with the pressure gradient) in the pipe cross section. Over the
years an empirical approach has provided a number of correlations f = fn(Re, k/D)
for different pipe flow regimes. The regimes are: hydraulically smooth, transitional
and hydraulically rough (Fig. 1.5). The f = fn(Re, k/D) correlations have been
derived from empirical expressions for a velocity profile in the turbulent flow in a
pipeline. The f = fn(Re, k/D) values can be determined also from the Moody
diagram (Fig. 1.6) or its computational version (Churchill, 1977)
1
8 12
12
.
f = 8 + ( X + Y) 15

Re

(1.22)

where
16

7 0.9 0.27 k

+
X = 2.457 ln
D
Re

(1.23)

37530 16
Y=

Re

(1.24)

and

f
Re

Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient


Reynold number for liquid flow

[-]
[-]

CHAPTER 1

1.8

k
D

absolute roughness of pipe wall


pipe diameter

[m]
[m].

The value f = 0.010 - 0.012 is usually appropriate for an initial estimation of


water-flow friction losses in industrial pipelines (Fig. 1.6).

Figure 1.5. Regimes of flow over a pipeline wall. Regimes for f determination.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.9

Figure 1.6a. Moody diagram for a determination of Darcy-Weisbach


friction coefficient ff (f).

1.10

CHAPTER 1

Figure 1.6b. Moody diagram for a determination of Darcy-Weisbach


friction coefficient f, zoom to most used region.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.11

CASE STUDY 1
Frictional head loss in flow of water through a straight horizontal pipeline.

Determine the pressure drop due to friction for flow of water at room temperature (for
calculations take water density f = 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity f = 10-6
m2/s) in a 1000 m long pipeline of the diameter D = 900 mm. The absolute roughness
of a pipeline wall k = 10-5 m. Mean velocity of water in a pipeline cross section V =
4.5 m/s.
Solution:
a. Friction coefficient, f

The friction coefficient is dependent on the roughness k and Reynolds number Re of


the water flow. For the above given values of parameters Re = (4.5 x 0.9)/10-6 = 4.05
x 106. The ratio k/D = 1.1 x 10-5.
The numerical approximation of the Moody diagram by Churchill (Eqs. 1.22 1.24)
gives for these values of Re and k/D the friction coefficient value f = 0.0099 = 0.010.
The same value of f should be obtained directly from the Moody diagram (for D/k =
91000 in Fig. 1.6).
b. Frictional head loss, If

The frictional head loss for water flow in a pipeline is determined using the
Darcy-Weisbach equation (Eq. 1.20). This gives a parabolic relationship between the
hydraulic gradient If and mean mixture velocity Vm. For our inputs
0.010 Vm2
0.010 4.502
If =
=
= 0.01147 .
0.900 19.62 0.900 19.62
Thus the friction loss If = 0.01147 meter water column over 1 meter pipeline length,
i.e. 11.47 meter water column over 1 kilometer pipeline length. This represents the
pressure drop due to friction P = 0.01147 x 1000 x 9.81 = 112.5 Pa/m' or 112.5 kPa
over the one kilometer long pipeline.
Summary of the results:
friction coefficient :
f = 0.010 [-]
frictional head loss per unit meter of a pipeline length :
If = 0.01147 [-]
pressure drop due to friction over 1 000-meter long straight pipeline :
P = 112.5 [kPa / 1000 m]

CHAPTER 1

1.12

1.2 SOLID PARTICLES IN A CARRYING LIQUID


Forces acting on solid particles submerged in a liquid have their origin either in a
particle-liquid interaction or in a particle-particle interaction. Particles moving in a
conduit may also interact with a conduit boundary. The forces acting on a single
particle in a dilute suspension are the body forces. The particle-liquid body forces are
the buoyancy force, drag force and lift force. When a solid particle is transported in
the turbulent flow of a carrying liquid the turbulent diffusive force from carrier eddies
is an additional particle-liquid force. Forces acting on solid particles due to
particle-particle interaction are transmitted as the interparticle stress via the particle
contacts. Coulombic stresses occur in a granular body occupied by particles in
continuous contact. When a granular body is sheared and interparticle contacts are
only sporadic, Bagnold stresses are transmitted through the granular body.
1.2.1 Gravitational and buoyancy force

The body force due to gravitational acceleration is determined from the solid particle
volume and density. The gravitational force on a spherical solid particle of diameter d
is
d 3
(1.25).
FGp = s g
6

According Archimedes law, a solid particle immersed in a liquid obeys a buoyancy


effect, which reduces its weight in the carrying medium. The submerged weight of the
solid particle is a result of gravitational and buoyancy effects on the solid particle
immersed in the liquid. For a spherical particle the submerged weight is determined
by the expression
d 3
(1.26).
(
)
Fwp = s f g
6
FGp
FWp
s
f
g
d

gravitational force on a spherical particle


submerged weight of a spherical particle
density of solid particle
density of liquid
gravitational acceleration
diameter of a particle

[N]
[N]
[kg/m3]
[kg/m3]
[m/s2]
[m]

1.2.2 Drag force

When the surrounding liquid moves relative to a solid particle, an additional force is
exerted from the liquid onto the submerged particle. The drag force, FD, acts in the
direction of the relative velocity vr = vf - vs between the liquid and the solid particle.
The magnitude of the drag force is expressed in terms of the drag coefficient CD. This
comes from dimensional analysis of the function
FD = fn(f, f, d, vr)

(1.27).

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.13

It provides two dimensionless groups of parameters:


drag coefficient
8FD
CD =
d 2 v r v r f
and particle Reynolds number
f v r d
Re p =
f

(1.28)

(1.29)

giving CD = fn(Rep).
A balance of the gravitational, buoyancy and drag forces on the submerged solid
body determines a settling velocity of the body.

Figure 1.7. Force balance on a solid body submerged in a quiescent liquid.

An experimental determination of the drag coefficient is based on measurement of the


terminal settling velocity of a spherical particle, vts, in a quiescent liquid. Measured
vts is the relative velocity vr.

Figure 1.8. Drag coefficient as a function of particle Reynolds number.

Methods for a determination of particle settling velocity are discussed in Intermezzo I.

1.14

CHAPTER 1

1.2.3 Lift force

The lift force, FL, on a single solid particle is a product of simultaneous slip (given by
relative velocity vr = vf - vs) and particle rotation. The force (sometimes called the
Magnus force) acts in a direction normal to both the relative velocity vr and the
particle rotation vector. A particle rotation combined with a slip results in a lower
hydrodynamic pressure in flow above the particle than in that below the particle. Lift
force is due to this pressure gradient.

(a)
(b)
Figure 1.9. Lift force on a rotating solid body. (a) lift force on a rotating cylinder,
(b) the Saffman force, i.e. lift force due to shear and slip.
The lift force is most active near a pipeline wall where the velocity gradient is high.
However, the lift forces due to particle spin play a minor role in the majority of
mixture flow regimes compared to the Bagnold and Coulombic forces.
1.2.4 Turbulent diffusive force

Solid particles are also subject to additional liquid-solids interactions when they are
transported in a turbulent stream of the carrying liquid. An intensive exchange of
momentum and random velocity fluctuations in all directions are characteristic of the
turbulent flow of the carrying liquid in a pipeline. Scales of turbulence are attributed
to properties of the turbulent eddies developed within the turbulent stream. According
to Prandtl's picture of turbulence, the length of the turbulent eddy is given as the
distance over which the lump of liquid transports its momentum without losing its
identity, i.e. before the lump is mixed with liquid in a new location. This distance is
called the mixing length and since it is supposed to represent a mean free path of a
pulse of liquid within a structure of turbulent flow it is considered a length scale of
turbulence. A turbulent eddy is responsible for the transfer of momentum and mass in
a liquid flow. The instantaneous velocity of liquid at any point in the flowing liquid

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.15

and in arbitrary direction (x, y or z) is given by v = v + v' where v is the


time-averaged velocity and v' is the instantaneous fluctuation velocity. The turbulent
fluctuating component v' of the liquid velocity v is associated with a turbulent eddy.

It is well known that turbulent eddies are responsible for solid particle suspension.
The intensity of liquid turbulence is a measure of the ability of a carrying liquid to
suspend the particles. The size of the turbulent eddy and the size of the solid particle
are also important to the effectiveness of a suspension mechanism. The characteristic
size of turbulent eddies is assumed to depend on the pipeline diameter.

A low concentration suspension is described by using a classical turbulent diffusion


model of Schmidt and Rouse. The model was constructed as a flux balance per unit area
perpendicular to the vertical direction in a flow balancing the volumetric settling rate
(characterized by settling velocity vt) in a quiescent liquid and the diffusion flux
(characterized by the liquid velocity fluctuation in a vertical direction v'y, associated
with the length of a turbulent eddy, ML) (see Fig. 1.10). A characteristic value of the
v' y =
turbulent pulsative velocity ~
fluctuations in the y-direction.

v' 2y , i.e. the root mean square of velocity

ML

vy + vt
cv-(ML/2).dcv/dy
cv+(ML/2).dcv/dy
vy - vt

Figure 1.10. Mixing length model of particle exchange by turbulence.

The balance of

1
ML dc v ~
v' v
cv +
and

2 dy y t
2
1
ML dc v ~
v' + v
the downward flux per unit area = c v

2 dy y t
2
gives an equation
the upward flux per unit area =

dc v
= vt .cv
dy

(1.30)

ML ~
v' y .
when solids dispersion coefficient s =
2
Integration of Eq. 1.30 with s considered constant gives an exponential concentration
profile cv(y) as

CHAPTER 1

1.16

c v ( y) = C vb .exp

vt
y y b )
(
s

(1.31)

i.e. an exponential concentration variation with height, y, in a flow above a boundary


characterized by a position yb and a concentration cvb.
cv
cvb
vt
s
y
yb
ML
~
v' y

local concentration at the height y


known local concentration at the position yb
terminal settling velocity of a particle
solids dispersion coefficient
vertical distance from pipe wall defining
a position in a pipe cross section
vertical distance from pipe wall to boundary
mixing length
turbulent pulsative velocity in the y-direction

[-]
[-]
[m/s]
[m2/s]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m/s]

A turbulent diffusive force exerted on particles by turbulent eddies is obtained by


rewriting the Eq. 1.30 as a force balance between the turbulent diffusive force and the
submerged weight of the particles in a unit volume of slurry in a horizontal pipe. The
submerged weight is fg(Ss-1)cv so the turbulent dispersive force
s dc v
Ft = f g(S s 1)
v t dy

(1.32).

How to determine the solids dispersion coefficient, s, is a major problem connected


with the application of the turbulent diffusive model. The effect of distance from a
boundary and of the presence of solid particles in a turbulent stream on a local value
of s cannot be neglected. Further, the neighboring particles also affect the particle
settling velocity handled in the model.
1.2.5 Coulombic contact force

Sand/gravel particles are transported in dredging pipelines often in a form of a


granular bed sliding along a pipeline wall at the bottom of a pipeline. A mutual
contact between particles within a bed gives arise to intergranular forces transmitted
throughout a bed and via a bed contact with a pipeline wall also to the wall
Stress distribution in a granular body occupied by non-cohesive particles in
continuous contact is a product of the weight of grains occupying the body. The
intergranular pressure (or stress) from the weight of grains is transmitted within the
granular body via interparticle contacts. The stress has two components: an
intergranular normal stress and an intergranular shear stress. According to Coulomb's
law these two stresses are related by the coefficient of friction. Du Boys (1879)
applied Coulomb's law to sheared riverbeds. He related the intergranular normal
stress, s, and intergranular shear stress, s, at the bottom of a flowing bed by a
coefficient

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLOW OF LIQUID AND PARTICLES IN A PIPELINE 1.17

tan =

s
s
=
s f g(S s 1)C vb H s

s
s
Ss
Ysh
Cvb
f
g

angle of repose of the grains


intergranular normal stress
intergranular shear stress
specific gravity of solids, Ss= s/f
thickness of the sheared bed
maximum solids volume fraction of solids
in the granular bed, it is considered to be
valid for the sheared bed
density of liquid
gravitational acceleration

(1.33)
[-]
[Pa]
[Pa]
[-]
[m]
[-]
[kg/m3]
[m/s2]

The angle of repose, , is considered to be the angle at the internal failure of a static
granular body (Fig. 1.11). The value of this internal-friction coefficient is basically
dependent on the nature of the surface over which the grains start to move, i.e.
primarily on a grain size. When the granular bed motion takes place over a pipe wall,
the value of the bed-wall friction coefficient can be determined by a tilting tube test.

Figure 1.11. The angle of repose of a granular material.


1.2.6 Bagnold dispersive force

Sheared-bed particles flowing in the region of high shear rate maintain sporadic,
rather than continuous contact with each other, provided that solids concentration in
the sheared bed is considerably lower than the loose-poured bed concentration Cvb.

1.18

CHAPTER 1

The nature of an interparticle contact influences the relationship between the


intergranular stress components. It is appropriate to relate the particulate shear and
normal stresses in a granular body experiencing the rapid shearing by using a
coefficient of dynamic friction tan' instead of its static equivalent tan. Bagnold
(1954. 1956) measured and described the normal and tangential stresses in mixture
flows at high shear rates.
Bagnold's dispersive force is a product of intergranular collisions (particle - particle
interactions) in a sheared layer rich in particles. The direction of the force is normal to
the layer boundary on which it is acting. The force increases with increasing solids
concentration and shear rate in the sheared layer.

1.3 REFERENCES
Bagnold, R.A. (1954). Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid spheres
in a Newtonian liquid under shear, Proceedings Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A, 225, 4963.
Bagnold, R.A. (1956). The flow of cohesionless grains in liquids, Proceedings Roy.
Soc. (London), Ser. A, 249, 235-97.
Churchill S.W. (1977). Friction-factor equation spans all fluid-flow regimes.
Chemical Engineering, 84(24), 91-2.
Du Boys, P. (1879). tude du rgime du Rhne et de l'action exerce par les eaux sur
un lit fond de graviers indfiniment affouillable. Annales des Ponts et Chauses,
18(49 pt 2), pp. 141-95.
Longwell, P.A. (1966). Mechanics of Fluid Flow. McGraw-Hill.

1.4 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE


Shook, C.A. & Roco, M.C. (1991). Slurry Flow. Principles and Practice.
Butterworth-Heinemann.
Streeter, V.L. & Wylie, E.B. (1983). Fluid Mechanics. McGraw-Hill.