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1.

0 TITTLE
Engine Performance Test
2.0 OBJECTIVE
To determine the full load performance of a four stroke engine.
3.0 APPARATUS
PICTURE

ENGINE SPECIFICATION

i.

ii.

iii.
iv.

Ford 1.3L (petrol), 4 cylinder, 4


strokes, water cooled (tower cooling
system)
Ford 1.8L (diesel), 4 cylinder, 4
strokes, water cooled (tower cooling
system)
Bore : 77.8mm
Stroke : 82.5mm

4.0 THEORY
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally
a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral
part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) the expansion
of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply
direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically
to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance,
transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially
successful internal combustion engine was created by tienne Lenoir.
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is
intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with
variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of
internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and
most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as
previously described.
The ICE is quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling
engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or
contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized
water or even liquid sodium, heated in some kind of boiler. ICEs are usually powered by
energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there

are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the
dominant power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats.
Types of internal combustion engine :
Engines can be classified in many different ways. By the engine cycle used, the layout
of the engine, source of energy, the use of the engine, or by the cooling system employed.
Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration.
Common layouts of engines are:
Reciprocating:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Two-stroke engine
Four-stroke engine (Otto cycle)
Six-stroke engine
Diesel engine
Atkinson cycle
Miller cycle

Rotary:
i.

Wankel engine

Continuous combustion:
i.
ii.

Gas turbine
Jet engine (including turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, Rocket, etc.)
Force = Torque (Nm) / Radius of Dynamometer (m), (N)
Brake Power (BP) = (2
Brake Effective Pressure (Pb) = (4

Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are electric currents induced
within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor. These circulating eddies of
current have inductance and thus induce magnetic fields. These fields can cause repulsion,
attraction, propulsion, drag, and heating effects. The stronger the applied magnetic field, the
greater the electrical conductivity of the conductor, and the faster the field changes, the
greater the currents that are developed and the greater the fields produced.
The term eddy current comes from analogous currents seen in water when dragging
an oar breadthwise: localised areas of turbulence known as eddies give rise to persistent
vortices. Somewhat analogously, eddy currents can take time to build up and can persist for
very short times in conductors due to their inductance.
Eddy currents in conductors of non-zero resistivity generate heat as well as
electromagnetic forces. The heat can be used for induction heating. The electromagnetic

forces can be used for levitation, creating movement, or to give a strong braking effect. Eddy
currents can also have undesirable effects, for instance power loss in transformers. In this
application, they are minimized with thin plates, by lamination of conductors or other details
of conductor shape.
Self-induced eddy currents are responsible for the skin effect in conductors. The latter can
be used for non-destructive testing of materials for geometry features, like micro-cracks. A
similar effect is the proximity effect, which is caused by externally-induced eddy currents.

5.0 PROCEDURE
5.1 SAFETY PROCEDURE
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).


Wear appropriate protective clothing. Do not wear open-toed shoes,
sandals, shorts or shirts with dangling sleeves. Tie back long hair and
avoid dangling jewellery.
Clean workstation after each lab period, and return all materials to
appropriate stations before leaving the lab.
Avoid all horseplay in the laboratory.
Read all procedures and associated safety information prior to the start of
an experiment.
Perform only those experiments authorized by the supervisor.

5.2 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE


i.
ii.

iii.

The engine was started and warm-up as recommended.


Throttle opening was increased and the dynamometer load until the engine
is operating at full throttle and maximum rotational speed without the
engine laboring.
The reading was taken before the engine condition was allowed to
stabilize.

6.0 RESULTS / DATA


No

Demand

Speed
(rpm)

Torque
(Nm)

Force
(N)

1
2
3
4
5

0
30
50
70
90

22.94
1137
938
593
513

2.5
27
39.5
54.5
60.5

40
108
158
218
242

Brake
Power
(kW)

Brake
Effective
Pressure,
Pb (Bar)
600.6
0.2
3214.8
2.2
3880
3.2
3076.2
4.4
3250.1
4.9

Fuel
(ml)

Time
(sec)

f
(kg/s)

50
50
50
50
50

85
87
94
111
129

0.00059
0.00057
0.00053
0.00045
0.00039

7.0 CONCLUSION
7.1 Plot the following graph :
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4

Force against Speed


Brake Power (BP) against Speed
Brake Effective Pressure (Pb) against Speed
Fuel Consumption (f) against Speed

7.2 Discussion and Conclusion


In this introductory practical of engine test it is observed that what the diesel
and petrol engine analyse is and how it works, and also the main parts of the
engine analyse 4 stroke diesel engine. And how to run a diesel and petrol engine
analyser and got reading procedure. And measurement of speed, torque, force,
brake power, brake effective pressure, fuel and time and their relationship and by
plotting them on graph and checks the curves behaviour between them. Finally, it
is concluded that the practical is performed successfully.
8.0 REFERENCE
i.
ii.
iii.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
http://afzairizal.blogspot.com/search/label/Enjin%20Pembakaran%20Dalam
http://www.slideshare.net/RajaAli5/lab-report-ic-engine-03

300
250

force

200
150
100

Linear ()

50
0
0

500

1000

1500

Speed

1.
4500
4000

Brake Power

3500
3000
2500

Brake Power (kW)

2000
1500

Linear (Brake Power


(kW))

1000
500
0
0

500

1000

1500

Speed

2.
Brake Effective Pressure, (Bar)

6
5
4
3

Brake Effective
Pressure, Pb (Bar)

Linear (Brake Effective


Pressure, Pb (Bar))

1
0
0

500

1000

Speed (rpm)

3.

1500

0.0007

Fuel Consumption (mf)

0.0006
0.0005
0.0004
f (kg/s)

0.0003

Linear (f (kg/s))

0.0002
0.0001
0
0

500

1000

Speed (rpm)

4.

1500