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Refrigeration

and
Air conditioning

Lesson Plan

Vapour compression refrigeration cycle ( Absorption type refrigeration system )


Principle components
Pressure - Enthalpy chart
superheating & sub-cooling
Heat exchanger
Coefficient of performance ( COP )
System Capacity
Direct and Indirect Expansion System
Back Pressure Regulating valve
Types of compressors
Oil Separator
Filter/Drier
Throttling device
Capacity control Method

Basic refrigeration cycle:

Heat energy flows from a hot region to a cooler region.


Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (close system) uses a
circulating refrigerant as a medium which
1) absorbs & removes heat from space to be cooled
2) rejects the heat at the condenser

Cold
room
cooler
Cooling
water
Heat energy

Refrigerant flow

Vapour Compression System


Liquid receiver

4 numbers principle components :

Heat out

(1) Evaporator

Liquid

Condenser

(2) Compressor
(3) Condenser

High Pressure Side

Hot Gas

Expansion (4)

Compressor

Expansion Valve

valve
Low Pressure Side

In a closed circuit system with


Low pressure (LP) &
Evaporator
Gas
Heat in

High pressure (HP) zone


respectively

Vapour Compression System


Liquid receiver

EVAPORATOR:

Heat out

1) The evaporator coils are


located in the compartment to
be cooled.

Liquid

Condenser

High Pressure Side

Hot Gas
Compressor

Expansion
valve
Low Pressure Side

Evaporator
Gas
Heat in

2) The LP liquid refrigerant


passes thru the coils , takes in
heat from the surrounding and
evaporates ie becoming LP
refrigerant gas.

Vapour Compression System


Liquid receiver

COMPRESSOR :

Heat out

1) Compresses the refrigerant


(gaseous state).

Liquid

Condenser

2) Raising its Temperature &


Pressure.

High Pressure Side

Hot Gas
Compressor

Expansion
valve
Low Pressure Side

Evaporator
Gas
Heat in

3) Discharges HP refrigerant gas


to the Condenser.

Vapour Compression System


Liquid receiver

LIQUEFACTION:

Heat out

1) Hot refrigerant gas is cooled in


the condenser ie heat is
removed ,with transformation
of HP refrigerant gas to HP
refrigerant liquid.

Liquid

Condenser

High Pressure Side

Hot Gas
Compressor

Expansion
valve
Low Pressure Side

Evaporator
Gas
Heat in

2) Condensed liquid refrigerant


flows into a receiver.

Vapour Compression System


Liquid receiver

EXPANSION:

Heat out

1) The expansion valve acting as


a regulating valve, limits the
amount of liquid refrigerant
flowing through.

Liquid

Condenser

High Pressure Side

Hot Gas
Compressor

Expansion
valve
Low Pressure Side

Evaporator
Gas
Heat in

2) Reduction in pressure of the


HP liquid refrigerant ,ie LP
liquid refrigerant flowing
towards the evaporating coils.

P-H chart ( Pressure Enthalpy chart )


Saturated liquid line

Saturated vapour
line

Sub-cooled
region

Sub cooled
Liquid liquid
vapour
mixture

Pressure Absolute pressure


Unit : bar , psi
Enthalpy Total amount of energy
per unit weight of substance.
Unit : BTU / Lb or kJ / kg

The lines ,saturated liquid & vapour


respectively are plots of pressure vs
enthalpy for the saturated state of a
given refrigerant.

This chart is used to understand the


property changes that takes place
in each phase of the cycle.

Superheated
region

Refrigeration Cycle :
Pressure-Enthalpy graph
Enthalpy Total amount of energy per unit
weight of substance.
Unit : BTU / Lb or kJ / kg
Entropy Measure of heat dispersion in a
system divided by temperature.
Unit : BTU / Lb / deg change
or kJ / kg / deg change for a
substance.

Ideal Refrigeration Cycle :


Pressure-Enthalpy chart

P2

Sub cooled liquid

Liquid vapour
mixture

Pressure

(absolute)

Ideal Refrigeration Cycle : Pressure Enthalpy chart

P1
1

Enthalpy ( BTU / lbs or KJ / kg )

Superheated
vapour

Refrigeration Cycle :
Pressure-Enthalpy chart
Non ideal Refrigeration Cycle : Pressure Enthalpy chart , showing
superheating & sub cooling

Pressure (absolute)

Vapour to Liquid
Sub cooled liquid
4

Superheated

transformation
in
Liquid vapour
mixture
CONDENSER

Superheated
vapour

subcooling

Throttling at
expansion
valve

Liquid vapour
mixture
1

Work done in the


compressor

Liquid to Vapour

Transformation in

superheated

EVAPORATOR
Enthalpy ( BTU / lbs or KJ / kg )

Non ideal Refrigeration Cycle : Pressure Enthalpy chart , showing superheating & sub cooling

Vapour to Liquid
Pressure (absolute)

Sub cooled liquid

Superheated vapour

transformation in
CONDENSER

4
Throttling at
expansion
valve

Liquid vapour
mixture

Work done in the


compressor

Liquid to Vapour

Transformation in
H1

EVAPORATOR

H2

H3

Enthalpy ( BTU / lbs or KJ / kg )

The amount of heat that the refrigerant absorb being equal to the cooling load.
(1) Refrigerant cooling load ( F ) = cooling load / ( H2 H1)
(2) Work done by compressor = F x ( H3 H2 )
(3) Heat rejected by condenser = F x ( H3 H1 )
(4) Heat absorbed by evaporator = F x ( H2 H1 )
Coefficient of Performance (COP) = heat absorbed by refrigerant / Energy required driving compressor
= ( H2 H1) / ( H3 H2)

Pressure-Enthalpy chart
1-2 : EVAPORATOR extraction of heat from room
2-3 : COMPRESSOR compression work

For each kg of refrigerant flow ,

3-4 : CONDENSER energy thrown to sea

Energy extracted from meat room : 304 - 150 = 154 KJ / kg

4-1 : EXPANSION VALVE throttling at the expansion valve

Work spent on compressor = 365 304 = 61 KJ / Kg

Coefficient of Performance ( COP ) =

Pressure

Energy extracted from room / Energy spent

( bar )
Vapour to Liquid

transformation in

16

= 154 / 61 or 2.52

CONDENSER at 42 deg C

Throttling at
expansion valve
Work done in the
compressor

3.2

Liquid to Vapour

Transformation in
EVAPORATOR at -13 deg C

150

304

365

Enthalpy ( KJ / kg of refrigerant )

Pressure Enthalpy chart , of a practical


cycle (refer to page 8)
Effects of pressure loss resulting from
friction.

Refrigeration system capacity


Rate at which the system removes heat.
The Rate depends :
(1) mass of refrigerant circulated per unit time
(2) refrigerating effect per unit mass circulated

Two systems employed:


Direct Expansion System
Indirect expansion system
aka Brine System

Direct Expansion System : Provisional Refrigeration System Thermostat


Purging
line

To FISH ROOM

Condenser

Solenoid
Drier

receiver

expansion valve

stop valve

Cooling water in / out

Oil return to
compressor sump

HP pressure switch

To VEGETABLE
ROOM

Evaporator

Capillary tube

Oil separator

Fan / blower

T1

Sight glass

Bulb
HP pressure gauge

T2
Oil pressure gauge
Refrigerant
compressor

MEAT ROOM

Oil pressure switch


Temperature
sensor
LP pressure gauge

Back pressure
regulating valve
From FISH ROOM

LP pressure switch
From VEGETABLE
ROOM
: Refrigerant flow

Indirect Expansion (Brine System)

Thermostat

Brine
header
tank

Condenser / Receiver
Solenoid
stop valve
expansion valve

Drier
Cooling water in / out

Evaporator

Capillary tube

Oil separator

pump

T1

Sight glass

Oil return to
compressor sump
Bulb
HP pressure switch

T2
Refrigerant
compressor

Oil pressure switch

Temperature
sensor

LP pressure switch

: Refrigerant flow

Secondary refrigerant
to various
compartment

Back pressure regulating valve

Normally fitted to higher temperature rooms, ie the vegetable room


not for the fish room or meat room.

Purpose :
Act as system balancing diverters
a) When all solenoid valves are opened, the valve restrict liquid flowing into the vegetable room &
therefore deliver the bulk to the colder rooms.
b) Limits the pressure drops across the expansion valve by giving a set minimum pressure in the
evaporator coil. Prevents cold air blowing directly onto delicate vegetables.

Refrigerant Compressor types:

Reciprocating
Rotary
Centrifugal
Screw

Oil Separator
Gas from
compressor
Gas to
condenser

Internal
baffles

Oil to
compressor
crankcase

Oil

Page 12

Float

Liquid-line Filter / Drier


Course filter to remove
large particles

Drying agent : silica gel


or activated alumina

Refrigerant in

Clean,dry refrigerant

Desiccant
(dehydrating material)

Felt pad
Fine filter to remove small
particles

Page 13

Condenser:
Air cooled type up to 5 hp
Large capacity shell & tube type , SW
cool
Tubes aluminium brass (option ext. fins)
Water velocity < 2.5 m/s minimise erosion
Anodes avoid corrosion non ferrous
metals

Throttling device:
Metering of refrigerant rate suitable to maintain
designed operating pressures at different load.
Maintain pressure differential between HP & LP side.
The pressure of the refrigerant is reduced as it passes through the small orifice
of the throttling device. With the reduction in pressure, the corresponding
boiling point of the liquid is reduced.

Types of throttling devices:

Hand expansion valves


Automatic constant pressure expansion valve
Thermostatic expansion valve
Externally equalized expansion valve
Pressure balancing expansion valve
Expansion valves with centrifugal type distributors
Flow control device for flooded evaporators

Expansion valve
automatic expansion valve
thermostatic expansion valve
externally equalised thermostatic
expansion valve

Automatic expansion valve


Adjusting screw for
altering spring pressure
Spring
pressure
Opening
action

Refrigerant OUT
Spring
diaphram

Refrigeration
pressure
Closing
action

Liquid Refrigerant
IN

Throttling
Orifice

Evaporator

Page 18

Thermostatic expansion valve


(TEV)
Refrigerant

bulb

Refrigerant OUT
(slightly superheated gas)

diaphram

Throttling
orifice

Liquid Refrigerant
IN

spring

Evaporator

Adjusting screw to alter


spring tension

Page 19

External equalised thermostatic


expansion valve

Page 20

Capacity control methods


To maintain constant temperature, a constant pressure must be present in the
EVAPORATOR.
Ideally, the compressor should remove from the EVAPORATOR exactly the
volume of refrigerant that boils off in it. Change in loading : change in quantity
of boiling off the refrigerant.

Manual start/stop

Inlet guide vane


centrifugal compressor

Speed variation
Cylinder unloading
reciprocating compressor

Suction side throttling


centrifugal compressor

Hot gas bypass


Compressor in parallel
Slide valve
Screw compressor - control
effective working length of rotor.

Unloading device
Cylinder for unloading
mechanism

Cylinder cover
Oil separator
Safety spring
Spring
Delivery valve
Suction valve
Piston
Refrigerant flow
To crankcase

Refrigerant flow

Liner

Unloader

Capacity
regulator
Spring
Oil Pressure
gauge

Suction valve
Pin

Piston

Ring

Suction pressure

Unloader
Oil pressure
switch

Lubricating oil pressure

Ball joint
Cylinder for unloading
mechanism

To internal oil
passages in
crankshaft
Stop valve

Stop valve with


orifice plate

Filter
Solenoid valve

Attached pump

Oil strainer

No oil pressure

Screw compressor
DRIVE
SHAFT

INLET

LOBES
Max

Min
DISCHARGE
PORT

UNLOADING
PISTON

BYPASS
GAS
CYLINDER

SLIDE VALVE

NORMAL LOADING
Page 12

OUTLET

Screw compressor
DRIVE
SHAFT

INLET

LOBES
Max

Min
DISCHARGE
PORT

UNLOADING
PISTON

BYPASS
GAS
CYLINDER

OUTLET
SLIDE VALVE

REDUCE LOADING