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AQA Additional Science

Biology

2.5 Proteins

Steve Bishop
December 2013

B2.5 Proteins their functions and uses


Proteins have many functions, both inside and outside the cells of living organisms. Proteins,
as enzymes, are now used widely in the home and in industry.

You should be able to:


evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes in the home and in
industry.

Key words
Proteins

Small intestine

Amino acids

Protease

Hormones

Lipase

Antibodies

Acid

Catalyst

Alkali

pH values

Liver

Glands

Bile

Amalayse

Carbohydrase

Salivary glands

Isomerase

Pancreas

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B2.5.1 Proteins
a) Protein molecules are made
up of long chains of amino
acids. These long chains
are folded to produce a
specific shape that enables
other molecules to fit into
the protein.

Proteins act as:


structural components of tissues such as muscles

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Muscle cells contain interlinking protein fibres.

These interact when the muscle contract.

hormones
o

Some hormones are proteins.

Example: insulin

Hormones are released into the blood from glands.

They have specific shapes, and attach to molecules on the cell membrane of
specific target cells.

Eg when the blood sugar levels increase, insulin is released from the
pancreas. It attaches to the cell membrane of cells in the liver, and this
causes them to increase rate of glucose uptake.

antibodies

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Antibodies are made of proteins.

They are released by white blood cells.

They have a specific shape that attaches to antigens.

Antigens are chemicals that pathogens carry or release.

The antibody prevents the pathogens from damaging our own cells.

catalysts.
o

Proteins act as biological catalysts called enzymes.

These control and sequence all of the reactions that occur inside and outside
cells in all living organisms.

b) Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions. Biological catalysts are called enzymes.
Enzymes are proteins.

B2.5.2 Enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts.
Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions.
Enzymes are protein molecules made up of long chains of amino acids.
These long chains are folded to produce a special shape which enables other molecules
to fit into the enzyme.
This shape is vital for the enzymes function.
Normally only one type of molecule (the substrate) will fit into the enzyme.
The active site is the part of the enzyme which the substrate fits into

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a) The shape of an enzyme is vital for the enzymes function. High temperatures change the
shape.
Like most chemical reactions, the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions increases as the
temperature increases.
The enzyme and substrates move around faster so they collide more often.
The temperature when the enzyme is working fastest is called the optimum.
This is true up to approximately 40C, higher than this and the structure of the enzyme
changes.
As a result, the active site becomes a different shape and the substrate no longer fits.
It is then described as denatured.

b) Different enzymes work best at different pH values.


pH can also affect the shape of the active site.
It does this by affecting the forces that hold the enzyme molecule together.
A change in pH denature the enzyme.
Different enzymes work best at different pH values.
Eg. Stomach enzymes work best in acidic conditions.
Mouth enzymes work best in neutral conditions.

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c) Some enzymes work outside the body cells. The digestive enzymes are produced by
specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. The enzymes then pass out of the
cells into the gut where they come into contact with food molecules. They catalyse the
breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.
Digestion

Some enzymes work outside the body cells.


These are called extracellular enzymes.
The digestive enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and in the lining of
the gut.
The enzymes then pass out of the cells into the gut where they come into contact with
food molecules.
They catalyse the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.
Digestion is the process where food is broken down into substances the body can
absorb.
Nutrition is the process of taking in and using food.

Digestion in the mouth

Food is chewed to create a larger surface area for the action of enzymes.
Saliva is released which contains amylase.
Amylase digests starch into smaller sugars (maltose).
Further chewing enables swallowing.
The food enters the oesophagus.

Digestion in the stomach

Food enters the stomach from the oesophagus.


The walls of our stomach produce juice.
This juice contains:
o A protease enzyme (called pepsin).
This digests proteins into amino acids.
o Hydrochloric acid this kills bacteria in our food. It creates pH3.
o Mucus this protects the wall of our stomach from acid and pepsin.
The wall of our stomach is muscular, and churns our food.
The food remains in our stomach for a few hours. The proteins are digested.
Food leaves our stomach in small squirts into the small intestine.

Digestion and absorption in the small intestine


The small intestine has 2 main jobs:

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To complete the digestion of the food


To absorb the soluble products of digestion into the blood.

Digestion in the small intestine


3 juices are released: bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice
1. Bile

Produced by the liver.


Stored in the gall bladder.
Released into the small intestine.
2 main things in bile:
o Alkali to neutralise the stomach acid
o Bile salts which convert large fat droplets to small fat droplets for a large
surface area for the enzymes to act on.
o There are no enzymes in bile.

2. Pancreatic juice and


3. Intestinal juice
o
o

Both are released into the small intestine.


Both contain 3 main enzymes:
o Amylase to complete the digestion of starch into sugars.
o Protease to complete the digestion of proteins into amino acids.
o Lipase to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol

d) The enzyme amylase is produced in the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small
intestine. This enzyme catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars in the mouth and small
intestine.

e) Protease enzymes are produced by the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine.
These enzymes catalyse the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and the
small intestine.

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f) Lipase enzymes are produced by the pancreas and small intestine. These enzymes
catalyse the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol in the small
intestine.

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Enzyme

Where produced?

Role

Amylase

Protease

Lipase

g) The stomach also produces hydrochloric acid. The enzymes in the stomach work most
effectively in these acid conditions.
h) The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before being released into the
small intestine.
Bile neutralises the acid that is added to food in the stomach. This provides alkaline
conditions in which enzymes in the small intestine work most effectively.

i) Some microorganisms produce enzymes that pass out of the cells. These enzymes have
many uses in the home and in industry.
In the home:
biological detergents may contain protein-digesting and fat-digesting enzymes
(proteases and lipases)
biological detergents are more effective at low temperatures than other types of
detergents.

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Advantages

Disadvantages

These are more efficient at removing stains


from clothes.

If the clothes are not fully rinsed, protease


enzymes may remain in the clothes, which
digests protein in the skin.

Lower washing temperatures can be used


which saves energy.

This can lead to irritation, allergies and


dermatitis.

In industry:
proteases are used to pre-digest the protein in some baby foods
This reduces how much the baby needs to digest the food
carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup
This is cheaper than extracting sugar from sugar cane
isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is much
sweeter and therefore can be used in smaller quantities in slimming foods.
j) In industry, enzymes are used to bring about reactions at normal temperatures and
pressures that would otherwise require expensive, energy-demanding equipment. However,
most enzymes are denatured at high temperatures and many are costly to produce.
Advantages

Disadvantages

Enzymes enable industrial reactions to take


place at lower temperatures.

Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and


pH changes.

Supplying heat is expensive. When


enzymes are used, industrial processes can
be cheaper.

Temperature and pH need to be carefully


monitored and controlled, which can be
expensive.

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Enzymes
1. Enzymes .. up the rate of chemical ..
2. Enzymes are .. because they only work on one substrate.

3. The substrate fits into the .. site of the surface of the ...
4. With an increase in .. the rate of reaction ..
5. Enzymes can be re-used, so only .. amounts are needed.
6. To which group of chemical compounds do enzymes belong? ..
7. Why is an enzyme specific for a particular substrate?
..........
8. Why can an enzyme be used again and again?
......

9. Name two enzymes that work best in acidic conditions?


....
....
Which enzyme works best in alkaline conditions?

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..

10. What does the graph tell you about the range of pH over which each enzyme is active?

..........
..........
..........
..........

11. A number of factors can alter the rate of an enzyme- controlled reaction. Say what each
of the following would do to the rate of reaction and give your reasons.
An increase in enzyme concentration
........
........
A decrease in temperature
........
........
A lowering of pH
........
........

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12 Lipase is an enzyme that breaks down fats. We can use an indicator to follow this
reaction. The indicator is red to start with but turns yellow when all the fat has been broken
down. Look at the results table below.
Test-tube

Temp (oC)

Red

Red

10

Red

Orange

40

Red

Yellow

60

Red

Orange

100

Red

Red

Original colour

What is the optimum temperature for lipase?

Final colour

..

Why do you think the colour didnt change in test tube 1?


........
Why do you think the colour didnt change in test tube 5?
........
Predict what you think would happen if you warmed test tubes 1 and 5 up to 40 oC. Try to
explain your prediction.
..........
..........
.............

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13 Which enzymes work on carbohydrates?


14. Which enzymes work on proteins?
15. Which enzymes work on fats?

..

..

..

Name the products which are formed in each case.


..........
..........
Name 3 functions of bile
..........
..........
..........
In 1989 a new fat digesting enzyme was found in a fungus. Its optimum pH is 7.5. It can act
at low temperatures and after a few days, breaks down into carbon dioxide, nitrogen and
water. Give 2 reasons why this enzyme is now used in washing powder
..........
..........
Why would a washing powder of high pH or low pH be difficult to handle?
..........
..........

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Complete the diagram below to show how the three main food groups are broken down
during digestion.
Amylase

Amino acids

Fat

Protein

Lipase

Carbohydrate eg starch

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Fatty acids

Glycerol

Maltose

Protease

Enzyme questions

A, B, C, D and E are the names of enzymes or groups of enzymes. The


numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 refer to the functions or uses of each of these enzymes.
Match each letter with the appropriate number.
A

Lipase

Used in the manufacture of baby foods

Amylase

Group of enzymes that act on carbohydrates

Proteases

Its substrate is starch

Isomerase

Used in the production of slimming foods

Carbohydrases

The products of its catalytic action are glycerol and

fatty acids
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Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of starch into sugar.


(a) To which of the following groups of food does starch belong?
carbohydrates

fats

protein

vitamins ............................

(b) Give the names of the three organs in the human body that secrete the
enzyme amylase.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

The graph above shows the effect of temperature on the activity of amylase.
(c) (i) At what temperature did the amylase work fastest?
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....................................................................................................................................
(ii) Why did the amylase not work above 56C?
....................................................................................................................................
(iii) State one other factor apart from temperature that will affect the rate of
reaction of amylase.
....................................................................................................................................
3

In the making of cheese, a commercially prepared form of an enzyme called


rennin is used to make the protein in milk more solid. Rennin is an enzyme that
is produced naturally in the stomachs of young mammals. The owner of a
cheese-making factory wanted to use a different source of rennin. She needed to
find out the best temperature to use for the new rennin. She planned to set up 20
test tubes. All would have 20 cm3 of milk in them: half with the rennin added (A)
and half to be left without rennin (B). One tube of each type would be left in a
water bath until one of them clotted. When this happened, the time taken would
be recorded.

(a) Construct a table that could be used by the owner.

(b) Fill in the table to show the range of temperatures she might use.
(c) Fill in the table to show the interval for the independent variable.
(d) Suggest how the owner might know when the milk is clotted.
..........................................................................................................................................
(e) Would you suggest that she repeats her results? Explain your answer.
..........................................................................................................................................
(f) Why do you think she used tubes A and B at each temperature?
..........................................................................................................................................
4

Bile is a greenish liquid that plays an important role in the digestion of food.
(a) In which organ is bile produced?
..........................................................................................................................................
(b) Where is bile stored in the body?
..........................................................................................................................................

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(c) Into which region of the digestive system is bile released?


..........................................................................................................................................
(d) Describe how bile is involved in the digestion of fats.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
(e) What is the name of the enzyme that digests fats?
..........................................................................................................................................
(f) Name two places where this enzyme is produced in the body.
..........................................................................................................................................

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Q1.

Babies find it difficult to digest proteins in their food.


Baby food manufacturers use enzymes to pre-digest the
protein in baby food.

(a)

Use words from the box to complete the following


sentences.
amino acids

amylases

proteases

glucose

fatty acids
lipases

Proteins are pre-digested using enzymes called .........................................


The pre-digestion of protein produces ...........................................................
(2)

(b)

A baby food manufacturer uses enzyme V to pre-digest protein.


He tries four new
enzymes, W, X, Y and Z, to see if he
can reduce the time taken to predigest the protein.
The graph shows the time taken for
the enzymes to completely predigest the protein.
The manufacturer uses the same
concentration of enzyme and the
same mass of protein in each
experiment.

(i)

How long did it take enzyme V to pre-digest the protein?


................ minutes

(ii)

(1)

Which enzyme, V, W, X, Y or Z, would you advise the baby food manufacturer to


use?

Enzyme
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

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Q2.

The diagram shows the apparatus used to investigate the digestion of milk fat by an
enzyme. The reaction mixture contained milk and the
enzyme.
In Experiment 1, bile was also added.
In Experiment 2, an equal volume of water replaced
the bile.
In each experiment, the pH was recorded at 2 minute
intervals.

The results of the two experiments are given in the table.


pH
Time in minutes

(a)

Experiment 1: with bile

Experiment 2: without bile

9.0

9.0

8.8

9.0

8.7

9.0

8.1

8.8

7.7

8.6

10

7.6

8.2

Milk fat is a type of lipid.


Explain why the pH changed in experiment 2.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b)

(i)

For Experiment 1, calculate the average rate of fall in pH per minute, between 4
minutes and 8 minutes.
Show clearly how you work out your final answer.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
................................. pH units per minute
(2)

(ii)

The average rate of fall in pH per minute for Experiment 2 was 0.1 units of pH per
minute.
Explain the difference in the rate of fall in pH when bile is present.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Q3.

A manufacturer of slimming foods is investigating the effectiveness of carbohydrases from


different microorganisms.
Iodine solution is a pale golden brown, transparent
solution. Starch reacts with iodine to form a dark blue
mixture.
Known concentrations of starch are added to iodine
solution. The mixture is placed in a colorimeter which
measures the percentage of light passing through the
mixture.
Graph 1 shows the results.

(a)

Explain why less light passes through the mixture when the starch is more concentrated.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

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(b)

The manufacturer adds carbohydrase from each of three different


microorganisms, A, Band C, to starch in flasks at 40 C.
Every minute a sample of the mixture is added to iodine solution and placed in the
colorimeter.
Graph 2 shows these results.

(i)

When the concentration of starch reaches 2 %, digestion is considered to be


sufficient for the next stage in the manufacture of the slimming food.
How long does this take for the most effective carbohydrase?
Show clearly how you work out your answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
.............................. minutes
(2)

(ii)

Explain why the manufacturer carried out the investigation at 40 C.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(c)

Carbohydrases convert starch into glucose. To complete the manufacture of the slimming
food the glucose should be converted into fructose.
(i)

Name the enzyme which would be used to convert glucose into fructose.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain why fructose, rather than glucose, is used in slimming foods.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

Q4.

The diagram shows an industrial process.


Containers X and Y contain enzymes.

(a) Starch syrup slowly trickles into container X.The enzymes in


container X convert the starch into glucose (sugar).The enzymes
container Y convert the glucose into fructose.

in

The equation shows what happens in containers X and Y.


Enzyme A
starch

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Enzyme B
glucose

fructose

Choose words from the box to name enzyme A and enzyme B.

carbohydrase

isomerase

lipase

protease

Enzyme A ................................................
Enzyme B ................................................
(2)

(b)

Fructose syrup is much sweeter than glucose syrup.


Why do manufacturers of slimming foods use fructose syrup rather than glucose syrup?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Here are some of the properties of enzymes:

they all work at atmospheric pressures

they are easily broken down by high temperature or the wrong pH

they are soluble in water, so it may be difficult to separate them from products

they are expensive to buy

they work well at 25 45 C.

Use only the information above to answer these questions.


(i)

Give two advantages of using enzymes in industry.


1 .......................................................................................................................
2 .......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Give two disadvantages of using enzymes in industry.


1 .......................................................................................................................
2 .......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

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Q5.

Enzymes are used in biological detergents.


(a)

Name the type of enzyme that digests stains containing fats.


....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

A new detergent is marketed as being environmentally-friendly.


Scientists compared the performance of this new detergent with an existing detergent.
They measured the time taken by the two detergents to remove a fat stain at different
temperatures.
The graph shows their results.

(i)

Describe the effect of increasing the temperature on the time taken by the existing
detergent to remove the stain.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

The new detergent works at a lower temperature than the existing one.
Is the new detergent likely to be more environmentally-friendly than the existing
detergent?
Draw a ring around your answer.

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Yes / No

Explain the reason for your answer.


..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Neither detergent works well at 60 C.


Explain why.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

Q6.

Fermentation of sugar by yeast produces carbon dioxide.


The graph shows the effect of temperature on the production of carbon dioxide by fermentation.

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(a)

By how much did the volume of carbon dioxide collected change when the temperature
was raised from 30C to 40C?

................................................................................. cm3
(1)

(b)

Complete the sentences to explain the shape of the curve between X and Y.
Raising the temperature .................................. the speed of the reacting particles.
These particles collide more ................................... and more ............................. .
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

Q7.

We use enzymes in industry. These are some of the properties of enzymes:

they work at low temperatures and this can save energy

they work at atmospheric pressures and therefore use less expensive equipment

they are easily broken down by high temperature or the wrong pH

they are soluble in water, so it is difficult to separate them from water-soluble products

they are very expensive to buy.

(a)

Use the information above to answer this question.


(i)

Give two advantages of using enzymes in industry.


1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(ii)

Give two disadvantages of using enzymes in industry.


1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

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(b)

Different enzymes have different jobs:

protease enzymes break down proteins so that they are easier to digest

lipase enzymes break down fats

carbohydrase enzymes break down starch into sugar for energy drinks

isomerase enzymes break down glucose into fructose which is much sweeter.

Which enzyme is used:


(i)

to help to get greasy stains out of clothes? ................................................................

(ii)

in making slimming foods? ........................................................................................

(iii)

in making baby foods? ...............................................................................................


(3)
(Total 7 marks)

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The language of
science - crossword

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