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NYAME AKUMA

No .13

November 1978.

Newsletter of t h e S o c i e t y of A f r i c a n i s t A r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n America.
E d i t e d by P.L. S h i n n i e and i s s u e d from t h e Department of Archaeology,
The U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, Calgary, A l b e r t a , T2N 1N4, Canada. Typing
and e d i t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e by Ama Omsua S h i n n i e .

-------------

The p r e s e n t c i r c u l a t i o n of Nyame Akuma i s 160 ( s u b s c r i p t i o n s and


f r e e c o p i e s ) as compared w i t h 309 when it was i s s u e d f r e e . I f i n d
t h i s somewhat d i s a p p o i n t i n g , b u t i n l i n e with what I s a i d i n t h e
e d i t o r i a l n o t e s t e 110.12, s i n c e we a r e over t h e 150 f i g u r e I w i l l
continue t o i s s u e t h e n e w s l e t t e r s o l o n g as it seems wanted. I am
s u r p r i s e d t h a t 149 of our former r e a d e r s have n o t wished t o s u b s c r i b e ,
b u t even more s u r p r i s e d t h a t 25 of t h o s e who may be e l i g i b l e f o r f r e e
c o p i e s have n o t thought it worthwhile t o a s k . Most of t h e s e a r e i n
A f r i c a and I a m e s p e c i a l l y s o r r y t h a t young African a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a r e
d e p r i v i n g themselves u n n e c e s s a r i l y .
L e t t e r s a s k i n g f o r news i t e m s went o u t t o a l l 309 on t h e o r i g i n a l
l i s t and a f u r t h e r paragraph s u g g e s t i n g s u b s c r i p t i o n w a s i n t e n d e d t o be
s e n t t o t h e 149 non-subscribers. I n a few c a s e s t h i s l e t t e r was p u t i n
t h e wrong envelopes and people who had a l r e a d y p a i d were asked t o do s o
a g a i n . My a p o l o g i e s t o t h o s e who were t h u s inconvenienced.
The SAAAM meeting w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n Calgary on 2 1 s t and 22nd
A p r i l 1979, A s e p a r a t e s h e e t i s i n c l u d e d and I would be g r a t e f u l i f
t h o s e i n t e n d i n g t o come would complete t h e form and send it t o :

M r . F. Kense
Department of Archaeology
U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary
Calgary A l b e r t a
T2N I N 4 Canada.
Dr.J. Bower of Iowa S t a t e
Committee wishes it t o be made
s u g g e s t i o n of 2 8 t h , 29th A p r i l
apologise
f o r g i v i n g a wrong

U n i v e r s i t y a member of t h e S t e e r i n g
c l e a r t h a t he was n o t a p a r t y t o t h e
as d a t e s f o r t h e Conference. I
impression.

There i s a t t h e moment of e d i t i n g a m a i l s t r i k e i n Canada s o


t h a t many i t e m s of news w i l l n o t have reached me. Such i t e m s w i l l
be k e p t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n no.14 of May 1979,
P.L. S h i n n i e .

NOTES TO CONTRIBUTORS
Nyame Akuma i s i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r q u i c k , s h o r t , news i t e m s
concerning r e c e n t r e s e a r c h . It i s n o t planned t h a t it should compete
w i t h such j o u r n a l s as Azania, B u l l e t i n of IFAN, B u l l e t i n of South
African Archaeological S o c i e t y , West African J o u r n a l of Archaeology,
Kush, Annales d f E t h i o p i e e t c , i n t h e p u b l i s h i n g of major a r t i c l e s .
concerning a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
There i s a p l a c e f o r s h o r t a r t i c l e s
r e s e a r c h b u t t h e e d i t o r a s k s t h a t t h e y be s h o r t - n o t more t h a n about
t h r e e t o f o u r s i n g l e spaced q u a r t o pages. They need n o t , and on t h e
whole should n o t , be f u l l y r e f e r e n c e d s i n c e Nyame Akuma h a s n e i t h e r
t h e t y p i n g c a p a c i t y nor t h e number of pages t o make t h i s p o s s i b l e , n o r
i s it u s u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e .
P l e a s e keep i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o a minimum - a few good q u a l i t y
photographs can be accepted b u t t h e y should be s o p r i n t e d a s t o
conform t o t h e page s i z e . Drawings should be i n good b l a c k i n k on
w h i t e paper (photo - c o p i e s w i l l n o t d o ) , and should a l s o be planned
t o f i t t h e page s i z e . The e d i t o r i s unable t o a r r a n g e f o r r e d u c t i o n ,
re-drawing, o r p a s t i n g up. The page s i z e i s 11 i n c h e s x 8.5 i n c h e s
( 2 7 . 8 cm. x 21.5 cm.).
It would be much a p p r e c i a t e d i f when it i s p o s s i b l e t e x t could
be typed single-spaced on t h e right s i z e of paper and w i t h a carbon
r i b b o n . T h i s s a v e s much time as t h e t e x t does n o t t h e n have t o be
re-typed. I r e a l i s e t h a t i n Europe and Africa our paper s i z e i s n o t
normally a v a i l a b l e , t h a t carbon r i b b o n s and e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r s a r e
h a r d t o come by, and t h a t i n many c a s e s our c o n t r i b u t o r s have t o t y p e
t h e i r own a r t i c l e s , o f t e n under d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s . My wife w i l l
c o n t i n u e t o r e - t y p e a l l t h o s e a r t i c l e s which need i t .
F i n a l l y p l e a s e n o t e a g a i n t h a t Nyame Akuma i s a v e h i c l e f o r
news i t e m s on a l l a s p e c t s of archaeology and ethno-archaeology from
A.frica w i t h t h e exception of t h e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d s of North A f r i c a and
t h e Pharaonic p e r i o d s of Egypt. The c l a s s i c a l world of North A f r i c a
i s somewhat remote from t h e i n t e r e s t s of most of our r e a d e r s and
Pharaonic Egypt i s w e l l c a t e r e d f o r i n t h e annual reviews t h a t
P r o f e s s o r L e c l a n t p u b l i s h e s i n O r i e n t a l i a . Should t h e r e be a demand
from t h e r e a d e r s f o r a change i n p o l i c y I w i l l , of c o u r s e , c o n s i d e r i t .

P.L. S h i n n i e .

The 1979 meeting of t h e Southern A f r i c a A s s o c i a t i o n of


A r c h a e o l o g i s t s w i l l be h e l d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Town from
22nd June t o 25th June 1979.
I n a d d i t i o n t o papers and d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e w i l l be e x c u r s i o n s
and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .
E n q u i r i e s should be d i r e c t e d t o :
John E. parkington/ Andrew B. Smith
Organizers SAAA Meetings, 1979
Department of Archaeology
U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Town
P r i v a t e Bag
Rondebosch
Cape 7700
South A f r i c a .
Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e meeting of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n t h e r e
w i l l be a sympo:;&um from 26th June t o 28th June on t h e theme
"Towards a B e t t e r Understanding of t h e Upper P l e i s t o c e n e i n
Sub-Saharan A f r i c a " . T h i s symposium w i l l be organised by t h o s e
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s meeting t o g e t h e r w i t h
Ray Inskeep (oxford) and David Price-Williams o on don) t h e
p r o v i s i o n a l programme is:
Tuesday June 26

Upper P l e i s t o c e n e a r t e f a c t sequences i n subSaharan A f r i c a : Regional surveys and t y p o l o g i e s .


A r t e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l from as many Upper
P l e i s t o c e n e sequences as p r a c t i c a b l e w i l l be
l a i d o u t f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o examine.

Wednesday June 27

Overview r e p o r t s on d a t i n g .
Palaeoenvironmental s t u d i e s .

Thursday 2une 28

Upper P l e i s t o c e n e hominids.
Statement of problems f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .

For t h i s symposium p l e a s e w r i t e t o :

Mrs. J a n e t t e Deacon
Department of Archaeology
U n i v e r s i t y of S t e l l e n b o s c h
S t e l l e n b o s c h 7600
South A f r i c a .

NEWS ITEMS
ALGERIA
REPORT ON THE

1978 SEASON I N ALGERIA


David L u b e l l
Department of Anthropology
U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a
Edmonton, A l t a .

During June and J u l y 1978 we continued our programme of


r e s e a r c h i n t h e TglidjGne V a l l e y , n o r t h e a s t e r n A l g e r i a , on t h e
p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l ecology of Capsian e s c a r g o t i $ r e s . T h i s
r e s e a r c h i s sponsored by t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities
Research Council of Canada. Personnel t h i s y e a r i n c l u d e d
D r . James R i t c h i e
- palaeobotany) , D r . W i l l i a m Farrand
( ~ i c h i ~ a- ngeology), D r . Mary J a c k e s ( s o u t h A u s t r a l i a n Museum archaeozoology) and t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d e n t a s s i s t a n t s : Kathryn
Lippman, Arlene M i l l e r , Deborah Ross, P e t e r Sheppard and Randall
White. I n a d d i t i o n , we were joined by M r . Mohamed Amirouche of
C .R.A.P,E. ( ~ l g i e r s )and M r . Tahar Adouani of t h e U n i v e r s i t g d ' A l g e r .

o or onto

Our work t h i s year w a s confined p r i m a r i l y t o t h e Kef Zoura D


r o c k s h e l t e r at t h e southwestern end of t h e ~ 6 l i d j g n eV a l l e y . We had
t e s t e d t h i s s i t e i n 1976 ( s e e L u b e l l i n Nyame Akuma, May 1 9 7 8 ) , and
judged t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h e r e would provide important
d a t a on t h e v e g e t a l component i n Capsian s u b s i s t e n c e . No l a b o r a t o r y
a n a l y s e s have been completed as y e t ( ~ c t o b e r1978) , b u t a p r e l i m i n a r y
assessment of f i e l d d a t a suggest t h a t our e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l be
confirmed. Car)noni~edp l a n t remains a r e well-preserved i n t h e upper
l e v e l s of t h e s t b e and t h e s e appear t o i n c l u d e g r a s s e s , s e e d s and,
p e r h a p s , f r u i t p i t s . The a s s o c i a t e d l i t h i c assemblage i s no doubt
a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e Capsien sup&ieur (geometric m i c r o l i t h s and
backed b l a d e l e t s ) and t h e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of
g a z e l l e and l a g ~ m o r p h s .The
~ land s n a i l s a r e those species generally
common i n a l l e s c a r g o t i e r & b u t t h e i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t of Kef Zoura D
i s t h a t , s i n c e t h e d e p o s i t s a r e unconsolidated i n t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n
of t h e s h e l t e r , w e may be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e c t i o n s :
t h e s p e c i e s f r e q u e n c i e s show r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n between
i n d i v i d u a l one-metre s q u a r e s at t h e same s t r a t i g r a p h i c l e v e l .
O f perhaps g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t , however, i s t h e presence of a
d i s t i n c t i v e l i t h i c assemblage a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i s t i n c t f a u n a l
assemblage on t h e t a l u s s l o p e i n f r o n t of t h e s h e l t e r and, presumably,
u n d e r l y i n g t h e Capsien s u p h . e u r l e v e l s . T h i s assemblage c o n s i s t s of
l a r g e t o o l s ( i n c l u d i n g many b u r i n s and backed b l a d e s ) and t h e f a u n a

c o n t a i n s numerous l a r g e herbivores (presumably h a r t e b e e s t , aurochs


and equids). Gazelle and lagomorphs a r e r a r e , The l i t h i c
assemblage seems t o be Capsien typique, This i s , of course, most
i n t e r e s t i n g i n view of t h e apparent overlap i n radiocarbon d a t e s of
t h e Capsien t ypique and sup6rieur. The exact s t r a t i ~ a p h i c
r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t Kef Zoura D remain t o be worked out and t h i s w i l l
e n t a i l f u r t h e r excavation.
Palaeobotanical i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i r e c t e d by D r . R i t c h i e were
e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . A bore h o l e made with a s o i l auger i n t h e
marshy d e p o s i t s of t h e Oum e l Khaled t o t h e n o r t h of t h e s i t e
produced well-preserved p o l l e n from a s e c t i o n approximately
2.5 metres deep. We suspect t h e d e p o s i t s a r e considerably deeper
than t h i s . No analyses have been conducted as y e t , but we hope t o
e v e n t u a l l y have a good p o l l e n diagram f o r ( a t l e a s t ) t h e Holocene i n
t h e region.

D r . Farrand, a s s i s t e d by M s . M i l l e r , examined numerous a l l u v i a l


and c o l l u v i a l s e c t i o n s exposed i n t h e wadis and preliminary r e s u l t s
suggest t h a t t h e r e w a s a t l e a s t one period of r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e marsh
development i n t h e v a l l e y p r i o r t o Roman occupation. Whether t h i s
w a s contemporary with Capsian occupation i s impossible t o say at
present.
A l l of t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l continue d u r i n g J u l y and
August of 1979.

BOTSWANA

D r . Lepionka w r i t e s :
Having noted D r . Hitchcock's kind remarks concerning t h e
excavation at Tautswe i n t h e last i s s u e of Nyame Akuma, I thought
t h a t it would be well t o mention t h a t t h e f i n a l paper on t h a t
excavation i s now a v a i l a b l e . It i s e n t i t l e d Tautswemogala:
Transition from E a r l y --t o Late I r o n b e i n South A f r i c a and was
submitted t h i s May as a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . It may be consulted
at t h e l i b r a r i e s of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . A s it involves some
fundamental i s s u e s concerning t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e Leopard's Kopje
t r a d i t i o n , I i n t e n d t o seek p u b l i c a t i o n f o r i t , and would a p p r e c i a t e
any suggestions a s t o a l i k e l y p u b l i s h e r .
Recent a c t i v i t i e s have otherwise been r a t h e r f a r a f i e l d from
A f r i c a , but a t l e a s t a r e centered i n t h e b i r t h p l a c e of Afro-American
c u l t u r e , t h e Low Country of South Carolina, where I have been involved
p r i m a r i l y i n t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , and hope t o f u r t h e r t h e search f o r
evidence of African m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n t h i s r e g i o n .

EGYPT

D r . Hassan of Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t s :
My f i e l d r e s e a r c h i n Siwa O a s i s , n o r t h e r n Egypt, h a s been
concluded and a f i n a l r e p o r t i s now i n p r e p a r a t i o n . P r e l i m i n a r y
r e p o r t s appeared i n Nyame Akuma ( ~ c t o b e r1976) and Current Anthropology
The r e g i o n of Siwa Oasis w a s occupied d u r i n g a moist
( ~ o l1.9 , 1978)
phase d a t i n g from c a . 9500 t o 6500 u n c a l i b r a t e d radiocarbon y e a r s
b e f o r e p r e s e n t . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains i n d i c a t e t h a t v a r i o u s
p l a c e s i n t h e r e g i o n were i n h a b i t e d by h i g h l y mobile, small bands
s h a r i n g a common t e c h n o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n , which d i f f e r s from t h a t of
neighboring geographic a r e a s . There i s no evidence f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l
o r p a s t o r a l p r a c t i c e s . Hunting and g a t h e r i n g seem t o have been t h e
predominant s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h evidence f o r
a g r i c u l t u r a l communities i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t of t h e Western D e s e r t .

I n t h e summer of 1977, e x p l o r a t o r y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
were undertaken i n t h e r e g i o n of Baharia Oasis and t h e d e s e r t margin
of West D e l t a . These s t u d i e s provide f u r t h e r evidence f o r t h e e a r l y
Holocene moist phase and i n d i c a t e t h a t B a h a r i a Oasis was occupied by
hunting-gathering communities. The E t h i c technology of t h e s e
communities i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x h i b i t e d by t h e I s n a n I n d u s t r y of t h e
The Archaeology of t h e Dishna P l a i n , Egypt, The
N i l e Valley
Archaeological
Geological Survey of Egypt, Paper No. 59, 1974)
survey of t h e West D e l t a d e s e r t margin r e v e a l e d t h e presence of two
Middle P a l a e o l i t h i c s i t e s showing g r e a t t y p o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h
Middle P a l a e o l i t h i c s i t e s from Nubia. Palaeoenvironmental s t u d i e s of
t h e N e o l i t h i c settlement--Merimda Beni Salama, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h
M r . Zahi Hawwass, t h e Egyptian Department of A n t i q u i t i e s , r e v e a l s
t h a t a r i d c o n d i t i o n s were p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e occupation of t h e s i t e .
The o n s e t of d r i e r c o n d i t i o n s i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d and i s
contemporaneous with t h e p e r i o d of d e s e r t i f i c a t i o n beginning c a . 6500
radiocarbon y e a r s ago.

assan an,

I n 1975 and 1976, D r . T . R . Hays and myself began a n e x p l o r a t o r y


s t u d y of t h e P r e d y n a s t i c s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e Nagada-Khattara r e g i o n ,
Upper Egypt. A p r e l i m i n n y r e p o r t appeared i n Current Anthropology
I have j u s t r e c e i v e d g r a n t s from t h e
( ~ o l 17, September 1976)
N a t i o n a l Science Foundation and t h e Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n t o begin
an i n t e n s i v e s t u d y of P r e d y n a s t i c s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t i n t h i s
r e g i o n . Regional palaeoenvironmental s t u d i e s , a r e g i o n a l s u r v e y ,
t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s , l a r g e s c a l e e x c a v a t i o n s , and f i e l d l a b o r a t o r y
s t u d i e s a r e planned f o r t h e f i r s t season beginning June 15.

I had a l s o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e Q u a t e r n a r y and
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l geology of Hierakonpolis i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e work
undertaken by P r o f e s s o r Walter F a i r s e r v i s and D r . M e Hoffman. The
g e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n from H i e r a k o n p o l i s , Khattara-Nagada, and
Merimda promise t o c l a r i f y t h e palaeoenvironmental s e t t i n g of t h e
P r e d y n a s t i c developments i n Egypt.

GAMBIA

D r . M. H i l l of t h e University of Waterloo sends t h i s note:


The stone c i r c l e s i t e s at Kuntaur and Ker Batch have been
designated as n a t i o n a l monuments and l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r day
v i s i t o r s and i n t e r p r e t i v e d i s p l a y s i n s t a l l e d . Because of t h i s work,
r e s e a r c h a t t h e two s i t e s has been placed under s t r i c t c o n t r o l .
Continuing d e s t r u c t i o n of c o a s t a l s h e l l mounds i n t h e Banjul
a r e a renders t h e s e of primary importance f o r research. P l e n t i f u l
c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l i s present i n t h e s e middens and s t y l i s t i c
a f f i n i t i e s t o Dioron Bou Mak, excavated by C y r Descamps i n Senegal,
i s e v i d e n t i n u n s t r a t i f i e d s u r f a c e f i n d s of ceramics.

GHANA

A REPORT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD SURVEY OF SITES


AT AWUDOME-NKWANTA NEAR TSITO, VOLTA REGION OF GHANA.

by

E.K. Agorsah, Ghana National Museum.

Following a r e p o r t made by Mr. Vule-Vuke of T r i n i t y College,


Legon,of t h e discovery of a smoking pipe on h i s farm upon a mountain
a t Awudome-Nkwanta, about 22 kilometres from Ho and s i t u a t e d n e a r
T s i t o , Volta Region, a f i e l d survey was conducted on 27th and 28th of
January, 1978.
The purpose of t h e survey was i n i t i a l l y t o v i s i t and study t h e
s i t e where t h e pipe w a s recovered i n r e l a t i o n t o a d j o i n i n g a r e a s and
as a s u b s i d i a r y t o attempt t o l o c a t e o t h e r a r e a s with archaeological
f e a t u r e s with t h e view t o making a map of t h e s e s i t e s , and t o consider
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a l a t e r rescue excavation i n t h e a r e a , as t h e
informant emphasised t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a r e a w a s t o be commercially
farmed i n t h e farming season which w a s t o come soon a f t e r t h e March
1978 r a i n s .
Using a footpath which goes westwards up t h e mountain from t h e
Presbyterian Chapel of t h e v i l l a g e and some l O O m up, a few i r o n s l a g s
and potsherds were noticed.
A t t h e a r e a of t h e p i p e , were found s e v e r a l i r o n s l a g p i e c e s and
potsherds which appeared q u i t e weathered probably having been exposed
t o r a i n and sunshine f o r a long time. Other f i n d s included a polished
s t o n e axe (so f i a - Ehe), baked c l a y p i p e s some with s l a g embedded i n
them. Very s i g n i f i c a n t were two l a r g e p o t s 30m. a p a r t s a i d by t h e

informant t o c o n t a i n cowrie s h e l l s . P a r t of one of t h e s e p o t s seems


t o have been exposed as a r e s u l t of e r o s i o n and had been c o n s i d e r a b l y
washed c l e a r by r a i n . The mouths of both p o t s were broken but t h e
p i e c e s were l y i n g around them. No a t t e m p t w a s made t o expose t h e p o t s
f u r t h e r as it w a s thought t h a t doing s o could cause a c u r i o u s person
t o break them o u t of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . Photographs were, however,
t a k e n of t h e p o t s i n p o s i t i o n . A few cowrie s h e l l s and g r i n d i n g
s t o n e s (upper and lower) were a l s o found w i t h i n a 1 0 metre r a d i u s of
one of t h e s e p o t s .
Down t h e mountain and a t t h e immediate base around t h e chapel
mentioned above and t h e immediate a d j o i n i n g a r e a s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e
school compound, a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of s t o n e a r t e f a c t s and f l a k e d
s t o n e s were s e e n . Some of t h e s e s t o n e s have t h e appearance of
pebble t o o l s and Acheulian hand a x e s . A few appear t o be incomplete
c l e a v e r s . The extremely l a r g e q u a n t i t y of f l a k e s l y i n g about would
tempt one t o t h e conclusion t h a t t h e p l a c e w a s a t o o l making s i t e ,
e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e r a w m a t e r i a l could be obtained i n t h e a r e a .
The survey c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of s i t e s : an
i r o n age s i t e up t h e mountain where no s t o n e o b j e c t except a g r i n d i n g
s t o n e was r e c o v e r e d , and a s t o n e age s i t e a t t h e base of t h e mountain.
ORAL TRADITION
I n an attempt t o provide an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e peoples v e r s i o n of
t h e i r p a s t an o l d man p o p u l a r l y c a l l e d Mr.S.0.K. Vule, aged 78,
e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e Awudome people, t h a t i s people who now i n h a b i t t h e
a r e a from T s i t o t o Bame i n Western Volta Region a r r i v e d from t h e
e a s t e r n V o l t a Region some time b e f o r e t h e Akwamu took up t h e i r p r e s e n t
p o s i t i o n on t h e e a s t bank of t h e V o l t a . According t o t r a d i t i o n t h e y
met a t t h e i r p r e s e n t home t h e e o p l e who now l i v e i n t h e Akpafu area
(Akpafu and Lolobi communities
These Akpafu and Lolobi people
c a l l e d themselves Mawu and were s m e l t i n g i r o n i n t h e h i l l s and
u t i l i s i n g t h e p r o d u c t s on t h e i r f m s on t h e p l a i n below. I n a f i g h t
f o r s u r v i v a l t h e Mawu were d r i v e n o u t of t h e a r e a and t h e y proceeded
eastward a l o n g t h e range of h i l l s and e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n t h e i r
p r e s e n t homes and continued with t h e i r i r o n s m e l t i n g . The Germans
came i n t o t h e a r e a almost immediately a f t e r t h e y had s t a r t e d t o move
o u t from t h e Awudome a r e a and t h i s perhaps stopped them from moving
f u r t h e r . The t r a d i t i o n continued t h a t evidence of t h e i r i r o n
s m e l t i n g c r a f t can be found i n areas around T a f i , Anfoega, Kpandu and
Nkonya. The t r a d i t i o n contends t h a t t h e Akpafu people l e f t t h e
Awudome a r e a and s e t t l e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t area around 1830 AD.

7.

The Awudomes a r e f u r t h e r s a i d t o have migrated t o t h e i r p r e s e n t


p l a c e i n t h e company of o t h e r t r i b e s such a s t h e Akyem, G a , and Awuna,
and each community had i t s own d i a l e c t , b u t as t h e Awudome people
outnumbered t h e o t h e r s and as t h e o t h e r s p r e f e r r e d t o c o n t i n u e , t h e
p l a c e w a s named by them.

The name @ - dome means " i n t h e middle of marshy ground". The whole
a r e a where t h e y first s e t t l e d i n t h e same v i c i n i t y w a s s a i d t o have
been very marshy and according t o them a s p i r i t l i v e d t h e r e and t o
enable peaceful settlement t h e s p i r i t had t o be compensated i n t h e
form of human s a c r i f i c e t o enable i t l e a v e t h e a r e a and f i n d a new
abode. The s a c r i f i c e needed w a s e i t h e r a v i r g i n boy o r g i r l . The
t h e n chief (name not given) was unwilling t o give h i s own c h i l d up
but a sub-chief (name f o r g o t t e n ) volunteered h i s two c h i l d r e n . A f t e r
t h e obnoxious s a c r i f i c e t h e place d r i e d up and became a r a b l e . The
sub-chief w a s enstooled i n place of t h e paramount chief and t h e
descendants of t h i s brave new chief a r e t h e present c h i e f s of
Anyirawase.
The t r a d i t i o n continues t h a t t h e Pekis a r r i v e d i n t h e a r e a l a t e r
having come from t h e d i r e c t i o n of Hohoe through Kpeve. They asked
t h e Awudome people f o r land t o s e t t l e . Land w a s given. L a t e r ,
missionaries got t h i s agreement s e t down i n w r i t t e n r e c o r d . A s t h i s
w a s a controversy being d e a l t with i n court at KO it w a s inexpedient
t o follow it up s e r i o u s l y .
The o r a l t r a d i t i o n w a s c o l l e c t e d as a supplement t o t h e survey
work and was meant t o provide an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e h i s t o r y of t h e a r e a
as t h e people of t h e a r e a s e e i t . Supplementary information needs t o
be c o l l e c t e d from o t h e r people so t h a t t h e f a c t s can be properly
s i f t e d out.
CONCLUSIONS
The m a t e r i a l s obtained a t both s i t e s a r e q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g .
There i s t h e need t o follow up and excavate t h e two p o t s as t h e
mountain s i d e i s g e n e r a l l y stony and cannot provide any dependable
s t r a t i g r a p h y . Recovery of a few more potsherds, s l a g s and some
carbon may provide some u s e f u l index f o r understanding t h e s i t e .
Also important i s t h e need t o l o c a t e more s i t e s i n order t o g e t a
s u i t a b l e a r e a f o r l a t e r excavation.
Excavation of t h e stone age a r e a at t h e base of t h e mountain i s
not immediately necessary. But a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of t h e stone m a t e r i a l
should be c o l l e c t e d and s t u d i e d f o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n t o be
obtained. L a t e r , however, a small t e s t p i t could be sunk t o o b t a i n a
p o s s i b l e s t r a t i g r a p h y with which some meaning can be given t o t h e
stone o b j e c t s . Oliver Davies has mentioned pebble t o o l s and
acheulian handaxes found around t h e Awudome mountain a r e a s . These
m a t e r i a l s w i l l a l s o have t o be examined alongside t h e m a t e r i a l s t o
be obtained a f t e r sinking t h e t r e n c h mentioned above. Unfortunately
t h e r e i s no mention of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s .

T h i s r e p o r t i s s u p p l i e d by M r . F . Kense of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of
Calgary.
'

A s r e p o r t e d i n volume 11 of Nyame Akuma (NOV.1977 ; P . 31) , t h e


a r c h a e o l o g i c a l survey c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e western Gonja r e g i o n of
n o r t h e r n Ghana r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o c a t i o n of t h i r t y s i t e s of v a r y i n g
s i z e s . A s w e l l a s t o e s t a b l i s h some comparative b a s i s of p o s s i b l e
c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e from t h i s a r e a , t h e survey was a l s o
i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e a p o t e n t i a l s i t e f o r f u t u r e e x c a v a t i o n . Since
t h e r e s e a r c h g o a l s of t h i s p r o j e c t i n c l u d e t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h a
c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework w i t h which t o view t h e c u l t u r a l development
of t h e a r e a , as w e l l as t o determine t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e r e i s
a c t u a l l y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence f o r t h e i n t r u s i o n of t h e Gonjas i n t o
t h e r e g i o n , t h e s i t e s e l e c t e d was t h e town of Daboya on t h e West s i d e
of t h e White Volta River (9 32"N, 1 2 1 " ~ ) .

ber)
The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l team f o r t h e 1978 season ( ~ u l ~ / ~ e ~ t e m was
headed by P r o f . P.L. Shinnie of t h e Department of Archaeology a t t h e
U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary and included h i s w i f e , A m a S h i n n i e , a s w e l l as
M r . F . J . Kense from t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, M r . S.A. Copp from t h e
Department of Archaeology a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , and Mrs.Kathleen
Robertson, p r e s e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n L i v i n g s t o n e , Zambia. The group w a s
housed r e l a t i v e l y comfortably i n a Government Rest House l o c a t e d j u s t
on t h e o u t s k i r t s of t h e town, and a compound w i t h i n t h e town i t s e l f .
A work f o r c e of about 15 "schoolboys" (ages 16-21) provided t h e main
l a b o u r f o r e x c a v a t i n g , while an a d d i t i o n a l 5 younger boys a s s i s t e d
w i t h t h e washing of t h e p o t s h e r d s .
The town i t s e l f i s p r e s e n t l y i n h a b i t e d by about 2,000 p e o p l e ,
and b o a s t s a p o l i c e p o s t , a p o s t o f f i c e and a medical c l i n i c . These
b u i l d i n g s a r e t h e o n l y ones b u i l t of cement walls, w i t h t h e remainder
of t h e town s t r u c t u r e s s t i l l c o n s t r u c t e d of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l
of mud. While i r o n corrugated r o o f i n g i s t h e popular medium of
f i n i s h i n g t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s , t h e u s e of t h a t c h e d r o o f i n g i s by no means
obsolete.
P r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e town a r e a r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e
occupation zone h a s been s h i f t i n g t o t h e n o r t h and west of t h e r i v e r
bank s o t h a t from t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s and from t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n s of
t h e town, it w a s i n t h i s a r e a t o t h e south and e a s t t h a t t h e
e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were p l a c e d . Four d i f f e r e n t a z e a s were t e s t e d
d u r i n g t h e season; two as s i n g l e 2 x 2 m. u n i t s , one as t h r e e a d j a c e n t
2 x 2 m . u n i t s and t h e f o u r t h as s i x 2 x 2 m. u n i t s . Due t o t h e t i m e
l i m i t s and s i z e of s u p e r v i s o r y crew, o n l y one of t h e s i n g l e 2 x 2
u n i t s was completed t o s t e r i l e ( a r e a "w") and one o f t h e s i x 2 x 2 ' s
excavated t o s t e r i l e ( a r e a "K", u n i t A 1 2 ) . Both t h e s e u n i t s
r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e depth of d e p o s i t was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n
a n t i c i p a t e d - t o d e p t h s of 3.60 m. and 3.45 m. r e s p e c t i v e l y .

Although t h e primaxy c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l excavated c o n s i s t e d of


potsherds, a number of complete p o t s was a l s o found, i n c l u d i n g
several i n s i t u .
These w i l l be discussed at a l a t e r d a t e , as w i l l
t h e f i f t y fragments of pipe stems and bowls. Two i n t e r e s t i n g
c l a s s e s of a r t e f a c t s found included what appear t o be s m a l l c l a y
f i g u r i n e s and t h r e e pieces of d i f f e r e n t " t e r r a c o t t a c i g a r s " . The
l a t t e r must s u r e l y r e p r e s e n t re-deposited m a t e r i a l , s i n c e t h e s e
a r t e f a c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with n e o l i t h i c t r a d i t i o n s , t o
which t h e Daboya m a t e r i a l does not belong. A l e s s welcome s e t of
d i s c o v e r i e s c o n s i s t e d of a number of b u r i a l s t h a t appeared randomly
throughout a l l t h r e e a r e a s . Less welcome i n terms of our r e s e a r c h
goals f o r t h e p r o j e c t , and i n t h e equipment and e x p e r t i s e with which
t o handle t h e s k e l e t a l m a t e r i a l . That and t h e s e n s i t i v i t y with which
t h e s e f i n d s must be approached i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o c a l populace made
t h e i r necessary excavation some matter of concern.
So even though
we avoided those a r e a s which were recognized as cemetery s i t e s a t
p r e s e n t , it became very c l e a r t h a t b u r i a l customs were r e l a t i v e l y
hapzard i n terms of l o c a t i o n during t h e p a s t and t h e r e f o r e cannot be
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y avoided.
Analysis of some of t h e excavated m a t e r i a l w i l l be c a r r i e d out
a t Calgary by M r . Kense, while t h e remainder w i l l hopefully be
completed next year i n Ghana. The s i t e of Daboya has c e r t a i n l y ,
proven i t s e l f t o be archaeologically r i c h i n m a t e r i a l , and w i l l
c e r t a i n l y provide a b e t t e r understanding of Gonja c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y .
Funds f o r t h e p r o j e c t were made a v a i l a b l e by t h e Canada Council.
By an oversight t h e name of Mr.A. Dozie a s t u d e n t of t h e
Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana was omitted from t h e
list of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e archaeological survey of Gonja r e p o r t e d
i n Nyame Akuma, no.11, p.31. Our apologies t o our colleague.

M r . Edwards Keteku, Department of Archaeology, U n i v e r s i t y of


Calgary, provides t h i s r e p o r t of h i s a c t i v i t i e s :
AKWAMU EMPIRE AT NYANAWASE:

MYTH OR REALITY

This research p r o j e c t was born out of my c u r i o s i t y t o know more


about e a r l y l i f e i n t h e t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t and t h e beginnings of
t h e e a r l y f o r e s t s t a t e s i n Ghana. It w a s a l s o thought of a s means of
obtaining a well e s t a b l i s h e d chronology f o r t h e southern l i m i t of t h e
f o r e s t b e l t . For t h e s e reasons, Nyanawase, which once was t h e c a p i t a l
of t h e Akwamu empire, provided a s p e c i a l focus i n an attempt t o
i n v e s t i g a t e a f o r e s t s t a t e c l o s e enough t o t h e southern l i m i t of t h e
s a i d geographical a r e a i n t h e e a s t e r n s e c t o r of t h e country. Nyanawase
i s t h e a r e a surrounding t h e Nyanaw mountain ( ~ h a n aSurvey Map 1: 62500,
s h e e t 61,5O 48'N, 0 ~ 2 4 ' ~
which
)
conspiciously s t a n d s o u t i n t h e Nsawan
a r e a , c l e a r l y v i s i b l e from t h e Accra-Kumase motor road. The s t r a t e g i c

l o c a t i o n of Nyanawase - i n i t s proximity t o t h e c o a s t , t h e Accra


P l a i n s and i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e deeper i n t e r i o r , and t h e f a c t
t h a t t h e e f f e c t s of t h e Akwamu empire a r e s t i l l l i v i n g memories
among t h e Gas and t h e Akuapems prompted t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e a r e a
f o r t h e purpose of g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r e l a t e d Akan c u l t u r e and
s e e k i n g evidence of c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n t h e same c u l t u r a l a r e a .
Furthermore, it i s seen as a means t o e v a l u a t e t h e v a l i d i t y of
Akan h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s by cross-checking them a g a i n s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a . And, a t t h e same time s t u d y i n g c l u e s t o t h e socio-economic
behaviour i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o environmental p a t t e r n s t o e x p l a i n t h e
development of Akan t r a d i t i o n s and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e through t i m e .
So, d u r i n g t h e summer, i n a b r i e f p e r i o d of two months,fieldwork
w a s conducted a t Nyanawase. Oral t r a d i t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d and used
as an index t o Akwamu h i s t o r y as w e l l as an a i d t o s p o t t i n g t h e e x a c t
l o c a t i o n of t h e s e a t of t h e k i n g of t h e Akwamu empire ( i . e . AkwamuNana Kwafo Akoto 11, Omanhene of Akwamu T r a d i t i o n a l
hene ' s p a l a c e )
Area; Nana Boafo Ansa 11, Kurantihene of Akuropon; Nana Otutu Bagyire
I V , Abiriwhene; Asumagyawa of Aburi; Odekuro of Duayeden-Nyanawase
and many o t h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d .
T r a d i t i o n s p o i n t t o t h e peak of t h e Nyanaw mountain a s t h e s e a t
of t h e g i a n t King Ansa Sasraku. Acting on t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s , a
reconnaissance survey w a s mounted on t h e Nyanaw ( t o s a y , a v e r y
d i f f i c u l t and t i r i n g adventure) b u t it f a i l e d t o produce any evidence
of h a b i t a t i o n ; c o n t r a r y t o P a u l Ozanne's claim t h a t h e saw ' w a l l f o u n d a t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y of s t o n e about s i x i n c h e s h i g h and forming
r e c t a n g u l a r p l a n s ' p r e d a t i n g 1731 ( 0 l i v e r Davies , Ghana F i e l d Notes,
1976:168) Considering t h e ruggedness of t h i s s t e e p - s i d e d t w i n
mountain, cross-checking t r a d i t i o n s and a f t e r a thorough examination
of t h e evidence, it appears t h a t t h e mountain t o p was used as a grove
t h e k i n g ' s r i t u a l and b u r i a l p l a c e sirnilas t o Nanannom Mpow as w e l l
as h i s m i l i t a r y hide-out i n time of c r i s i s .

On c o n s u l t a t i o n with t h e e l d e r s at Duayeden-Nyanawase I w a s l e d
t o a newly c o n s t r u c t e d r o a d s i t e about 500 metres f r o ? t h e town.
)
s e l e c t e d f o r trial excavaThe a r e a r e f e r r e d t o as S i t e 1 ( D D ~ was
t i o n ' . A 4 x 1 m. t r e n c h was opened. A few p o t s h e r d s , one nyame
akuma ( c e l t ) and two rubbing s t o n e s were found. The s h e r d s a r e
mostly p o o r l y made, i l l - f i r e d , heavy r i m , t h i c k w a l l , c o a r s e t e x t u r e
and mostly undecorated p o t t e r y r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e Kintampo n e o l i t h i c
type. A t a d e p t h of 75 cm: t h e s t e r i l e s t o n e bedded r e d d i s h l a y e r
was exposed without any evidence of I r o n Age m a t e r i a l such as s l a g ,
i r o n o b j e c t s o r tobacco-pipes. Reviewing t h e evidence and i n view of
t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i t e i s o n l y about 300 metres s o u t h of a r o c k s h e l t e r
i n which worked s t o n e implements were c o l l e c t e d , one i s i n c l i n e d t o
b e l i e v e t h a t S i t e 1 ( D D ~ i)s p r o t o - I r o n Age. It i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t
no carbon sample came from t h i s s i t e b u t it i s expected t h a t
thermoluminiscence w i l l p u t t h e s i t e i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e .

Working on t r a d i t i o n s a g a i n , t h e camp w a s moved t o an a r e a about


seven kilometres from Duayeden-Nyanawase which w a s s a i d t o have been
t h e s e a t of Queenmother Kwabea. The s i t e known as Akwamu Amanfoso,
meaning t h e Old Akwamu s e t t l e m e n t , i s s i t u a t e d on t h e Adoagyiri Kraboa C o a l t a r road about f i v e kilometres northwest of Nsawam, an
a r e a showing s e r i e s of mounds previously v i s i t e d by Paul Ozanne.
The h i g h e s t mound was t h e t a r g e t f o r excavation. A t e s t p i t was
opened at t h e lowest l e v e l northwest of t h e mound, while a 2 x 4 m.
t r e n c h was s e t from t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t of t h e mound t r e n d i n g northwards.
The t r e n c h exposed t h r e e metres of occupational d e p o s i t s y i e l d i n g a
l a r g e number of potsherds, collapsed walls, burnt daub, tobacco-pipes
( a t two t o p l e v e l s o n l y ) , i r o n s l a g , badly corroded i r o n t o o l s
i n c l u d i n g k n i f e b l a d e s , spoons, two l a r g e grinding s t o n e s and number
of rubbing s t o n e s , a c r u c i b l e , s n a i l s h e l l s and a molluscan s h e l l .
Big animal bones and bones of r o d e n t s and b i r d s were recovered.
Akwamu Amanfoso Mound B ( A A B T ~i)s l o c a t e d 100 metres n o r t h e a s t
of Mound A ( A A T ~ ) O r i g i n a l l y a 6 x 1.5 m , trench w a s opened but due
t o t h e p r e s s u r e of time it was l a t e r halved. Since t h e m a t e r i a l being
recovered w a s mainly coming from t h e northern s e c t o r ; t h e digging
continued i n t h a t h a l f which went through almost t h r e e metres of
occupational d e p o s i t but with a p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - probably
workshop f e a t u r e s . Fewer potsherds were recovered but t h e mode of
manufacture was s o d i f f e r e n t . They have s i m i l a r i t i e s t o p o t s from
Mound A ( A A A T as
~ ) well as Duayeden ( D D ~ ) .Some of them could e a s i l y
be s a i d of being t y p i c a l s m i t h ' s p o t s made without s p e c i a l a r t i s a n
( p o t t e r s ) s k i l l s but purposely f o r t h e smithing i n d u s t r y . Most of
t h e s e sherds a r e t a i n t e d with yellowish c o l l o r a t i o n ( a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
f e a t u r e predominant i n t h e sandy yellowish s o i l - a n i n d i c a t i o n of
working m e t a l ) .

Also, l a r g e fragments of I r o n o b j e c t s , s l a g and bloom were found.


Other f i n d s included 2 i r o n b r a c e l e t s , 1 copper r i n g , a small copper
spoon, bead p o l i s h e r , tobacco-pipes ( l i k e i n Mound A from two t o p
l e v e l s ) , a t u y e r e ( - pipe t o a bellow), burnt daub and an u n i d e n t i f i a b l e copper o b j e c t . It i s expected t h a t t h e p e c u l i a r i t y of f i n d s
and s t r a t i g r a p h y of mound B ( A A B T ~w)i l l o f f e r comparative a n a l y s i s t o
m a t e r i a l from Mound A ( A A A T ~ ) .I am hopeful t h a t t h e charcoal samples,
s o i l samples and t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e m a t e r i a l w i l l h e l p b u i l d a socioe c o l o g i c a l hypothesis and a chronological order t o enable u s t o put
t h e Akwamu empire a t Nyanawase and Akan t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e r i g h t
h i s t o r i c a l perspective.
NOTE OF GRATITUDE
The a u t h o r expresses h i s s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y of
Calgary, P r o f e s s o r P e t e r Shinnie, Dr.Scott Raymond, Ghana Museums and
With t h e
Monuments Board and i t s s t a f f ; e s p e c i a l l y Mr.E.K.Agorsah.
same s t r e n g t h of a p p r e c i a t i o n I thank Kingsley Koranteng Keteku, A . K .
Kumah and my f r i e n d s i n t h e Dept. of Archaeology, University of Ghana.

Recent ethnographic and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k i n Borno


by
Graham Connah
Associate P r o f e s s o r i n p r e h i s t o r y and archaeology,
U n i v e r s i t y of New England, New South Wales,
Australia.
Archaeological f i e d r e s e a r c h i n Borno from 1963-9 h a s been
summarized i n G . Connah, 'The D a i m a sequence and t h e p r e h i s t o r i c
chronology of t h e Lake Chad r e g i o n of N i g e r i a ' , J o u r n a l of A f r i c a n
H i s t o r y , X V 1 1 , 3 (1976), 321-352. During 1978 I have been on l e a v e
i n N i g e r i a and B r i t a i n p r e p a r i n g a book on t h e archaeology of t h e
Nigerian s h o r e s of Lake Chad. For t h r e e weeks d u r i n g March I d i d
f u r t h e r f i e l d work i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h i s r e p o r t aims t o make
a v a i l a b l e q u i c k l y a p r e c i s of t h e r e s u l t s .
The primary purpose of t h i s r e c e n t fieldwork was n o t archaeolog i c a l but t o conduct ethnographic i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t s e t t l e m e n t s
s i t u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ecological regions within t h e overall study area.
My a i m was t o achieve a b e t t e r understanding of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
a d a p t a t i o n s t o t h e environments t h a t seemed of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e
i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . T h i s work h a s r e i n f o r c e d my c o n v i c t i o n
t h a t at t h e moment t h e most u r g e n t r e s e a r c h i n West African archaeology
i s ethnographic n o t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l . I n most c a s e s t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
s i t e s w i l l s t i l l be t h e r e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n 1 0 o r 20 y e a r s ' time b u t
traditional village l i f e w i l l not.
Ethnographic i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were conducted i n 4 d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e ments b u t d u r i n g t h e course of t h i s work 8 new a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s
were a l s o l o c a t e d . A l l 1 2 p l a c e s w i l l be found marked on t h e
accompanying map.
From i t s beginning t h e programme of f i e l d r e s e a r c h i n Borno h a s
t a k e n t h e form of a l a r g e - s c a l e r e g i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i e l d
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s e a r c h and s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n h a s been c a r r i e d o u t i n
an a r e a of some 40,000 square k i l o m e t r e s and more s c a t t e r e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been conducted i n t h e upland country s o u t h of t h e main
s t u d y a r e a . Within t h e main s t u d y a r e a , seven s i t e s were s e l e c t e d f o r
l i m i t e d excavation and one of t h e s e ( ~ a i m a )w a s s u b j e c t e d t o l a r g e s c a l e excavation ( s e e map). From t h e o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n of
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s it i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h f o u r main e c o l o g i c a l
r e g i o n s , a l s o shown on t h e map. These a r e : 1, The s o u t h e r n uplands
w i t h evidence of p o s s i b l y e a r l y s t o n e - u s i n g h u n t e r g a t h e r e r s ; 2, The
f i r k i c l a y p l a i n s on which a r e l o c a t e d g e n e r a l l y l a r g e , c l a y
s e t t l e m e n t mounds c o n s i s t i n g of t h e remains of permanent p a s t o r a l and

a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e s occupied from about 1000 B.C. t o t h e p r e s e n t


time; 3 , The Yobe Valley sandy country i n which a r e found s c a t t e r e d ,
g e n e r a l l y small, sand s e t t l e m e n t mounds i n d i c a t i n g more t r a n s i e n t
s e t t l e m e n t from about A.D. 800; 4, The region around t h e Rivers Ngadda
and middle Yedseram, g e n e r a l l y sandy country where s e t t l e m e n t mounds
of Yobe type a l s o occur t o g e t h e r with f l a t s e t t l e m e n t s i t e s .
Occupation of t h i s region d a t e s from a t l e a s t 1000 B.C. The f o u r
s e t t l e m e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r ethnographic i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e s i t u a t e d i n
Regions 2 - 4.
ETHNOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS.

A s e t t l e m e n t of mud b u i l d i n g s with a
1: Sangaya ( ~ e ~ i o2:n f i r k i )
guessed population of a t l e a s t 500 Kanuri-speaking people. Located on
a s e t t l e m e n t mound i n t h e midst of an e x t e n s i v e f i r k i c l a y p l a i n which
f l o o d s during t h e r a i n s , it i s probable t h a t occupation h a s been
continuous f o r s e v e r a l thousand y e a r s . Sorghum i s grown: both dawa
and masakwa. Masakwa growing n e c e s s i t a t e s f a l l i n g - f l o o d f m i n g of
t h e surrounding f i r k i . A v a r i e t y of l e s s important crops i s a l s o
grown, some of them i n gardens i r r i g a t e d by a modern borehole-fed l a k e
a t t h e edge of t h e v i l l a g e . P r i o r t o t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e borehole,
t h i s l a k e only h e l d water i n t h e r a i n y season and w e l l s of about 30
metres depth were necessary t o g e t water throughout t h e year. The
v i l l a g e r s a l s o keep c a t t l e , sheep and g o a t s and v a r i o u s o t h e r animals.
The c a t t l e a r e s t a l l e d i n cow-houses: a t n i g h t d u r i n g t h e d r y season,
i n t h e day-time during t h e r a i n y season because of b i t i n g f l i e s . I n
d r y seasons t h a t a r e p a x t i c u l a r l y d r y t h e c a t t l e a r e taken t o Lake
Chad o r t o one of t h e r i v e r s but it i s l a c k of grass r a t h e r t h a n l a c k
of water which i s t h e deciding f a c t o r . F i s h can be caught i n t h e
v i l l a g e l a k e and even i n t h e d r y season 'mud f i s h ' can be dug up from
t h e hardened f i r k i , Sorghum i s t h e s t a p l e food and i s s t o r e d f o r up
t o two years i n p i t s dug i n t h e ground within t h e s e t t l e m e n t . To
prepare as food it i s u s u a l l y husked i n a p e s t l e and mortar and t h e n
ground t o a f l o u r , t r a d i t i o n a l l y on a grindstone, now i n a d i e s e l powered grinding machine. There i s l i t t l e wood a v a i l a b l e i n t h e
Sangaya a r e a and d r i e d cakes of cow manure a r e used as f u e l . Cooking
i s done on f i r e p l a c e s of a s i m i l a r design t o some of t h o s e excavated
i n t h e upper p a r t of t h e Daima mound.

2: Daima ( ~ e g i o n2: sandy a r e a adjacent t o f i r k i ) . The v i l l a g e of


D a i m a i s s i t u a t e d l e s s t h a n 1 kilometre from t h e s e t t l e m e n t mound t h a t
b e a r s i t s name. It sits on a l a r g e sandy a r e a but t h e r e a r e e x t e n s i v e
a r e a s of f i r k i i n t h e v i c i n i t y and t h e s e flood d u r i n g t h e r a i n s .
Daima i s a s e t t l e m e n t of mud b u i l d i n g s and of c o r n - s t a l k o r grass
b u i l d i n g s . The population i s probably much t h e same as Sangaya but
D a i m a has grown s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i n c e t h e mid 1960s. The v i l l a g e was
o r i g i n a l l y Shuwa but both Shuwa and Kanuri now l i v e t h e r e with t h e
Kanuri forming t h e l a r g e r p a r t of t h e population. The Shuwa s e t t l e d
a t D a i m a i n t h e middle of t h e n i n e t e e n t h century A.D. and it i s s a i d

t h a t t h e y d i d n o t meet anybody a l r e a d y l i v i n g t h e r e . Thus, u n l i k e


Sangaya, t h e D a i m a s e t t l e m e n t r e p r e s e n t s a marked d i s c o n t i n u i t y from
t h e p r e h i s t o r i c s i t u a t i o n . The main c r o p i s sorghum: masaktra b e i n g
t h e most i m p o r t a n t , followed by dawa. The d s i s grown on sandy
s o i l n e a r t h e v i l l a g e , t h e masakwa i n v o l v e s f a l l i n g - f l o o d farming of
t h e f i r k i . A v a r i e t y of l e s s important c r o p s i s a l s o grown i n y e w s
when t h e r e i s enough r a i n . C a t t l e , sheep and g o a t s a r e k e p t b u t d r y
season m i g r a t i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r y . The c a t t l e a r e s t a l l e d a t n i g h t
d u r i n g t h e d r y season but i n t h e daytime d u r i n g t h e r a i n s . A n a t u r a l
l a k e n e a r t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e always d r i e s i n t h e d r y season and
b e f o r e t h e d r i l l i n g of a borehole a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t it was n e c e s s a r y
t o d i g w e l l s of about 35 metres d e p t h .
A t D a i m a t h e economic response t o t h e environment i s much t h e
same as t h a t found a t Sangaya, d e s p i t e t h e c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y and
d e s p i t e t h e s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n environment.

3:

Mainari ( ~ e g i o n3: yobe). A s e t t l e m e n t of c o r n - s t a l k and grass


b u i l d i n g s with a guessed p o p u l a t i o n of n o t more t h a n 100 Kanurispeaking people. It i s s i t u a t e d i n l o o s e sandy country i n t h e Yobe
V a l l e y , about 1.5 k i l o m e t r e s from t h e r i v e r . It i s s a i d t o be an o l d
v i l l a g e but on a new s i t e . I n t h i s r e g i o n it seems t o have been a
t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t o move t h e v i l l a g e and f a r m t h e abandoned s i t e
when t h e surrounding f i e l d s l o s t t h e i r f e r t i l i t y . The main c r o p i s
m i l l e t which i s grown on sandy a r e a s i n t h e r a i n y season. I r r i g a t e d
wheat i s a l s o grown and t h e v i l l a g e r s claim t h a t t h i s h a s been grown
f o r s o l o n g t h a t no e s t i m a t e can be attempted of t h e a n t i q u i t y of t h e
p r a c t i c e . The v i l l a g e r s a l s o maintain a n i r r i g a t e d garden, by t h e s i d e
of t h e Yobe River from which water i s l i f t e d by shadoof. Animal manure
i s used on t h e garden and a n impressive v a r i e t y of v e g e t a b l e s i s grown.
Sheep, g o a t s , c a t t l e and v a r i o u s o t h e r animals a r e k e p t , g o a t s b e i n g
t h e most common. The t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e of water d u r i n g t h e r a i n y
season was t h e Yobe River and d u r i n g t h e d r y season w e l l s were dug i n
t h e bed of t h e r i v e r i f it d r i e d up. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , r i v e r f i s h i n g
was an important source of food.

I n t h e Yobe r e g i o n r a i n f a l l i s markedly l e s s t h a n i n t h e f i r k i
and s e t t l e m e n t i s of a l e s s permanent n a t u r e , both i n b u i l d i n g
m a t e r i a l s and c o n t i n u i t y of occupation. The c r o p s and animals which
a r e t h e most important r e f l e c t t h e d r i e r c o n d i t i o n s compared t o t h e
f i r k i but s k i l l f u l u s e of t h e Yobe R i v e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n m i t i g a t e s t o
some e x t e n t t h e e f f e c t s of t h e d r i e r c l i m a t e .

4: Malam Nguptori ( ~ e g i o n4: ~ g a d d a / m i d d l e ~ e d s e r a m ) A s e t t l e m e n t


of m i l l e t - s t a l k and grass b u i l d i n g s w i t h a guessed p o p u l a t i o n of n o t
more t h a n 100 Kanuri-speaking people. The v i l l a g e i s s i t u a t e d i n
l o o s e sandy c o u n t r y b u t t h e r e axe c l a y f l a t s i n t h e v i c i n i t y . The
v i l l a g e r s claim t h a t t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t h a s remained on t h e same s p o t
s i n c e b e f o r e t h e middle of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.D.; when t h e
f e r t i l i t y of t h e i r f i e l d s l e s s e n s , t h e y s h i f t t h e f i e l d s s h o r t

d i s t a n c e s but do not move t h e v i l l a g e . However, some v i l l a g e s i n t h i s


r e g i o n do move i n response t o f a l l i n g f e r t i l i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y ,
- w a s grown on t h e l o c a l f i r k i c l a y f l a t s and m i l l e t on
sorghum (dawa)
t h e sandy a r e a s but poor r a i n f a l l i n r e c e n t years h a s l e d t o a
concentration on m i l l e t . A v a r i e t y of l e s s important crops i s a l s o
grown and c a t t l e , sheep, g o a t s and v a r i o u s o t h e r animals a r e k e p t .
C a t t l e a r e t h e most common animals but a r e not s u b j e c t t o seasonal
movement. The t r a d i t i o n a l source of water was from w e l l s dug on t h e
f i r k i f l a t s . I f t h i s v i l l a g e was moved from t h i s s i t e , r e l a t i v e l y
l i t t l e archaeological t r a c e of it would remain.

This v i l l a g e demonstrates how people have been a b l e t o e x p l o i t


t h e d r i e r , s a n d i e r environments of t h e study a r e a , even when i r r i g a t i o n
was not a v a i l a b l e a s i n t h e Yobe Valley. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of
archaeological s i t e s , however, suggests t h a t some p a r t s of Region 4
were t o o d r y f o r any s u s t a i n e d occupation of t h e same s i t e .
ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES.
The e i g h t new s i t e s have been numbered i n t h e same s e r i e s as
t h o s e l i s t e d i n t h e J o u r n a l of African H i s t o r x i n 1976.

ma or no

1: Maidbe
8 9 ) . The d e s e r t e d remains of a Kanuri town probably
d a t i n g from sometime during t h e l a s t 500 y e a r s . It i s s i t u a t e d about
27 kilometres SSE. of Golumba, i n l e v e l sandy country, and c o n s i s t s
of an a r e a enclosed by a town w a l l w i t h i n which a r e a number of small
s e t t l e m e n t mounds of Yobe t y p e , with grey-stained s u r f a c e sand
s c a t t e r e d with potsherds and o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l . A t t h e
c e n t r e of t h e s i t e i s a roughly c i r c u l a r a r e a , s a i d by l o c a l
t r a d i t i o n t o have been t h e Mai's palace- compound. It measures about
195 metres a c r o s s and i s enclosed by a d i t c h and a steep-sided e a r t h e n
bank, t h e t o p of which i s 4-5 metres above t h e bottom of t h e d i t c h .
This bank i s probably t h e remains of a n upstanding mud w a l l r a t h e r t h a n
of an earthen rampart. The enclosure has two e n t r a n c e s on i t s west
s i d e and a low s e t t l e m e n t mound a t i t s c e n t r e .

o or no

2: SW. of Kambile
90). This s i t e i s s i t u a t e d 3 k i l o m e t r e s SW.
56) on t h e SE. s i d e of t h e Jarawa-Golumba road. It
of Kambile
i s a f l a t s i t e l o c k t k on a s l i g h t l y e l e v a t e d sandy a r e a surrounded
by f i r k i which f l o o d s during t h e r a i n s . A t its h i g h e s t point i s a
t h i n s c a t t e r of potsherds and o t h e r archaeological m a t e r i a l . T h i s
s i t e appears t o be a post-contact one, probably n i n e t e e n t h and
t w e n t i e t h century i n d a t e , with some t r a c e s of e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l
p r e s e n t . It i s probable t h a t t h e s i t e was d e s e r t e d only i n r e c e n t
decades. The provision of borehole water a t s e l e c t e d s e t t l e m e n t s i n
t h i s a r e a s i n c e t h e mid 1950s has probably caused t h e abandonment of
many smaller v i l l a g e s . The s i t e i s of p a r t i c u l a r value i n throwing
l i g h t on t h e end of t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sequence i n Borno.

o or no

3:

o or no

Suwa
9 1 ) . T h i s s i t e i s s i t u a t e d about 6 k i l o m e t r e s NW. of
Borno 90 i n t h e midst of an e x t e n s i v e .-f i r k i c l a y p l a i n which f l o o d s
d u r i n g t h e r a i n s . I t i s a l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t mound of f i r k i t y p e ,
guessed t o be about 6 metres h i g h , w i t h a modern v i l l a g e on t h e SW.
end. The NE, end of t h e mound i s n o t occupied by b u i l d i n g s and h a s
a t h i c k s c a t t e r of p o t s h e r d s and o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l . The
s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l at Suwa appears t o be of a ' l a t e Daima' d a t e ,
i n d i c a t i n g occupation from l a t e i n t h e f i r s t millennium t o e a r l y i n
t h e second millennium A . D .

o or no

9 2 ) . T h i s s i t e i s s i t u a t e d 4-5 k i l o m e t r e s SE.
of Suwa
91) on t h e n o r t h e r n s i d e of t h e t r a c k l e a d i n g towards
Golumba. It i s a f l a t s i t e l o c a t e d on a s m a l l sandy a r e a surrounded
by a n e x t e n s i v e f i r k i c l a y p l a i n which f l o o d s d u r i n g t h e r a i n s . The
s i t e c o n s i s t s of a t h i n s c a t t e r of s h e r d s and o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
m a t e r i a l and would appear t o be of p o s t - c o n t a c t d a t e , probably
belonging t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , w i t h some t r a c e s
of e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t . Like Borno 9 0 , it i s probable t h a t t h e
s i t e was d e s e r t e d only i n r e c e n t decades as a response t o b e t t e r water
s u p p l i e s elsewhere. Its small s i z e and i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n might
suggest t h a t it was occupied o n l y s e a s o n a l l y .

4: SE. of Suwa

o or no

o or no

$: Garm Kime
93). This i s a f l a t site s i t u a t e d 4 kilometres
t o t h e west of Mongonu, 100 metres south of t h e t a r r e d r o a d from
Maiduguri t o ~ o n ~ o nt hua t w a s b u i l t i n t h e l a t e 1960s. The s i t e i s
l o c a t e d i n a f l a t sandy a r e a , nearby a r e two small c l a y d e p r e s s i o n s
t h a t could provide water f o r p a r t of t h e y e a r . There i s a square
earthwork e n c l o s u r e measuring about 75 by 53 m e t r e s , w i t h a bank
about 1 metre h i g h . T h i s bank i s l i t t e r e d with broken f i r e d r e d
b r i c k and t h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e b u t d o u b t f u l e n t r a n c e t o t h e e n c l o s u r e
on i t s western s i d e . A s c a t t e r of broken b r i c k l i e s i n s i d e t h e
e n c l o s u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on a s l i g h t l y r a i s e d a r e a . About 75 metres
away from t h e NW. c o r n e r of t h e e n c l o s u r e i s a roughly c i r c u l a r
mound, about 1.5 metres h i g h , which a l s o h a s a s c a t t e r of broken
f i r e d r e d b r i c k . There i s no p o t s h e r d s c a t t e r w i t h i n t h e s q u a r e
e n c l o s u r e , o r on i t s bank, o r on t h e a d j a c e n t mound b u t p o t s h e r d s
can be found s c a t t e r e d on grey-stained sand around t h e s i t e ,
e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e NE. and E. where t h e r e a r e a number of low s e t t l e ment mounds of Yobe t y p e . To t h e n o r t h of t h e t a r r e d r o a d , perhaps
0.5 k i l o m e t r e from t h e s i t e , i s t h e modern v i l l a g e of Garu Kime, a
Kanuri place-name t h a t t r a n s l a t e s i n t o English as ' r e d w a l l '
The
i n h a b i t a n t s s a y t h a t t h e s i t e i s o l d e r t h a n Kukawa, probably meaning
t h a t it i s p r e - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A . D . They s a y t h a t t h e s q u a r e
e n c l o s u r e was t h e Mai's compound and t h e s e p a r a t e mound t h e remains
of t h e mosque. S u r f a c e m a t e r i a l a t t h e s i t e i n d i c a t e s a second
millennium A.D d a t e and t h e s i m i l a r i t y of name and presence of
f i r e d b r i c k seem good r e a s o n s t o claim t h a t t h i s i s t h e s i t e of Garu
K i m e ( a l s o known as ~ u d i )mentioned i n t h e Mahram l i s t e d as
Manuscript 52 i n H . R . Palmer, Sudanese Memoirs, Volume 111, Lagos
1928, p. 28. According t o t h i s document, Garu K i m e was t h e f i r s t

c a p i t a l a f t e r t h e Kanuri movement from Kanem and w a s l i v e d i n f o r


seven years before t h e foundation of B i r n i n Gazargamo. According t o
Palmer, t h i s would mean t h a t G a r u Kime was t h e Kanuri c a p i t a l from
1477 t o 1484 b u t probably t h e s i t e continued t o be occupied l o n g
a f t e r t h a t time.

o or no

6: Yedi
94). This s i t e i s s i t u a t e d about 14.5 kilometres N N W .
of Marte on t h e road between Marte and Mongonu. It i s an e x t e n s i v e
low eroded bank, all t h a t
but low settlement mound of f i r k i type.
remains of a defensive w a l l , was observed around t h e edge of t h e mound
on i t s NE. s i d e . Apart from i t s NE. extremity which has a t h i c k
s c a t t e r of potsherds and o t h e r archaeological m a t e r i a l , t h e r e s t of
t h e mound i s covered by a modern v i l l a g e . The mound s t a n d s i n t h e
midst of an expanse of f i r k i c l a y which f l o o d s during t h e r a i n s but
it i s near t h e edge of t h e f i r k i p l a i n s . The s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l at t h e
s i t e appears t o be of ' l a t e Daima' and ' p o s t D a i m a ' d a t e , i n d i c a t i n g
occupation from l a t e i n t h e f i r s t millennium A.D. down t o t h e p r e s e n t
time.

o or no

7: W. of Kauwa
95). This s i t e i s s i t u a t e d about 9 kilometres
ENE. of Kukawa and about 1.5 kilometres W. of t h e Kauwa road
junction, on t h e t a r r e d road from Maiduguri t o Kukawa t h a t was b u i l t
i n t h e l a t e 1960s. A t t h i s point t h e road t o Kukawa c r e s t s a r i s e
formed by a b e l t of s t a b i l i z e d sand dunes, t h e s u r f a c e of which i s
very l o o s e , Amongst t h e s e i s a s e r i e s of amorphous s e t t l e m e n t mounds
of Yobe t y p e . A t l e a s t s i x mounds a r e present but t h e whole t e r r a i n
i s undulating and t h e s i t e extends on both s i d e s of t h e t a r r e d road.
A l l t h e immediate a r e a has grey-stained sand but t h e mounds a l s o have
a s c a t t e r of potsherds (mostly r a t h e r comminuted) , some animal bone
fragments, fragments of freshwater s h e l l and a l o t of f i s h bone most
of which i s broken i n t o small fragments. Other archaeological
m a t e r i a l i s a l s o p r e s e n t . Apparently t h e s i t e i s t h a t of a s e t t l e m e n t
belonging t o t h e second millennium A.D. The occupation of t h i s
e l e v a t e d dune a r e a would have allowed e x p l o i t a t i o n of nearby c l a y pans
which f l o o d during t h e r a i n s . The kanwa ( ~ a u s a )o r potash t r a d e
t r a d i t i o n a l l y passed through t h i s a r e a , t h e potash being brought
a c r o s s Lake Chad from NE. of t h e Lake and landed on t h e Baga peninsula.
I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Borno 95 was t h e l o c a t i o n of one of t h e more
westerly potash markets during a period of high Lake l e v e l .

o or no

8: Ngauro Kura
96). This s i t e i s s i t u a t e d about 4 kilometres
roughly SW. of Yau on t h e edge of a side-channel of t h e Yobe River,
l e s s than 1 kilometre from t h e Mainari i r r i g a t e d garden. The s i t e
c o n s i s t s of a l a r g e , very steep-sided s e t t l e m e n t mound of Yobe t y p e ,
5-6 metres h i g h , with a number of f a r smaller and lower mounds i n i t s
v i c i n i t y . The mounds, and t h e a r e a i n between them, a r e of greys t a i n e d , loose sand with a s c a t t e r of potsherds and o t h e r archaeolog i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i c k on t h e l a r g e mound. The
s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l appears t o be of second millennium A . D . d a t e , down
t o r e c e n t times. V i l l a g e r s from Mainari say t h a t t h e place i s c a l l e d

Ngauro Kura and t h a t t h e r e was a v i l l a g e t h e r e u n t i l one y e a r ago.


No s i g n s could be found of former houses o r o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s .
CONCLUSION.
The r e c e n t f i e l d w o r k provides u s e f u l comparative i n f o r m a t i o n on
t h e t r a d i t i o n a l economies of t h r e e of t h e main e c o l o g i c a l r e g i o n s of
t h e s t u d y a r e a . S i m i l a r economies can be found c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n
t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . The newly d i s c o v e r e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s
extend t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a number of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l phenomena,
complete t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sequence down t o modern t i m e s and, i n
Garu Kime and Maidbe, provide important proto-urban s i t e s t h a t would
repay excavation.
The r e c e n t work a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e most d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n of
f u t u r e f i e l d r e s e a r c h i n t h e s t u d y area. Ethnographic o b s e r v a t i o n
and r e c o r d i n g , t o g e t h e r with e t h n o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a r e
g r e a t l y needed i n t h i s a r e a . From t h e p o i n t of view of t h e
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i t s e l f , t h e r e i s s t i l l an embarrassment of
problems r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n : both d i s t r i b u t i o n a l and c h r o n o l o g i c a l .
Perhaps t h e major problem remains t h a t of t h e s t u d y a r e a p r i o r t o
1000 - 1250 B . C . w e s t i l l have t o f i n d s i t e s d a t i n g from b e f o r e t h i s
time i f w e a r e t o understand how t h e s e t t l e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e
a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t , of t h i s area o r i g i n a t e d . Perhaps indeed t h e
answer l i e s o u t s i d e t h e main s t u d y a r e a , t o i t s west and t o i t s s o u t h .
Only f u r t h e r f i e l d w o r k can t e l l .
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.
The f i e l d w o r k d i s c u s s e d above was made p o s s i b l e by a g r a n t from
t h e Nigerian F e d e r a l Department of A n t i q u i t i e s and c o n s i d e r a b l e
p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e Centre f o r Nigerian C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s at
Ahmadu B e l l o U n i v e r s i t y , Zaria. The fieldwork was conducted w i t h t h e
permission of H i s Excellency, t h e M i l i t a r y Governor of Borno S t a t e
and w i t h t h e co-operation of both H i s Highness, t h e Shehu of Borno and
H i s Highness, t h e Shehu o f Dikwa. There were many o t h e r people who
helped.

CAPTION FOR MAP


Map of t h e Lake Chad region of Nigeria showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of known
archaeological s i t e s . The l a r g e numbers i n d i c a t e t h e ecological
regions discussed i n t h e t e x t . Other numbers i n d i c a t e s i t e s and
places l i s t e d below.
Excavated s i t e s

New S i t e s 1978

Ethnographic i n v e s t i g a t i o n s

6:

89 : Maidbe

El:

Sangaya

9: Ajere

90: SW. of Kambile

E2:

Daima

16: Birnin Gazargamo

91: Suwa

E3:

Mainari

24: Kursakata

92: SE. of Suwa

E4:

Malam Nguptori

29: Daima

93 : Garu Kime

38: Borno 38

94 : Yedi

70: Shilma

95 : W . of Kauwa

Yau

96: Ngauro Kura

0
DAMATURU

F I R K I TYPE MOUND
*SITE

A VOBE

WITH STONE INDUSTRY

TYPE MOUND(S)

FLAT SITE

+
QUARRY
$I
SITE

LAND OVER 610 METRES (2000 FEET)

#BURIAL

SITE

SHELL MIDDEN EXCAVATIONS I N NIGERIA


Nwanna Naewunwa,

by
University of Cambridge.

For f i f t e e n months from J u l y 1976 t o October 1977 I conducted


various archaeological researches i n t h e e a s t e r n Niger D e l t a of
Nigeria. Although t h e region can be divided i n t o t h r e e major
e c o l o g i c a l zones namely mainland, f r e s h w a t e r , s a l t w a t e r i n c l u d i n g
sandy beach r i d g e s , a number of micro-ecological zones a l s o e x i s t .
Each of t h e s e major eones w a s sampled but t h e r e s e a r c h concentrated
on t h e s a l t w a t e r and t h e i r h i n t e r l a n d zones where t h e main archaeolog i c a l f e a t u r e s a r e s h e l l middens.
The research was i n t e r e s t e d i n studying
1 ) t h e c o n s t r a i n t s i n t h e l o c a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t s and
n a t u r a l resources and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
t h e subsistence economic and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e
components of Niger D e l t a s h e l l middens

2)

3 ) t h e r o l e of a q u a t i c resources e s p e c i a l l y s h e l l f i s h
i n Niger Delta subsistence economy.
4)

t h e r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l and chronological development


of t h e d e l t a .

The excavations a t Okochiri middens i n December 1976 and


January 1977 and midden sampling on s e l e c t e d s h e l l middens were
designed a s experiments on midden excavation and sampling following
techniques developed i n t h e United S t a t e s and widely used i n
A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. To my knowledge t h i s i s t h e f i r s t time
West African s h e l l middens a r e being i n v e s t i g a t e d with such
techniques. Materials recovered include s e v e r a l metric t o n s of
d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s of s h e l l f i s h , two thousand potsherds, two hundred
bone fragments, a f a i r amount of charred wood, palm k e r n e l , and
t r a c e s of r u s t e d i r o n o b j e c t s . A study of t h e s e m a t e r i a l s and t h o s e
from t h e excavations of D r . F.N. Anozie i s being presented as
ASPECTS OF ECONOMY AND CULTURE IN THE PREHISTORY
OF THE NIGER DELTA
t o Cambridge University f o r a R . D . degree i n Archaeology t h i s winter.
Dates obtained so f a r place t h e Okochiri middens i n t h e 10th century
A.D.

I w i l l be glad t o communicate with any persons o r u n i t i n t e r e s t e d


i n s h e l l midden s t u d i e s , c o a s t a l archaeology and a s p e c t s of manenvironment i n t e r a c t i o n s at:
Dept. of Archaeology
Downing S t r e e t ,
Cambridge, CB2 3DZ, England.

SIERRA LEONE
D r . H i l l of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo w r i t e s :

Joe Opala h a s f o r two y e a r s been o r g a n i z i n g an archaeology


l a b o r a t o r y a t Fourah Bay College. The u s e of l a b o r a t o r y space and
a s s i s t a n c e of a t e c h n i c i a n a r e a v a i l a b l e t o v i s i t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s .
With completion of t h i s p r o j e c t , c a r r i e d o u t as a Peace Corps
Volunteer, Opala i s beginning a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of Bunce I s l a n d F o r t ,
a Royal African Company p o s t i n t h e S i e r r a Leone R i v e r . T h i s work
i s b e i n g done under a g r a n t from t h e National Endowment f o r t h e
Humanities (U .S )

. .

SOUTH AFRICA

D r . S c u l l y of Hartwick College sends t h i s r e p o r t :


I would l i k e t o announce t h a t a d d i t i o n a l information i s now
a v a i l a b l e on t h e Phalaborwa I r o n Age i n a r e c e n t l y completed
d i s s e r t a t i o n , Phalaborwa Oral T r a d i t i o n , by R .T .K S c u l l y (SUNY
of t h e s t u d y a r e a v a i l a b l e
Binghamton, New York, May 1978-s
i n microfilm o r bound xerographic form from Xerox U n i v e r s i t y
Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The s t u d y i s based on ethnographic r e s e a r c h i n t h e Lowveld


Sotho-speaking a r e a s of t h e n o r t h e a s t Transvaal i n 1970, 1974-1976.
The s u b j e c t s of t h e s t u d y , t h e BaPhalaborwa p e o p l e , a r e t h e b e a r e r s
of an o r a l t r a d i t i o n of c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e depth which t i e s i n with
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence of a n I r o n Age c u l t u r e a t Phalaborwa as e a r l y
as t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y A.D.
The combination i n Phalaborwa of a wealth of o r a l t r a d i t i o n , a
l o n g continuum of occupation e v i d e n t from archaeology and t h e absence
of w r i t t e n r e c o r d s make it i n t e r e s t i n g from a methodological s t a n c e
as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n from such d a t a . The
r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d an ethnographic s t u d y of t h e p r e s e n t day c o n t e x t i n
which Phalaborwa t r a d i t i o n s e x i s t and t h e s u b j e c t i o n of a wide
sampling of o r a l t r a d i t i o n s t o comparative s c r u t i n y .
E a r l y c h a p t e r s on o r i g i n , m i g r a t i o n , conquest and s e t t l e m e n t
f o c u s on t h e problems of c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g
h i s t o r i c a l from a h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n i s t h e n given
t o r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a t e n t a t i v e e a r l y h i s t o r y a ~ l dchronology of e v e n t s
down t o t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s .

The study demonstrates t h a t t h e Phalaborwa p a s t w a s dynamic and


not s t a t i c . Involving processes of growth and change r e l a t e d t o
some of t h e main l i n e s of southeast African h i s t o r y . F'rom t h i s it i s
c l e a r t h a t t h e BaPhalaborwa were involved i n a unique p o l i t i c a l
process stemming from t h e d e c l i n e of t h e Venda Empire i n t h e 1 7 t h and
18th c e n t u r i e s and t h e development of l a r g e s c a l e i v o r y hunting and
trade.
BaPhalaborwa h i s t o r y i s t h u s t i e d t o t h e Bakgalaka s t a t e s of t h e
Limpopo-Mesina-Zimbabwe mining regions i n what i s p r e s e n t l y c a l l e d
Rhodesia and i s p a r t of a major h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon: t h e r i s e and
evolution of s t a t e l e v e l s o c i e t y i n a s s o c i a t i o n with t h e development
of an indigenous metal i n d u s t r y and t r a d e . The Phalaborwa m a t e r i a l
t e l l s u s something about t h e mechanisms by which t h e t r a n s f e r of
p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n t r o l took place and how i n t e r e s t groups
gained and l o s t hegemony. It i s p o s s i b l e from Phalaborwa t r a d i t i o n
t o r e c o n s t r u c t biographies of key f i g u r e s from t h e 1 8 t h and 19th
century and t o surmise t h e personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and genius t h a t
l e d t o e n t r a p r e n e u r i a l ventures and p o l i t i c a l maneuvers as opportunit i e s waxed and waned i n t h e region.
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n d o v e t a i l s with archaeological information t o
provide t h e rudiments of a diachronic perspective. I n doing t h i s it
r a i s e s s e r i o u s questions about ethnographic accounts which otherwise
purport t o explain how s o c i e t i e s were organized before t h e impact of
t h e c o l o n i a l period.

Report on Research i n t h e O l i f a n t s River Valley

1977

by
John Parkington
During ~ u n e / ~ u1977
l ~ a t o t a l of 250 man days were spent i n t h e
O l i f a n t s River Valley supported by funds from t h e Human Sciences
Research Council. The aims of t h e research were m u l t i p l e : our prime
i n t e r e s t l a y i n t h e way i n which p r e h i s t o r i c populations of h u n t e r s
o r herders had occupied t h e v a l l e y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e few m i l l e n i a
p r i o r t o c o l o n i a l p e n e t r a t i o n . I t w a s assumed t h a t s e t t l e m e n t i n
t h e v a l l e y would have been p a r t of wider settlement p a t t e r n s
involving o t h e r resource zones from t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t t o t h e Karoo,
and p r e d i c t i o n s t o t h e e f f e c t had a l r e a d y been published. I n t r y i n g
t o determine t h e s e settlement d e t a i l s a number of research l i n e s
were opened up and t h e present r e p o r t sketches i n t h e r e s u l t s as of
April 1978.

1 Excavation

The major portion of our energies i n 1977 was d i r e c t e d at t h e


excavation of a small rock s h e l t e r near t o Clanwilliam known as
Andriesgrond. The s i t e i s l o c a t e d some 900 metres west of t h e present
west bank of t h e O l i f a n t s r i v e r and i s eroded i n t o a Table Mountain
S e r i e s kopie a t about 200 metres above s e a l e v e l , about 100 metres
above t h e r i v e r (18051f30E, 3 2 1 1 f 4 ~ " ~ ) The mouth of t h e s h e l t e r
opens t o t h e e a s t and south-east which means t h a t some 50 m 2 of
d e p o s i t s a r e well protected from t h e winter r a i n s blowing i n from
north and west. I n t h e course of our excavations we removed about
8 m3 of d e p o s i t from t h i s p a r t of t h e s i t e and were a b l e t o p l o t t h e
d i s t r i b u t i o n of bedding and ash zones a s well as t h e p o s i t i o n s of
significant artefacts.

Perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t point about t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of


l e n s e s i s t h e general s i m i l a r i t y of s l e e p i n g and cooking arrangements
h e r e and a t o t h e r s i t e s excavated i n t h e south western Cape. However
a t Andriesgrond t h e d e p o s i t s were marked by a s i g n i f i c a n t number
(about 25 so f a r ) of heaps of p l a n t food d e b r i s and at l e a s t one p i t
f e a t u r e not encountered previously i n t h i s a r e a (but known from
excavations by D r . H J . Deacon i n t h e southern and e a s t e r n cape). The
depth of deposit was v a r i a b l e but reached a maximum of about 500 mm
near t h e c e n t r e of t h e s i t e , where, below t h e bedding g r a s s e s and ash
zones t h e r e was a brown sandy d e p o s i t containing huge q u a n t i t i e s of
fragmented t o r t o i s e bones and some s p a l l s of weathered sandstone.

Faunal m a t e r i a l i s very well preserved but not p a r t i c u l a r l y


abundant. The s p e c i e s l i s t f o r t h e f o u r u n i t s p r e s e n t l y recognised
i s presented i n t a b l e one and i s based on t h e work of D r . R . G . Klein
of t h e University of Chicago. The assemblage corresponds f a i r l y well
with what was previously known of t h e d i e t of h u n t e r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e
fynbos landscape of t h e Cape Folded B e l t mountains, t h a t i s it i s
dominated by small browsing bovids such as t h e grysbok, and by a range
of r a t h e r small animals ( t o r t o i s e , dune mole r a t , d a s s i e , mongoose,
h a r e ) . It seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e animals were a l l hunted o r snared
l o c a l l y and i n t h i s context t h e extreme r a r i t y of f i s h bones i s of
s i g n i f i c a n c e . It i s known h i s t o r i c a l l y t h a t t h e r e were q u a n t i t i e s of
indigenous f i s h i n t h e O l i f a n t s r i v e r b u t t h e s e seem not t o have been
e x p l o i t e d from t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e .
Mazgaret Avery has i d e n t i f i e d over 400 micromammals from our
excavated m a t e r i a l including moles, shrews, b a t s , mice, rats and
g e r b i l s ( s e e t a b l e two). Whilst some of t h e s e may have formed a p a r t
of t h e p r e h i s t o r i c d i e t it seems very l i k e l y t h a t most of t h e
micromammalien remains o r i g i n a t e from owl p e l l e t s r e g u r g i t a t e d by owls
using t h e cave i n t h e absence of humans. The l o c a t i o n of owl r o o s t s
nearby supports t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and has provided Mrs. Avery with
q u a n t i t i e s of l o c a l m a t e r i a l f o r comparison with t h a t excavated by u s .

P l a n t remains a r e superabundant at Andriesgrond. Apart from t h e


g r a s s e s used as bedding and a wide range of woods, r e e d s and f i b r e s
used i n artefact-making, t h e r e i s evidence f o r considerable g a t h e r i n g
of underground p l a n t foods, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e corms of l o c a l l y growing
genera such as Moraea, Oxalis and H e x a g l o t t i s . Over most of t h e a r e a
excavated s m a l l patches of t h e stems, corm casings and corm tumics of
t h e s e p l a n t s were recovered, presumably r e f l e c t i n g t h e d i s c a r d of t h e
waste p a r t s p r i o r t o food preparation. These corms were apparently
more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e d i e t at Andriesgrond than a t o t h e r Cape Folded
B e l t s i t e s i n t h e south-western Cape, t o judge from t h e i r r e l a t i v e
abundance and t h e r e l a t i v e d e a r t h of t h e remains of o t h e r p l a n t foods
such as seeds. Although a study of t h e s e p l a n t remains i s s t i l l i n
progress it seems l i k e l y t h a t a more r e s t r i c t e d s e t of s p e c i e s i s
involved a t Andriesgrond than a t o t h e r s i m i l a r s i t e s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s
of t h i s i n terms of d i e t and t h e timing of s i t e occupation a r e n o t
c l e a r but under study.
The Andriesgrond excavation produced an impressive a r t e f a c t
assemblage i n c l u d i n g a r t e f a c t s of wood, r e e d , f i b r e , l e a t h e r , s h e l l ,
bone, s t o n e , c l a y and b r a s s . Of t h e organic remains perhaps t h e most
important a r e t h e wooden a r t e f a c t s which include a l a r g e number of
wood shavings, so f a r about 1700 of them. It seems inescapable t h a t
a considerable proportion of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e p r e h i s t o r i c
occupants of t h e s i t e revolved around t h e manufacture and maintenance
of wooden a r t e f a c t s such as pegs, handles, digging s t i c k s and bows.
Otherwise t h e c o l l e c t i o n of cordage, bone p o i n t s , p a r t s of f i r e s t i c k s , beads of o s t r i c h eggshell and pendants of marine s h e l l l i n k
Andriesgrond with o t h e r s i t e s i n t h e south-western Cape.
The s t o n e a r t e f a c t assemblage h a s been p a r t i c u l a r l y important
i n t h a t i t s c h a r a c t e r seems d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t of o t h e r s
excavated from t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t , t h e sandveld and t h e Karoo margins.
Whilst t h e range of a r t e f a c t types i s s i m i l a r i n a l l c a s e s , t h e
frequencies of those types i s c e r t a i n l y n o t . Thus t h e Andriesgrond
assemblage contains an unusually high proportion of t o o l s known as
adzes which a r e recorded h i s t o r i c a l l y and ethnographically as having
been used i n shaping wooden a r t e f a c t s . It i s unusual f o r assemblages
i n t h i s a r e a and time bracket t o have so many, and it i s tempting t o
r e l a t e t h i s t o t h e l a r g e numbers of wood shavings and wooden a r t e f a c t s .
Perhaps t h e indigenous woods of t h e Folded B e l t allowed t h e
p r e h i s t o r i c groups t o r e p l a c e o r re-sharpen items of equipment, an
opportunity not presented i n t h e sandveld, karoo o r c o a s t a l a r e a s with
more l i m i t e d stands of woody shrubs. The apparent importance of p l a n t
food c o l l e c t i o n with wooden digging s t i c k s seems t o suggest a time of
maximum damage t o wooden a r t e f a c t s and t h e r e f o r e a period of c o n t i n u a l
maintenance, One perforated digging s t i c k weight with a s s o c i a t e d
wooden peg was found i n s i t u near t h e r e a r w a l l of t h e Andriesgrond
shelter.

D e s p i t e t h i s emphasis on p l a n t food g a t h e r i n g , t h e r e was one


important a r t e f a c t d i s c o v e r y r e l a t i n g t o t h e use of s t o n e - t i p p e d
arrows i n h u n t i n g game. Two small backed m i c r o l i t h s , gummed t o g e t h e r
w i t h mastic and probably i n t e n d e d as t h e mounted t i p of a n arrow a r e
unique as far as we know amongst excavated assemblages from s o u t h e r n
Africa.
Ceramic a r t e f a c t s i n c l u d e a number of stone-ware s h e r d s which
c l e a r l y p o s t - d a t e European c o l o n i s a t i o n , a fragment of a c l a y p i p e
bowl of Dutch d e s i g n and a c o l l e c t i o n of potsherds showing c l e a r
resemblance t o t h e s t o n e age 'Cape C o a s t a l P o t t e r y ' known from t h e
western and s o u t h e r n Cape c o a s t s and a s s o c i a t e d h i n t e r l a n d s . The
e a r t h e n ware of t h e Cape C o a s t a l t r a d i t i o n was n o t wheel-made a s was
t h e s t o n e ware and i s l i k e l y t o d a t e back only t o t h e p a s t two
m i l l e n i a , by e x t r a p o l a t i o n from w e l l d a t e d l o c a l sequences throughout
t h e Cape. The lowermost d e p o s i t s i n t h e c e n t r e of t h e cave seem t o
p r e d a t e t h e appearance of p o t t e r y and t h u s may be t h r e e o r f o u r
millenia old.
Metal o b j e c t s a r e v e r y r a r e i n e x c a v a t i o n s of t h e s o u t h western
Cape, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t both b r a s s and i r o n were b e i n g t r a d e d w i t h
indigenous h u n t e r s and h e r d e r s from at l e a s t t h e end of t h e s i x t e e n t h
c e n t u r y A.D. However t h e Andriesgrond e x c a v a t i o n s y i e l d e d f o u r b r a s s
o b j e c t s a l l c l e a r l y i t e m s of adornment, though v a r i a b l e i n shape. By
means of an X-ray f l u o r e s c e n c e a n a l y s i s of t h e s e a r t e f a c t s we a r e
f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t all were made from b r a s s t r a d e d i n a s a r e s u l t of
European c o n t a c t . A t l e a s t one of t h e s e w a s made from a ' g i l d i n g
b r a s s ' used by j e w e l l e r s of t h e s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s
A.D. i n Europe and probably one on many ' t r i n k e t s ' t r a d e d by e a r l y
t r a v e l l e r s f o r honey, domestic s t o c k o r game. These o b j e c t s , a l o n g
w i t h t h e wheel-made p o t t e r y and c l a y p i p e , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Andriesgrond cave w a s being used u n t i l t h e t i m e t h a t imported goods were
d i f f u s i n g through t h e south-western Cape, presumably t h e s i x t e e n t h
and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s A.D
So far one human b u r i a l h a s been l o c a t e d and excavated from t h e
r a t h e r shallow d e p o s i t s of t h e cave. T h i s i s s t i l l b e i n g a n a l y s e d
and r e c o n s t r u c t e d b u t seems t o be t h e s k e l e t o n of a young i n d i v i d u a l ,
p o s s i b l y female, b u r i e d i n a crouched p o s i t i o n with no s t o n e c o v e r i n g
and few grave goods. The s k u l l i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y r a t h e r fragmented,
probably by subsequent cave occupation, b u t was undoubtedly a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h s t r a n d s of ochred h a i r and beadwork, s u g g e s t i n g an e l a b o r a t e
h a i r s t y l i n g . The bones a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g analysed f o r carbon
i s o t o p i c composition as t h i s h a s proved t o be a f a i r l y s e n s i t i v e
i n d i c a t o r of d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s , given f a v o u r a b l e circumstances. The
chances a r e , f o r example, t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of marine f o o d s o r of
g r a ~ i n ganimals from karoo environments i n t h e d i e t of t h i s i n d i v i d u a l
could be r e v e a l e d by t h e s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .

This b r i e f but hopefully informative overview of t h e r e s u l t s of


t h e 1977 excavations h a s perhaps shown t h e g r e a t p o t e n t i a l of s i t e s
i n t h e O l i f a n t s River Valley. It i s very l i k e l y t h a t with expansion
of t h e f i e l d programme it w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t many a s p e c t s
of l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c times t h e r e . The d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s and s e t t l e m e n t
arrangements of both h u n t e r s and h e r d e r s , t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e
two groupings of indigenous peoples, and t h e impact of European
c o l o n i s a t i o n seem t h e most obvious t a r g e t s .

2.

Surface C o l l e c t i o n s

With t h e r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t t h e Andriesgrond s t o n e a r t e f a c t
assemblage was c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a b l e from o t h e r s i n complementary
resource zones, it seemed worthwhile making f u r t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s i n
t h e O l i f a n t s River v a l l e y t o t e s t f o r t h e homogeneity of assemblages
t h e r e . Seven o t h e r c o n t r o l l e d c o l l e c t i o n s were made, t h e ' c o n t r o l '
being t h a t every attempt was made not t o be s e l e c t i v e but t o pick up
a l l a r t e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . These were s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n s from
d e f l a t i o n hollows o r from g r a s s y swathes i n f r o n t of caves o r rock
s h e l t e r s , and t h u s cannot be placed i n t h e i r proper chronological
p o s i t i o n , though most w i l l be contempory with t h e Andriesgrond
occupations. Some t h i r t y thousand a r t e f a c t s were c o l l e c t e d and have
now been formally analysed i n our Department using a scheme g e n e r a l l y
accepted by s t o n e age a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n t h e Cape. The r e s u l t s show
t h a t t h e Andriesgrond p a t t e r n of adze-domination i s f r e q u e n t b u t n o t
u n i v e r s a l i n t h e O l i f a n t s River v a l l e y . Three o t h e r assemblages,
i n c l u d i n g one from i n f r o n t of t h e Andriesgrond cave and another from
a s i m i l a r l o c a l i t y on t h e e a s t bank of t h e r i v e r l e s s t h a n 5 km away,
have a higher percentage of adzes t h a n any o t h e r formal t o o l category.
One assemblage i s anomalous i n many ways and t h r e e o t h e r s , a l l from
d e f l a t i o n hollows near t h e confluence of t h e Doorn and O l i f a n t s r i v e r s
and c l e a r l y not a s s o c i a t e d with caves o r s h e l t e r s , show higher f i g u r e s
f o r s c r a p e r s than f o r adzes.
What t h i s means i s n o t y e t c l e a r . However, it can a t l e a s t be
s a i d t h a t no concentration of adze-dominated assemblages can be shown
t o e x i s t i n o t h e r zones of t h e south western Cape as y e t and t h a t t h e
apparent coincidence of n a t u r a l wood r e s o u r c e s , adzes with t h e i r
presumed f u n c t i o n and abundant wood shavings i s more t h a n s u g g e s t i v e .
One p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h e higher s c r a p e r f i g u r e s i n t h e DoornO l i f a n t s confluence s i t e s i s t h a t t h e s e a r e not s h e l t e r s i t e s , and
t h e r e f o r e perhaps l e s s permanent and l e s s s u i t a b l e o r l i k e l y as
a r t e f a c t maintenance l o c a l i t i e s , and t h a t t h e y a r e l o c a t e d c l o s e t o
t h e source of rock types n o t n a t i v e t o t h e upper O l i f a n t s River v a l l e y .
This l a s t p o i n t b r i n g s up t h e question of s t o n e raw m a t e r i a l
usage i n t h e O l i f a n t s River Valley. The Andriesgrond assemblage i s
dominated by s i l c r e t e a r t e f a c t s and i n t h i s i s c l e a r l y l i n k e d with
t h o s e of t h e sandveld t o t h e west. However i n a l l assemblages from

t h e v a l l e y t h e r e a r e small numbers of a r t e f a c t s made from c h e r t


chalcedony, j a s p e r o r a g a t e , which a r e a l l c r y p t o - c r y s t a l l i n e rocks
whose source i s probably i n t h e Ecca S e r i e s i n t h e western margins
of t h e karoo. East of t h e O l i f a n t s River i n s i t e s i n t h e h i g h e r
p a r t s of t h e Cape Folded B e l t t h e frequency of Ecca - derived rocks
i n c r e a s e s and s i l c r e t e , which outcrops l a r g e l y i n t h e sandveld, i s
very uncommon. Thus t h e O l i f a n t s River marks a s o r t of resource
boundary e a s t and west of which d i f f e r e n t raw m a t e r i a l usages predominate. C l e a r l y our a b i l i t y t o t r a c e t h e source of rock t y p e s
used w i l l be an important t o o l i n t h e t r a c i n g of p r e h i s t o r i c
population movements, a s well a s t h e exchange of raw m a t e r i a l s from
group t o group.
Arising from t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s from s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n s and
excavated assemblages i n t h e O l i f a n t s River Valley, we have i n i t i a t e d
a programme of s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n i n d e f l a t i o n bays between t h e
Folded B e l t and t h e coast
Whilst t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s a r e n o t y e t
a v a i l a b l e , it can a l r e a d y be p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e frequency of adzes
drops s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e sandveld and i s uniformly almost z e r o near
t h e c o a s t . Other a r t e f a c t frequencies may a l s o be shown t o vary
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y with environmental l o c a t i o n .

3.

Surveys

Q u i t e obviously it i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
m a t e r i a l s , whether bone, p l a n t o r a r t e f a c t , without a good understandi n g of t h e contemporary environment. We t h u s spent some time i n 1977
t r y i n g t o c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e context of t h e Andriesgrond cave i n terms
of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of p l a n t and animal foods and s t o n e , c l a y and
organic r a w m a t e r i a l s . T h i s i s made more d i f f i c u l t by t h e obvious
changes brought about by r e c e n t d i s t u r b a n c e s of t h e environment, most
notably f l o o d i n g of t h e O l i f a n t s River and o t h e r concentrated farming
i n t h e v a l l e y alluvium. Nevertheless we d i d manage t o l o c a t e a wide
range of p l a n t foods i n t h e cave v i c i n i t y , t o note t h e i r h a b i t a t
preferences and t o monitor t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of e d i b l e p a r t s . One
prominent discovery was t h a t d e s p i t e t h e presence of v e r y l a r g e
numbers of f r u i t - b e a r i n g Nylandtia bushes on t h e s l o p e s i n f r o n t of
t h e cave, no seed p i t s were recovered d u r i n g excavation. This i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r p r i s i n g as f r u i t s of t h i s genus have been excavated
i n very l a r g e numbers from one cave s i t e i n t h e sandveld, where t h e
shrub i s perhaps l e s s common. Although t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s
genus may have been a l t e r e d by r e c e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l o r grazing
p r a c t i c e s , it i s tempting t o conclude one of two t h i n g s : e i t h e r t h e
s i t e of Andriesgrond was scheduled f o r occupation a t a time of y e a r
when t h e f r u i t s were not r i p e : o r t h e f r u i t s were used l a r g e l y f o r
t h e i r water content i n d r y sandveld c o n d i t i o n s and v i r t u a l l y ignored
i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e permanently-flowing O l i f a n t s R i v e r . These
and o t h e r hypotheses may be generated and t e s t e d i n f u t u r e survey
work.

A s well as monitoring environmental v a r i a b l e s , our survey


attempted t o l o c a t e and v i s i t as many of t h e rock p a i n t i n g s i t e s i n
t h e v a l l e y as was p o s s i b l e i n l i m i t e d time. Unfortunately i n
southern Africa rock art s t u d i e s have not always been undertaken i n
r e l a t i o n t o excavation programmes and have not t h e r e f o r e been w e l l
i n t e g r a t e d i n t o p r e h i s t o r i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . It i s our a i m t o
p r a c t i c e such an i n t e g r a t i o n by asking s i m i l a r questions of both
excavated m a t e r i a l and rock p a i n t i n g r e c o r d s and l i n k i n g both t o t h e
fragmentary but u s e f u l h i s t o r i c accounts of p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t
i n t h e O l i f a n t s River v a l l e y . I n 1977 we v i s i t e d most of t h e rock
p a i n t i n g s i t e s known t o t h e Archaeological Data Recording Centre i n
Cape Town, and i n f a c t managed t o l o c a t e a t l e a s t one new s i t e . No
recording w a s undertaken but some f e e l i n g f o r t h e motifs and ' s t y l e s '
was obtained and f u t u r e work w i l l attempt some q u a n t i f i c a t i o n s of
t h e s e . Many of t h e rock p a i n t i n g s a r e i n caves o r s h e l t e r s which
have d e p o s i t s of excavatable dimensions and one o r two have been noted
as p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g l o c a l i t i e s .

SUDAN
The seasonal interconnection between Zakiab and Kadero:
two Neolithic s i t e s i n t h e Central Sudan.
Randi Haaland, H i s t o r i c a l Museum, University of Bergen.
I n February 1978 t h e Zakiab s i t e (coordinates 1 5 4 6 ' ~ ,. 32'35' E. )
was excavated by A l i Tigani E l Mahi and myself. The s i t e was f i r s t
recorded by Arkell ( ~ r k e l,l A . J , 1953 p. 106). The s i t e was
s e l e c t e d f o r excavation s i n c e it was i n t e r p r e t e d a s contemporary with
4
t o 5260 + 90 and
t h e Kadero s i t e ( t h i s s i t e has been ~ 1 dated
5030 t 70 B.P.) and r e l a t e d t o t h e s i t e as a d r y season herding and
f i s h i n g camp.

The excavation of Kadero ( t h e fieldwork w a s d i r e c t e d by Lech


Krzyzaniak and I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e 1975 and 1976 f i e l d - s e a s o n s ) had
given t h e following r e s u l t s :
The o s t e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l gave c l e a r evidence f o r t h e importance
of c a t t l e i n t h e economy of t h e Kadero people ( ~ r z ~ z a n i a kL ., 1977,
pp. 159-72), and t h e archaeological m a t e r i a l such a s i m p r i n t s on
p o t t e r y of probably domesticated sorghum ( ~ l i c h o w s k a ,M . 1978
pp. 42-43) and t h e enormous number of grindstones found i n d i c a t e d
t h a t sorghum was c u l t i v a t e d around t h e s i t e ( ~ a a l a n d ,R . i n p r e s s ) .
There were however no d a t a t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s i n

t h e Nile were e x p l o i t e d (no f i s h i n g t o o l s and h a r d l y any bones from


f i s h ) . Since t h e s i t e today i s l o c a t e d only 6 kilometer from t h e
r i v e r , t h i s negligence of t h e Nile r e s o u r c e s seemed somewhat s u r p r i s i n g .
Interpretation.
Important f a c t o r s i n t h e economy of t h e Kadero people were
a c t i v i t i e s connected with c u l t i v a t i o n and animal husbandry. The s i t e
w a s occupied i n t h e r a i n y season, i n t h i s period t h e p l a i n surrounding
t h e Kadero s i t e w a s p a r t l y innundated by t h e Nile and would t h e r e f o r e
have been i d e a l f o r c u l t i v a t i o n .

I hypothesised t h a t t h e people i n t h e d r y season would have


followed t h e r e t r e a t i n g N i l e and s e t t l e d i n smaller f i s h i n g camps
along t h e r i v e r . I n t h e s e camps t h e y would a l s o have kept t h e c a t t l e
because of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of p a s t u r e and water. I n an a r e a with
5-600 m i l l i m e t e r s of y e a r l y r a i n ( t h i s amount of r a i n i s i n d i c a t e d by
t h e many f i n d s of C e l t i s I n t e g r e f o l i a which r e q u i r e s t h i s minimum
amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n ) I would expect t h a t a p a s t o r a l mode of
production would n e c e s s i t a t e migration i n t h e d r y season t o a r e a s
Fhere pasture and water were a v a i l a b l e ( ~ a a l a n dR . I n p r e s s ) .
Excavation of Zakiab

The Zakiab s i t e was excavated t o t e s t t h i s hypothesis. The s i t e


is s mall (only 2000 sq .m. compared t o Kadero which i s 30 000 s q . m . ) ,
i s l o c a t e d on an o l d r i v e r bank and i s c l o s e r t o t h e N i l e . The
r e s u l t of t h e fieldwork at Zakiab i s as follows:
One sample of s h e l l from Nile o y s t e r h a s been processed by
L a b o r a t o r i e t f o r Radiologisk d a t e r i n g i n Trondheim and h a s y i e l d e d
t h e following d a t e : 5350
90 B .P. ( i n d i c a t i n g contemporaneity with
~ a d e r o ) . The osteological-material gave c l e a r evidence f o r t h e
importance of f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Dominant among t h e f i s h bones a r e
t h o s e of l u n g f i s h (which i s most e a s i l y caught i n t h e d r y season).
The importance of f i s h i n g i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by t h e presence of many
fish-hooks, both f i n i s h e d and i n d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of p r e p a r a t i o n .
It should a l s o be mentioned t h a t one broken piece of a harpoon w a s
found. Dominant among t h e m a m m a l bones were those from domesticated
c a t t l e . ('The a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e o s t e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l
i s done by A l i Tigani E l ~ a h i ) . The p o t t e r y i s of t h e same t y p e as
found at Kadero, both as regards c l a y , s u r f a c e t r e a t m e n t , f i r i n g and
decoration.

( t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e pot-sherds h a s been done by H . A . Nordstrijm)

The ceramic from both s i t e s were c l a s s i f i e d as belonging t o t h e


Sudan N e o l i t h i c t r a d i t i o n , as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t y p e s i t e Esh
Shaheinab. It should however be mentioned t h a t t h e sherds of d o t t e d wavy l i n e p a t t e r n both burnished and unburnished, a r e absent both at

Kadero and Zakiab. The presence of t h i s o l d e r t y p e of p o t t e r y at Esh


Shaheinab and a s u b s i s t e n c e economy s t i l l l a r g e l y based on foodg a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s (gathering, hunting and f i s h i n g , with o n l y 2% of
t h e bones being of domestic animals) i n d i c a t e t h a t Esh Shaheinab i s
o l d e r than.Kadero and Zakiab. For a b e t t e r understanding of t h e
domestication process i n t h i s p a r t of t h e N i l e v a l l e y it should
t h e r e f o r e be of importance t o g e t new m a t e r i a l t o r e d a t e t h e Esh
Shaheinab s i t e ( t h e two C-14 d a t i n g s from Esh Shaheinab a r e ;
5446 + 380 and 5060 + 440 B.P., t h e standard d e v i a t i o n s being v e r y
high),
The interconnection between Kadero and Zakiab i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d
by t h e absence of p o t t e r s t o o l s a t Zakiab while t h e s e a r e abundant a t
Kadero, ( t o o l s f o r d e c o r a t i o n , b u r n i s h e r s and r e d ocher i n connection
with t h e s e ) . I w i l l t h e r e f o r e suggest t h a t t h e p o t s were made a t t h e
base s i t e Kadero and brought t o Zakiab when needed i n t h e d r y season.
The g r i n d i n g equipment was very s c a r c e , t h e few g r i n d e r s found
were however similar t o those p r e s e n t at Kadero (upper and lower
grind-stones, a few hammerstones and some r u b b e r s ) . I i n t e r p r e t t h i s
t o r e f l e c t t h a t c u l t i v a t i o n was p r a c t i s e d a t t h e Kadero s i t e . The
o t h e r stone a r t e f a c t s found, were a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h o s e at Kadero i . e .
mace-heads, gouges, convex s o h p e r s and b o r e r s . A r t e f a c t s such as
Z e o l i t h l i p - p l u g s were a l s o common. It should a l s o be mentioned t h a t
no b u r i a l s contemporary with t h e n e o l i t h i c occupation were found.
( t h e only graves found were ~ e r o i t i c )

Conclusion.
The excavation of Zakiab has t o a l a r g e e x t e n t supported t h e
preliminary hypothesis put forward r e g a r d i n g t h e s i t e as a d r y
season camp, occupied f o r herding and f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d
t o Kadero as a base s i t e . I w i l l a l s o suggest t h a t t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n
of t h e a q u a t i c resources got more important at t h e end of t h e d r y
season when t h e o t h e r resources got more s c a r c e . I do n o t suggest
t h a t t h e Zakiab s i t e was occupied during t h e whole d r y season from
October t o June, I s e e t h e s i t e as occupied f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s ,
probably only f o r one t o two months
The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e
movements along t h e N i l e , would h a v a t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of grass, t h e !b,een
people would have t o move with t h e c a t t l e when t h e p a s t u r e was
exhausted (water and f i s h were constant f a c t o r s )

F u r t h e r fieldwork.
To g e t an understanding of t h e y e a r l y cycle of a d a p t a t i o n , it
i s of utmost importance t o make a d e t a i l e d survey of s i t e s both
along t h e Nile and f u r t h e r away. I n t h e zone along t h e Nile I would
expect t o f i n d more d r y season camps, most of them probably s m a l l e r
than Zakiab with l e s s b u i l t - u p d 6 b r i s and t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d .

The reason f o r Zakiab having been re-occupied f o r many seasons was


t h a t t h e h i g h e r r i v e r b a n k was f a v o u r a b l e f o r occupation. I would a l s o
expect t o f i n d h e r d i n g camps on t h e p l a t e a u t o t h e e a s t of Kadero.
T h i s a r e a would i n t h e r a i n y season have been more f a v o u r a b l e f o r
c a t t l e t h a n t h e Kadero s i t e , s i n c e t h e p l a i n surrounding t h e s i t e was
p a r t l y inundated by t h e flooded N i l e and would most probably have
been swarming with i n s e c t s which bothered t h e c a t t l e . The Kadero s i t e
i s however, s e e n as t h e main s e t t l e m e n t s i t e where c u l t i v a t i o n w a s
p r a c t i s e d and c a t t l e w a s k e p t f o r b u t c h e r i n g .

Dry Season

Base
Site

Herding
fishing

Cultivation
Animal Husbandry

Rainy Season
Camps
Herding

REFERENCES
Arkell, A.J. 1953
Esh Shaheinab, Oxford
Haaland, R. in press.
'Lithic tools as possible indicators for emly domestication'.
Haaland, R. in press.
'Seasonal variations among Neolithic Sites in Central Sudan'.
Krzyzaniak, L. 1977
'New light on the early stage of development of foodproducing
economy in the Upper Main Nile Valley', Journal of African
History, XIX, 159-72.
Klichowska, M. 1978
'Preliminary results of paleoethnobotanical studies of plant
impression on potsherds from the Neolithic settlement of Kadero',
Nyame Akuma, 12, 42-43.

SOME ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF CATTLE


TO THE CENTRAL SUDAN.
E l Kadero and E l Zakyab s i t e s ,
By:

A Tigani E l Mahi.

The i n t r o d u c t i o n of c a t t l e t o C e n t r a l Sudan during t h e l a t e


f o u r t h and e a r l y t h i r d m i l l e n n i a B . C . was not merely a t u r n i n g p o i n t
i n t h e economy of t h e savanna zone, but a l s o influenced t h e s o c i a l
l i f e , value o r i e n t a t i o n , technology of tool-manufacturing and
g e n e r a l l y t h e mode of l i f e . It a l s o influenced t h e e c o l o g i c a l
systems i n t h e a r e a . The e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s have been understood
through t h e study of o s t e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l from t h e E l Kadero and
E l Zakyab s i t e s , a s both s i t e s presented t h e e a r l i e s t evidence of
domesticated c a t t l e i n t h e a r e a .
The i n t r o d u c t i o n of c a t t l e as new s p e c i e s i n t o t h e b i o t i c
community of t h e a r e a must have l e d t o a d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e s p e c i e s
i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e ecosystem. For t h e groups of s p e c i e s of any
community i s i n t e g r a t e d t o r e a c t as a supra-organism; t h u s t h e
i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new s p e c i e s w i l l l e a d t o l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n . The
l a c k of s p e c i e s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e a r e a of Kadero and Zakyab must be
regarded as an i n t e g r a t i o n i n a progression form and as a temporary
one which disappeared a f t e r c a t t l e e s t a b l i s h e d a permanent i n t e r - and
i n t r a - a d a p t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e ecosystem i n t h e a r e a .
The c a t t l e introduced i n t o t h e a r e a must have experienced a
f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e d e n s i t y of i t s population. The f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e
d e n s i t y of c a t t l e population r e s u l t s from t h e i n t e r a c t i o n betwen
c a t t l e and b i o t i c p o t e n t i a l f a c t o r s , which operate t o r a i s e t h e
d e n s i t y of t h e population towards t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e
environment. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e environment r e s i s t a n c e f a c t o r s
would h a r d l y p r e s s t h e r i s i n g d e n s i t y of t h e population s i g n i f i c a n t l y
below t h e margin of t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e environment.
Another e c o l o g i c a l r e s u l t of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of c a t t l e i n t o t h e
a r e a can be a l a c k of s t a b i l i t y . Within t h e e c o l o g i c a l assemblage
t h e community complexity o r s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y l e a d s t o s t a b i l i t y of
t h e e c o l o g i c a l assemblage. Thus c a t t l e , as new s p e c i e s , introduced
i n t o t h e e c o l o g i c a l assemblage enlarged t h e complexity of t h e
community. I n t h i s case study, I assume t h a t c a t t l e , being new
s p e c i e s i n t h e e c o l o g i c a l assemblage, caused two s t a g e s concerning
s t a b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t i s a d i s t u r b a n c e i n s t a b i l i t y , f o r t h e
f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e i r d e n s i t y of population must have d i s t u r b e d t h e
constancy i n numbers of populations which make t h e population of t h e
community comparable t o t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s of t h e population number.
The second s t a g e , a f t e r c a t t l e e s t a b l i s h e d an i n t e r - and i n t r a adaption and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e whole ecosystem t o maintain a degree
of s t a b i l i t y which overcame t h e l a c k of s t a b i l i t y .

The food chain of which man w a s a p a r t and which e x i s t e d before


t h e introduction of c a t t l e must have changed a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n
of domestic s t o c k through t h e choice of food by man as a p r e d a t o r .
Model 1 shows t h e food chain and energy flow a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n
of c a t t l e . The reconstruction of t h i s ecosystem model i s based on
t h e i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i e s , except f o r t h e t e r m i t e s , t h e presence of
which i s assumed owing t o t h e presence of orycteropus ( a n t bear) with
which they a r e normally associated and t h e general b i o t i c and
a b i o t i c environment. The species involved i n t h e model a r e m a n ,
c a t t l e , sorghum, orycteropus, g a z e l l e , t e r m i t e s and wild pig.
Orycteropus a r e very l o c a l i n d i s t r i b u t i o n and thus t h e i r presence
was undoubtly determined by t h e abundance of t h e t e r m i t e s on which
they feed. Generally an abundance of t e r m i t e s c h a s a c t e r i z e s a l l
a r e a s where orycteropus a r e common. It i s a l s o known t h a t t e r m i t e s
become numerous where concentrations of wild ungulates o r domestic
s t o c k a r e a v a i l a b l e . The t e r m i t e s prey on t h e tramped grass, d r y
dung and p l a n t s (sorghum). The orycteropus has been observed t o
s h i f t during r a i n y seasons t o high l a n d s , t o breed and prey on
t e r m i t e s . The domestic stock depends on man t o provide t h e s u i t a b l e
h a b i t a t f o r i t , hence t h e seasonal movement between E l Kadero and
E l Zakyab. This type of seasonal movement can be seen among s e v e r a l
t r i b e s i n Sudan who s t i l l adopt t h i s mode of seasonal movement
between a permanent s i t e and temporazy s i t e .
The aquatic ecosystem Model I1 explains t h e flow of energy i n
t h e food chain. The q u a n t i t y of f i s h and Nile molluscs from t h e
El Zakyab s i t e shows t h e high degree of dependence of man on t h e s e
species f o r h i s d i e t i n t h e d r y season. The relevance of t h i s
a q u a t i c ecosystem t o t h e problem l i e s i n t h e seasonal adaption by
man with h i s domestic stock and t h e d i v e r s i t y of food resources he
e x p l o i t e d . It i s a l s o a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r our understanding t h a t
t h e aquatic adaption i n t h e a r e a was not replaced t o t a l l y by
pastoralism, as some might assume.

Professor Donadoni of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Rome r e p o r t s :


The Mission of Rome h a s had i t s y e a r l y campaign of digging at
J e b e l Barkal from March 7 t h t o A p r i l 15th 1978.

O u r program f o r t h i s year aimed a t giving a u n i t a r y frame t o


our former d i s c o v e r i e s and l i n k i n g them with o t h e r monuments of t h e
s i t e . With t h i s i n t e n t i o n we have c l e a r e d t h e a r e a between t h e b i g
b u i l d i n g of mudbricks (conventionally, t h e " ~ a l a c e " )and Temple 1300.
Many s m a l l s t r u c t u r e s , o f t e n of an u n c e r t a i n and occasional p l a n ,
have been found here: they r e f l e c t successive use of t h i s space f o r
everyday l i f e , each of them being ephemeral and t h e whole being
compressed i n t o a r a t h e r s h o r t period of time, as it appears from
t h e fundamental u n i t y of t h e suggestions given by t h e ceramics.
I n t h e foregoing seasons we had a l r e a d y seen t h a t under t h e
"Palace" o t h e r a n t i q u i t i e s were concealed, as it appeared when we
discovered a group of b i g p o t s of b e a u t i f u l q u a l i t y , with character i s t i c handles and egg-shaped p r o f i l e s . We have t r i e d t h i s y e a r t o
reach t h e same l e v e l i n a square n e i t h e r t o o near nor t o o f a r from
t h e e a r l i e r discovery. We have successively passed through t h e
l e v e l s of t h e "Palace" and of t h e Temples, well recognizable through
a s o i l of crushed and p i l e d sandstone t h a t we had a l r e a d y met t h e r e .
Beneath, we have found an e a r l i e r s o i l of compact mud i n which
of a w a l l i d e n t i f y t h e corner of a room and beneath t h a t ,
remains
under a l a y e r of sand, we have reached t h e l e v e l of another mud
pavement. The p i t i n which we have dug our t e s t i s t o o narrow t o
g e t any o t h e r conclusion than t h e presence of a t l e a s t one, o r
p o s s i b l y more than one, s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e a r e a where Natakamani's
Temple 1400 (and probably 1300) were b u i l t , as well as t h e "Palace".
Another need f o r our research w a s t a k i n g i n t o consideration
some remains which could e a s i l y be seen even at a s u r f a c e i n s p e c t i o n
of t h e s i t e , and which appeared c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t r u c t u r e s s i m i l a r
t o those of Temple 1300 and 1400. They a r e t h e s e which i n t h e
l i t e r a t u r e a r e vaguely described as "Eastern Building". They appear
as a s e r i e s of square bases of columns r a t h e r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d
i n a compact a r e a (about 60 x 60 m . ) , t h e i r s i z e as well a s t h e i r
shape c l e a r l y r e c a l l shapes and measurements of 1300 and 1400.
We have only begun t h e exploration of t h i s system of b u i l d i n g s ,
and we have a t t r i b u t e d t o it t h e designation of "1500", following
t h e numbering of t h e temples inaugurated by Reisner.
For t h e moment we have i d e n t i f i e d a s o r t of g i r d l e of square
bases of sandstone columns forming a r e c t a n g l e of 6 x 5 elements,
each of them having a s i d e diameter of 75 cm. on a h e i g h t of about
35 cm., and being d i s t a n t from i t s neighbours 1 , 1 0 m. The columns,
whose diameter corresponded t o t h e s i d e of t h e base, being e x a c t l y
i n s c r i b e d i n them, a r e completely l o s t , but f o r t h e few centimeters

protruding from t h e dado: it i s anyhow p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e t h a t t h e y


were a l t e r n a t e l y coloured i n blue and yellow, t h e i r bases being
r e s p e c t i v e l y yellow and r e d .
Within t h i s very r e g u l a r frame t h e r e a r e o t h e r fragments of
columns of smaller diameter (58 cm; a t t h e b a s i s ) with a campaniform
c a p i t a l , t h e whole being painted i n b l u e . The r a t e of decrease of
t h e diameter from t h e bottom t o t h e t o p of t h e s e supports has allowed
t o c a l c u l a t e t h e i r height t o about 3 m. (without t h e c a p i t a l ) .
He a r e n o t y e t a b l e t o s a y anything about t h e shape, t h e s i z e ,
t h e c a p i t a l s of t h e o u t e r columns, which were a l s o t h e most important:
it seems t h a t t h e y were connected i n some way by t h e means of w a l l s
of r e d b r i c k s covered with a p l a s t e r painted i n b l u e , and t h e y were
p r a c t i c a l l y missing a r e g u l a r work of foundation.
The b u i l d i n g seems t o be a s o r t of k i o s k , whose r o o f i n g was
probably of some l i g h t m a t e r i a l , and which seems t o have contained a
s o r t of smaller baldaquin, o r some s i m i l a r device, a t i t s i n t e r i o r ,
as it i s shown by t h e smaller columns.
J u s t behind t h e northern row of columns of t h i s b u i l d i n g o t h e r
walls and columns appear: t h e s o i l i s t h e s e much d i s t u r b e d , and one
h a s t h e impression t h a t i n o l d times some search h a s been e f f e c t e d
t h e r e , compromising t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e dados, which a c t u a l l y a r e
out of v e r t i c a l and c e r t a i n l y d i s p l a c e d from t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n .
No a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e c o n s t i t u t i o n i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s p a r t f o r t h e
time being.
A p e c u l i a r i t y of t h i s s e c t i o n h a s been t h e discovery of a r a t h e r
l a r g e l o t of fragments of enameled b r i c k s of t e r r a c o t t a , coloured i n
blue and green. Some of them show a r a t h e r complicated d e c o r a t i o n s
i n r e l i e f , which i n some case a r e s o marked as t o become r e a l l y
p l a s t i c elements, r e p r e s e n t i n g i n some c a s e s l i v i n g beings.

The following has been received from Professor J . Leclant:


Sedeinga

( ~ u b i e~ o u d a n a i s e )

A l a s u i t e de v i n g t annges de f o u i l l e s , Mme M.S. Giorgini a


dgcid6 dVa,rr&er l e t r a v a i l s u r l e c h a n t i e r de Soleb e t de s e
consacrer totalement g l a p u b l i c a t i o n du grand temple j u b i l a i r e
e t de s e s c6lGbres r e l i e f s (c6rgmonies d e l a f g t e Sed, &ussons
Le matgriel de l a mission M. S Giorgini
d e s peuples envoutgs)
a 6t6 t r a n s f 6 r 8 sur l e s i t e v o i s i n de Sedeinga e t c o n f i e 2 une
nouvelle gquipe men6e p a r J , Leclant ( ~ e d e i n ~
Archeological
a
unit) ,
sous l e patronage de l a D i r e c t i o n C u l t u r e l l e du MinistGre des
A f f a i r e s ~ t r a n g G r e sL. ' i n s t a l l a t i o n de l a mission s u r l e s i t e s ' est
e f f ectuge en ~ 6 c e m b r e1977. Les premigres recherches q u i n ' o n t
dur6 que quelques semaines ( ~ e c .1977- Janv. 1978) ont port6 au
N i l w a , s u r l e s v e s t i g e s entourant l e s r e s t e s de deux
Sud du s i t e ,
colonnes; c e s r u i n e s , t r g s a r a s 6 e s , a v a i e n t 6t6 consid6rges jusqu'g
pr6sent come c e l l e s , tan& d'un temple m6rditique, t a n t g t d ' u n e
6 g l i s e . Cette d e r n i s r e hypoth6se e s t l a bonne. Le plan e s t c e l u i
d'une 6 g l i s e de type nubien c l a s s i q u e avec, du cgt6 E s t , une abside
a r r o n d i e flanqu6e de deux p e t i t e s piGces. La couverture de l a nef
Q t a i t soutenue au c e n t r e p a r i e s deux colonnes. Deux a u t r e s p e t i t e s
pi6ces 6 t a i e n t dispos6es du cot6 Ouest. Une abondante c o l l e c t i o n de
fragments de p o t e r i e a 6t6 r e c u e i l l i e .

ZAIRE
Report on Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Geographic
Fieldwork i n Equator Province, Z a i r e
by
Manfred K .H Eggert and Kanimba Misago

From September 1977 t o February 1978 t h e first f i e l d phase of


a p r o j e c t d i r e c t e d a t settlement s t u d i e s i n t h e Equator region of
Z a i r e h a s been c a r r i e d o u t . The p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d by t h e
I n s t i t u t f i i r Ethnologie und Afrika-Studien of t h e Johannes GutenbergU n i v e r s i t a t Mainz, West Germany, and has been financed by t h e
Deutsche ~orschun~s~emeinschaft.'
The a r e a chosen f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l o c a t e d j u s t south of t h e
Equator between longitude 1830' and 1 9 ' ~ . Research has been
concentrated on t h e l e f t bank of t h e Ruki, one of t h e major r i v e r s
i n t h e a r e a and a t r i b u t a r y of t h e Zaire River (formerly Congo R . )
Because of l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t l y high l a n d , i t s r i g h t bank i s not
s u i t e d f o r permanent s e t t l e m e n t . This a t l e a s t i s t h e u s u a l

e x p l a n a t i o n provided f o r t h e absence of v i l l a g e s on t h e o p p o s i t e
bank. There a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d ,
however, a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e E l i n g a , t h e r i v e r p e o p l e , once
s e t t l e d t h e r e f o r some time b e f o r e e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves on t h e
l e f t bank. E v i d e n t l y , only a thorough a r c h a e o l o g i c a l check can
s e t t l e t h i s question.
The choice of a C e n t r a l African t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t a r e a
f o r t h e r e s e a r c h i n q u e s t i o n was motivated l a r g e l y by t h e c u r r e n t
i n t e r e s t i n e a r l y I r o n Age A f r i c a and t h e a s s o c i a t e d problem of
t h e s o - c a l l e d "Bantu expansion". S i n c e t h e t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t
f i g u r e s prominently i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c hypotheses u n d e r l y i n g t h e
Bantu problem, f i e l d r e s e a r c h i n r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s seems t o be
of a h i g h o r d e r of p r i o r i t y . The second major r e a s o n f o r t h e
c h o i c e w a s our i n t e n t i o n t o t r y t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y l i n k archaeolog i c a l d a t a and o r a l t r a d i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o throw some l i g h t on t h e
e t h n o h i s t o r y of such a h a b i t a t . It was hoped t h a t by u s i n g what
h a s been termed t h e D i r e c t H i s t o r i c a l Approach (Steward 1942), a
p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g c a s e of ( i n a v e r y broad s e n s e of t h e
term) s e t t l e m e n t c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n t h e r a i n f o r e s t might be
developed.
Choosing s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e Ruki a r e a was t h e outcome of both
s u b s t a n t i v e as w e l l as pragmatic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Members of t h e
I n s t i t u t e of Ethnology of Mainz U n i v e r s i t y ( ~ r i k aSulzmann;
E r n s t W . ~ Z l l e r )had done some e t h n o g r a p h i c a l work i n t h e a r e a i n
t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s and t h e r e b y encountered a p o t t e r y of a k i n d
a b s o l u t e l y unknown t o t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . They found t h i s p o t t e r y
b e i n g washed o u t of t h e grounds a f t e r heavy r a i n s . A s t o pragmatic
motives, t h e I n s t i t u t e h a s , through t h e good o f f i c e s of F a t h e r G .
H u l s t a e r t of Bamanya, v e r y good r e l a t i o n s with t h e M.S.C., t h e
C a t h o l i c missionary s o c i e t y a c t i v e i n t h e Equator r e g i o n of Z a l r e .
T h i s proved t o be of i n v a l u a b l e h e l p as t o t h e more t e c h n i c a l s i d e
of t h e p r o j e c t .
With r e g a r d t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s a j o i n t
e f f o r t from both an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and an ethnographic p o i n t of view
seemed t o be i n o r d e r . Furthermore, a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of t h e
morphology of t r o p i c a l r i v e r h a b i t a t s promised t o provide important
i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between
1) P r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r : P r o f e s s o r E r n s t FI. Miiller; F i e l d d i r e c t o r :
D r . Manfred K .H. Eggert ( t h e n of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Maine; now a t t h e
U n i v e r s i t y of amb burg)
The geographical and geomorphological a s p e c t s
of t h e p r o j e c t are b e i n g t a k e n c a r e of by Johannes P r e u s s of t h e
Geographisches I n s t i t u t a t Mainz. The fieldwork h a s been undertaken
i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e I n s t i t u t d e s ~ u s g e sNationaux du Z a i r e ,
r e p r e s e n t e d by Kanimba Misago.

r i v e r and landscape. 2
Within t h e contemporary v i l l a g e s on t h e l e f t bank of t h e Ruki,
t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e o l d e r generation, have very d e c i s i v e
i d e a s about t h e general h i s t o r y of t h e region as such and, more
s p e c i f i c a l l y , about t h a t of t h e i r own groups and v i l l a g e s .
F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y do not only know of one-time v i l l a g e s , but a r e a b l e
t o l o c a t e those abandoned s e t t l e m e n t s i t e s ( e l a l i , p l . b i l a l i ) with
a b s o l u t e c e r t i t u d e . I n t a k i n g advantage of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , we
concentrated our archaeological work on two of t h e s e s i t e s . The s i t e
of Botendo, where because of t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s we only
accomplished some reconnaissance work, i s l o c a t e d about 2 kms. e a s t
of Longa, a v i l l a g e a t a d i s t a n c e of approximately 80 kms. from t h e
mouth of t h e Ruki. The second s i t e , Nkile, s i t u a t e d about 20 kms.
downstream near t h e v i l l a g e of Bokuma, furnished t h e bulk of t h e
archaeological m a t e r i a l gathered during t h i s f i r s t f i e l d season.
Small t e s t trenches were excavated a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s
within t h e once s e t t l e d a r e a now completely covered by secondary
f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n . The m a t e r i a l secured c o n s i s t s almost e x c l u s i v e l y
of p o t t e r y which on t h e b a s i s of design and form o r i e n t e d c r i t e r i a
f a l l s i n t o two d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . There a r e good reasons f o r t h e
assumption t h a t t h e s e two groups r e p r e s e n t chronological d i f f e r e n c e s
though we were not a b l e t o demonstrate t h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y .
According t o o r a l t r a d i t i o n t h e v i l l a g e s of both Botendo and
Nkile were abandoned soon a f t e r t h e t u r n of t h e last century. On
t h e b a s i s of s t r o n g resemblances t o t h e p o t t e r y being f a b r i c a t e d
today i n s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s on t h e Ruki, t h e younger ceramic horizon
of Nkile (encountered i n Botendo as well) can be l i n k e d t o t h e l a t e s t
settlement phase of t h e two s i t e s . The absolute p o s i t i o n of t h e o t h e r
horizon remains h y p o t h e t i c a l . It i s t o be hoped t h a t radiocarbon
d a t i n g of charcoal samples obtained from t h e same stratum w i l l provide
u s with at l e a s t some general i d e a s as t o i t s a b s o l u t e chronology.
It should be noted t h a t a c e r t a i n c o n t i n u i t y between t h e two groups
of p o t t e r y i s demonstrated by way of a r a t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u r f a c e
treatment. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e p o t t e r y i n t e r p r e t e d as forming

2) Because of teaching d u t i e s , M r . P r e u s s ' s s t a y i n t h e f i e l d


was l i m i t e d t o a two month period. During t h i s time he was a b l e
t o g a t h e r s u f f i c i e n t information t o serve a s a b a s i s f o r d e t a i l e d
f u t u r e f i e l d r e s e a r c h . Though h i s preliminary r e s u l t s w i l l n o t
be d e a l t with h e r e , a general remark might be of i n t e r e s t . A s it
turned out during t h e course of h i s work, b a s i c problems of
t r o p i c a l r i v e r morphology, e . g . t h e nature and e x t e n t of r i v e r
bank e r o s i o n , a r e f a r from being as c l e a r - c u t and n i c e l y solved as
standard textbook treatment suggests.

an o l d e r horizon does n o t r e p r e s e n t a narrowly confined l o c a l


phenomenon. On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e same kind of p o t t e r y i s d i s t r i b u t e d
throughout t h e a r e a and h a s been o b t a i n e d by u s i n s u r f a c e f i n d s i n
d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s , Furthermore, i t b e a r s a v e r y c l o s e resemblance
t o t h e p o t t e r y of t h e cache of Bodongo, a v i l l a g e at about 200 kms.
d i s t a n c e t o t h e s o u t h e a s t i n what i s now Ekonda country ( s e e Sulzmann
1960).
A s r e g a r d s our a i m of g e t t i n g d a t a on e a r l y I r o n Age h a b i t a t i o n
of t h e a r e a , no m a t e r i a l c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i v e of t h a t p e r i o d h a s been
found as y e t .

With r e s p e c t t o ethnography, we were concerned with modern


p o t t e r y making and t h e c o l l e c t i o n of e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l d a t a . A s t o
t h e first we d i d a comprehensive s t u d y i n t h e v i l l a g e of Ikenge,
some 6 kms. upstream of Bokuma. Though i n most v i l l a g e s of t h e a r e a
some p o t t e r y making i s being done, Ikenge h a s t o be considered t h e
v e r y c e n t e r of i t . Almost a l l of t h e grown-up females i n Ikenge a r e
c o n s t a n t l y engaged i n t h i s b u s i n e s s and t h e products a r e b e i n g t r a d e d
throughout t h e r e g i o n on l o c a l as w e l l as c e n t r a l markets ( ~ b a n d a k a ) .
By s e l l i n g them t o middlemen on p a s s i n g s h i p s , t h e p o t s may even be
d i s t r i b u t e d as f a r as Kinshasa and Boende. It need n o t be s t r e s s e d
t h a t as a by-product our s t u d y f u r n i s h e d an e x c e l l e n t s t a n d a r d of
comparison w i t h r e s p e c t t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y recovered p o t t e r y .
Moreover, by comparing t o d a y ' s products w i t h t h e ceramics unearthed
i n abandoned v i l l a g e s i t e s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e
development of p o t t e r y making w i t h i n t h e a r e a over a c e r t a i n span of
time can be o b t a i n e d .
A s t o e t h n o h i s t o r y , we began c o l l e c t i n g o r a l t r a d i t i o n s about
both t h e h i s t o r y of abandoned v i l l a g e s and t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r y of
t h e a r e a , a t a s k t h a t needs t o be continued on a much broader s c a l e .
Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s c o n t e x t a r e t h e v e r y d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s
of t h e s u c c e s s i o n and mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e Nkundo, E l i n g a , and
Nkole who r e p r e s e n t t h e main groups of t h e r e g i o n . Though a l l t h r e e
of them form p a r t of t h e l a r g e Mongo t r i b e ( s e e H u l s t a e r t 1961), t h e y
a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t a d a p t a t i o n s t o t h e l o c a l h a b i t a t .
V h i l e t h e Nkundo s u b s i s t on a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e E l i n g a g a i n t h e i r
l i v e l i h o o d by f i s h i n g . The Nkole, a c c o r d i n g t o o r a l t r a d i t i o n s once
a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , a r e now b e i n g l a r g e l y a s s i m i l a t e d by t h e E l i n g a .
No r e l e v a n t d a t a could as y e t be o b t a i n e d on t h e Batswa and Balumbe,
two pygmoid groups who t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i v e i n symbiosis w i t h t h e
Nkundo and E l i n g a , r e s p e c t i v e l y .

Even on t h e s t i l l v e r y l i m i t e d b a s i s of t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l
information c o l l e c t e d s o far a number of h i s t o r i c a l l y important
hypotheses can b e formulated and o p e r a t i o n a l y z e d i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
terms. Ve hope t o accomplish an i n i t i a l f i e l d t e s t of a n a c c o r d i n g l y
s t r u c t u r e d approach of mutual e l u c i d a t i o n d u r i n g subsequent f i e l d w o r k
scheduled f o r 1979.

Apart from t h e information presented above we wish t o


communicate t h a t Kamwanga Muya i s continuing h i s s t u d i e s on t h e
Stone Age i n Shaba province f o r h i s Ph.D. t h e s i s a t Catholic
University i n Leuven, Belgium. Besides, he has completed a
reexamination of t h e stone i n d u s t r i e s of Haut-Zaire and Kivu
provinces which will serve as a b a s i s of comparison.
References Cited
H u l s t a e r t , G.
1961 Les Mongo : Apequ g6n6ra.l. Archives d ' Ethnographic ,
no. 5. Tervurenr Mus6e Royal de 1' Afrique Centrale

Steward, J u l i a n H
194.2 The Direct H i s t o r i c a l A proach t o Archaeology.
American Antiquity 7 (4 : 337-43.

Sulzmann, Erika
1960 Zentralafrikanische Keramik aus voreuropaischer
Z e i t . Keramos 8: 19-21.

V i s i t i n g Appointment
P r o f e s s o r van d e r Merwe, Department of Archaeology, P r i v a t e Bag,
Rondebosch, Cape 7700, South A f r i c a , w r i t e s as f o l l o w s :
My c o l l e a g u e , John E . Parkington, w i l l be on s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e
f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 J u l y 1979 - 30 June 1980; I w i l l be on s a b b a t i c a l
l e a v e f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 J u l y 1980 - 30 June 1981. We need t o f i n d
one o r two replacements t o take c a r e of our t e a c h i n g commitments
o v e r two y e a r s .
Our t e a c h i n g y e a r r u n s March 1 - June 15 and J u l y 15 - December 1 0 .
Each of o u r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e p e r i o d s , t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e s a summer
r e c e s s . We would p r e f e r t o have a s i n g l e replacement f o r t h e e n t i r e
two y e a r s , o r e l s e two replacements f o r one y e a r each. Since
Parkington t e a c h e s i n t h e a r e a of Stone Age A f r i c a and I t e a c h t h e
I r o n Age (on t h e undergraduate l e v e l ) , t h e replacement(s) need t o be
capable i n t h e s e a r e a s . We can always change t h e curriculum t o s u i t ,
however.
The maximum s a l a r y f o r t h e p o s i t i o n w i l l be R9700 p e r y e a r
( ~ =1 $ l . l 5 ) , which i s a t t h e S e n i o r L e c t u r e r l e v e l . T h i s i s n o t
l a v i s h , b u t comfortable. A f u l l y f u r n i s h e d " s a b b a t i c a l home" can
probably be r e n t e d f o r R200 - R P j O p e r month, f o r example. Finance,
equipment and a s t u d e n t crew f o r f i e l d w o r k can be arranged i f w e have
enough l e a d time.

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