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Appendix
Credits

Title Page
Introduction

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Broken or Cracked Castings..............................


Crushes, Pushups and Clamp-offs....................
Cuts and Washes ...............................................
Dirt, Slag and other Inclusions ..........................
Drops ..................................................................
Erosion Scabs ....................................................
Expansion Defects .............................................
Gas Defects ........................................................
Gross Segregation and ......................................
Carbon Flotation (Kish)
Hard Spots, Hard Areas and Chilled Spots .......
Hot Tears ............................................................
Inverse Chills......................................................
Mass Hardness...................................................
Metal Penetration and Fusion............................
Misruns and Cold Shuts.....................................
Off Dimensions Related to Cores ......................
Open Grain Structure .........................................
Poured Short ......................................................
Ramoffs or Ramaways .......................................
Rough Surface....................................................
Runouts and Bleeders .......................................
Scars, Seams and Plates ...................................
Shifts...................................................................
Shot Metal or Cold Shots ...................................
Shrinkage Cavities and Depressions ................
Stickers...............................................................
Swells, Strains, Sags and Core Fins .................
Veins and Fins....................................................
Warped Castings................................................

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American Foundrymens Society, Inc.


Des Plaines, IL 60016
Reprinted 1998

The American Foundrymens Society as a body Is not responsible for the statements and opinions
advanced in this publication. Nothing contained in any publication of the American Foundrymens
Society is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, for manufacture, sale or
use in connection with any method, apparatus or product covered by Letters Patent, nor as insuring
anyone against liability for Infringement of Letters Patent.
Copyright 1972, 1984, 1997

Credits
This manual was prepared by the Molding Methods and Materials Group, Special Publications
Committee 80-G, Section 2, Casting Defects:
George W. Anselman,
Chairman
Consultant, Anselman Foundry
Services
Albert M. Prewitt,
Secretary
Campbell, Wyant & Cannon
Foundry Co.
Joseph Cunningham
Cunningham Patterns

Victor Rowell, Vice-Chairman


Sales Representative
Construction Aggregates Corp.

Edwin H. Phelps
Research Supervisor
American Cast Iron Pipe Co.

LeRoy E. Taylor
Sales Representative
Manley Brothers

Richard A. Green
Foundry Sales Mgr.
International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.

Charles W. Ward
Foundry Consultant
Benjamin Harris Co.

James C. Lee
Superintendent
Frank Foundries Corp.

AFS Staff
Ezra Kotzin
Technical Director

This software version was prepared by:


Clifford E. Couture
Vice President
Datalab, Inc.
Software & Imaging

Peter M. Wendt
President
Datalab, Inc.
Software & Imaging

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Introduction
Quality control implies both prevention and cure of casting defects. This text deals with the diagnosis and
correction phases of quality control in the area of rejected castings or castings that require costly repair,
grinding or cleaning.
Every business prefers a minimum of rejects. Intelligent effort in this direction will yield excellent returns on
the investment of time and energy needed to make every producing individual zero-reject conscious.
There are correct and incorrect methods of approaching any problem. The steps in corrective procedure are
expressed in the following outline:
1) Identify the defect
2) Obtain the facts. The record should answer such pertinent questions as where? when? how? how
often?
3) Research for missing facts
4) Verify the defect
5) Try corrective action-one change at a time
6) Follow up.

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Broken or Cracked Castings - Chapter 1

Description
This refers to castings, which have been broken or cracked by mechanical action, rough handling, or thermal
shock.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1)

2)
3)

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)

III.

Irregular sections, sections, such as isolated heavy sections, light sections or


projections require careful handling at shakeout, cleaning, finishing and heattreating.
Lack of fillets
Lack of proper reinforcing ribs, tie bars or stress relieving
Failure to provide proper break-off notches on the gates and risers
Flask bars that extend into deep pockets, not allowing normal collapse of the
sand.

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)

Lack of adequate fillets


Incorrectly placed or dimensioned cracking strips and tie bars
A gating system which promotes stresses or segregation due to turbulence

Early rough shakeout of this gray iron casting broke the gates into the castings while they were hot and weak.

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)

Poor sand collapsibility due to excessive hot or dry compressive strength


Low sintering point materials in sand
High hot compressive strength coupled with hot sand deformation
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VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

VII.

Poor collapsibility due to excessive hot compression strength


Low hot deformation when coupled with poor collapsibility
Rods or arbors that are too close to the surface of cores
Over-reinforced cores

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Mold rammed too hard


Rods, arbors, and gaggers which are too close to the mold surface
Risers or sprues too close to a flask bar
Excessive swabbing or sponging
Improper use of chills or excessive chilling

Poor design of the cracking strip increased the breakage of this malleable casting in the hard iron condition

VIII.

Metal Composition
1)
2)

IX.

Improper metal composition for the application


A composition having too high a shrinkage characteristic

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

Excessive carbide stabilizers which promote high shrinkage


Composition having too high a shrinkage characteristic
Gaseous or over oxidized metal
Contamination

Careless finning caused this casting to break in the gate area.

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The protruding section of bar on the casting shown tended to break off during cleaning, milling or shake out.

X.

Pouring Practice
1)

XI.

Insufficient pouring temperature to promote proper collapsibility of sand and cores

Miscellaneous
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Shakeout too hot or too rough


General carelessness in handling at shakeout
Improper packing in tumbling barrels or barrel blast
Careless and rough handling in loading or tumbled with light thin section castings
Careless and rough handling in loading or tumbled with light thin section castings
Improper piling or stacking
Banding too tight on pallets
Any mechanical handling that drops castings any distance into containers

Tight banding of pallets broke this casting.

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Crushes, Pushups and Clamp-offs - Chapter 2

Careless handling of the mold during assembly caused this crush on the cope section.

Description
Crushes, pushups and clamp-offs are indentations in the casting surface. These defects are caused by
disruption of the mold surface due to external or internal force or weight. The major cause of these defects is
carelessness particularly related to flask equipment, rigging, and molding practice.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
None

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

Worn patterns and core boxes. A worn pattern can result in the core print
being too small for the normal core. Conversely, a worn core box results it the
core being too large for a normal print
Insufficient draft
Pattern not correctly mounted
Misalign cope and drag patterns, or plates
Worn pins and bushings
Core prints not properly marked
Lack of crushing strips
Core print too small to support the core
Warped or untrue pattern plate (cope and drag)
Excessive flexibility of matchplate

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Crush caused by poor pin alignment.

11)

III.

Flask landing strips too high above parting line. This creates a condition of
excessive loading at the sand-to-sand contact

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

IV.

Misalignment of flask equipment, pins, and bushings


Weights too heavy or uneven
Insufficient sand bearing surface
Warped or uneven flask joints
Worn stripping plate on molding machine
Improperly fitting, dirty, or crooked jackets
Worn pins and bushings
Uneven, dirty or burned bottom boards
Weak bottom boards
Improperly barred cope

Gating and Risering


1)
Gating and risering do not, by themselves, create a crush although mounting gate runners too
close to the pattern can result in an inadequate sand bearing surface.

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)

VI.

Weak sand
Low green tensile strength may permit the cope to sag
Low green deformation causes the sand to crush rather than give during closing of flask
Low dry strength in a dry sand mold may fail to support the normal load

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
4)
5)

VII.

A core too large for the core print will fail to seat properly and cause a crush
A misaligned assembly will cause incorrect contact when the flask is closed
Core sagged out of shape may be the result of:
Rough handling while green
Soft ram
Low green strength
Excessive water in the core mix
Warped driers
Low warm strength such as from excessive solvent
Improper cure
Reinforcement i.e.: rods, wires, or arbors
Warped cores (including shell)
Excessive core wash can result in an oversized core

Molding Practice
1)
2)

Careless closing of the molds


Uneven clamping of the molds
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3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Faulty bedding of molds on bottom boards or plates


Improper setting of the jackets
Careless core setting
Use of wrong chaplets or failure to use chaplets
Setting dirty jackets

A lump of sand on bottom caused this pushup.

Crush on camshaft gear blank; finished casting on left.

8)
9)
10)
11)
12)

VIII.

Stem chaplets not properly wedged or seated


Unshaved core prints and joints
Failure to wedge flask joints
Careless handling of molds during carry-out or on the conveyor
Dropping of the weights

Metal Composition

None

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
1)

XI.

Resting ladles or heavy objects on molds

Miscellaneous
1)
2)

Rough handling during any part of the molding process can break or crush a mold
Resting heavy objects on the mold

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Uneven clamping of the small mold crushed one side of the mold face.

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Cuts and Washes - Chapter 3

Description
Cuts or washes are rough spots and areas of excess metal caused by erosion of the mold or core surface by
metal flow. This definition differentiates between a cut and an erosion scab, in spite of the fact that the two
defects are often similar or identical in general appearance. It is necessary to make such a distinction
because the cure for the two defects may be diametrically opposed.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design


1) A design that promotes excessive metal flow over any given area of the mold surface
2) A design which includes unavoidable nozzle effects within the casting

II.

Pattern Equipment
1) Pattern layouts which prevent correct gating. Equalized flow is essential if excessive localized
heating of sand in mold or core is to be avoided.

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Flask too small to permit proper gating
2) Flask bars too close to pattern

IV.

Gating and Risering


1) A gate which forces metal to impinge on a mold or core surface as in the case of gating into a thin
wall of a casting

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Drag view of cuts or washes caused by low strength sand.

2) A downsprue which does not provide a pool or well of metal ahead of the gating system
3) Too much metal across any mold surface will eventually redissolve the metal skin which is formed
during early stages of pouring
4) Excessive metal velocity across a given mold surface
5) Unequal distribution of metal through the gating system

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Inclusions caused by the cuts and washes on drag side.

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

VI.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)

VII.

Inadequate hot strength


Insufficient clay
Inadequate water to properly activate the clay and improper mixing
Excessive use of certain additives such as cellulose
Hot molding sand
Low hot strength self-curing binders

Core Practice
Soft core surface
Overcuring or undercuring
Insufficient binder or water
Improper mixing
Improper application and control of core wash
Vents or reinforcements too close to the surface
Poorly patched cores or filled hook holes
Nonuniformly made cores
Low density
Damage in handling
Soft cores (rising self-curing binders)
a.
Overmixing
b.
Improper sand temperature
c.
Use beyond bench life
d.
Stripping too early
e.
Excessive variation of acid demand of sand

Molding Practice
1) Soft or nonuniformly rammed molds. Hot strength varies greatly depending on the mold
Hardness or moisture
2) Mold edges burned by excessive drying temperatures
3) Gaggers, bars or soldiers set too close to mold surface

VIII.

Metal Composition
None

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IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice

1)
2)

Excessive pouring temperature for molding or core materials used


Hard pouring

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Excessive parting or solvent such as kerosene can materially change the hot and dry strength
2) Hard pouring

Cut caused by low strength sand.

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Dirt, Slag and Other Inclusions - Chapter 4

Typical surface imperfections (Inclusions).

Description
Inclusions are surface or subsurface particles of sand, slag, dross, oxides or other materials imbedded in the
metal. They may originate from the molds, cores, metal, ladles or careless practices.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Those design factors which contribute to scabs, cuts, washes and erosion will intensify the tendency
toward inclusions in a casting

II.

Pattern Equipment
1) Improper coating for materials involved. Some pattern coatings produce a tendency towards sticking
of the sand
2) Insufficient clearance for setting cores and closing
3) Lack of fillets
4) Insufficient draft
5) Loosely mounted pattern or gating system
6) Worn flask landing areas can create a crush or disrupt sand gains
7) Inaccurate partings

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Use of excessive liquid parting material on the pattern left these kish tracks (classified as inclusions).

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Any factor in the rigging which creates a rubbing or gouging effect during the closing of the mold, or
setting of cores
2) Warped or dirty flasks
3) Worn or crooked pins or bushings
4) Inaccurate core setting assembly or inspection jigs
5) Dirty pins and bushings
6) Inadequate locators

IV.

Gating and Risering


1) Factors causing scabs, cuts and washes
2) Gating systems that create slow pouring can cause scabs particularly on cope surfaces
3) Gating systems which create a non-filled runner should be avoided since the cope of such runners
will eventually scab and drop sand into the gating system

Ineffective slag trap permitted ladle slag to locate at top of the boss.

4) Gating which promotes high velocity metal flow


5) The choke or the area of the choke core in the gating system may be inadequate to stop the flow of
slag or dross
6) Exothermic materials if used in such a way as to permit the by-product of the reaction to enter the
mold or casting

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Defect caused by contaminant (boric acid) in molding sand.

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)

VI.

Sands with low physical properties, such as low green, dry and hot compressive strength
Mold gas-metal reaction
Low fusion point materials
Coatings too heavy, not dried, or wrong for the purpose

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Improperly bonded or cured cores


Excessive core gas-metal reaction
Improperly cleaned cores
Premature collapse of cores in molds and gating system
Core wash too heavy, not dried, or wrong for the application
Broken cores

Result of broken core.

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Any molding factor which contributes to displaced or loose sand in the mold cavity
Sloppy or careless molding
Excessive use of liquid parting
Loose sand from cores or molds
Loose sand from molds left open too long

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Result of coarse seacoal in molding sand.

Broken edge of mold caused by low strength sand, which


permitted sand grains to wash into other sections of the casting.

Loose sand left in the mold caused these sand inclusions on the drag face.

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Inclusions of aluminum in a copper alloy caused by contamination during melting.

VIII.

Metal Composition

1) In many metals, it is possible for off-analysis to create a separation of slag or slag-like materials
2) In cast irons, high sulfur may lead to sulfide slag, which could separate during cooling
3) Oxides and intermetallic compounds in steel, copperbase or light alloys

IX.

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

X.

Pouring Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

XI.

Undissolved alloy addition, inoculant, or deoxidizer


Dross resulting from alloy addition or inadequate fluxing
Too low a melting temperature may result in the inability of the slag or dross to separate
Insufficient slag cover during melting to maintain metal cleanliness
Thin watery slag
Refractory-metal reaction can easily release impurities into the metal
Excessive fluxes or deoxidizers

A wet or boiling lip on a ladle can promote, or interfere with proper separation of slag
Careless skimming of the ladle can result in excess slag being carried into the mold
Low pouring temperature
Intermittent or slow pouring
Dirty ladles
Ladle linings must be adequate, to avoid mechanical or chemical loss

Miscellaneous
1) Careless maintenance. handling, and general housekeeping

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\
Metallic oxides from ladle entered the mold to cause this (can be corrected by proper gating).

Poorly designed pouring basin prevented proper choke and permitted slag to enter mold.

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Section of a centrifugal casting showing slag inclusions originating from refractory lining material.

Intermittent pouring trapped slag in the metal


stream and permitted it to enter the mold.

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View of an inclusion caused by a rag left in mold.

View of an inclusion caused by a rag left in mold.

Core wires in casting cavities.

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Core wires in casting cavities.

Poorly designed pouring basin prevented proper choke and permitted slag to enter mold.

Poorly skimmed ladle permitted slag to enter the mold cavity.

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Drops - Chapter 5

Typical result of the drop of one part of a green sand pocket.

Description
A drop is a casting defect due to the loss of a portion of sand from the cope or other overhanging section. In
appearance, the defect resembles a sticker.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design


1) Deep pockets or inadequate draft
2) Protruding or overhanging sections

II.

Pattern Equipment
1) Insufficient draft or backdraft
2) Improperly designed parting creating narrow pockets

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Too many patterns for the flask size


Insufficient cope height
Weak, loose, or springy flasks and bars
Misaligned, bent, or sprung bands can result in the lack of rigidity
Not enough bars, or bars improperly designed
Rough handling due to faulty equipment
Improperly fitted, dirty, or crooked jackets
Weights too heavy or uneven
Flask bars too close to risers or sprues
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Backdraft on the cracking strip weakened sand pocket and permitted a drop.

IV.

Gating and Risering


1) Any placement of runners and risers that results in narrow sand pockets.

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

VI.

Inadequate green properties


Inadequate mold properties related to sand moldability
Low mold Hardness or insufficient mold strength
Low dry strength (dry sand molding)
Poorly prepared sand

Core Practice
1) A weak or inadequately secured core or core assembly
2) Core failure in centrifugal casting appears as a drop

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Nonuniformly rammed or soft rammed molds


Gaggers, nails, soldiers, bars, etc. too close to the mold cavity
Insufficient mold reinforcement
Careless core setting may fracture a portion of the mold surface
Improper closing of the mold
Rough handling
Separation of molded layers of sand such as a separation between a facing and backing sand
Insufficient venting

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Inadequate draft in the pocket contributed to a drop, with this result.

A nonuniform ram was the major cause of drop in this large mold section.

VIII.

Metal Composition

None

IX.

Melting Practice
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None

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Bumping molds with ladle

Inadequate green compressive strength in molding sand.

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Foreign material in sand
2) Mold explosions which occur when the gas ignites

Low green sheer strength of molding sand permitted


pocket to shear under the drop and float.

3) Vibration caused by heavy jolt machines or other equipment


4) Rough handling
5) Careless handling of weights or jackets

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Sand broke off the core during setting and dropped into the drag.
During pouring the sand section floated to the cope.

Weight carelessly dropped on mold.

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Erosion Scabs - Chapter 6

Typical scab on cope surface caused by excessive slicking

Description
An erosion scab is a defect usually occurring in the drag, in which the loosened sand has been eroded away
by the motion of the metal, and has left a solid junction between the casting and the defect. The defect can
be removed usually leaving a solid surface. The erosion scab may result in sand holes or sand inclusions in
some other part of the casting.

Causes
I. Casting and Pattern Design
1) A design which necessitates gating through thin sections

II. Pattern Equipment


1) Insufficient fillets on gates and abrupt section changes
2) Parting the pattern to necessitate gating through thin sections

III. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)

Bars improperly placed, preventing uniform ramming


Bars, soldiers, and gaggers coated with wet clay and too close to the mold surface
Rigging in too small a flask so that the vertical pattern wall is too close to flask or bar
Plugged flask vents

Typical scab on cope surface caused by excessive slicking


Scab caused by metal impingement on sand surface (gates located on inside of the two bosses).

IV. Gating and Risering


1) Gating which creates interrupted metal flow
2) Metal impinging on and disrupting sand surface
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3) Gating which creates localized overheating of the sand


There is a fine line of distinction between an erosion scab and a cut or wash. As far as metal flow alone is
concerned, the two defects have the same cause. In the case of an erosion scab there is not enough
impingement to actually cut, in the absence of expansion, but is enough when expansion stresses exceed
the strength of the sand

V. Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

High moisture content


Excessive volatile material
Insufficient carbonaceous (or cellulose) material for expansion control
Insufficient hot deformation
Improper conditioning of the sand, such as clay or moisture not uniformly distributed
Under tempered sand

VI. Core Practice


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Excessive moisture in or on the core


A core blow may cause an erosion scab on the adjacent mold surface
Insufficient hot deformation
Core wash not properly dried
Insufficient penetration of the wash
Undercured cores
Excessive core wash

Excessive pouring temperature caused erosion scab on the cope surface.

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

Nonuniform ramming
Gaggers too close to pattern
Excessive clay on gaggers
Excessive slicking

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Erosion scab caused by wet sand, aggravated by hard ramming.

5) Moldwash, not properly dried


6) Insufficient penetration of wash
7) Excessive wash

VIII.

Metal Composition
None

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Excessive pouring temperatures
2) Interrupted, or slow pouring

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Any foreign body close to the mold surface

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Expansion Defects - Chapter 7

Typical expansion defect on cope surface.

Description
Stage one in this family of defects is RATTAILS which are irregular lines caused by low temperature
expansion of the mold surface resulting in a fault in the mold surface.
Stage two is BUCKLES which are V-shaped indentations which may occur by themselves or under an
expansion scab.
Stage three is EXPANSION SCABS, which are rough layers of metal connected to the main body of the
casting by a vein of metal.
Stage four is COPE SPALLS or pull downs which are indentations in the cope surface of the casting.
Depending on the time of formation they may have the appearance of a buckle, rattail, shrink, or blow.
Blackening scabs are a special form of a scab in which the defect is related to the coating rather than to the
sand.
Since sand surfaces go through the process of expansion and contraction during the pouring and solidification
of the casting, it is a common practice to assume that the sand is the principal cause. This is a mistake, as
these defects are all closely related to all practices.

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Typical rattail from interrupted metal flow.

Causes
I. Casting and Pattern Design
1) Large uninterrupted flat surfaces
2) Inadequate radii
3) Large, smooth uninterrupted concave or convex surfaces

II. Pattern Equipment


1) Inadequate fillets

III. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Bars or flask too close to pattern surface
2) Rigging which prevents proper pouring speed
3) Flask too shallow

IV. Gating and Risering


1) Gating which prevents adequate pouring speed

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Buckle (which had a scab before cleaning) caused by inadequate carbonaceous or cushioning material.

Scab (with buckle underneath) related to inadequate hot deformation.

Blacking scab from inadequate penetration of wash.

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VI. Core Practice


1) Low hot deformation
2) Green sand or green top cores (See Molding Sand)
3) Nonuniform shell thickness
4) Rods or arbors too close to the core surface
5) A nonuniform ram
6) Insufficient penetration of wash
7) Improper type of wash
8) Excessive wash
9) Insufficient drying of wash
10) Poor sand grain distribution

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Nonuniform or hard ramming


Insufficient penetration of wash
Excessive wash
Insufficient drying of mold or wash
Gaggers, soldiers, and bars too close to mold surface
Excessive trowelling and slacking
Downsprue and risers too close to bars and flask

Expansion scab in dry sand mold after removal from casting. Defect caused by
excessive clay wash of a gagger close to the costing surface.

Uneven ramming of drag mold permitted pattern


plate to bend and prestress the mold surface, (defect
corrected by hard ramming the drag.

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VIII.

Metal Composition

1) Metals vary in their tendency toward expansion defects as they vary in temperature and pouring
rate

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Factors which control fluidity

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Pouring too slow
2) Pouring too hot

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Foreign material between centrifugal mold and sand, which appears similar to and
expansion type defect

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Gas Defects - Chapter 8

Pinholes caused by excessive moisture in molding sand combined


with low permeability and poor grain distribution (6 screen sand).

Description
Blows or gas holes in castings are cavities, either spherical, flattened or elongated. They are related to
localized gas (including entrapped air) pressure that exceeds metal pressure in any locality during
solidification of the metal. One of the greatest problems with core blows is the ease with which they may be
confused with mold blows. Since gas travels upwards in the mold it is quite possible for a gas bubble to form
from a core and then travel toward the cope surface.
Pinholes, blisters, and body scars as well as certain types of porosity are variations of gas holes. In gas
defect problems, there are several possible sources, among which are cores, molding sand and metal. The
volume of gas may be kept unchanged but offset by providing easier escape or by providing more metal
pressure, forcing gas through existing vents.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Insufficient print or outlet provided for venting
2) Design that prevents adequate metal pressure
3) lnsufficient vents at the parting line

II.

Pattern Equipment
None

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Pinholes from excessive permeability and moisture remedied by lowering permeability from 140 to 90-110 and reducing
moisture from 4.2% to 2.8-3.3%.

Gas blows caused by clay balls (excess fines).

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

IV.

Bars too close to the mold surface


Flask wall too close to mold surface
Cope too shallow
Sprues and risers too close to bars or flask walls
Insufficient venting in flasks

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

V.

Insufficient cope height


Gating causing turbulence
Gating design that causes interrupted flow of metal
Inadequate riser height or size
Improper sprue or gate design allowing air or mold gas to enter metal stream
Insufficient spinning speed in centrifugal casting of pipe
Insufficient vents and flow-offs

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

High moisture content


Inadequate permeability for the volatile materials involved
Foreign material in sand-shot, nails, coke, cinders, etc.
Clay balls
Poorly mixed sand
Coarse particles of gas-producing materials
Coatings containing excessive gas-producing materials
Excessive permeability in skin-dried molds, allowing sweat-back
Excessive or insufficient reducing volatile materials

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Blow due to excessive moisture in molding sand.

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)

Underbaked or undercured cores


Excessive binder
Inadequate permeability for conditions involved
Inadequate venting
Excessive or wet core paste
Core wash too heavy, skin broken or not dried
Excessive gas-producing material either in the core sand or wash
Cores that absorb moisture either in storage or in the mold
Exposed hooks, wires or hangers
Chill or sealing materials not dried
Hooks or hanger holes filled and not dried
Foreign materials, such as roots, leaves, coke, coal, etc.
Excess nitrogen content in resin binders
Poorly mixed core sand

Improperly conditioned core sand (lumps of cereal


binder and excessive moisture are potential
sources of gas and can cause blows).

Broken surface of core wash permitted gas to back up into heavy metal sections.

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Vents plugged with iron during pouring caused a major defect on the cope surface.

Vents plugged with iron during pouring caused a major defect on the cope surface.

Vents plugged with iron during pouring caused a major defect on the cope surface.

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Blow in manifold at a hot spot, caused by a hard core.

Close-up of the blow shown above.

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)

Combinations of hot and cold materials


Improper venting in green or dry sand molds
Insufficiently dried molds
Hard spots caused by improper ramming for conditions involved
Gagger, soldiers, arbors, or bars too close to pattern
Clay wash too heavy on gaggers
Excessive slicking and patching of green sand
Dough roll too wet or too close to mold cavity
Wet pouring basins and gating systems
Insufficient sand in flask
Excessive liquid parting (especially in pockets or depressions)
Mold wash or coating too heavy or not dried
Failure to lead core vents out of molds
Vents too close to surface causing sweatback

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Gas blows-cold iron, high moisture.

Blow in the cope side of a pump impeller caused by wet sand and hard ramming.

Result of aluminum in iron.

VIII.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Metal Composition
Gas dissolved in molten metal
Metallic impurities e.g. aluminum, bismuth, lead, tin, antimony and boron
Greasy or rusty scrap
Enameled scrap containing boron
Incorrect balance of aluminum and silicon in steel

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Blister on casting caused by hard ramming and wet sand.

Upper section shows a chaplet blow caused by improper coating


material or a damp chaplet. Lower section shows a good fusion.

Blows due to cold melted metal.

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Steel

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a.
b.
c.

Too short a boil


Insufficient deoxidation
Wet refractories

2) Iron
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3) Non-ferrous
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

X.

Improper fluxing or degassing procedures


Excessive melting temperatures
Wet refractories
Wet or cold melt addition
Wet or cold skimmer
Metallic impurities or tramp elements
Oxidized metal

Pouring Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

XI.

Cold melted metal


Oxidized iron
Tramp elements (e.g. aluminum, lead, tin, antimony, boron, bismuth, enameled iron
Stripping too early
Excessive variation of acid demand of sand

Cold, damp, or green crucibles or ladles


Pouring cold metal
Interrupted pouring
Ladle or crucible too high above mold
Slow or fast pouring
Improperly cleaned ladles
Heel of metal left in ladle
Insufficient spinning speed in centrifugal casting

Miscellaneous
1) Chills, chaplets, wires which are rusty, improperly coated, oxidized or damp

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Gross Segregation and Carbon Flotation (Kish) - Chapter 9

Dross in ductile iron.

Description
Segregation is the metallurgical or mechanical separation of one or more elements during solidification.
Normally this is a function of metal composition and cooling rates. Kish is free graphite separated from
molten iron.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Too great a difference in metal sections causes segregation due to slow cooling in the larger sections
if the composition is planned for the more rapid cooling sections
2) A section of mold or core that promotes heat retention and could promote localized segregation

II.

Pattern Equipment
None

Ill.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Rough running flask (out of balance) in centrifugal castings have been known to promote segregation

IV.

Gating and Risering


1) Distribution of gates and risers promoting heat retention in localized area
2) Localized hot spots at the gate or riser junction could slow down cooling to the point that gross
segregation is found in the gate junction or riser neck
3) Turbulent flow of metal changes the normal cooling rate
4) Incorrect use of exothermic molding materials can cause localized overheating

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V.

Molding Sand
1) Abnormally slow heat transfer due to the use of insulating materials or molding aggregates can
change the cooling rate of a given section

VI.

Core Practice
1) Underbaked oil-bonded cores which create an exothermic reaction causing excessive heating of the
core could change the cooling rate of an adjacent metal section
2) Insulating gas films such as in shell cores may act to change the rate of heat transfer from the metal
section into the sand

VII.

Molding Practice
1) Introduction of any insulating material such as asbestos or perlite can produce localized slow cooling
2) Incorrect use of exothermic molding materials changes the cooling rate of metal sections adjacent to
these materials

VII

Metal Composition
1) Gray iron and malleable. The carbon equivalent may be too high for the cooling rate involved. The
eutectic point in these systems is seldom found exactly at 4.3 percent carbon equivalent

Kish caused by high carbon equivalent.

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

9)

IX.

Phosphorus too high for the application has an influence on the eutectic formation.
Insufficient carbide stabilizers permit free carbon to segregate in high carbon equivalent irons
Excessive use of graphitizers may have a direct effect on kish formation in addition to their
obvious influence on carbon equivalent
Spheroidal graphite iron
(ductile iron) . There is an added influence from the use of either
excessive magnesium treatment or excessive secondary inoculation
High sulfur can contribute to segregation of magnesium sulfide and other segregations which are
thrown out of solution by the nodularizing treatment
Aluminum plus titanium in excess of .10 percent produces a segregation of ternary carbide
eutectics in iron
Steel does not usually exhibit gross segregation except in high or special alloys. High sulfur or
leaded steels can show segregation. Special high copper steels may also show segregation if the
copper is in excess of approximately .6 percent
In aluminum, copper or other alloy additions exceeding the solubility limit may show as gross
segregation

Melting Practice
1)

2)
3)
4)

Cupola melted gray iron and ductile iron may develop segregation as a result of faulty melting
practice which produces an unintended change in composition. Improper balance of air to coke
promoting carbon pickup will produce an undesirable level of carbon equivalent
Melting too hot causing excessive carbon pickup at the beginning of a heat can produce an offanalysis and kish.
Nonuniform chemical composition, due to variation in size of materials charged, produces
variations in carbon and possible segregation
Careless charging or careless weighing of ingredients of the charge result in nonuniform
chemistry
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5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)

X.

Malleable: Melting too hot, too fast, or with a carbonizing flame can result in excessive carbon
equivalent, or may result in a direct seeding effect which then starts kish accumulations
Steel: Improper melting or deoxidation
Aluminum: Excessive superheat starts a grain growth phenomenon which may induce or show as
segregation
Magnesium: Careless makeup of the charge introduces undesirable and segregating type
impurities
Brass and Bronze: Leaded bronzes not adequately stirred will show segregation of the lead
Dirty or skulled ladles causing contamination introduce segregation either because of a
composition change or because the impurities are only partially absorbed by the melt
Carelessness in segregating returned scrap permits the alloy to be melted with an incorrect
analysis

Pouring Practice
1)
2)
3)

XI.

Pouring below the temperature of solubility is most apt to occur when alloying elements differ
widely in their solubility temperature
Cooling before pouring permits some components to come out of solution even though the
original melt was adequately blended and alloyed
Pouring too hot in the case of leaded bronze permits the lead to segregate during the
solidification process. These alloys must be poured as close to the solidification temperature as
possible and be stirred immediately before pouring

Miscellaneous
1)

Cooling rate too slow for the composition

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Hard Spots, Hard Areas and Chilled Spots - Chapter 10

Flask bar close to casting surface caused hard spot, corrected by


cutting out one section of the bar (see diagram).

Brinell hardness indentations indication nonuniform hardness.

Description
Hard spots, hard areas and chilled spots in a casting
are localized zones of excessive hardness.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Thick and thin sections
2) Metal chemistry, as related to casting section thickness

II.

Pattern Equipment
1) Worn or warped patterns and core boxes cause thin sections
2) Mismatched pattern equipment causing thin sections

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)

IV.

Mold cavity too close to bars or wall of flask


Shift created by worn flask pins and bushings
Weak or warped flasks and bottom boards
Not enough sand between bottom board and casting

Gating and Risering


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1) Gating that fails to provide adequate heat to thin sections

Hard spots caused by use of core wash contaminated with tellurium.

V.

Molding Sand
1) Wet spots
2) Tramp materials

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

VII.

Wires or rods too close to surface


Improper or wet coating
Warped cores (causing thin sections)
Improper print size (causing thin sections)

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

VIII.

Careless core setting (causing thin sections)


Arbors, rods, gaggers, bars too close to mold cavity
Excessive nailing
Wash too thick and not dried
Excessive or improper chills

Metal Composition

1) Metal composition not suitable for section size


2) Tramp elements from the charge

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Nonuniform section, which required dense hub, promoted chilled edges on the outer sections of the vanes.

Nonuniform casting hardness.

Nonuniform casting hardness.

Chilled edges caused by low carbon equivalent.

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Typical hard spot that showed up on machining.

Hard spots from undissolved ferroalloy additions.

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Nonuniform section, which required dense hub, promoted


chilled edges on the outer sections of the vanes.

IX.

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

X.

Cold melting that results in poor alloy distribution


Excessive Superheat and oxidation
Wet refractories in furnaces and ladles
Crucibles or ladles containing residue from prior heats
Incorrect inoculation
a. Wrong inoculant
b. Inoculant added at the wrong time
c. Failure to use inoculant when required
d. Improper inoculant that does not go into solution readily.
e. Metal too cold to dissolve inoculant

Pouring Practice
1) Cold metal because of cold or wet ladles
2) Skull left in ladles

XI.

Miscellaneous
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Shaking out too hot (insufficient sand for insulation on casting)


Localized heating from cut-off torch or grinding
Failure to heat treat after welding
Wrong composition of welding rod
Uneven temperature of metal mold
Wrong exothermic compound or sleeves for metal poured

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View of hot tear in chilled casting caused by low phosphorus content.

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Hot Tears - Chapter 11

View of hot tear in chilled casting caused by low phosphorus content.

Description
A hot tear is a crack in the casting which occurs
while it is still hot, or either solid or semisolid.

Causes
I. Casting and Pattern Design
1) Lack of adequate fillets
2) Abrupt change in section thickness
3) Any design which causes the mold to resist metal contraction

II. Pattern Equipment


1) Incorrectly placed or sized cracking strips and tie bars

III. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Flask bars too near the riser or sprue
2) Flask bars preventing casting contraction
3) Pattern too large for the flask

IV. Gating and Risering


1) Gates and risers that prevent normal contraction

V.

Molding Sand
1) Poor collapsibility
2) Low sintering-point materials which form a ceramic bond
3) Sand that gives a rough surface which prevents normal contraction

Hot tear caused by sharp corner.

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VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

VII.

Poor collapsibility
Low hot deformation with poor collapsibility (high hot strength)
Reinforcement rods too close to core surface
Failure to shake out reinforced core soon enough

Molding Practice
1) Hard ramming
2) Rods, gaggers, etc., too close to mold surface

Cracked casting caused by failure of core to collapse.

Crack in drag section due to excess amount of pitch binder in core.

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Core rods too close to casting surface.

3)
4)
5)
6)

VIII.

Riser or sprue too close to bars or flask wall


Excessive swabbing or sponging
Failure to use chill when specified
Uneven ramming that causes swell and prevents contraction

Metal Composition
1)

IX.

Wrong composition for the design

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

X.

Excessive carbide stabilizers


Wrong composition due to careless charging
Presence of tramp elements
Charging contaminated scrap

Pouring Practice
1)

XI.

Pouring temperature too low to promote collapsibility

Miscellaneous
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Shakeout too soon


Cooling too fast after shakeout-fans at shakeout
Spinning speed too high in centrifugal casting
Rough flask or mold in centrifugal casting
Moving a mold in a rough manner too soon after pouring

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Inverse Chills - Chapter 12

Inverse chill on test bar caused by cold metal and wet sand.

Description
Inverse chill, also known as reverse chill. This condition is common in gray iron, ductile iron and malleable
castings. Casting sections where the interior is chilled or white, while the outer sections are mottled or gray.

Causes
I. Casting and Pattern Design
1) Thin sections adjacent to heavy sections in malleable iron

II. Pattern Equipment


1) None

III. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) None

IV. Gating and Risering


1) None

V. Molding Sand
1) Wet sand and cold metal

VI. Core Practice


1) Excessive gas and cold metal

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Inverse chill caused by cold metal on wet sand.

VII.

Molding Practice
1) Any practice involving excess or free water

VIIl.
1)
2)
3)
4)

IX.

(carbon equivalent too high for casting design


The presence of non-ferrous metals in the iron
Carbide stabilizers, such as tellurium, chrome, etc.
Sulfur content not balanced with manganese

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Any condition which would allow or lend itself to the solution of free Hydrogen gas in the metal
Hydrogen atmosphere from low coke bed in the cupola
Wet linings in cupola, electric, or air furnace
Use of contaminated metals in charge, such as die cast non-ferrous metals
Boiling metal caused by wet runners or spouts
Wet bottom sand in the cupola
Moisture in the blast, particularly in hypereutectic iron, such as piston rings
Inadequate inoculations for the conditions of the melting previously described

1)
2)

Wet ladles or ladle lips


Holding too long after inoculation

X.
XI.

Metal Composition

Pouring Practice
Miscellaneous
None
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Mass Hardness - Chapter 13

Chill sequence indicates occurrences of charge material contamination


when stainless steel scrap was inadvertently charged instead of regular steel scrap.

Chill sequence indicates occurrences of charge material


contamination when stainless steel scrap was inadvertently
charged instead of regular steel scrap.

Description
Mass Hardness is a condition in which the entire
casting is too hard for the application.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
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None

II.

Pattern Equipment
None

Ill. Flask Equipment and Rigging


None

IV.

Gating and Risering


None

V.

Molding Sand
1) Wet sand in combination with off analysis
2) Use of other material, such as zircon sand or chromite sand that has a more rapid transfer of heat

VI.

Core Practice
1) Excessive use of chill coat
2) Too thin a layer of sand over arbors

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

VIII.

Improper use of chill techniques


Misapplied chill washes
Low temperature of the molds in die casting or permanent molds
Inadequate insulation in permanent mold

Metal Composition

1) Incorrect metallurgy
2) Steel-excessive carbide stabilizing alloys
3) Gray and ductile iron-too low carbon equivalent
a. Tramp element
4) Lack of inoculation in thin sections
5) Malleable-tramp elements that prevent nodulizing or malleablizing
6) Aluminum-alloys that increase mass hardness, e.g. iron, magnesium or other trace alloys
7) Magnesium-excessive silicon or aluminum
8) Brass and Bronze-incorrect composition, excessive impurities
a. Wrong combination
b. Contamination
c. Careless control of various alloy returns

IX.

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

X.

Off analysis
Oxidizing melting conditions
Super heating of most metals
Careless charging
Low coke bed in cupola

Pouring Practice
1) Oxidized metal
2) Wet, dirty and contaminated ladle spouts and runners
3) Pouring too cold in thin sections

XI.

Miscellaneous
1)
2)
3)
4)

Air quench due to early shakeout


Improper heat treatment
Over-chilling with water-cooled permanent molds
Unintentional water quench

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Metal Penetration and Fusion - Chapter 14

Penetration due to soft-rammed core.

Description
Metal penetration is a condition in which the metal or metallic oxides have filled the voids between the sand
grains without displacing them or by chemically changing the silica or binder. In conventional molds or cores
this can take place because of an open grain or surface porosity. In high density molds iron oxide readily
combines with the silica to form a fayalite which is fluid at several hundred degrees lower temperature than
that of the original metal. Generally, the higher the free moisture content at the metal sand interface the
greater will be this phenomena.
Fusion is a related surface defect having a rough glossy appearance resulting from metallic oxides acting as a
flux on the sand or low fusion binders which melt leaving voids on the surface. Controlled fusion may result in
a hard cake or fused layer which peels away from the casting leaving a smooth finish. As the fusion
progresses it results in penetration.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Sharp corners
2) Overhanging or protruding sections
3) Thin core or sand section surrounded by heavy metal
II.

Pattern Equipment
1) Pattern equipment constructed so as to promote uneven or soft ramming
2) Improper location of parting line which induces soft ramming
3) Improper location of the pattern on the plate causing narrow pockets
4) Multiple patterns mounted too close together
5) Improper location of sprues, risers, and runners
6) Inadequate draft
7) Pattern equipment constructed to promote excessive metal pressure such as a vertical rather
than horizontal mounting.
8) Inadequate provision for mold and core venting in high density molding

Ill. Flask Equipment and Rigging


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1)
2)
3)
4)

IV.

Design and construction of flask equipment which promotes uneven or soft ramming
Excessive cope height
Lack of venting of flask and bottom boards in high density molding
Metal inserts or chills which act as condensers for moisture

Gating and Risering


1) The location of gates and risers which promote localized overheating of the sand
2) Incorrect ratio of sprue, runner, and gate permitting metal oxidation during pouring
3) Pouring cup or sprue designed so as to permit aspiration of air
4) A riser neck which overheats the sand

Photomicrograph showing type of metal structure often found


between sand grains and at a considerable distance from
mold / metal interface; original photo 400X.

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)

5)
6)

7)

VI.

A low sintering or low fusion sand or binder


Any sand condition that promotes nonuniform density
Improper distribution of the sand grains which induce poor ramming
Poor flowability or moldability caused by: moisture segregation; poorly mixed sand; excessive
moisture;
excessive cereal; excessive green deformation; and prepacked or lumpy sand
Nonuniform coating of shell sand
Insufficient carbonaceous or deoxidizing material which will prevent the water vapor from reacting
with
the metal
Excessive mold permeability or, in the case of high density molding, insufficient permeability

Core Practice
1)
2)

Too low a sintering or fusion point of sand or binders


Grain size which is too large or improperly distributed in uncoated cores

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A typical hard mold penetration caused by using a green sand mold rammed to 85-90 hardness.

3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)

Soft rammed cores


Plugged vents
Improperly tucked sand under loose pieces
A rough or porous core surface
Core surface which is bruised or abraded
Improper or insufficient release agent
A partially disintegrated core surface due to overbaking
A broken or disturbed core wash due to rough handling
A dirty core box
In self curing binders; improper ratio of catalyst to binder
Poorly mixed core sand
Any condition promoting veining or finning such as a core crack

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Fusion of silica on steel and ductile iron.

Complete fusion of iron into the core because the core was underbaked.

Insufficient drying of mold wash created a penetrated area.

15) High cereal, low core oil, or low moisture


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16)
17)
18)
19)
20)

Low hot compressive strength


Poorly cleaned or finished cores
Dipped or sprayed cores that are not redried
Cores that have picked up moisture during storage
Low air pressure for core blower or rammer which results in soft-rammed cores

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

VIII.

Soft or uneven ramming


Excessive ramming or density
Poorly patched areas
Loose fitting stop-off
Uneven or insufficiently dried mold coatings
Excessive use of parting compounds
Insufficient facing to cover the pattern
Low air pressure on molding machine or rammer
Any combination of hot and cold materials which can cause condensation
Combining high permeability facing sand with a low permeability backing sand particularly in high
density molding

Metal Composition
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Metals which form fluid oxides


Low melting constituents such as lead or tin
Excessive phosphorus in copper alloys
Metal oxides which readily react chemically with sand
Metals requiring high pouring temperature

1)
2)
3)
4)

Oxidized metal
The excessive use of any fluxing-type material such as
limestone, soda ash, and fluorspar
Melting too hot.

1)
2)
3)

Excessively high pouring temperature


Excessive pouring height
Poor skimming practice

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Any factor involving free moisture in the mold cavity


Shaking out too cold or too late-particularly in high density molding
Sand coated with low fusion materials
Sand or binder reacting chemically with metal oxides
Insufficient venting in high density molding

IX.

Melting Practice

X.

Pouring Practice

XI.

Miscellaneous

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Misruns and Cold Shuts - Chapter 15

Laps or cold shuts caused by pourer missing pouring cup for a matter of seconds.

Description
A misrun casting is one which lacks completeness due to failure of the metal to fill the mold cavity. There may
be a smooth rounded-edge hole through the casting wall. One or more extremities may be only partially filled
out.
A cold shut casting is one in which a definite discontinuity exists due to imperfect fusion where two streams of
metal have converged. This defect may have the appearance of a crack or seam with smooth, rounded
edges.
Both defects may be related to insufficient fluidity of the metal or excessive gas pressure in the mold. It is
well to check the chapter on Gas Defects before assuming that cold metal is the only cause.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Non-uniform casting sections resulting in interrupted metal flow
2) Metal sections too thin for area involved
3) Isolated thin sections

II.

Pattern Equipment
1) Worn patterns or core boxes causing thin metal sections
2) Patterns not made according to blueprint

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Typical misrun; one tooth completely missing.

3) Pattern equipment not properly reinforced


4) Misalignment of pattern or core equipment

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

IV.

Cope or drag shift causing too thin metal sections


Worn flask pins or bushings
Patterns not properly mounted
Failure to tilt molds causing interrupted metal flow
Flask insufficiently barred allowing cope to sag
Distorted or dirty jackets causing a crush
Weak or improperly reinforced flasks
Distorted bands
Cope flask too shallow

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)
4)

Improper sizing of gates, runner and sprue-ingates too small or too few
Gates not properly located
Improper distribution or balance of gates
Too low head pressure

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V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Excess moisture
Sand too high in volatile matter
Sand too weak allowing mold distortion
Permeability too low
Too rapid heat transfer of molding material

Typical cold shut on impeller casting, the defective vein is broken


away from the casting to demonstrate the cold shut section.

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Cold shut caused by small ingates.

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

7)
8)
9)
10)
11)

Excess organic core binders


Under cured or green cores
Insufficient permeability
Insufficient vents
Cores not properly sized or fitted allowing decreased metal sections
Excess wash, mudding compound or paste. Metal sections may be reduced and/or excess gas
formed
Raised or sagged cores
Core shift causing too thin metal sections
Cores warped or distorted-thermoplastic binders
Reinforcing rods too close to core surface chilling effect
Cores with too rapid heat transfer characteristics-chilling the metal

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VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

VIII.

Excessive ramming causing low mold permeability


Soft ramming permitting mold distortion or sagging
Mold insufficiently reinforced
Improperly bedded or clamped bottom boards
Excessive sticking or patching
Molds for thin flat castings set level instead of tilting
Too few or too small chaplets allowing core to raise
Core prints too tight
Excessive wash
Misalignment of sprue

Metal Composition

1) Gray, malleable or nodular irons with low

Cold metal poured during first part of heat caused poor definition of both the edges and cored holes.

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Same casting as in previous example after correction.

Misrun caused by cold metal.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Carbon equivalent or excess carbide stabilizers


Low phosphorus in gray iron or brasses
Steel-composition changes affect fluidity
Inadequate fluidity in brass or bronze alloys
Low silicon or iron in aluminum alloys
Improper degassing of aluminum alloys
Magnesium-improper metal composition

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IX.

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

X.

Pouring Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

XI.

Wrong composition due to careless weighing or charging


Cold melting
Oxidized or gassy metal
Over reduced metal-hydrogen reduces fluidity in all metals especially aluminum
Excessive ladle additions
Damp ladle additions

Pouring temperature too low


Interrupted pouring
Reducing the rate of pour too soon
Boiling metal from wet spout, wet lining, etc.
Cold ladles
Thin castings poured on the level
Low head pressure
Slag, dross or ladle refractory which plugs the gate
Poured short
Pouring too slow

Miscellaneous
1) Chills and chaplets too large for metal section
2) Reduced metal section from any cause, e.g. excessive mold weights, careless weight shifting, etc.
3) Condensation from warm sand on cold cores, chills, inserts, or chaplets

Misrun caused by gates so small they froze before casting filled.

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Off Dimension Related To Cores - Chapter 16

Result of failure to clean core assembly prior to setting the mold (boss was intended to be solid).

Description
An off dimension defect is an incorrect dimension occurring as a result of the wrong core being used, correct
cores improperly set, cores omitted, cores incorrectly assembled, or thermal instability of cores.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
None

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Unidentified locators or prints


Improper or broken telltales
Improperly marked core boxes and patterns
Faulty core box construction, causing distortion
Core prints too large or too small
Chaplet location not marked
Chaplet size not marked

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Improper marking of pattern caused molder to leave out required cores.

core left out of casting because print was not identified.

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Excessive metal pressure caused core to warp during pouring.

The large core print permitted metal flow around entire core.

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Core setting jig or fixture worn or inaccurate

IV.

Gating and Risering


None

V.

Molding Sand
None

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

VII.

A wrong core Used


Cores improperly set
Sagged or distorted cores
Too much or lack of paste
Wash coating too thick or too thin
Improper rodding
Conversion of oil sand core to self cure core resulting in lack of compensation for stability
Under cured cores
Improper grain distribution
Too rapid heat transfer of cores

Molding Practice
1) Setting defective cores
2) Improper filing or rubbing of cores
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VIII.

Metal Composition

1) Mottled structure in nodular iron will distort and grow when heat treated

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Pouring too hot
2) Pouring too hard

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Carelessness in core making and core assembly

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Open Grain Structure - Chapter 17

Open grain caused by too high a carbon equivalent.

Description
Open grain structure is a condition wherein a casting, when machined or fractured is too coarse grained. It
may be throughout the casting or it may be localized.
The most important areas of control are design, gating, composition and melting. This is primarily a
metallurgical -type defect. It is often difficult to differentiate between open grain, porosity and micro
shrinkage.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1)
2)
3)
4)

II.

Slow cooling in heavy sections


Lack of cores in heavy sections that are later drilled out
Sections promoting heat retention
Lack of liaison between designer, patternmaker, foundry and machine shop

Pattern Equipment
1) Improper cored heavy sections (See 1)

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Lack of rigidity in flasks

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Open grain iron.

IV.

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)
4)

V.

Gating which does not permit directional solidification


Ingate and riser locations creating hot spots in localized areas
Oversized gates and risers
Insufficient number of ingates

Molding Sand
1) High deformation in sand, permitting mold wall movement
2) Improper selection of molding additives
3) Molding materials that retard heat transfer

VI.

Core Practice
1) Underbaked oil sand cores and/or oil bonded air set cores
2) Exothermic materials or insulating materials

VII.

Molding Practice
1) Lack of chills or chill promoting materials

VIII.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

IX.
1)

Metal Composition
Improper analysis for section size
Gray iron and malleable-carbon equivalent or phosphorus too high
Insufficient carbide stabilizers
Excessive use of graphitizers
Aluminum alloys-impurities such as iron or lack of grain refiners
Magnesium alloys-incorrect composition
Brass and bronze-incorrect composition

Melting Practice
Cupola melted gray iron
a. Improper balance of air and coke creating an excessive carbon pickup

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b. High coke bed


c. Slow tapping out or excessive shutdowns
d. Careless charging or weighing of materials

2)

Brass and bronze


a. Contamination from dirty crucibles
b. Careless segregation of return scrap
c. Unknown origin of ingots and return scrap

Open grain gray iron caused by high percentage of phosphorus.

d. Allowing turnings and chips to become


mixed

3)

Aluminum
a.
b.
c.
d.

X.

Overheated
Reducing atmosphere
Carelessness in charge makeup or contamination
Omitting grain refiners

Pouring Practice
1) Pouring too hot

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Improper heat treatment
2) Improper machining

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Poured Short - Chapter 18

Typical example of casting poured short.

Description
A casting which lacks completeness due to the mold
not being filled.

Causes
1) Insufficient metal
2) Back pressure
a. Low permeability
b. Lack of vents
c. Excessive amount of core or mold gas

Typical example of casting poured short.

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Ramoffs or Ramaways - Chapter 19

Hub section of a casting showing typical ramoff

Description
A ramoff or ramaway is an incorrect casting dimension resulting from the sand moving away from the pattern
during molding.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1)
2)
3)
4)

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

III.

A curved or rounded vertical surface


Extended vertical sections
Sharp edges
Lack of proper fillets or radii
Loose pieces not properly secured to pattern
Patterns not equipped with ramoff strips
Patterns too close together
Patterns too close to edge of flask
Patterns and plates too smooth

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Loose squeeze head on machine
2) Loose pattern plate on a jolt machine

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Result of peening in only one direction, causing the round boss to become elliptical.

3)
4)
5)
6)

IV.

Inadequate support under the pattern


Incorrect design or placement of squeeze blocks
Weak bottom boards
Molding machine worn or out of level

Gating and Risering


1) A gate or riser too close to the pattern

V.

Molding Sand
1) Sand characteristics that contribute to nonuniform ramming will aggravate any of the design or
mechanical conditions
a. Excess moisture
b. Improper mulling
c. Excess cereal
d. Low green compressive strength, for the application

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

VII.

Ramming or peening in the wrong direction


Improper tucking around loose pieces and bosses
Lack of proper venting of core boxes (in blown cores)
Improper spacing or location of blow tubes
Core sand mixture not applicable to the job

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

VIII.

Ramming or peening in the wrong direction


Improper tucking around loose pieces and bosses
Whipping of a pattern due to worn machine
Preramming of sand while filling flask
Filling flask too full before peening
Not leveling sand in flask before ramming or jolting

Metal Composition
None

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
None

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Rollover machines worn or out of adjustment
2) Pattern draw equipment worn or out of adjustment
3) Improper flow or direction of sand into flask

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Rough Surface - Chapter 20

Typical rough surface caused in this case by an uncoated open core.

DESCRIPTION
A casting that lacks the required degree of smoothness for a specific application.

Causes
I. Casting and Pattern Design
1) Design is a contributing factor only when sharp corners, deep pockets and the like are involved

II. Pattern Equipment


1)
2)
3)

Inaccessible areas
Fillets too small
Rough pattern surface

Excessive moisture in molding sand created a low moldability and an open mold surface.

A washed and an unwashed section of a mold.

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4) Weak patterns
5) Materials and coatings which induce sticking of sand
6) Non-uniform heating in shell or hot box

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)

Flask bars too close preventing proper ramming


Too small a flask

1)
2)
3)

Hot spots created by the gating


High metal velocity at ingates
Excessive head pressure

IV.

GATING AND RISERING

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)

VI.

Moisture too high


Moisture too low
Permeability too high-coarse sand
Improper mulling
Foreign material
Low fusion point materials
Low carbonaceous materials
High carbonaceous materials
Poor flowability
Insufficient hot compressive strength
Carbonaceous materials too coarse
Excessive use of release agents
Insufficient new sand additions

Core Practice

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

VII.

Dirty core boxes


Soft rammed cores
Improper application of core wash
Over or undercured cores
Rough handling
Permeability too high-coarse sand
Hot strength too low
Improper mixing
Poorly cleaned and finished cores
Wrong release agent

Molding Practice
I)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

VIII.
1)

Soft ramming
Dirty patterns
Improperly riddled or screened sand
Improper application of mold coatings
Poorly finished molds
Excessive use of parting compounds

Metal Composition
Composition requiring high pouring temperature

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Poor choice of molding sand caused excessive permeability in this casting.

A sand high in limestone created this rough effect (pocket) in the areas of maximum temperature.

2) Composition that reacts to mold surface

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Poor slag practice

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Too high pouring temperature
2) Improperly skimmed ladles
3) Ladle too high

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Improper cleaning
2) Cleaning abrasive too coarse

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Runouts and Bleeders - Chapter 21

Typical incomplete casting caused by runout.

Description
Runouts and bleeders are defects which result in an incomplete casting. Runouts occur during pouring and
usually the mold cavity has not been completely filled. Bleeders occur after pouring has stopped and the
mold cavity has been filled.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design


None

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

A pattern mounted on too small a board or plate


Worn bearing surfaces
Dirty bearing surfaces on plate or flask
Mismatched patterns
A thin pattern plate

Ill. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)

A flask too small


A warped or twisted flask
Dirty flask joint
Faulty pins and bushings

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5) Worn hinges and locks on snap flasks


6) Warped and twisted bands

A weak core permitted metal to run into core cavity (it was impossible to remove core section).

Shell cores improperly sealed permitted metal to run into core cavity.

A poorly bedded bottom board permitted this casting to bleed during pouring.

7) With a cope and drag arrangement the pattern plate may be mounted higher than the flask landing
strip
8) Weak, burned or uneven bottom boards
9) Improperly fitting jackets
10) Insufficient or improperly placed weights
11) Bumping molds on a conveyor
12) Insufficient drag depth
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IV. Gating and Risering


1) Sprue, runner or riser too close to the flask
2) Patterns too close to the flask
3) Excess head pressure

V.

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)

Weak sand
Sand too low in green deformation
Excessive expansion and contraction in shell molds
Late gas explosion in mold

Shifting the jackets before solidification while the mold was on a moving
conveyor caused this bleeding. Note that the mold had been full.

The result of a runout.

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)

Core prints too large


Vents too close to surface or not properly sealed

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Runout condition caused by breakthrough of thin spot in shell core.

3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Weak cores
Shell cores with thin spots
Shell cores not sealed at prints
Thermal cracking of shell cores
Excessive peel back (shell cores)
Too rapid heating or cooling

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Soft ramming
Insufficient or improperly weighted molds
Uneven clamping
Improperly bedded bottom boards
Non-uniform hardness or lumpy bedding sand
Careless closing of molds
Venting too close to the mold cavity or not sealed

VII.

Molding Practice

Runouts that emptied a great part of the mold cavity

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Runouts that emptied a great part of the mold cavity

8)
9)
10)
11)

VIII.
1)
2)

IX.

Lack of proper cope seal in large molds


Under or over baked dry sand molds
Too rapid Heating of skin dried molds
insufficient reinforcing or support of dry sand molds

Metal Composition
High fluidity
Wide solidification range

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

XI.
1)
2)

Failure to use jackets, weights or clamps


Pouring too hard or high
Pouring too hot
Bumping molds during pouring
Removing weights, clamps or jackets too soon

Miscellaneous
Shaking out too hot
Knocking off gates and risers too soon

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Scars, Seams and Plates - Chapter 22

Plate caused by wet sand and overly hard ramming. Molten metal forced out by gas
pressure later flowed over already solidified metal.

Description
Scar:
Seam:
Plate:

A minor or shallow shiny mark on a casting surface where the casting does not conform to
the pattern.
A visual indented line on the casting surface.
A layer of metal partially separated from the main body of the casting section.
These defects usually occur on flat surfaces.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design


1) Abrupt change in casting section, resulting in interrupted metal flow

Typical plate defect

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Plates caused by gas defect

2) Sharp corners resulting in interrupted metal flow

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)
3)

Worn patterns or core boxes causing thin metal sections


Incorrect pattern dimensions resulting in casting sections too thin for the fluidity of the metal
Patterns improperly reinforced causing excessively thin sections

Cross section of plate defect caused by wet sand and hard ramming.

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

IV.

Cope and drag shift causing thin metal sections


Pattern not properly mounted
Lack of tilting arrangement for thin flat sections
Flask insufficiently barred allowing cope to sag
Weak bottom boards

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

V.

Gates which create turbulent flow


Gates which create interrupted flow
Gates which foster slow pouring
Low head pressure
Widely separated or too few gates

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Low permeability
Excessive free water
Too high in gas forming material
Differences in strength or permeability of facing and backup sand
High expanding sand
Low hot deformation

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VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

VIII.
1)
2)
3)
4)

IX.

Combination of hot and cold materials


Non-uniform ramming
Insufficient venting
Low head pressure
Thin metal section
Excessive sticking and patching
Turbulent flow of metal
Insufficient number or too small chaplets
Gas pockets in thin sections

Metal Composition
Low fluidity
Too low carbon equivalent
Excessive carbide stabilizers
Excessive ladle additions

Melting Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

X.

Cold melting
Gassy metal
Improper flux treatment
Incorrect composition
Excessive ladle additions

Pouring Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

XI.

Low permeability from excessive fines and poor grain distribution


Cores too high in gas forming material
Insufficient or plugged vents
Undercured cores
Off size or distorted
Rubbed core surface
Broken or thin wash coating

Interrupted pouring
Lack of synchronization in pouring multiple down sprues
Pouring too high
Reducing rate of pouring too soon
Thin flat sections poured level instead of tilted
Excessive mold weights
Rough handling
Bad jackets
Rough handling of molds

Miscellaneous
1) Rusty, dirty, oxidized or damp chills, chaplets or nails
2) Excessive coating on chills

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Shifts - Chapter 23

Typical mold shift caused by mismatched cope and drag.

Description
A shift is a mismatch of the casting at the parting line. They may occur in cores or core assembly.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Inadequate provision for core print or core support

II.

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

III.

Pattern not properly aligned in the cope and drag


Misaligned locators on non-shift devices
Loose or worn dowel pins in loose patterns
Patterns not properly secured to plates
Lack of locators
Inadequate or improper core prints

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Worn, bent or missing pins and bushings


Tight, worn, bent or broken bands and jackets
Weak or warped flasks
Faulty or worn machines
Worn setting, assembling, rubbing or checking jigs
Inadequate space between patterns or patterns and flask

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Shift due to poor alignment of cope and drag patterns.

Two castings showing result of inadequate core prints,


producing a vertical shift (good casting on right).

How worn pins and bushings permit a mismatch in one or more directions.

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Left, casting with defect as result of incorrect assembly of cores.


Right: After correction.

IV.

Gating and Risering


None

V.

Molding Sand
1) Weak sand

Shifts as result of cope motion while the molder


was carrying mold to pouring floor.

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

VII.

Improperly aligned cores in assembly


Excessive core paste
Core paste not dry
Excessive rubbing of core
Distorted core

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Excessive rapping of loose patterns


Use of dowel pin holes for rapping holes
Improper placement or unsecured chaplets
Incorrect chaplet: Too long, too short, not heavy enough to support load
Core set wrong
Reversing cope or drag

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Examples of cope and drag shifts due to improper handling of mold jackets.

7) Improper or careless clamping


8) Improper or careless placement of mold weights
9) Rough or improper handling
a. Molder carrying mold against his body
b. Bumping on a pallet line
c.. Bumping in automatic handling
d. Rough roller conveyor
e. Tilting or upending molds

VIII.

Metal Composition
None

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Improper handling of weight and jackets
2) Bumping molds with pouring ladle

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Excessive vibration

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Shot Metal or Cold Shots - Chapter 24

Cold shot inside surface of centrifugally-cast iron pipe.


This particular defect was cured by ladle additions of silicon.

Description
Shot metal or cold shots are small globules of metal imbedded in, but not entirely fused with the casting. A
cold shot shows as an approximately round shot, while a cold shut is a form of misrun and appears as a crack
or seam.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design

II.

Pattern Equipment

None
1) Excessive clearance on prints requiring excessive amount of sealing compound
2) Inadequate venting at parting line
3) Any gating which results in turbulence

Ill.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1) Bars and flask too close to mold surface
2) Sprues and risers too close to bars or flask walls

IV.

Gating and Risering


1) Gating which causes turbulence or interrupted flow
2) Multiple gating which results in most of the metal entering into one or two of the ingates
3) Pop or pencil gates which are too small.

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Cold shot iron from interrupted pouring.

V.

Molding Sand
1) High moisture or excessive gas which results in a severe blowing action causing metal to spatter
2) Foreign material such as clay balls, etc., which produces excessive gas in a localized area

VI.

Core Practice
1) Undercured core or excessive gas from core, core wash, or core paste
2) Exposed wires, arbors, and supports which are wet, dirty, oily, or rusty

VII.

Molding Practice
1) Poorly dried molds or core coatings
2) Plugged vents
3) Excessive sticking of mold

VIII.

Metal Composition

1) Certain metals which are more prone to rapid oxidation and thus, prevents the shot from redissolving
(Example: low carbon steel or aluminum)
2) Off analysis metal which results in an excessive rate of solidification
3) Phosphorus too high (centrifugal casting)

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Oxidized metal

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Careless skimming, spilling or splashing metal in a sprue or riser
2) Interrupted pouring

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Any foreign material which causes metal to splatter
2) Condensation in the mold

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Shrinkage Cavities and Depressions - Chapter 25

Typical shrinkage defect in a thick section that could not be


adequately fed (below, design of this casting).

Description
A shrinkage cavity is a jagged hole or spongy area lined with fern-like structure called dendrites. A
shrinkage depression on the surface of the casting is a recession from the true plane
of the mold surface.
There is apt to be confusion determining between a shrink and a blow. If a doubt exists, refer to the chapter
on Gas Defects. Many of the cures for both are the same, but in some cases the cure is just the opposite.
It is characteristic of a shrink to appear in heavier sections, at abrupt changes of section thickness or at hot
spots. These same locations are also prone to producing gas defects and hot tears.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design


1)
2)
3)
4)

II.

Abrupt change in section size


Isolated heavy sections which cannot be fed
Inadequate or too large fillets
Insufficient area for feeding or chilling isolated sections

Pattern Equipment
1) Worn patterns and/or core boxes
2) Incorrect pattern dimensions resulting in thin or heavy sections
3) Poor pattern construction-improperly reinforced for high pressure molding

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Ill. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)

IV.

Insufficient cope height


Flask too small
Improperly fitted jackets
Too many patterns in flask

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

V.

Gates and risers not promoting progressive solidification


Insufficient number and/or improperly attached gates and risers
Risers too small
Improper ratio of riser neck to casting size
Large ingates

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

VI.

Any condition that permits excessive moldwall movement


Soft ramming
Low green compressive strength
High green deformation
High hot deformation
Wet sand

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

VII.

Core movement-oversize prints


Insufficient chaplets
Weak cores
Soft or insufficient prints
Lack of fillets

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)

Any molding practice that will permit moldwall movement under pressure-refer to molding sand
Omission of exothermic or insulating materials if required
Lack of chills

Insufficient cope height prevented adequate riser height to f


sections involved. Sectioning through both the risers and
the casting demonstrates need for additional feed metal height.

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Feeding four of these castings from one small riser was not enough to prevent shrink in riser neck.

Gate area being equal to casting section created a shrink in the gate itself.

VIII.

Metal Composition

1) Chemical composition unsuited for section involved


2) Low carbon
3) Aluminum
a. Insufficient grain refiners
b. Low silicon
c. Insufficient gas content
4) Ductile iron
a. Too high or too low carbon
b. Too high or too low carbon equivalent

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Careless charging or weighing
2) Wrong composition
3) High temperature metal

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Soft ram mold permitting mold-wall movement created


a feeding problem in the heavier section.

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Pouring too hot and/or too cold
2) Failure to touch up risers with hot metal

XI.

Miscellaneous
1)
2)
3)
4)

Cracked molds
Runouts
Run-in (shellcores)
Improperly clamped molds

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Stickers - Chapter 26

Typical lump on casting surface caused by sand sticking to pattern during molding.

Description
A sticker is excess metal on the surface of the casting caused by a portion of the mold
face remaining on the pattern.

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1) Insufficient draft
II.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Pattern Equipment
Poorly polished or improperly coated
Worn or rough
Fillets and depressions filled with wax
Insufficient draft or back draft
A pattern undercut or loose at parting line
Failure to vent critical pockets

Ill. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

A flask lacking rigidity


Insufficient flask height
Placing too many patterns for the flask size
A worn or misaligned pattern draw device
Overjolting, out-of-level or worn molding machine
Excessive or insufficient vibration
An incorrectly adjusted automatic parting spray

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Excessive moisture used in an attempt to compensate for hot sand caused general sticking
of sand grains to pattern surface.

IV. Gating and Risering


1) Improperly placed gates, runners and risers causing pockets

V.

Molding Sand
1) Hot sand
2) Inadequate sand properties
a. Low green tensile strength
b. Low green shear strength
c. Low permeability
d. Poorly mixed sand
e. Wet sand

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

VIII.

An oversized ramup core


Rough, dirty, or lack of draft in core box
Reaction between the binder and parting
Excessive moisture in sand

Rough Handling of the mold


Excessive liquid parting
Excessive or insufficient vibrating or rapping of the pattern
Too great a temperature difference between the pattern and sand
Leaving the pattern in mold too long
Ramming directly on the pattern with a slinger
Insufficient mold reinforcement
Gaggers, nails, soldiers, bars too close to the mold cavity
Careless or improper drawing of the pattern

Metal Composition
None

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
None

XI.

Miscellaneous
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1) Foreign material

Swells, Strains, Sags and Core Fins - Chapter 27

A typical swell

Description
A swell is an enlarged metal section related to moldwall movement. A strain is a swell with a fin on it. A sag
is an increase or decrease in a metal section due to sagging of the cope or core. A core fin is a depression in
the casting caused by a fin on the core which was not removed before the core was set.

Causes
I.

Casting and Pattern Design


1)
2)
3)
4)

II.

Design requiring long or thin cores and not permitting the use of a support
Any design which contributes to soft ramming
Large flat surfaces
Large castings which require a high metal pressure

Pattern Equipment
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Inaccurate parting lines


Inaccurate core prints
Inaccurate dimensions (kiss-throughs)
Warped core boxes
Worn pattern equipment
Flask landings lower than the parting line.
Warped, strained, or off-dimension matchplates

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A strain: a swell with fins.

8) Inadequately reinforced pattern


9) Excessive number of multiple patterns
10) Inadequate relief vents

III.

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Warped, burned, broken, or weak bottom boards


A carved or worn strike-off
Weights that are too light
Worn or warped flasks
Poorly fitting jackets
Dirty jackets

A sag in the core created a thin section with a corresponding thick section.

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A typical defect resulting from fin which should have been removed from the core before setting.

Insufficient clearance between bars caused the molder to soft ram this section.

Weak core distorted during pouring.

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A poorly cleaned bottom board strained the mold and caused this distortion.

IV.

Gating and Risering


1) Lack of pop-offs or relief vents
2) Inadequate bearing surface

V.

Molding Sand
1) Weak sand
2) Any condition that permits excessive moldwall movement

VI.

Core Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Core too small for print


Insufficiently reinforced cores
Setting the wrong core
Weak cores (improperly blown, rammed, or wrong mix)
Cracked, broken or warped cores (twisted drier)
Excessive hot deformation
A thin section on shell core

Soft ram on the mold was aggravated by a hard pour, causing this swell at the parting line.

VII.

Molding Practice
1) A soft ram, not tucked or properly peened
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2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

VIII.

Excessive shaving of the joint


Poorly reinforced molds
Uneven clamping of molds
Ramoff or ramaway
Uneven bedding of the bottom board

Metal Composition

1) The high density metals have a greater tendency to produce mold-wall movement
2) Pouring temperature
3) Expansion and contraction (ductile iron)

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Inoculation of graphitic metals increases mold-wall movement

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Ladle too high

XI.

Miscellaneous
1) Dirty pallets
2) Excessive spinning speeds in sand molds

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Veins and Fins - Chapter 28

A casting exhibiting severe veining. This defect is also referred to as finning.

Description
Veining appears on the casting as irregular fin or fins of metal protruding from the surface of the casting. Two
conditions must exist. The core or mold surface develops a crack either from expansion-contraction forces or
mechanical handling and the metal must be fluid enough to enter the crack.
NOTE:
(T) Signifies thermal cracking
(M) Signifies mechanical cracking

Causes
I.
Casting and Pattern Design
1)
2)
3)
4)

II.

Sharp corners that develop hot spots. (T)


Thin cores surrounded by heavy metal sections. (T)
Massive sections-refer to Chapter 30-swells, strains. (M)
Pin or thin cores placed horizontally instead of vertically when possible. (T)

Pattern Equipment
1) Sharp corners that develop hot spots. (T)
2) Thin cores surrounded by heavy metal sections. (T-M)

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Test bar, poured after soft ramming.

3)
4)
5)
6)

III.

Uneven metal sections causing uneven heat distribution in shell or hot box equipment. (T)
Inadequate support from core dryers causing cracked cores. (M)
Warped core dryers. (M)
Dryers not properly relieved. (M)

Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

IV.

Rough mechanical handling of uncured cores. (M)


Misaligned shell or hot box equipment cracking cores. (M)
Flasks not rigid enough for molding process involved. (M)
Loose bars
Rough conveying of cores or molds. (M)

Gating and Risering


1)
2)
3)

V.

Gate causing metal to impinge on core causing hot spot in critical area. (T)
Riser too close to core print (hot spot) . (T)
Insufficient number of gates causing local hot spots. (T)

Molding Sand
1)
2)
3)

Excessive organic material in sand (seacoal, etc.). (T)


Excess moisture in sand for skin or oven dried molds. (T)
Improper mulling. (T-M)

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VI.

Core Practice

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

Weak cores (green or cured). (M)


Cores too dense. (T)
Excess binders. (T)
Too rapid heating and cooling in core oven. (T)
Improperly reinforced cores-rods, wires, or bars. (M)
Inadequate dryer support-warped dryers. (M)
Baking temperature too high. (T)
Over-cured cores. (T)
Brittle cores. (T-M)
Improper portion of hexametliylene tetramine in phenol-formaldehyde shell cores for humidity
conditions prevailing. (T)
11) Cores stored under conditions of high humidity. (T)
12) Poor sand mixing. (T-M)
13) Inadequate hot plasticity of cores. (T)

VII.

Molding Practice
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

VIII.

Excessive sticking of mold surface (T)


Inadequately reinforced or supported molds (M)
Non-uniform torching of skin dried molds (T)
Uneven clamping of molds (M)
Excessive mold wash (T)
See Flask Equipment and Rigging for additional factors which control the molding aspect of these
defects.

Metal Composition
1) Metals with a tendency toward veining such as high leaded bronzes, high carbon-siliconphosphorus gray irons (T-M)

IX.

Melting Practice
None

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Pouring too hot for metal composition involved (T)
2) Pouring too hard causing metal to forcibly impinge against a core (ladle too high) (T)

XI.

Miscellaneous

1) In centrifugal casting, any condition that causes a lack of adherence of the sand to metal mold

A gray iron casting exhibiting severe veining due to high


percentage of fines in molding sand mixture.

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Warped Castings - Chapter 29

Faulty design increases the tendency of this casting to warp.

Description
Warpage is deformation that occurs during or after solidification, mostly in gray or white cast iron (nonductile) .
The problems are the same as those described in Chapter 11. Hot Tears, namely differential stresses setup
during cooling. The difference between the defects (aside from appearance) is either in the degree of stress
or difference in tearing tendency of various metals. For example, a stress situation which would hot tear a
steel or malleable casting might warp a gray iron or ductile casting.

Causes
I. Casting and Pattern Design
1) Large flat uninterrupted sections
2) Lack of ribs

II. Pattern Equipment


1) Large flat sections can be broken up with wavy or roughened sections provided this does not
interfere with the use (including appearance) of the casting.
2) Pattern not faked to compensate for warping
3) Incorrect number of tie bars

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Typical warp in a malleable casting.

III. Flask Equipment and Rigging


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Bars too close to pattern


Bars too close to risers and downsprues
Weak bottom boards
Flask too small
Weak flasks
Weak squeeze board

IV. Gating and Risering


1) Gating system which prevents desired contraction
2) Too small gate area
3) Improper location of ingates

V. Molding Sand
1) Too low green strength
2) Too low flowability or moldability
3) Hot strength too low or too high

VI. Core Practice


1)
2)
3)
4)

Poor collapsibility of cores


Too high hot strength
Over-reinforced (rods and arbors)
Rods too close to casting surface
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VIl. Molding Practice


1) Improper relationship of mold hardness between cope and drag. Soft cope allowing
upward movement of the contracting metal or vice versa
a.
Warpage can be alleviated or reduced by ramming the part of the mold harder in the direction
of the warpage. The mold can also be rammed by hand or pneumatically after pouring.

Uneven cooling after malleablizing treatment caused this warpage.

VIII.

Metal Composition
1) High combined carbon
2) Excessive use of carbide stabilizers
3) Chills etc., which promote the stabilization of combined carbon.

IX.

Melting Practice
1) Careless charging
2) Metal too cold
3) Any metal practice which stabilizes carbides or changes metal composition

X.

Pouring Practice
1) Too hot or too cold for casting design

XI.

Miscellaneous
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Shake out too hot


Failure to provide proper support during heat treat
Peening action during cleaning
Machining: If it creates a partial stress relief
Large castings not properly supported during shipment

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