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Keplers law of planetary motion

CBSE Class 11th

By iProf

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and


astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best
known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia
nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These
works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of
universal gravitation.

Keplerss law of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws


describing the motion of planets around the Sun. Kepler's laws are now
traditionally enumerated in this way.

Three laws of Kepler

Keplers first law- Law of orbit

Keplers second law- Law of equal areas

Keplers third law- Law of periods

Keplers first law- Law of orbit


Every planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the sun. The orbit of every
planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.

Keplers second law- Law of equal area


A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal
intervals of time.This law is known as Keplers second law.

Keplers third law- Law of periods


The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube
of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

According to Keplers third law :P2/a3

Mathematical representation of Keplers third law

P2/a3
P is the time taken for a planet to complete an orbit around the
sun
a is the mean value between the maximum and minimum
distances between the planet and sun

Contribution of Keplers law


With the help of Keplers second law, Newton introduced the Law of
universal gravitation (Newtons law of gravitation).
Keplers laws are very useful in the study of planet orbit systems.
These laws are also very important for satellite motion.

Newtons law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract
each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

M
r

Universal gravitational
constant

Mass of body 2

F= GmM
r2

Mass of body 1

Distance between
two matter

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