bc
Rb
< 0,25
by 0,25
or
bc
Rb
> 0, 75
2 = 1.0;
bc
2 = 1.2.
0,75
Rb
At the same time if a part of the rod with the length is located in the concrete zone
by 0.25 bc/Rb 0.75 so 2 is determined by formula
a
2 = 1 + 0.2 ,
(221)
la
Here la anchor rod length;
Compression stresses in concrete bc, perpendicular to the normal anchor
and distributed along the whole length are determined as for the elastic
material by reliability coefficient 1.0;
a1, a2 dimensions of the projection of the chipping surface;
e1, e2 eccentricity of force N relating to the center of gravity of area in the
direction of dimensions 1 and a2;
Draft 72. Scheme of concrete chipping by means of anchors of the embedded element with
reinforcement at the ends by Nan 0
1 point of application of the normal force N; 2 chipping surface; 3 projection of the chipping surface
on the plane normal to anchors
b) for anchors without reinforcement at the ends the calculation is made due to the
condition
12 AhR bt
l h
(222)
N
+ R s Aan, a a
,
eh1
eh2
lan
1 + 3,5
+ 3,5
ah1
ah2
Where Ah the same like , if the chipping surface goes at the distance h from the
embedded element plane (Draft 73);
ah1, ah2 dimensions of the chipping surface projection;
eh1, eh2 eccentricity of force N relating to the center of gravity Ah, in the direction
of dimensions ah1 ah2;
2 M
conditions (220) and (222) it is possible to decrease force N by value 1
.
nan z
If anchor ends are located close to the concrete surface opposite to the embedded
element plate it is necessary to check condition (222) without considering the last
member of the right part of the condition by h, equal to the distance from the plate to
the opposite surface of the element, at the same time the part of the area Ah, located
between end rows of anchors is not considered.
3.107.If condition Nan > 0 is met and if there are reinforcements at the ends of anchors so
calculation of concrete chipping (Draft 74) is made due to the following condition
A R
(223)
N an 1 2 1 bt ,
e
1 + 3,5
a
Where Nan see Formula (212);
A1 the same that in formula (220), if chipping surface begins from the place of
reinforcement of anchors of the most stretched row (see Draft 74);
eccentricity of force N relating to the center of gravity of area 1 in the direction
of dimension .
It is possible not to make the chipping calculation if ends of anchors are fixed behind
the longitudinal reinforcement located at opposite to the embedded element surface of
the column, and reinforcement of anchors in form of plates or cross lugs are fixed to
the rods of longitudinal reinforcement with diameter: by symmetrical fixing no less
than 20 mm, by asymmetrical fixing no less than 25 mm (Draft 75). In that case the
part of the column between end rows of anchors is checked as regards the cross force
equal to (due to Items 3.31 and 3.53):
Q = Nan m Qcol,
Where Qcol cross force on the part of the column adjoining to the most stretched row
of anchors of the embedded element determined considering the forces acting on the
embedded element.
Draft 74. Scheme of concrete chipping by stretched anchors of the embedded element by Nan > 0
1 projection of the chipping surface on the plane normal to anchors; 2 anchor plate; 3 point of
application of force Nan
Draft 75. The structure of the embedded element for which chipping calculation is not required
embedded element with lugs symmetrically fixed to the longitudinal reinforcement of the column;
diagram Q of the column part with the embedded element; anchors of the embedded elements with
anchor plates asymmetrically fixed to the longitudinal reinforcement of the column; 1 cross lugs welded to
anchors by means of contact welding; 2 anchors; 3 anchor plates
3.108. If shearing force Q acts on the embedded element in the direction towards the
element edge (Draft 76), and if there are no inclined anchors so calculation as regards
the concrete chipping is made due to the following condition
R bh
(224)
Q 1 bt ,
e
1 + 3,5
b
Where 1 see Item 3.106; by embedded element located on the top surface of details
made of lightweight concrete coefficient 1 is decreased by 20 percent,
b element width equal to b = c1 + c2 + s ( c1 c1 distances from end
rows of anchors to the nearest edges of the element in the direction
normal to the shear force taken no more than h, s distances between
end rows of anchors in the same direction);
h the distance from the outermost anchor row to the edge of the element in
the direction of shearing force Q, taken no more than the element width
b1 (see Draft 76);
eccentricity of force Q relating to the middle of the element width b.
In case if break force N is applied to the embedded element except shearing force Q
0,3N
the right part of condition (224) is multiplied by the coefficient n = 1
, taken
Aout R bt
no less than 0,2 (where Aout is the area of the projection on the plane perpendicular
to the break force N, and to the chipping surface).
Draft 76. The scheme for the calculation of the concrete chipping by normal anchors of the embedded
element
In case if shearing force is applied to the embedded element with inclined anchors
welded with overlapping and which have reinforcement at the ends (see Item 5.113),
calculation of concrete chipping is made in compliance with the Recommendations
mentioned in Item 3.102.
3.109. If at the ends of anchors of the embedded element there are reinforcements in form
of anchor plates (see Item 5.113) so concrete under these reinforcements are checked
as regards compression due to the following condition
N loc bR bAloc1 ,
(225)
Where , b coefficients determined due to Item 3.93;
loc1 area of concrete plate with the exception of the anchor section area;
Nloc compression force determined in the following manner:
) for anchors by la 15d:
If crack formation along the anchor is possible as result of concrete tension or in
case of use of plane anchor rods by formula
Nloc = Nan1;
(226)
If crack formation is impossible by formula
l l
Nloc = Nan1 an a ;
(227)
lan
) for anchors by la < 15d value Nloc determined by formulas (226) and (227), is
15d la
decreased by Qan1
;
lan
) for anchors welded with overlapping Nloc is determined by formula
Nloc = Qinc.
(228)
In formulas (226) (228):
Nan1, Qan1 maximum tension and shearing forces per one normal anchor (see Item
3.101);
Qinc force in the inclined anchor
Formula (225) can be used if thickness of anchor plate is less than 0.2 of its length.
Example 50. Given: embedded element of the column with the welded table for support of
the framing beam as well as location and values of loads and framing beams due to Draft
77; anchors of reinforcement III (Rs = 365 MPa); heavyweight concrete of the column
20; plate of steel grade 32 (Ry = 215 MPa).
It is required to design normal anchors of the embedded element and to determine the plate
thickness.
Draft 77. For the calculation example 50
C a l c u l a t i o n . Lets take location of anchors as its shown on Draft 77. As all loads act
in one direction and dont cause the torsion, so lets determine total area of the anchors
cross section of the most compressed upper row by formula (211).
For that we determine external forces moment:
= Ql = 150 0,15 = 22,5 kNm
Taking z = 0,3 and N = 0, lets determine maximum tension force in one anchor row by
formula (212):
M 22,5
N an =
=
= 75 .
z
0,3
On Draft 77 shearing force is Q = 150 kN, anchor rows number is nan = 3.
Shearing force per one anchor row is to be determined by formula (213), taking Nan = Nan
= =75 kN:
Q 0,3N an
150 0,3 75
Qan =
=
= 42,5 .
nan
3
Coefficient is to be determined by formula (216).
N
75
As Nan > 0, = 0,3 an = 0,3
= 0,529,
Qan
42,5
1
1
So =
=
= 0,808 > 0,15.
1 + 0,529
1+
Q
42500
2
1,1 N + an
1,1 75000 +
0, 43 0,808
2
Aan =
=
= 432 mm .
Rs
365
We take two anchors with diameter 18 mm in each row (Aan = 509 mm2).
Lets check condition Aan by coefficient corresponding to the accepted diameter 18 mm,
that means by = 0,41:
2
an
42500
11
, 75000 +
0,41 0,808
Aan =
365
We take 218.
Lets determine minimum allowable anchors length without forces lan due to Item 5.112.
For that we determine coefficient 3:
0,3
0,3
3 =
+ 0, 7 =
+ 0,7 = 0,89.
1 + Qan / N an
1 + 42,5 / 75
Value Rb is taken considering b2 = 0,9 (no shortterm loads), that means Rb = 10,5 MPa.
Lets determine lan, taking bc < 0,25 Rb, that means an = 0,7, an = 11:
R
365
10,5
Rb
Considering the fact that area Aan is taken with the reserve lets specify value lan more
exact:
lan = 567
448
509
surface opposite to the embedded element of the column thats why calculation is made due
to the condition (223).
Lets determine value A1 (see Draft 77):
A1 = (2 250 + 54) 400  2
314
, 54
4
= 217000 mm2.
Example 51. Given: embedded element of the column with welded diagonal member of
steel bracings according to Draft 78, ; tension force in the diagonal member caused by
wind loads 270 kN; embedded element anchors of reinforcement AIII (Rs = 365 MPa);
embedded element plate of steel 32 (Ry = 215 MPa); heavyweight concrete of the
column 30; column reinforcement due to draft 78, , minimum longitudinal force in
the column 1100 kN; bending moment in the column at the level of the embedded element
in the plane of anchors 40 kN m.
It is required to design anchors of the embedded elements, to determine the plate thickness
and to check the strength of surrounding concrete as regards chipping.
C a l c u l a t i o n . We take location of anchor rows along the vertical line as its shown on
Draft 78, . The force in the diagonal member is resolved into the normal force N, applied
to the embedded element with eccentricity e0 = 100 mm, and shearing force Q:
N = 270 cos 5620 = 270 0,555 = 150 kN;
Q = 270 sin 5620 = 270 0,832 = 225 kN.
By z = 0.42 m and M = Ne0 = 150 0.1 = 15 kNm let's determine maximum tension force
in one row of anchors by formula (212):
15 150
M
N
+
=
+
= 73,2 kN
N an =
4
z n an 0,42
Maximum compression force in row of anchors we determine by formula (214):
15 150
M
N
= 1,8 < 0,
4
z
nan 0,42
Shearing force Qan, applied on one row of anchors is to be determined by formula (213), by
Nan = 0:
Q 225
= 56,25 kN.
Qan =
=
4
nan
As N'an = 0,
N
150
= 0,6
= 0 4,
= 0,6
Q
225
1
1
so =
= 0,845 > 0,15.
=
1+
1 + 0,4
N an =
Due to Table 28, taking anchor diameter 16 mm by concrete class 30 and anchors of
reinforcement III we find = 0,49,
2
562500
Q
1,1 73200 2 +
1,1 N + an
0,49 0,845
Aan =
=
= 465 mm 2 .
Rs
365
In each row we take two anchors with diameter 18 mm (Aan = 509 mm2). Lets check
required value Aan by coefficient , corresponding to the accepted diameter 18 mm, that
means by = 0,46:
2
an
56250
1,1 73200 +
0,46 0,845
Aan =
= 448 mm 2 < 509 mm 2 .
365
Lets take two anchors with diameter 18 mm in each row. Lets arrange the anchors with
the minimum direction between them in the horizontal direction equal to 5d = 5 18 = 90
mm (see Item 5.111). Distances between anchors in the vertical direction (that means in the
direction of the shearing force Q) are equal to 140 mm > 7d = 7 18 = 126 mm also
corresponds to requirements of Item 5.111.
Lets determine the thickness of the embedded element plate. As the gusset plate which
transfers the break force to the embedded element is located in the middle of the distance
between vertical rows of anchors so the thickness of the plate is to be determined according
to the calculation of the strength of the plate as of the console beam with the overhanging
length 35 mm (see Draft 78) as regards tension force in one anchor equal to:
N
N an1 = an = 73,2 = 36.6 kN.
2
The width of the console beam is b = 80 mm. Calculation is made due tot he condition
bt 2
RyW, where = 36600 35 = 1280000 Nmm, W =
,
6
2
6M
6 128 104
therefore t =
=
= 21.2 mm.
R yb
215 80
We take the plate made of strip steel 22 mm thick, at the same time condition (218) is met:
0,25 dan
Rs
365
= 0,25 18
= 12,6 mm < 22 mm and requirements for any kind of Tjoint
R sq
130
welding of rods (see Table 52): 0,75d = 0,75 18 = 13,5 mm < 22 mm.
Lets determine minimum allowable length of anchors without reinforcement by formula
(316) considering Item 5.112. For that we determine coefficient 3:
0,3
0,3
3 =
+ 0,7 =
+ 0,7 = 0,87.
1 + Qan / N an
1 + 56,25 / 73,2
Value Rb is taken considering b2 = 1.1 as the load on the embedded element is caused only
by wind load, that means Rb = 19 .
For determination of coefficients an and we determine maximum and minimum
concrete stress within the anchor length. For that we determine area Ared and inertia
moment Ired of the column section taking due to Draft 78, s = s = 1232 mm (228):
red = bh + 2s (  1) = 400 400 + 2 1232 (6,9  1) = 174,5 103 mm2;
Ired =
bh3
+ 2s (  1)(0,5h  a)2 =
12
400 4003
+ 2 1232 (6,9  1) (0,5 400  50)2 = 2460 106 mm4
12
Es
2 105
here
a=
=
= 6,9.
E b 2,9 104
Maximum concrete stress at the end of anchor la = 300 mm (that means at the distance
= 300 + 22  400/2 = 122 mm from the center of gravity of the section):
N
M y 1100 103 40 106 122
b,max =
=
+
=
2460 106
Ared I red 174,5 103
= 6,31 + 1,98 = 8,3 < 0,75 Rb = 14,3 MPa.
400
Minimum stress of concrete at the beginning of concrete; that means by =
 22 =
2
178 mm:
N
My
40 106 178
b,min =
= 6,31
= 3,42 < 0,25 Rb = 4,75 MPa.
Ared I red
2460 106
As the anchor is not located in the zone with stress from 0.25Rb 0.757Rb, so we
determine the length of the part of the anchor , located in this zone:
b ,max 0,25 Rb
8,3 4,75
= 300
= 218 mm
a = la
b ,max b ,min
8,3 3,42
So due to Formula (317),
0,7(la a) + 0,5a 0,7(300 218) + 0,5 218
an =
=
= 0,555.
la
300
an is determined similar to an with replacement coefficients 0.7 and 0.5 by 11 and 8 (see
Table 44):
11( la a) + 8a 11(300 218) + 8 218
an =
=
= 8,82.
la
300
Allowable anchor length is:
R
365
l an = 3 an s + an d = 0,87 0,555
+ 8,82 18 = 305 mm.
Rb
19
Considering that area Aan is taken with the reserve we take that lan : lan = 305
488
509
= 292 .
3.111. Column joints made by means of welding of reinforcement connecting rods (see
Item 5.90) are calculated for two work stages:
1st stage before concreting of the joint the calculation is made as regards the loads
acting during this construction phase; by determination of forces the joints are
accepted as hinged ones;
2nd after concreting of the joint the calculation is made as regards the loads acting
during this construction phase and during use of the building; by determination of
forces the joints are accepted as fixed ones.
3.112. Calculation of not concreted joints of the columns mentioned in Item 3.111 (Draft
79) is made as regards local compression of the column concrete by means of
centering filler plate due to condition (196) adding to its right part a part of force
acting on the reinforcement connecting rods and equal to:
Nout = 0.5 Rsc As
(229)
3.114. Joints of columns made by means of connection of ends by means of the cement
layer or polymer solution with break of longitudinal reinforcement (see Item 5.91,
joints of the 1st and the 2nd type) at the use stage are calculated as eccentric
compressed concrete elements due to Item 3.6 considering confinement reinforcement
by meshes due to Items 3.57 and 3.60. At the same time design resistance of concrete
Rb,red is multiplied by the work condition coefficient b, equal to 0.9 or 1.0 by filling
of the joint by cement or polymer solution. If there is no solution between the ends of
the columns (for example in spherical joints, in joints with connected surfaces) the
mentioned above work condition coefficient is taken equal to b = 0,65.
CALCULATION EXAMPLES
Example 52. Given: a column joint due to Draft 81; concrete of the column 30
(Rbc = 15,5 MPa by b2 = 0,9; Rb,ser = 22 MPa); concrete for joints B20 (Rbs = 10,5 MPa by
b2 = 0,9; Rb,ser = 15 MPa); reinforcement connecting rods III (Rs = Rsc = 365 MPa;
Rs,ser = 390 MPa), their section area s = 's = 4070 mm2 (436); confinement
reinforcement meshes made of rods III, with diameter 8 mm (Rs,xy = 355 MPa) with
spacing s = 70 mm both in concrete of the column; longitudinal force during the use stage
N = 3900 kN by
f > 1,0 and N = 3300 kN by f = 1.0, its eccentricity in the direction
perpendicular to the cuttings considering the column bending e0 = 55 mm.
It is required to examine the strength of the joint during the use stage and to determine
maximum allowable longitudinal force in the joint during the construction stage.
Draft 81. For the calculation example 52
1 reinforcement connection joints; 2 spread plate; 3 centering filler plate
Calculation during the use stage. In compliance with Item 3.113a we take dimensions of
the section along the axes of end rods of meshes, that means b = h = 360 mm, h0 = 330 mm
(see Draft 81).
Lets determine design resistance of concrete of the column and of the joint considering
confinement reinforcement meshes according to Item 3.57.
For the concrete of columns:
Aef = 360 200 = 72 000 mm2 (see Draft 81);
nx = 5; lx = 170 mm; y = 3; ly = 360 mm; Asx = Asy = 50,3 mm2 (8);
xy =
n x Asx l x + n y Asy l y
Aef s
xy Rs ,xy
0 ,0193 355
=
= 0,269;
Rbc + 10
15,5 + 10
1
1
=
=
= 2 ,0.
0,23 + 0,23 + 0,269
Therefore value Rbc,red considering work condition coefficient bc = 0.9 (see Item 3.113c) is:
Rbc,red = bc (Rbc + Rs,) = 0,9(15,5 + 2,0 0,0193 355) = 26,3 .
x y R s, x y
0,026 355
= 0,450;
R bs + 10 10,5 + 10
1
1
=
=
= 147
, .
0,23 + 0,23 + 0,450
Value Rbs,red considering work condition coefficient bs = 0.8 is:
Rbs,red = bs (Rbs + Rs,) = 0,8(10,5 + 1,47 0,026 355) = 19,3 .
Lets determine value by formula (104) according to class of concrete of joints, as the
cutting is located along the whole width of the most compressed surface of the column, at
the same time we take minimum value xy = 0.0193:
2 = 10xy = 10 0.0193 = 0.19 > 0.15, we take 2 = 0.15;
= 0.85  0,008Rbs + 2 = 0.85 0.008 10.5 + 0.15 = 0.916 > 0.9, we take = 0.9.
We reduce the section of the joint to the concrete of the column, at the same time the width
of the cutting is equal:
R bs, red
19,3
bf = b
= 360
= 264 mm;
R bc, red
26,3
R =
R
1 + s 1
sc, 11
,
0,9
=
1+
365
0,9
500
11
,
= 0,794;
n =
3900000
= 1,248;
c =
sc,
R s 1
11
,
500
0,9
3651
11
,
= 7,53;
s + cs + ov n
2
= 1,37;
+ s c + ov n
+ s c + ov n
+ s c
x = ho s
+ s
2
2
]=
ho a
330 30
= 205 mm.
= 55 +
2
2
The joint strength is to be checked according to condition (131):
Rbc,redbx (ho  x/2) + Rbc,redAov (ho  hf/2) + Rsc As (ho  a) =
= 26,3 360 293 (330  293/2)  26,3 7680 (330  80/2) +
+ 365 4070 (330  30) = 896.1 106 H > Ne = 3900 0,205 = 800 kN m,
That means the strength joint during the use stage is provided.
Value is e = eo +
Lets check crack resistance of the concreted part of the column according to Item 3.60
similar to the calculation of the joint strength during the use stage:
ho = h  a = 400  50 = 350 mm;
= 0,85  0,006Rbs,ser = 0,85  0,006 15 = 0,76;
R bs, red
15
bf = b
= 400
= 273 mm; hf = 100 mm;
R bc, red
22
Aov = (b'f  b) hf = (273  400) 100 = 12700 mm2;
Rs = Rsc = Rs,ser = 390 MPa;
R s As
390 4070
s =
=
= 0,515;
R bc, red bho 22 400 350
N
3300000
n =
=
= 1,07;
R bc, red bho 22 400 350
ov =
Aov
12700
=
= 0.091 ;
bh0 400 350
sc ,u
=
400
= 3.32 ;
0.76
R s 1
3901
1 .1
1 .1
s + c s + ov n
s
c
s
ov
n
x = h0
+
+ s c =
2
2
c =
h0 a '
350 50
= 55 +
= 205 mm
2
2
Rbc,serbx (ho  x/2) + Rbc,serAov (ho  hf/2) + RscAs (ho  a) =
= 22 400 254 (350  254/2)  22 12700 (350  100/2) + 390 4070 (350  50) =
= 890,8 106 H > Ne = 3300 0,205 = 677 kNm.
e = e0 +
Calculation of not concreted joint during the construction stage. Lets determine design
resistance of concrete against compression considering confinement reinforcement due to
Items 3.93 and 3.112.
Area of a part of the column end section bounded by meshes contours is:
Aef = 170 360 = 61200 mm2.
Area of the distribution plate is taken as the compression area as its thickness 20 mm is
more than 1/3 of the distance from the plate edge to the centering plate (50 1/3 = 17 mm),
at the same time the width of the compression area is taken equal to the width of the mesh
170 mm.
Aloc1 = 200 170 = 34 000 mm2.
As 360 mm < 3 200 mm, we take Aloc2 = Aef = 61200 mm2,
Therefore:
A
61200
b = 3 loc 2 = 3
= 1.22 < 3.5 ;
Aloc1
34000
s = 4 .5 3 .5
Aloc1
34000
= 4 .5 3 .5
= 2.56 ;
Aef
61200
xy =
n x Asx l x + n y Asy l y
Q
(230)
Rb l k n k
Q
hk
(231)
2 Rbt l k n k
Where Q shearing force transferred by concrete keys;
tk, hk, lk depth, height and length of the concrete key;
k number of concrete keys inserted into the calculation and taken no more
than tree.
tk
Draft 82. Scheme for the calculation of concrete keys transferring shearing force from the
prefabricated element to monolithic concrete
1 prefabricated element; 2 monolith concrete
OF
CRACK
FORMATION
OF
REINFORCED
CONCRETE
It is possible to take without calculation that bending moments of rectangular and Tsections with compressed flanges have normal to the longitudinal axis cracks on the
most compressed parts if required by the calculation reinforcement coefficient >
0,005.
s, s distance from the center of gravity of the section to the centers if gravity of
sections of reinforcement S and S.
If reinforcement coefficient < 0.01 is possible in formulas (234) and (235) so values
Wpl and r are to be determined as for concrete section taking Nshr = 0 and As = A's = 0.
Value Mr is determined by formulas:
 For bending element(Draft 83, )
r = ;
 For eccentric compressed element (Draft 83, )
Mr = N(eo  r),
(238)
 For centrally and eccentric (. 83, )
Mr = N(eo + r),
(239)
In formulas (234), (235), (238) and (239):
r the distance from the center of gravity of the section to the heart point which is
most distant from the stretched zone whose crack formation is checked.
(240)
(241)
Rb, ser
but its taken no less than 0,7 and no more than 1,0;
b maximum stress in compressed concrete, determined as for elastic body
 For centrally and eccentric stretched elements by formula
W pl
r=
,
(242)
A + 2 As + As'
Wpl resistance moment of the transformed section for end stretched fibre considering
nonelastic deformations of stretched concrete determined according to Item
4.3.
N o t e . Transformed section includes concrete section as well as section of all longitudinal reinforcement
multiplied by the ratio between correspondent modulus of elasticity of reinforcement and concrete.
4.3.(4.7). Resistance moment of the transformed sections for end stretched fibre Wpl
(considering nonelastic deformations of stretched reinforcement) is determined with
the assumption that there is no longitudinal force N by formula
2 (I b 0 + I s 0 + I s' 0 )
(243)
W pl =
+ S b0 ,
h x
where Ibo, Iso, Iso inertia moments of sections areas of compressed concrete zone,
reinforcement S and S relating to the zero line;
Sbo static moment of the section area of stretched concrete zone relating to the
zero line.
Location of the zero line in the general case is determine due to the following condition
(h x )Abt
S b' 0 + S s' 0 S s 0 =
,
2
(244)
where Sbo, Sso, Sso static moments of the section area of the compressed concrete
zone, reinforcement S and S relating to the zero line;
Abt section area of stretched concrete zone.
For rectangular sections, I and Tsections condition (244) has the following form:
S
h x = red
(245)
Ared
where S red static moment of the area of transformed section calculated without
considering the area of stretched overhangs relating to the end stretched
fibre;
Ared area of the transformed section calculated without considering a half of the
area of stretched overhangs.
Condition (245) can be used if calculated according to it zero line crosses the rib of a Tor Isection.
Draft 83. Forces schemes and stresses diagrams in the cross section of the element during calculation of
crack formation, normal to the longitudinal axis of the element
by bending; by eccentric compression; by central and eccentric compression; 1 heart point; 2
center of gravity of the transformed section
(b
b )h f
bh
As
1 =
;
bh
1' =
(b
A'
1' = s
bh
'
f
b h 'f
bh
Es
Eb
By determined value Wred (see Item 4.2) value Wpl can be also determined by formula
Wpl = Wred,
(247)
where see table 29.
T a b l e 29
Section
Coefficient
1. Rectangular
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,50
1,75
1,50
1,50
1,25
1,10
and
1,75
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,50
1,25
1,50
1,25
20,4D1/D
2,00
1,75
N o t e s : 1. In Table 29 symbols bf and hf correspond to dimensions of a flange which is stretched by the crack
formation calculation, and bf and hf dimensions of a flange which is compressed for that case.
2. Wpl = Wred, where Wred resistance moment for the stretched surface of the transformed section determined
according to rules of resistance of elastic materials.
4.4. The parts along the elements where there are no inclined cracks are determined
according to the following condition
Q b3 Rbt.serbho,
(248)
Where b3 see Table 21.
CALCULATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS AS REGARDS THE
CRACK FORMATION
4.5. (4.13). Reinforced concrete elements are calculated as regards formation of cracks:
 Normal to the longitudinal axis of the element;
 Inclined to the longitudinal axis of the element.
Examination of the width of the crack opening is not required if according to the
calculation due to Items 4.1 4.4 they are not caused by dead loads, longterm loads
and shortterm loads inserted into the calculation with the safety factor f = 1.0.
For bending and eccentric compressed elements of statically undeterminable systems
by onerow reinforcement mentioned in Table 1, position 4, it is not necessary to check
the width of the opening of normal cracks in the following cases:
4.6. In the general case calculation of crack opening is made two times: shortterm and
longterm crack opening (see Item 1.15).
For elements mentioned in Table 1 position 4 and made of heavyweight and lightweight concrete it is possible to make only one calculation during examination of
opening of cracks normal to the longitudinal axis of the element:
M rl 2
If
so longterm crack formation is checked;
Mr 3
M rl 2
If
< so shortterm crack formation is checked,
Mr 3
here Mrl, Mr is moment Mr (see Item 4.2) caused by the sum of dead loads and longterm loads and by all loads.
a crc = l
s
Es
20(3.5 100a )3 d
(249)
where coefficient taken equal to:
1.0............. for bending and eccentric compressed elements
1.2............................................ for stretched elements;
1.00 ............. when considering shortterm loads and dead loads and longterm loads of
short duration;
when considering loads of long duration and dead loads and longterm loads for
structures made of:
heavyweight concrete:
natural humidity...................... l = 1.60 15
In water saturated state (elements taking liquids pressure, as well as elements used in
the ground below ground waters level) ...............................................1,20
By changing water saturation and drying ..... 1,75
Fine concrete of groups:
.................................................................................1,75
................................................................................. 2,00
................................................................................. 1,50
Lightweight concrete of class 12.5 and more ..................................... 1.50
Porous concrete ............................................................ 2.00
Values l for fine, lightweight and porous concrete in water saturated state are
multiplied by coefficient 0.8, and by changing water saturation and drying by
coefficient 1.2;
coefficient taken equal to: for reinforcement II and III 1.0; I 1.3; 1
1.2;
s stress in the rods of end row of reinforcement S, determined according to Item 4.9;
coefficient of the section reinforcement taken equal to the ratio between the
reinforcement section S to the concrete section area (by working height ho and without
considering compressed overhangs of flanges), but no more than 0.02, at the same time
for Isections, rectangular and Tsections
As
=
0.02
bh0 + (b f b )(h f a )
(250)
if hf < , so stretched overhangs are not considered during calculation;
if in eccentric stretched elements force N is located between centers of gravity of
reinforcement S and S, by determination of working height ho is taken from the
point of application of force N to the least stretched surface, at the same time for the
central stretching where As,tot is the area of all longitudinal reinforcement;
4.8 (4.14). Width of the crack opening rc, determined due to Item 4.7 is to be revised in
the following cases:
) if center of gravity of the section of the end row of reinforcement S of bending,
eccentric compressed, eccentric stretched by e 0,8ho elements is distant from the
most stretched fibre of concrete at a2 > 0,2h, value acrc must be increased by
multiplying it by coefficient a, which is:
20
a =
a2
1
h
3
(252)
Mr moment determined due to Item 4.2, caused by total load including dead
load, longterm and shortterm load;
Mcrc see Item 4.2;
, see Item 4.7.
By using coefficient b and by
M rl 2
<
it is not necessary to use recommendations of
Mr 3
Item 4.6;
c) for statically undeterminable systems as well as for free supported beams by l/h < 7,
near the points of application of point loads and support reactions by 0,02 the width
of the crack opening acrc determined by formula (249) can be decreased by means of
multiplying by the coefficient loc, considering local features of stressed state in
reinforced concrete structures and determined by the following formula
F (0.3h a )(3h0 2h )
loc = 1
,
M
2.8(2h0 h )
(257)
4.9 (4.15). Stresses in the stretched reinforcement s are determined by the following
formulas:
for eccentric stretched elements
N
s =
(258)
As
for bending elements
N
s =
;
(259)
As
in eccentric compressed and eccentric stretched elements
N (e z )
s =
(260)
As z
In formula (260) sign plus is taken by eccentric stretching, sign minus by
eccentric compression. By location of stretching longitudinal force N between centers
of gravity of reinforcement S and S value s is taken with the sign minus.
In formulas (259) and (260):
z distance from the center of gravity of the section area of reinforcement S to the
point of application of the resultant of forces in the compressed zone of the
section above the crack determined due to Item 4.16, at the same time for
eccentric stretched elements by < 0,8ho z is taken equal to zs distance between
centers of gravity of reinforcement S and S, coefficient v in formula (277) is
always taken equal to
vsh = 0.45 (as by short duration of the load); it is
possible to take z the same like by calculation of deformation caused by the same
A
loads if s < 0.01 .
bh0
In case when Mr < Mcrc (see Item 4.2), value s, is determined by formula
Mr
(261)
M crc
where s,crc stress in reinforcement by action of the load corresponding to the crack
formation determined by formulas (259) and (260) replacing by Mcrc and N by
M
N crc = N crc .
Mr
By determination of Ncrc moments Mcrc and Mr can be calculated by r = 0,8Wred /Ared.
s = s ,crc
By location of the stretched reinforcement in several rows along the section height in
bending, eccentric compressed and eccentric stretched elements by eo > 0,8ho stresses
s must be multiplied by the coefficient n, equal to:
h x a2
n =
(262)
h x a1
where = ho; value is determined by formula (274); for bending elements it is
possible to take value the same like by calculation of the strength
calculation;
1, a2 distance from the center of gravity of total reinforcement S and of the end row
of rods to the most stretched fibre of concrete.
Value of stress s caused by the total load determined considering coefficient n, must
be no more than Rs,ser. It is not necessary to check this condition for statically
undeterminable structures with reinforcement of one class by its location in one row.
0,05
0,10
0,20
0,30
0,50
0,70
T a b l e 30
es
h0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
4,0
0,01
0,04
0,18
0,31
0,44
0,59
0,74
0,81
0,04
0,17
0,30
0,44
0,59
0,74
0,82
0,03
0,16
0,30
0,44
0,59
0,75
0,83
0,03
0,15
0,29
0,44
0,59
0,75
0,83
0,03
0,15
0,29
0,44
0,59
0,75
0,84
0,04
0,15
0,29
0,44
0,60
0,77
0,85
0,04
0,15
0,29
0,45
0,61
0,77
0,85
0,03
0,10
0,25
0,37
0,50
0,64
0,79
0,86
0,07
0,22
0,35
0,48
0,63
0,78
0,85
0,05
0,21
0,33
0,47
0,62
0,77
0,85
0,05
0,19
0,32
0,46
0,61
0,77
0,85
0,05
0,17
0,31
0,46
0,61
0,77
0,85
0,04
0,16
0,30
0,45
0,61
0,77
0,85
0,04
0,16
0,30
0,45
0,61
0,77
0,85
0,05
0,15
0,29
0,40
0,53
0,67
0,82
0,89
0,11
0,26
0,38
0,51
0,65
0,80
0,86
0,09
0,24
0,36
0,50
0,64
0,79
0,87
0,06
0,21
0,34
0,48
0,63
0,78
0,86
0,05
0,19
0,33
0,47
0,62
0,78
0,86
0,04
0,18
0,31
0,46
0,62
0,77
0,86
0,04
0,17
0,31
0,46
0,61
0,77
0,86
0,07
0,18
0,31
0,43
0,56
0,70
0,84
0,91
0,14
0,28
0,40
0,53
0,67
0,82
0,90
0,11
0,26
0,38
0,52
0,66
0,81
0,88
0,07
0,23
0,35
0,49
0,64
0,79
0,87
0,06
0,21
0,34
0,48
0,63
0,78
0,86
0,04
0,19
0,32
0,47
0,62
0,78
0,86
0,04
0,18
0,32
0,46
0,62
0,78
0,86
0,10
0,22
0,34
0,46
0,58
0,72
0,86
0,94
0,18
0,31
0,43
0,56
0,70
0,84
0,92
0,14
0,28
0,40
0,54
0,68
0,83
0,90
0,10
0,25
0,37
0,51
0,65
0,81
0,88
0,07
0,23
0,35
0,49
0,64
0,79
0,87
0,04
0,20
0,33
0,48
0,63
0,79
0,87
0,04
0,19
0,32
0,47
0,62
0,78
0,86
0,15
0,26
0,38
0,49
0,62
0,75
0,89
0,97
0,22
0,34
0,46
0,59
0,72
0,87
0,94
0,16
0,31
0,43
0,56
0,70
0,85
0,92
0,13
0,27
0,40
0,53
0,67
0,82
0,90
0,10
0,25
0,37
0,51
0,66
0,81
0,89
0,06
0,22
0,35
0,49
0,64
0,79
0,87
0,04
0,20
0,34
0,48
0,63
0,79
0,87
0,20
0,31
0,42
0,55
0,65
0,78
0,92
1,00
0,26
0,38
0,49
0,61
0,75
0,89
0,97
0,22
0,34
0,46
0,59
0,73
0,87
0,94
0,16
0,30
0,42
0,55
0,69
0,84
0,91
0,12
0,27
0,39
0,53
0,67
0,82
0,90
0,08
0,23
0,36
0,50
0,65
0,80
0,88
0,06
0,21
0,34
0,49
0,64
0,79
0,87
0,25
0,34
0,45
0,55
0,67
0,81
0,95
1,02
0,29
0,40
0,51
0,64
0,77
0,91
0,99
0,25
0,37
0,48
0,61
0,75
0,89
0,96
0,19
0,32
0,44
0,57
0,71
0,85
0,93
0,15
0,29
0,41
0,54
0,68
0,83
0,91
0,10
0,24
0,37
0,51
0,66
0,81
0,89
0,07
0,22
0,35
0,49
0,64
0,80
0,88
0,30
0,37
0,47
0,57
0,69
0,82
0,96
1,03
0,32
0,42
0,53
0,66
0,79
0,93
1,00
0,28
0,39
0,50
0,63
0,76
0,90
0,98
0,21
0,34
0,45
0,58
0,72
0,87
0,94
0,17
0,30
0,42
0,55
0,70
0,84
0,92
0,12
0,26
0,38
0,52
0,67
0,82
0,89
0,08
0,23
0,36
0,50
0,65
0,80
0,88
0,40
0,41
0,50
0,60
0,72
0,85
0,99
1,06
0,36
0,46
0,56
0,68
0,82
0,95
1,03
0,31
0,42
0,53
0,65
0,79
0,93
1,00
0,25
0,37
0,48
0,61
0,75
0,89
0,96
0,20
0,33
0,45
0,58
0,72
0,86
0,94
0,15
0,28
0,40
0,54
0,68
0,83
0,91
0,11
0,25
0,38
0,52
0,66
0,81
0,89
0,50
0,45
0,52
0,62
0,74
0,87
1,01
1,08
0,38
0,48
0,58
0,70
0,83
0,97
1,04
0,34
0,44
0,55
0,67
0,80
0,94
1,02
0,28
0,39
0,50
0,63
0,76
0,90
0,98
0,23
0,35
0,46
0,59
0,73
0,88
0,95
0,17
0,30
0,42
0,55
0,69
0,84
0,92
0,13
0,27
0,39
0,53
0,67
0,82
0,90
(b
f =
'
f
b h 'f +
bh0
As'
0 .9 ;
es = y s +
M
;
N
As E s
bh0 Eb
Calculated by formulas (263) and (264) values s in case when reinforcement is located
in several rows along the section height are multiplied by the coefficient n.
4.10 (4.14). The width of crack opening caused by all loads is determined as a sum of the
width of crack opening caused by dead loads and longterm loads (by l > 1.0) and
expansion of the width of the opening caused by shortterm loads (by l = 1.0). So the
width of the opening is determined by the following formula
1
a crc = a crc ,l 1 + s 1
l
sl
(265)
where acr,l the width of crack opening caused by dead loads and longterm loads;
l > 1,0 see Item 4.7; if value acr,l is determined considering formula (253), so
coefficient l in formula (265) is replaced by the product l l1 (where l1
see Item 4.8);
sl, s are determined due to Item 4.9, caused by the sum of dad loads and longterm loads as well as by all loads.
Calculation of opening of cracks inclined to the longitudinal axis of the element
4.11(4.17). The width of the crack opening inclined to the longitudinal axis of the element
by reinforcement by means of stirrups which are normal to the longitudinal axis must
be determined by the following formula
06 cw d w
a crc = l
d
E s w + 0.15 E b (1 + 2 w )
h0
(266)
where l coefficient taken equal to:
considering shortterm loads and dead loads and long term loads of short duration........ 1,00
considering dead loads and long term loads of long duration for structures made of:
heavyweight concrete:
by natural humidity............................................................................................................ 1,50
in water saturated state...................................................................................................... 1,20
by changing water saturation and drying... 1,75
fine and lightweight concrete the same like in formula (249);
(267)
Qb1 the right part of condition (72) with the coefficient b4, multiplied by 0.8, at
the same time Rbt is replaced by Rbt,ser, taken no more than the value
corresponding to concrete class 30;
Q shear force at the end of inclined section with the projection length .
Value is taken no more than 2h. If by the calculation of the element as regard
distributed load the following condition is met
q1 0.2 b 4 Rbt , ser b
(268)
(where q1 see Item 3.32), so value can be taken equal to only 2h.
For elements made of lightweight concrete 7.5 and lower value acrc, determined by
formula (266), must be increased by 30 percent.
By determination of the width of inclined cracks caused by all loads it is necessary to
consider instructions of Item 4.10. At the same time in formula (265) coefficient l is
taken according to the present Item and the ratio sl/s is replaced by the ration between
the stresses swl/sw, which are calculated by formula (267) of the sum of dead loads
and longterm loads and all loads.
It is possible to decrease value rc by 1.5 times in comparison with the value
determined by formula (266), if the element is reinforced by means of longitudinal rods
with the same diameter like diameter of stirrups and with the distances along the
section height equal to the stirrups spacing s.
EXAMPLES OF CALCULATION
Example 53. Given: a reinforced concrete floor slab with the cross section dimensions (for
a half of the slab section) due to Draft 86: b = 85 mm, h = 400 mm, bf = 725 mm, hf= 50
mm; heavyweight concrete 25; main reinforcement AIII (Rs = 365 MPa; s = 2105
MPa), located in two rows (a1 = 58 mm; a2 = 33 mm); its section area s = 760 mm2
(222) ; total moment in the middle of the span tot = 69 kNm; all loads are dead loads
and longterm loads; due to the strength calculation = 92,3 kNm and = 30 mm.
It is required to calculate the opening of normal to the longitudinal axis of the element
cracks.
Draft 86. For the calculation example 53
h x a 2 400 30 33
=
= 1.08
h x a1 400 30 58
The stress in the lower reinforcement rod:
s = 2731.08 = 294 MPa.
The width of the crack opening we determine by formula (249). As = = 0.0262 > 0.02
so value
is taken equal to 0.02.
Due to
Item
4.7,
=
1.0; l = 1.6 15 = 1.6 15 0.02 = 1.3 ;
= 1.0; d = 22 mm.
294
a crc = l s 20(3.5 100 )3 d = 1.0 1.3 1.0
20(3.5 100 0.02)3 22 = 0.16 mm
Es
2 10 5
Which is less than the maximum allowable width of the crack opening acrc2 = 0,3 mm.
n =
Example 54. Given: reinforced concrete foundation slab with the cross section dimensions
h = 300 mm, b = 1150 mm; a = 42 mm; heavyweight concrete 15 (Rbt,ser = 1.15 MPa;
Eb = 2.05104 MPa); main reinforcement AIII (Rs = 365 MPa; s = 2105 MPa); its section
area s = 923 mm2 (6 14); moment in the design section caused by dead loads and longterm loads Ml = 63 kNm, by shortterm loads Msh = 4 kNm; limit moment of strength u
= 80,5 kNm; the foundation is located above the ground waters level.
It is required to calculate the opening of normal cracks.
C a l c u l a t i o n . ho = h  = 300  42 = 258 mm. Lets determine if its necessary to
calculate the width of the crack opening due to Item 4.5. For that we determine the crack
formation moment Mcrc.
As M r = M tot = M l + M sh = 63 + 4 = 67 kNm > M crc = 34.8 kNm so moment Mcrc is
determined for the concrete section using formula (246):
Mcrc = Rbt,serWpl = 0,292bh2Rbt,ser = 0.292115030021.15 = 34.75106 Mmm = 34,8 kNm.
As Mr = tot = Ml + sh = 63 + 4 = 67 > Mcrc = 34.8 kNm, so it is necessary to check
the crack opening.
As foundation is located below the ground waters level so maximum allowable crack
opening due to Table 1, position 4 is acrc2 = 0.3 mm, thats why by
M rl
Ml
63
2
=
=
= 0.94 >
according to Item 4.6, the calculation is made only as
Mr
M tot 67
3
regards longduration crack opening caused by moment Ml.
The width of the crack opening is to be determined by formula (249).
The stress in the reinforcement s is to be determined by the simplified formula (263):
M
63
s = Rs l = 365
= 286 MPa
Mu
80.5
Coefficients inserted into formula (249) are taken equal to: = 1.0; = 1.0; d = 14 mm, so
286
a crc = l s 20(3.5 100 )3 d = 1.0 1.55 1.0
20(3.5 100 0.0031)3 14 = 0.34 m
5
Es
2 10
m
Which is more than maximum allowable value acrc2 = 0.3 mm, so it is recommended to
correct value acrc due to Item 4.8. As < 0.008 so such correction is allowable. As
a2 = = 42 mm < 0.2h = 0.2 300 = 60 mm, so correction of value acrc, due to Item 4.8 is
not to be made.
Due to formula (256) we determine value after determination of:
E
2 10 5
= s =
= 9.76 ;
E b 2.05 10 4
15
=
= 15 0.0031 9.76 = 0.454 < 0.6 ;
Example 55. Given: a reinforced concrete column of the industrial building with the cross
section dimensions h = 500 mm, b = 400 mm; a = a = 50 mm; heavyweight concrete 15
(Rb,ser = 11 MPa; Rbt,ser = 1.15 MPa; Eb = 2.05104 MPa); main reinforcement AIII (s =
2105 MPa); its section area As = As = 1232 mm2 (2 28); longitudinal compression force
N = Nl = 500 kN; moment caused by total load Mtot = 240 kNm, including moment of dead
loads and longterm loads Ml = 150 kNm.
It is required to calculate the column as regards the crack opening.
C a l c u l a t i o n . h o = h  a = 500  50 = 450 mm. Lets determine if its necessary to
calculate the crack opening. For that end we check condition (233). As
A
1232
= s =
= 0.0069 so due to Item 4.2 the resistance moment Wpl is to be
bh0 400 450
calculated as for the concrete section. Using formula (246), we find:
Mcrc = 0,292bh2Rbt,ser = 0.29240050021.15 = 33.6106 Nmm.
Heart distance r we determine by formula (241). For that we determine b as for elastic
body (without considering reinforcement influence):
N M
500 10 3
240 10 6
b = + tot =
+
= 16.9 MPa
A
W
400 500 400 500 2 / 6
16.9
= 1 .6 b = 1 .6
= 0.06 < 0.7
Rb, ser
11
We take = 0,7;
W
h
500
r =
= = 0 .7
= 58.4mm = 0.058 .m
A
6
6
Due to formula (238) we determine moment Mr:
M r = N (e0 r ) = M tot Nr = 240 500 0.058 = 211 kNm > M crc = 33.6 kNm
that means condition (233) is not met. So examination of the crack opening is required.
Es
2 10 5
= 0.0069
= 0.067
Eb
2.05 10 4
As'
' 0.067
=
=
= 0.074
0.9bh0
0 .9
0 .9
e
500
Due to calculated values f = 0,074, = 0,067 and s =
= 1.11 we find in Table 30
h0 450
coefficient crc = 0,33.
f =
s = sl =
Nes
500 10 3 500
crc =
0.33 = 148.8MPa 149MPa
As h0
1232 450
In
a crc,l = l
s
Fs
1.0;
= 1.00;
149
20(3.5 100 0.0069)3 28 = 0.191 m
2 10 5
m
The stress in reinforcement s caused by all loads is to be also determined by formula
(264).
M
h
500
240 10 6
es = a + tot =
50 +
= 680 mm
2
N
2
500 10 3
es 680
=
= 1.51
h0 450
e
By f = 0,074, = 0,067 and s = 1.51 coefficient crc due to Table 30 is 0,522.
h0
s =
Ne s
500 10 3 680
crc =
0.522 = 320 MPa
As h0
1232 450
1 .0
320
1 .0
a crc = a crc ,l 1.0 + s 1.0 = 0.1911.0 +
1.0 = 0.34 mm
149
1 .5
sl
l
which is less than maximum allowable value acrcl = 0.4 mm (see Table 1, position 4).
Example 56. Given: free supported bam of the floor with the span l = 5.5 m, loaded by the
distributed loads: temporary longduration equivalent load v = 30 kN/m and dead load
g = 12.5 kN/m; dimensions of the cross section b = 200 mm, h = 400 mm, h = 370 mm;
heavyweight concrete 15 (Rbt,ser = 1.15 MPa; Eb = 2,05104 MPa); twolegs stirrups
made of reinforcement I (s = 2.1105 MPa) with the spacing s = 150 mm, diameter 8
mm (sw = =101 mm2).
It is required to make the calculation of inclined cracks.
C a l c u l a t i o n . Lets check if the calculation of cracks is necessary according to condition
(248).
Maximum shear force in the cross section is:
ql (v + g )l (30 + 12.5)5.5
Qmax =
=
=
= 117 kN
2
2
2
Due to Table 21, b3 = 0.6.
b3Rbt,serbho = 0.61.15200370 = 51060 N < Qmax = 117 kN,
that means inclined cracks are formed and the calculation is required.
The calculation is made due to Item 4.11. Lets determine values Q and Qb1.
q1 = g + v/2 = 12.5 + 30/2 = 27.5 kN/n;
b4 = 1.5 (see Table 21).
As 0.2b4Rbt,serb = 0.21.51.15200 = 56.9 N/mm > q1 = 27.5 N/mm, during determination
of Qb1 and Q value is taken equal to = 2h = 2370 = 740 mm.
So
0.8b4 Rbt , ser bh02 0.5 1.5 1.15 200 370 2
Qb1 =
=
51060 N;
c
740
Q = Qmax q1 = 117 27.5 0.740 = 96.65 kN.
Lets determine the stress in the stirrups by formula (267):
Q Qb1
96650 51060
sw =
s=
150 = 183MPa < Rs ,ser = 235 MPa
Asw h0
101 370
Due to Items 4.7 and 4.11, l = 1.5; = 1.3; dw = 8 mm.
A
101
w = sw =
= 0.00337 ;
bs
200 150
a crc
Es
2.1 10 5
=
=
= 10.24
Eb 2.05 10 4
Lets determine the width of inclined cracks opening by formula (266):
0.6 sw d w
0.6 183 8 1.3
= l
= 1 .5
= 0.219
dw
5 8
4
2.1 10
+ 0.15 2.05 10 (1 + 2 10.24 0.00337 )
Es
+ 0.15 E b (1 + 2 v )
370
h0
mm
which is less than maximum allowable value rc = 0.3 mm (see Table 1).
CALCULATION OF ELEMENTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES AS
REGARDS THE DEFORMATIONS
M sh
1
;
=
r 1 b1 Eb I red
(270)
M l b2
1
;
=
r 1 b1 Eb I red
b1 coefficient considering the influence of shortduration creep of concrete and taken equal
to:
for
heavyweight,
lightweight
and
fine
aggregate................................................... 0,85
for
lightweight
and
porous
aggregate..........................................................0,70
concrete
concrete
with
dense
with
fine
fine
T a b l e 31 (34, 35)
Kind of concrete
b2
Heavyweight, lightweight
Porous
Fine
groups:
b2
2,0
2,0
vl
0,15
0,07
b2
3,0
3,0
vl
0,10
0,04
1,6
1,6
vl
0,19
0,09
2,6
3,0
2,0
0,10
0,08
0,15
3,9
4,5
3,0
0,07
0,05
0,10
2,1
2,4
1,6
0,125
0,10
0,19
N o t e s : 1. Air humidity of the surrounding area is taken due to instructions of Item 1.8.
2. Groups of fine concrete see in Item 2.1.
3. By changing water saturation and drying of concrete values b2, must be multiplied, and values vl divided
into the coefficient 1.2.
b
N s
1 Ms s
=
+
(271)
m
r h0 z E s As ( b + )bh0 Eb v h0 E s As
For bending elements the last summand of the right part of formula (271) is taken
equal to zero. Sign minus in this formula is taken by eccentric compression, sign
plus by eccentric stretching.
In formula (271):
s moment relating to the axis which is normal to the plane of action of the moment
and going through the center of gravity of the reinforcement section area S, of
all external forces located on one side of the considered section equal to:
 For bending elements s = ;
 For eccentric compressed and eccentric stretched elements s = Nes;
z distance from the center of gravity of reinforcement section area S to the point of
application of the resultant of forces in the compressed zone of the section
above the crack (lever arm), determined due to instructions of Item 4.16;
s coefficient considering the work of stretched concrete on the part with cracks
and determined due to instructions of Item 4.17;
b coefficient considering unevenness of deformations spread of end compressed
fibre of concrete on the length of the part with cracks and taken equal to:
for heavyweight, fine and lightweight concrete of class
10 and more ...........................................................................0.9
For lightweight and porous concrete of class 7.5 and less... 0.7
concrete
concrete
(272)
(273)
1
curvature determined by formula (271) by the moment s, which is equal:
r 0
for bending moments s = o;
for eccentric compressed moments Ms = o + Nsr;
sr = yo + r distance from the center of gravity of stretched reinforcement to the axis
going through the most distant heart point (see Item 4.2);
r moment determined due to Item 4.2 caused by total load including dead load,
longterm and shortterm load;
o moment by which stretched concrete above the cracks is excluded out of the
work and which is determined by formula (256), where is halved by
consideration of long duration of dead loads and longterm loads;
Mcrc,r see Item 4.2;
M, Mtot moment of external forces relating to the axis going through the center of gravity
of the section caused by the load under review and by total load;
b1, b2 see Item 4.14; by short duration action of the load b2 = 1.0.
4.16.(4.28). Value is determined by formula
1 .5 + f
1
=
1 + 5( + )
e
+
11.5 s m 5
10
h0
but taken no more than 1.0, at the same time es/ho is taken no less than 0.5.
(274)
For bending elements the last summand of the right part of formula (274) is taken
equal to zero.
In formula (274) top signs are taken by compression force and lower signs by
compression force N.
In formula (274):
coefficient taken equal to:
(275)
h 'f
;
= f 1
(276)
2h0
As'
'
'
hf bf b +
2v ;
(277)
f =
bh0
A E
= s s .
(278)
bh0 Eb
Value z is determined by formula
h 'f
f + 2
(279)
z = h0 1 0
2( f + )
For element of rectangular section and Tsection with the flange in the stretched zone
it is necessary to put values 2a' or hf = 0 instead of hf in formulas (276) and (279) if
there is or there is no reinforcement S.
hf
h0
is
s = 1.25 ls m
1 m2
(3.5 1.8 m )
es
h0
(280)
but no more than 1.0, at the same time it is necessary to take es/ho 1,2/ls.
For bending elements the last part of the right part of formula (280) is taken equal to
zero.
In formula (280):
ls coefficient considering influence of duration of the load action and taken in
compliance with Table 32;
Rbt , serW pl
m =
(281)
Mr
T a b l e 32(36)
Duration of the load action
Coefficient ls by concrete class
10 and more
7.5 and less
1.
Short
duration
by
reinforcement classes:
II, III
1,1
0,8
I, I
1,0
0,7
2. Long duration
0,8
0,6
But no more than 1.0;
Here Wpl see Item 4.3;
Mr see Item 4.2.
4.18. Curvature of eccentric stretched elements with longitudinal force N, applied between
centers of gravity of areas of reinforcement S and S, on the parts with normal cracks
in the stretched zone is determined by the following formula:
N s
Ne
'
1
=
2 s s + s
(282)
r z s E s As
z s E s As E s As
where zs = ho a distance between centers of gravity of reinforcement areas S and
S ;
s, s coefficients which consider the work of stretched concrete for
reinforcement S and S and determined by formulas:
N
s = 1 ls crc
(283)
N
N'
s' = 1 ls crc
(284)
N
here ls coefficient taken equal to:
by short duration of the load action........................................... 0,70
by long duration of the load action............................................ 0,35
Ncrc, Ncrc forces applied in the same point that force N and corresponding to crack
formation in the most and the least stretched zone of concrete values Ncrc and Ncrc are
determined by the following formulas:
N crc =
Rbt , serW pl
e0 + r
.
(285)
'
N crc
=
r ' e 0
and taken no more than N; besides by r' < value Ncrc is taken equal to N.
In formulas (285):
Wpl, Wpl values Wpl, determined due to Item 4.3 correspondingly for the most and
the least stretched side of the section;
r, r distances from the center of gravity of the section to the heart points which
are most distant from the most and the least stretched side of the section;
values r and r are determined by formula (242).
4.19. Curvature of eccentric stretched elements with longitudinal force N, applied beyond
the centers of gravity of reinforcement areas S and S, and by e < 0,8h is determined
1
by means of linear interpolation between curvature determined by formula (282)
r I
by s = 0 (that means by e = yso, where yso is the distance from the center of gravity
1
of reinforcement area S to the center of gravity of the section), and curvature
r II
determined by formula (271) s =0,8ho  yso (that means by = 0,8h). Than
curvature value is:
es
1 1 1
1
= +
r r I r II r I 0.8h0 y s 0
(286)
4.20. For elements of rectangular section with symmetric reinforcement under skew
eccentric pressure curvatures are determined by the following formula
1 1
= /
(287)
r r 0
1
where curvature calculated as for the flat eccentric compression due to Item
r 0
4.15 4.17 on the assumption of the force action N with the
eccentricity o in he plane of he symmetry axis , at the same time its
accepted that force plane is located between axis and the section
diagonal;
coefficient considering the influence of the angle of slope of the force
plane on the deformation value of skew compressed elements and
determined by the following formula
3
2 1 + 4.2 y h y
(1 cos ) ;
= 1 1
(288)
2
1 + 4.2 x hx
Asy
A
x = sx ; y =
A
A
here Asx , Asy areas of reinforcement located at the surface of the section normal to
axes and , at the same time angle rod is considered as by calculation
of , and ;
h, hy dimensions of the section in the direction of axes and ;
(291)
1
is determined by formula (287).
r
1
for the part with cracks in the stretched zone must be
r
determined by the following formula
1 1 1 1
= +
(292)
r r 1 r 2 r 3
1
where curvature caused by all loads of short duration, due to which the
r 1
calculation of deformations is made according to the instructions of Item
1.17;
1
curvature caused by dead loads and longtem loads of short duration;
r 2
1
curvature caused by dead loads and longterm loads of longduration.
r 3
1 1
1
Curvatures , and are determined by formulas (271), (272), (282),
r 1 r 2
r 3
1
1
are calculated by s and v
(286) and (287), at the same time and
r 1
r 2
1
corresponding to the action of the load of short duration, and by s and v
r 3
1
1
corresponding to long duration of the load action. If values and are
r 2
r 3
negative so they are taken equal to zero.
Determination of deflections
4.22 (4.31). Deflection fm caused by the deflection deformation is determined by the
following formula
l
1
f m = M x dx
(293)
r
x
0
where M x bending moment in the section caused by the unitforce applied in the
direction of required displacement of the element in the section along the
span length for which the deflection is determined;
1
total value of he element curvature in the section caused by the load by
r x
which the deflection is calculated.
By determination of the deflection in the middle of the span formula (293) can get the
following view:
n / 2 1
l 2 1
1
1
1
1
fm =
+
+
6
i
+
+
(
3
n
2
)
(294)
r
r
r
12n 2 r (l )0 r (r )0
i =1
(l )i
( r )i
m
1
1
where , curvatures of the element in the left and the right support;
r (l )0 r (r )0
1 1
1
, , curvatures of the element in the section i, in the
r (l )i r (r )i r m
symmetrical section i' (draft 87) and in the middle of the
span;
even number of equal parts on which the span of the element is divided;
number is to be taken no less than 6.
Draft 87. Diagram of the curvature in the reinforced concrete element with variable section along the
perimeter
1
are determined by formulas (269) and
r
1
(292) correspondingly for the parts without cracks and with cracks; sign is taken in
r
compliance with the curvatures diagram.
Draft 88. Diagrams of bending moments and curvature in the reinforced concrete element of constant
section
load distribution scheme; bending moments diagram; curvature diagram
l
< 10 it is necessary to consider the influence
h
of shear forces on their deflection. In that case total deflection ftot is equal to the sum
of deflections caused by deformations of deflection fm and deformation of
displacement fq.
f q = Q x x dx
(295)
where Q x shear force in the section caused by the directed to the required
displacement unit force applied in the section where deflection is
determined;
x shear deformation determined by the following formula
1.5Q x b 2
x =
crc
(296)
Gbh
here
Qx shear force in the section caused by external load;
b2 coefficient considering influence of longduration creep of concrete
and taken according to Table 31; by shortduration action of the load
b2 = 1.0;
G concrete displacement module (see Item 2.12);
crc coefficient considering influence of cracks on displacement
deformations taken equal to:
 On the parts along the length of the element where there are no
normal and inclined to the longitudinal axis of the element
cracks.................... 1,0;
 On the parts where there are only inclined to the longitudinal axis
of the element cracks....................... 4,8;
 On the parts where there are only normal or normal and inclined to
the longitudinal axis of the element cracks due to formula
3E I 1
crc = b red
(297)
M x r x
1
here Mx correspondingly moment and curvature in the section caused by the
r x
load by which deflection is determined by its short duration.
4.24.(4.34). For solid slabs no less than 250 mm thick reinforced by flat meshes with cracks
in the stretched zone values of deflections calculated by formula (293), are multiplied
3
h
by the coefficient 0 taken no more than 1.5 where h in mm.
h0 7
y0
(298)
2vEb Ared 2vEb I red
b) for eccentric stretched elements or its parts if there are no cracks by formula
N b 2
Ne0 b 2
y0
(299)
0 =
b1 Eb Ared b1 Eb I red
In formulas (298) and (299) sign plus corresponds to deformations of shortening,
sign minus to deformations of elongation;
c) for eccentric stretched elements or their parts if there are cracks (that means for
elements mentioned in Item 4.18) by formula
' y + sm ( z s y s )
0 = sm s
(300)
zs
where sm, sm average values of elongation of reinforcement S and S', determined
by formulas:
N (z s es )
sm =
s
E s As z s
(301)
Ne s
'
sm
=
s'
E s As' z s
here zs, s, s see Item 4.18.
2. Relative deformations of bending, eccentric compressed and eccentric stretched
elements with doublevalued diagram of stresses in the section:
) for elements or their parts without cracks in the stretched zone by formula
M b 2
N
y0 .
(302)
0 =
2vEb Ared b1 Eb I red
Rule of signs is the same like for formulas (298) and (299);
b) for parts of elements mentioned in Item 4.15 which have cracks in the stretched
zone by formula
y sm (h0 y s )
(303)
0 = bm s
h0
where sm, bm average values of relative elongation of reinforcement and relative
shortening of end compressed fibre of concrete on the part between cracks determined
by the following formulas:
m N
E s As z
bM s
=
z ( f + )bh0 Eb v
sm =
sm
s Ms
(304)
(305)
where Ms, s, z, f, see Items 4.15 4.17; rules of signed see in Item 4.15;
c) for the parts of eccentric stretched elements mentioned in Item 4.19 by means of
linear interpolation between value determine by formula (300) by s = 0 (that
means by o = yso) and value o determined by formula (303) by s = 0,8ho (that means
by
o = 0,8 ho + yso) where yso see Item 4.19.
In formulas (298) (305):
ys distance from the fibre under review to the center of gravity of reinforcement
S;
the same to the center of gravity of the section;
b1, b2 see Item 4.14; by shortduration action of the load b2 = 1.0;
v see Item 4.15.
Deformations , determined by formulas (298) (303) with sign plus correspond
to shortening, with sign minus to elongation.
By dead loads, longterm and shortterm loads acting at the same time value is to
be determined similar to determination of total curvature due to Item 4.21.
l = oi li
(306)
i =1
By
Values lim given in Table 33 correspond to long duration of distributed load on the
l
free supported beam by limit deflection equal to
.
200
T a b l e 33
Coefficients
Values lim for determination of cases, when it is not
necessary to check the deflection of elements of heavyf, ft
Sections
weight concrete, by values , equal to
0,02 0,04 0,07 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50
17
14
12
10
9
10
11
11
f = ft = 0 25
17
12
10
9
8
8
10
11
11
f = 0,2;
ft = 0
31
22
22
16
18
13
16
11
12
9
10
8
10
10
11
11
11
11
f = 0,4;
ft = 0
42
25
25
17
23
15
18
12
14
10
11
8
10
9
10
9
11
11
f = 0,6;
ft = 0
f = 0,8;
ft = 0
f = 1,0;
ft = 0
ft = 0,2;
f = 0
45
30
48
32
50
35
28
18
28
30
30
21
33
22
17
12
24
17
25
18
26
19
14
10
19
14
20
15
23
17
12
9
16
12
18
13
20
14
10
8
13
9
15
10
17
12
9
8
11
9
12
9
14
9
10
10
10
10
10
9
11
9
11
11
11
11
10
10
10
10
11
11
ft = 0,6;
f = 0
ft = 1,0;
f = 0
32
20
36
22
20
13
23
14
15
10
16
10
13
9
13
9
10
8
10
8
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
f = ft = 0,2
34
23
25
17
19
14
16
11
12
9
10
8
10
10
11
11
11
11
f = ft = 0,6
48
33
55
42
34
25
44
36
26
18
36
21
21
14
26
17
16
12
20
14
15
9
17
12
11
8
14
9
10
10
11
9
11
11
10
9
f = ft = 1,0
As = As
N o t e . Values lim, given above the line are used by the calculation of the elements reinforced by steel of II,
under the line of class AIII.
l
, so values lim
200
f
1
f
1
of Table 33 must be decreased by
=
by 1,5
: times (for example if
l 300
200 l
f
1
times, if
=
by 2 times).
l 400
For solid slabs less than 250 mm thick reinforced by flat meshes values lim are
decreased by means of dividing into the coefficient mentioned in Item 4.24.
If maximum allowable deflections f (see Item 1.17) are less than
5
: p m where m is coefficient taken due to table 35 according to the loading scheme;
48
) if deflection is determined according to the combined work of shortterm loads, longterm loads and
dead loads by means of multiplying lim of Table 33 by coefficient , determined by the following
formula
=
1+
Ml
( 1)
M tot
where ration between the deformation caused by long action of the load and deformation caused by
short duration of the same load taken equal to: = 1,8 for elements of rectangular section;
= 1,5 for elements of Tsection with a flange in the compressed zone; = 2,2 for elements of Tsection with a flange in the stretched zone.
DETERMINATION OF CURVATURE
4.28. For bending elements made of heavyweight concrete of constant section mentioned
in Item 4.15 and used by environment air humidity higher than 40 percent
1
curvature on the parts with cracks is determined by the following formula
r
2
1 M 2 bh Rbt , ser
=
(309)
r
1 E s As h02
where 1, 2 see Table 34.
By dead loads, longterm loads and shortterm loads acting at the same time curvature
1
is determined by the following formula
r
2
1
1 M sh M l 2l bh Rbt , ser
(310)
=
+
r E s As h02 1sh
1l
1
1
f = m crc l 2
(312)
r m
r m r m,el
T a b l e 34
Coefficients
ft
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,43
0,49
0,52
0,54
0,56
0,57
0,47
0,51

0,39
0,46
0,49
0,51
0,53
0,54
0,40
0,42
0,43
0,45
0,53

0,36
0,44
0,47
0,49
0,51
0,52
0,36
0,36
0,37
0,38
0,40
0,43
0,49
0,53

0,34
0,42
0,46
0,48
0,49
0,51
0,33
0,33
0,33
0,33
0;33
0,40
0,47
0,50
0,53
0,61
0,32
0,41
0,45
0,47
0,48
0,50
0,31
0,31
0,31
0,30
0,30
0,38
0,45
0,48
0,50
0,53
0,30
0,39
0,44
0,46
0,47
0,49
0,30
0,30
0,30
0,29
0,29
0,37
0,43
0,46
0,48
0,50
0,28
0,37
0,42
0,44
0,46
0,48
0,28
0,28
0,27
0,27
0,27
0,36
0,42
0,44
0,46
0,48
0,26
0,35
0,40
0,43
0,45
0,47
0,26
0,26
0,25
0,24
0,24
0,34
0,39
0,41
0,44
0,45
0,23
0,31
0,38
0,42
0,44
0,46
0,23
0,22
0,22
0,22
0,22
0,30
0,37
0,39
0,41
0,43
0,22
0,29
0,35
0,39
0,42
0,44
0,22
0,21
0,21
0,21
0,20
0,28
0,35
0,38
0,39
0,40
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
0,64
0,72
0,76
0,79
0,82
0,84
0,74
0,79

0,59
0,66
0,69
0,71
0,73
0,74
0,60
0,63
0,81
0,67
0,77

0,56
0,63
0,66
0,69
0,70
0,71
0,56
0,57
0,59
0,63
0,84
0,63
0,69
0,76

0,53
0,61
0,65
0,67
0,68
0,69
0,53
0,54
0,54
0,55
0,57
0,61
0,66
0,70
0,76
0,92
0,51
0,59
0,63
0,65
0,67
0,68
0,51
0,51
0,51
0,51
0,52
0,59
0,64
0,67
0,71
0,76
0,50
0,58
0,62
0,64
0,66
0,67
0,49
0,49
0,49
0,49
0,49
0,58
0,62
0,65
0,68
0,71
0,49
0,57
0,61
0,63
0,65
0,66
0,47
0,47
0,47
0,47
0,47
0,56
0,61
0,64
0,66
0,69
0,46
0,56
0,60
0,63
0,65
0,66
0,44
0,44
0,44
0,44
0,44
0,55
0,58
0,61
0,64
0,66
0,43
0,53
0,59
0,62
0,64
0,66
0,42
0,42
0,42
0,42
0,42
0,52
0,56
0,58
0,61
0,63
0,41
0,51
0,57
0,61
0,63
0,65
0,40
0,40
0,40
0,40
0,40
0,50
0,55
0,57
0,59
0,61
0,12
0,16
0,20
0,23
0,27
0,30
0,11
0,11
0,11
0,11
0,11
0,16
0,20
0,23
0,26
0,29
0,11
0,14
0,18
0,22
0,25
0,28
0,11
0,10
0,10
0,10
0,10
0,14
0,18
0,21
0,25
0,27
0,10
0,13
0,17
0,20
0,23
0,26
0,10
0,10
0,10
0,10
0,10
0,13
0,17
0,20
0,23
0,26
0,10
0,12
0,13
0,13
0,14
0,15
0,15
0,18
0,20
0,23
0,25
0,16
0,20
0,24

0,07
0,09
0,10
0,11
0,12
0,13
0,12
0,16
0,19
0,22
0,24
0,13
0,19
0,22
0,25
0,26
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,08
0,09
0,10
0,08
0,13
0,17
0,20
0,23
0,08
0,14
0,20
0,24
0,25
0,00
0,00
0,02
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,03
0,06
0,09
0,12
0,14
0,04
0,07
0,12
0,19
0,20
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,02
0,03
0,05
0,06
0,00
0,03
0,04
0,08
0,12
0,28
0,35
0,41
0,46
0,50
0,54
0,28
0,28
0,28
0,28
0,28
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,49
0,52
0,26
0,33
0,39
0,44
0,48
0,52
0,26
0,26
0,26
0,26
0,27
0,33
0,38
0,43
0,47
0,50
0,25
0,31
0,37
0,42
0,46
0,50
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,31
0,37
0,41
0,45
0,48
0,17
0,21
0,23
0,25
0,26
0,27
0,28
0,35
0,36
0,45
0,50
0,27
0,39
0,50

0,14
0,18
0,20
0,21
0,23
0,24
0,23
0,31
0,39
0,40
0,46
0,24
0,37
0,46
0,60
0,72
0,09
0,11
0,14
0,16
0,17
0,18,
0,16
0,25
0,32
0,38
0,44
0,17
0,30
0,44
0,57
0,70
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,07
0,14
0,20
0,25
0,29
0,08
0,16
0,28
0,41
0,55
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,03
0,08
0,12
0,15
0,00
0,04
0,11
0,21
0,31
where crc coefficient taken due to Table 36 according to the ratio Mcrc/Mtot (Mcrc
see Items 4.2 and 4.3) ;
1
curvature in the section with maximum moment determined as for a
r m ,el
solid body by formula (270) caused by the load by which the deflection
is determined; it is possible to determine value Ired in formula (270) as
for a concrete element.
For other loading schemes value f can be determined by formula (314);
For bending elements with builtin supports deflection in the middle of the span is
determined by the following formula
1
1
1 1
f = m 0.5 + m l 2
(313)
r m
r (l )0 r (r )0 8
1 1 1
where curvature of the element in the middle of the span, on the
r m r (l )0 r (r )0
right and on the left support;
m coefficient determined due to Table 35 as for a free supported beam;
d) for elements of variable section, as well as in cases when more exact determination
of deflections is required than by formulas (311) and (313), and the elements and the
loads are symmetric relating to the middle of the span deflection is determined by the
following formula
l 2 1
1
1
1
f =
(314)
+ 6 + 12 + 8
216 r 0
r 1
r 2
r m
1
where
r 0
1 1
r 1 r 2
1
1
curvatures on the support, at the distance l from the
6
r m
1
support, at the distance l from the support and in the middle of the
3
span; values of curvatures are calculated with their signs due to the
curvatures diagram.
T a b l e 35
Loading scheme of the
console beam
Note.
By
value m
loading
Coefficient m
of
Coefficient m
1
4
5
48
1
3
1
12
a
a
3
6l
l
1 a2
8 6l 2
the
m1 M 1 + m 2 M 2 + ...
M 1 + M 2 + ...
element
due
to
several
schemes
at
the
same
time
(where pm1 and M1, pm2 and M2, etc are coefficient pm and maximum
bending moment for each loading scheme). In that case in formulas (311) (313) value
1
is determined
r m
by value , equal to the sum of maximum bending moments determined for each loading scheme.
T a b l e 36
Mcrc/Mtot 1,00 0,99 0,98 0,96 0,94 0,92 0,90 0,85 0,80
Pcrc 0,104 0,088 0,082 0,073 0,067 0,062 0,058 0,049 0,042
Mcrc/Mtot 0,75 0,70 0,60 0,50 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00
Pcrc 0,036 0,032 0,024 0,018 0,013 0,008 0,005 0,002 0,000
1 1 M crc / M tot
(1 + 3crc )
crc = crc
where crc =
12
2
4.30. For short elements (l/h < 10) of constant section which work as free supported beams
deflection is determined due to Item 4.29 and is multiplied by coefficient q,
considering influence of the shear deformation. Coefficient q is determined by the
following formula
q
q = 1 +
m
h
(315)
l
where q = 0.5 if there are no as normal as inclined cracks, that means if conditions
(233) and (248) are met;
q = 1.5 if there are normal or inclined cracks;
m see Table 35.
Examples of calculation
Example 57. Given: reinforced concrete roof slab of a civil building of rectangular section
with dimensions h = 120 mm, b = 1000 mm, ho = 105 mm; the span l = 3.1 m, heavyweight concrete 25 (Eb =2.7104 MPa; Rbt.ser = 1.6 MPa); stretched reinforcement II
(s = 2.1105 MPa), area of its cross section s = 393 mm2 (5 10); total distributed load
qtot = 7 kN/m, including its part of dead loads and longterm loads ql = 6 kN/m; deflection
is restricted by esthetic requirements.
It is required to calculate the slab as regards deformations.
C a l c u l a t i o n . Lets find out if its necessary to calculate the slab as regards
deformations due to Item 4.27:
A
393
= s =
= 0.00375
bh0 1000 105
Es
2.1 10 5
= 0.00375
= 0.0292
Eb
2.7 10 4
qtot l 2 7 3.12
M tot =
=
= 8.4 kNm;
8
8
q l 2 6 3.12
Ml = l =
= 7.2 kNm
8
8
From Table 33 due to = 0.029 and f = ft = 0 we find lim = 21. As h < 250 mm, so lim
3
h
105
is corrected by means of dividing into the coefficient 0 =
= 1.23 < 1.5 .
105 7
h0 7
21
= 17.1
Then lim =
1.23
Considering the note to Item 4.27 (case a), we have
M
8.4
lim = 17.1 tot = 17.1
= 20
Ml
7.2
l
3100
= 29.6 > lim = 20 so the calculation as regards deformations is required.
As 0 =
h
105
Lets determine the curvature in the middle of the span caused by the moment l (as
deflection is restricted by esthetic requirements).
Lets take without calculation that the element has cracks in the stretched zone, so
curvature is to be determined by formula (309).
From Table 34 due to = 0.028 and f = ft = 0 we find values 1 = 0.393 and 2 = 0.10,
corresponding to long duration of the load.
M l 2 bh 2 Rbt , ser 7.2 10 6 0.1 1000 120 2 1.6
l
=
= 1.35 10 5 1/mm
=
2
5
2
r
E
A
h
0
.
393
2
.
1
10
393
105
m
1 s s 0
5
Deflection is to be determined due to Item 4.29taking due to Table 35: m =
48
5
1
f = m l 2 = 1.35 10 5
3100 2 = 13.5 mm
48
r m
As h < 250 mm so total deflection is f = 13.5 1.23 = 16.6 mm, which is more than
maximum allowable deflection (see Table 2).
As = 0.00375 < 0.005 so due to Item 4.296 we define value f more exact by formula
1
(312). For that we determine values
and Mcrc.
r m ,el
As we calculate underreinforced element ( < 0.01), so Ired and crc are determined as for
a concrete section (see Items 4.2 and 4.3):
bh 3 1000 120 3
=
= 144 10 6 mm4;
12
12
2
= 0.292bh Rbt , ser = 0.292 1000 120 2 1.6 = 6.73 10 6 Nmm
I red =
M crc
M crc 6.73
=
= 0.801 ; crc = 0.042
M tot 8.40
1
5
1
r m
r m r m,el
mm
Considering correction for a little height of the section (h < 250 mm) f = 9.841.23 = 12.1
mm, which is less than maximum allowable deflection f = 15.5 mm.
As l/h > 10, so we dont take influence of the shear deformation into account.
Example 58: Given: roof collar beam of a public building of rectangular section with
dimensions b = 200 mm, h = 600 mm; a = 80 mm; collarbeam span l = 4.8 m; heavyweight concrete 25 (b = 2.7 104 MPa; Rbt,ser = 1.6 MPa); Forking reinforcement III
(Es = 2 105 MPa), area of its cross section s = 2463 mm (4 28); total distributed load
qtot = 85.5 kN/m, including its load from dead loads and longterm load ql = 64 kN/m;
deflection is restricted by esthetic requirements; air humidity in the room is higher than 40
percent.
It is required to calculate the collar beam as regards deformations.
C a l c u l a t i o n . Lets find out if its necessary to make the calculation as regards
deformations due to Item 4.27.
ho = 600 80 = 520 ;
A
2463
= s =
= 0.0238 ;
bh0 200 520
Es
2 10 5
= 0.0238
= 0.176 ;
Eb
2.7 10 4
As = 0,238 > 0,005, due to Item 4.1 curvature is determined considering the cracks in the
stretched zone. As deflection is restricted by esthetic requirements so the calculation is
1
made as regards the moment l. Curvature in the middle of the span is determined by
r m
formula (309).
Due to Table 34 by = 0,176 and f = ft = 0 we find 1 = 0,206 and 2 = 0.
M l 2 bh 2 Rbt , ser
184 10 6 0
1
=
= 0.671 10 5 1/mm
=
2
5
2
r
E
A
h
0
.
206
10
2463
520
m
1 s s 0
Total deflection is to be determined due to Items 4.29 and 4.30 considering influence of
5
the shear deformation. Due to Table 35, m =
48
2
q h 2
1.5 5 0.6
q = 1 +
= 1+
= 1.225 ;
m l
48 4.8
l
5
4800
1
f = m l 2 q = 0.671 10 5
4800 2 1.225 = 19.7 mm <
=
= 24 mm
48
200 200
r m
that means deflection of the collar beam is les than the maximum allowable value (see
Table 2).
Example 59. Given: reinforced concrete slab of the roof with the span 5.7 m; dimensions
of the cross section (for a half of the slab section) due to draft 89; lightweight concrete
25 (Rb,ser = 18.5 MPa; Rbt,ser = 1.6 MPa), average density D1600 (Eb =16.5103 MPa);
main reinforcement II (Es = 2.1105 MPa), its section area As = 380 mm2 (122);
distributed dead load and longterm load on the slab is ql = 8.75 kN/m; deflection of the
slab is restricted by esthetic requirements; the room covered with the slab has normal air
humidity (40 75 percent).
It is necessary to calculate the slab as regards the deformations.
Draft 89. To the calculation example 59
C a l c u l a t i o n . Moment in the middle of the slab caused by dead loads and longterm
loads for a half of the section is:
q l 2 8.750 5.7 2
M = l =
= 17.8 kNm
8
28
From Draft 89 we have: ho = 300 31 = 269 mm; b = (95 + 65)/2 = 80 mm; b'f = 730 mm;
hf = 30 mm.
As approximate methods of calculation as regards deformations do not belong to structures
of lightweight concrete so curvature is to be calculated by formulas of Items 4.15 4.17 as
A
380
for elements with cracks in the stretched zone ( = s =
= 0.0176 > 0.005 that
bh0 80 269
means due to Item 4.1 in the stretched zone there are cracks).
Lets determine curvature of the slab in the middle of the span by formula (271). Moment
Ms by action of dead loads and longterm loads is Ms = = 17.8 kNm.
Relative height of the stretched zone of concrete is to be calculated by formula (274). For
that we determine the following values:
M
17.8 10 6
= 2 s =
= 0.166 ;
bh0 Rb , ser 80 269 2 18.5
f =
h 'f
= 0.9051 30 = 0.855
2h0
2 269
A E
2.1 10 5
= s s = 0.0176
= 0.224
bh0 E b
16.5 10 3
= 1.8 (as for lightweight concrete), which we insert into the formula (274) and get
1
1
=
= 0.221
=
1 + 5( + )
1 + 5(0.166 + 0.855)
1 .8 +
+
10
10 0.224
= f 1
h 'f
30
= 0.112 so calculation is to be continued as for a Tsection. Lever
h0 269
arm z is to be determined by formula (279):
h 'f
30
f + 2
0.95 + 0.2212
h
= 269 1 269
z = h0 1 0
= 251.1 mm
2( f + )
2(0.905 + 0.221)
Lets determine coefficient s due to Item 4.17. For that by formula (246) we determine
value Wpl:
2 b 'f b h 'f
h
269
'
1 =
= 2 f 0 = 2 0.905
= 1.63
bh
h
300
A E
h
1 = s s = 0 = 0.224 0.9 = 0.202
bh Eb
h
As = 0.221 >
W pl = 0.292 + 0.51 + 0.75 1' bh 2 = (0.292 + 0.5 0.202 + 0.075 1.63)80 300 2 = 5160000
mm3
Coefficient m we determine by formula (281) considering that for bending element
Mr = :
Rbt , serW pl 1.6 5160000
m =
=
= 0.464
M
17.8 10 6
From Table 32 we have ls = 0.8; s = 1.25 lsm = 1.25 0.8 0.464 = 0.879 < 1.0.
Curvature of the lab in the middle of the span is to be determined by formula (271), taking
coefficients v= vl = 0.15 (see Table 31) and b = 0.9:
17.8 10 6
Ms s
b
1
+
=
r m h0 z E s As ( f + )bh0 E b v 269 251.1
0.879
0.9
5
+
= 0.685 10 1/mm
5
3
2.1 10 380 (0.905 + 0.221)80 269 16.5 10 0.15
As l/h = 5700/300 = 19 > 10 due to Item 4.29, deflection f = fm, which is determined by
5
formula (311). Due to Table 35 s =
.
48
5
1
f = s l 2 = 0.685 10 5 5700 2 = 32.2mm < 28.5 mm
48
r m
That means deflection of the slab is less than the maximum allowable one (see Table 2)
5. CONSTRUCTIVE REQUIREMENTS
GENERAL POSITIONS
5.1.(5.1). During design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and details to
provide their economic and quality manufacturing, required durability and cooperation
work of concrete and reinforcement it is necessary to follow constructive requirements
of the present section.
5.2. Structures must be of simple shape. It is recommended to use reinforcement, embedded
elements and lifting loops which are manufactured in form of finished products
according to norms and state standards. Reinforcement must be designed in form of
enlarged blocks and spatial frameworks to spend less time to put them into the
framework.
It is necessary to take minimum possible stripping strength and transporting strength of
concrete for effective use of industrial areas.
It is necessary to aim at unification of reinforcement and embedded elements in some
structures and their series, at little number of different marks and diameters of steel,
types of reinforcement elements mashes and frameworks, spacing of longitudinal and
cross rods.
MINIMUM DIMENSIONS OF ELEMENTS SECTIONS
5.3.(5.2). Minimum dimensions of the section of concrete and reinforced concrete elements
determined due to the calculation as regards corresponding forces and corresponding
groups of limit states must be specified considering economical requirements, necessity
to unify framework forms and reinforcement as well as conditions of accepted
technology of structures manufacturing.
Besides dimensions of elements sections must be taken so that to follow the
requirements of reinforcement location in the section (thickness of concrete protection
layers, distance between rods, etc) and anchorage of reinforcement.
5.7. Holes in reinforced concrete elements for communications, stripping, etc must be not
big and located within the cells of reinforcing meshes and frameworks so not to cut the
reinforcement and not to make local reinforcement. Corners of the hole must be smooth
(Draft 90, ).
5.8. During design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures their shapes must be
specified considering the form and conditions of use of the formwork.
By using of forms with a drop side the shape of a detail must not prevent the turning of
the side (Draft 91, ) when removing the formwork.
By using solid molds to remove the detail out of the formwork it is necessary to design
technological slopes no less than 1:10 (Draft 91, , ). In case of use of solid forms with
pressing out the slope must be no less than 1:15 (Draft 91, ).
By immediate removal of formworks with fixed vertical moving of the forming element
(to avoid crashing of concrete) (Draft 91, , ) the slope must be no less than 1:50.
By using of forms with one fixed and one drop side to provide vertical lifting of the
structure by removing of the framework it is used changing from the larger to the less
width of the detail [for example from the lower flange to the wall (Draft 91, )]; it must
be smooth at the angle no less than 45 degrees. This requirement can be not considered
if the framework has a pressingout system (Draft 91, ).
Using of pressing out and immediate remain of the form work must be approved by the
manufacturer.
Draft 91. Technological slopes
in a form with drop sides; , in the solid form; the same by using pressing out; , by
immediate removal of the formwork; in a form with a solid side; the same by using pressing out;
1 detail; 2 form; 3 drop side; 4 pressing out; 5 bearing brass; 6 forming frame
Maximum angle of
bending,
grad
Not limited
180
90*
Not limited
* It is possible to bend the rods at 180 degrees if design resistance against tension is decreased by 10 percent.
contact welding point welding and buttseam welding. It is possible to use semiautomatic arch welding, as well as manual welding due to Item 5.18.
5.13 (5.33). Types of welding connections and welding methods must be chosen
considering use conditions and welding capacity of steel, technicaleconomical
indexes and technological capabilities of the manufacturing factory in compliance
with the instructions of state standards and technical specifications for welded
reinforcement (Table 38).
Connections not mentioned in the current standard documents can be produced in
accordance with the projects approved in compliance wit the established procedure.
End joints can be made without using welding by means of swedge casings in
compliance with the approval of the manufacturing factory.
) gaps between connected rods by arch tub welding must be made in conformity
with the standard state documents and welding norms. By the gaps which are more
than maximum allowable ones connection of rods can be made by using of an
intermediate element fill piece of a reinforcing rod of the same diameter and class
like connected rods.
Draft 93. Arch tub welding of reinforcement outputs.
end connection of rods; horizontal connection; vertical connection
5.17. For connection of rod reinforcement with diameter 10 18 mm to each other during
installation, as well as for connection of rod reinforcement with embedded and
anchors must be used arch welding with extended joints (see positions 15 and 16 of
Table 38 and position 1 of Table 53). By decreased demands for the connection
strength (no more than 50 percent of the strength of the connected rod) it is possible
to weld rods with diameter 8 mm. Welding of rods with extended joints by diameters
20 an more is possible in special cases.
5.18. If there is no equipment for contact welding it is possible to use arch welding in the
following cases:
) for connection along the length of reinforcement with diameter 10 mm and more
(see position 15 and 16 of Table 38);
b) for cross connections of reinforcing meshes with unnormalized strength (see Item
5.19 and position 3 of Table 38).
c) for welded connections with normalized strength in meshes and frameworks with
required additional constructive elements at points of rods connections (gusset plates,
fill pieces, hooks and other) or with forced forming of the joint (see position 4 of
Table 38).
5.19. Cross welded connections with nonstandardized strength are possible in the
following cases:
) in meshes with main reinforcement of periodic profile for reinforcement of slabs,
walls, etc;
) in connections of longitudinal and cross reinforcing rods of flat meshes with rods
which form a spatial framework if the element doesnt work for torsion and
longitudinal rods are not considered in the calculation as compressed ones;
) in points of connection of longitudinal rods of spatial frameworks with cross
reinforcement in form of continuous spirals.
T a b l e 38
Method of welding
Position of the
rod by the
welding
Class (mark) of
reinforcement
steel
Diameter of rods,
mm
1
1
Horizontal (can
be vertical in
conductors)
I
II
III
III
I
I
640
1040
640
1028
35
35
2
1
The same
I
II
III
III
I
I
640
1040
640
1028
35
35
3
2
Horizontal and
vertical
I
II
(52)
II
(52)
II
III
(25 2C)
IIIC
1040
1028
Vertical
1018
1032
1028
Scheme of the
connection
structure
Additional instructions
1028
1440
1418
C1; C2
4A
Horizontal
3; 4
4
Horizontal
7. bath poweractivated
welding flux welding
5; 811
5; 6
Horizontal and
vertical
Butt joints
I

III
IIIC
II
III
IIIC
1040
1040
1040
1028
1040
1040
1022
In prefabricated forms
I; II; III
2040
d'
= 0 . 85 1 . 00
d
d'
0 . 30 is possible by using of a
d
d'
= 0 . 5 1 . 00
d
8. arch poweractivated
welding with flux
cored wire
9. bath monoelectrode
welding
6; 9; 12
5; 6
7; 10; 13
5; 6
10.arch poweractivated
welding with flux
cored wire
14; 17

Horizontal and
vertical
15
9
16; 18
9; 10
horizontal
12.arch poweractivated
welding by openflame arch with alloy
wire
13. manual arch multilayer welding
19
10
Horizontal and
vertical
Vertical
20
11
Vertical
12
13
I

III
2040
Horizontal and
vertical
I

III
IIIC
1040
1040
1040
1022
Horizontal and
vertical
I

III
IIIC
1040
1025
1025
1018
d'
= 0 . 5 1 . 00
d
N o t e . Instructions for welding of highstrength rod reinforcement of classes AIV, IVC, AV and AVI are given in SNiP 2.03.0184 (see required Annex 3) and GOST 1409885.
In all other cases including by welding of anchor rods of meshes (see Items 3.44, 5.45
and 5.46), welded connections must have standardized strength.
Cross connections with nonstandardized strength can be made by means of arch
welding with point tack weld (see position 3 of Table 38), as well as by means of
point manual welding (see positions 1 and 2 of Table38) by decreased demands to the
connection strength regulated by GOST 10922 75, by decreased demands to
minimum relative settlement h/d' (see draft of position 1 Table 38) regulated by
GOST 14098 85, but no less than mentioned in Table 8 of 39378.
5.20. It is possible to connect the rods by means of welding in any case along the length of
the detail. Connections (joints) made by arch welding must be located so that they
didnt prevent concreting, that means it is necessary to make them in points with less
reinforcement, to prevent several joints in one section.
Flat welding meshes1
[1Hereinafter term flat welding meshes includes any flat welded reinforcing details (meshes, frameworks)].
5.22. Parameters of wide welded meshes are given in Table 39, of narrow meshes in
Table 40.
In order to reduce the number of realignment of multielectrode machines it is
recommended to unify the reinforcement spacing during design, basically
longitudinal reinforcement for reinforced concrete details of the present series or
catalogue.
T a b l e 39
Parameters of wide welded
meshes produced on multielectrode meshes
Diameters of rods, mm:
Longitudinal D
Cross rods d
Additional requirements
light
heavy
From 3 to 12
From 14 to 32
From 3 to 10
From 6 to 14
Cross rods s:
Constant spacing
Two different spacing
for a stripmesh:
a) bigger
b) smaller
Minimum length of the rods
ends (distance from the buttend
of the rod to the axis of end
crossed rod), mm:
Cross rods k
Longitudinal c
Maximum mesh length, L, m
Width of a mesh, mm:
A
B (on axes of end longitudinal
rods)
Maximum number of
longitudinal rods
1
100
200
300
200
any
from 100 to 300
100; 200;
300; 600
any
from 140 to 300
any
from 60 to 220
20
25
12
36
16
T a b l e 40
Parameters of wide welded
meshes produced on multielectrode meshes
Diameters of rods, mm:
Longitudinal D
Cross rods d
light
Additional requirements
II
From 3 to 8
From 10 to 25
From 12 to 40
From 3 to 8
From 4 to 12
From 6 to 14
From 50 to
390
From 75 to
725
From 100 to
1400
From 100 to
500
From 100 to
400
From 600
(divisible by
50)
15
20
25
25
25 but no less
than D
25
7.2
12
18
From 90 to
775
From 50 to
725
From 140 to
1450
From 100 to
1400
From 80 to
420
From 50 to
390
From 2 to 4
From 2 to 6
From 2 to 8
Longitudinal c
It is possible to take spacing of rods which are different of the values mentioned in
Tables 39 and 40 during design of details for a certain producing factory in
conformity with the parameters of the equipment under conditions of unification of
these spacing on the factory.
Welded meshes produced on multielectrode machines must have rectangular
contours with rectangular cells. At the ends of rods there must not be any bendings,
hooks or loops. They can be used only in compliance with the approval of the
producing plant.
5.23. Welded meshes whose constructive parameters do not allow the produce them on
multielectrode machines must be designed in conformity with manufacturing
capabilities of singlepoint welding machines (Table 41).
5.24. Readymixed welded meshes as well as meshes and frameworks produced on multielectrode and singlepoint machines can be used as finished reinforcing details or as a
semi finished good which must be followed up (cutting of a mesh, making of holes,
bending of a mesh to make a spatial framework and as and exception welding of
additional rods).
Additional rods can be welded by means of contact welding (Draft 94, , )
considering instructions of Table 41, as well as electric arch welding by means of
longitudinal joints (Draft 94, ) considering requirements of Item 5.18.
Bending of a mesh is made according to Item 5.27.
T a b l e 41
Parameters of welded meshes, produced on
singlepoint welding machines
Parameters values
Maximum diameter of a less of welded rods, For rods of both directions I,
mm
II, III, III25; by rods of
classes I, II40. See also table
38 (pos. 1 and 2)
Maximum width of welded meshes:
recommended
500
allowable
1000 + v1 (see draft for the table)
Maximum distances, mm, between axes of rods
of one direction by rods diameters, mm:
Up to 10
40
from 12 to 18
50
from 20 to 25
60
28 and 32
70
36 and 40
80
Minimum length of rods ends k to the axis of 20, but no less than diameter of the
end cross rod, mm
end of the rod
Minimum angle between crossing welded rods, 30
degree
Embedded elements and tiedown details (hooks, pipes, etc) can be fixed to the
spatial framework if required accuracy of the location is provided. If deviations from
the design location can cause decrease of bearing capacity of embedded elements so it
is necessary to fix these details to the form.
5.27. By forming of spatial frameworks using bent flat meshes its recommended to use
bent meshes with contours according to types shown on Draft 96, and produced by
serial bending equipment. At the same time it is necessary to meet the following
requirements:

recommended (meshes are produced by serial equipment); allowable (require special equipment or
instruments); by packing of bent elements of spatial frameworks for storage and transportation (location
of straight longitudinal rods is shown relative)
5.28. Formation of reinforcement details into the spatial framework must be made by
means of point welding of cruciform crossings of rods by means of welding tongs.
Minimum clear distance between rods comfortable for electrodes of welding tongs,
for frameworks of reinforced concrete elements are given on Draft 98.
Maximum allowable diameters of welded rods are determined due to Table 42.
T a b l e 42
Less diameter of
welded rods, mm
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
(32)
(28)
(20)
N o t e . In the brackets there are shown maximum diameters allowable in accordance with the approval
of the producing factory.
Draft 98. Examples of spatial frameworks of reinforced concrete elements produced by using of
welding tongs
rods of external angles of frameworks of linear structures; intermediate rods of frameworks of linear
structures; rods of a narrow mash with rods of two wide meshes for flat structures; 1 welding tongs; 2
wide mesh; 3 narrow mesh.
5.29. Spatial frameworks for reinforcement of linear elements (columns, piles, beams, etc.)
should be produced by contact point welding in the following manners:
) connection of plain meshes by separate rods welded to longitudinal rods of meshes
by means of welding tongs (Draft 99a) due to Item 5.28;
b) connected of bent meshes with rods (Draft 99, ), welded as its mentioned above;
c) wrapping of spiral cross reinforcement on longitudinal reinforcement (Draft 99, )
with welding of all crosses by welding tongs. Such frameworks are recommended for
reinforcement of pipes, piles, columns without consoles and other details of massproducing;
d) stringing on longitudinal rods of stirrups which are bent in advance by means of
contact point welding in points of crosses of legs with the following welding by
welding tongs of all crosses (Draft 99, ). Cross points of stirrups legs are located
staggered along the length of a framework. Such frameworks can be used for
reinforcement of columns with intermediate consoles. If there is no welding tongs so
it is possible to bind the connections of longitudinal rods and stirrups (in that case its
recommended to provide spatial rigidity of frameworks by means of welding of
additional rods, plates, etc.);
e) bending of a flat mesh up to a closed contour and welding of cross rods with a
longitudinal rod of an opposite row of an initial mesh by means of welding tongs
(Draft 99, ). This way is recommended if there are special instruments or equipment;
f) welding of four flat welding meshes by welding tongs (Draft 99, ). This way can
be used for producing of column framework when distance between angle and middle
rods is less than 75 mm, and number of longitudinal rods is no less than eight;
g) connection of two meshes by wiring bars which are perpendicular to the bending
plane and welded to the cross reinforcement of meshes (Draft 99). This way can be
used in beams which dont work as regards torsion and in columns by total quality of
longitudinal reinforcement no more than 3 percent;
h) connection of several bent and flat meshes by rods welded by means of welding
tongs (Draft 99, );
i) of two diagonally located flat meshes made by welding of longitudinal rods of both
meshes with their cross rods by means of singlepoint machines (Draft 99, ), at the
same time it is necessary to provide installation rigidity of a framework by means of
welding of rods, plates, etc. This way is possible to use for poles, piles and others by
quantity of reinforcement up to 1 percent.
Draft 99. Examples of structures of spatial frameworks of linear elements produced by using of contact
point welding
of two meshes and connecting rods welded to the longitudinal reinforcement of meshes; of bent
meshes and connection rods; stringing of spiral cross reinforcement on longitudinal reinforcement; of
preliminary bent and welded stirrups stringed on longitudinal rods; of a mesh bent up to a closed contour;
of four flat meshes; of two meshes and assembly rods perpendicular to the bending plane and welded
to the cross reinforcement of meshes (in beans not working for torsion and in columns by total quantity of
reinforcement no more than 3 percent); spatial framework of several bent and flat meshes and connection
rods welded by means of welding tongs; spatial frameworks by total quantity of longitudinal
reinforcement up to 1 percent in form of two diagonally located flat meshes; 1 flat mesh; 2 connection
rod; 3 bent mesh; 4 point welding
5.30. Spatial frameworks of linear elements can be produced without using of welding
point welding by means of the following methods:
) connection of meshes by brackets and by arch welding with stirrups (Draft 100, ).
In columns, beams working for torsion as well as in compressed zone of beams with
the considered in the calculation working reinforcement the length of onesided
welding joints l must be no less than 6d (where d diameter of a stirrup), and
installation connections 3d;
b) connection of flat meshes by means of studs with bending of all crosses (Draft 100,
), at the same time it is necessary to provide installation rigidity of the framework by
welding of rods, plates and others;
c) connection of flat meshes to each other by means of arch welding of longitudinal
rods (Draft 100, ) near all points of stirrups welding. Length of joints l must be no
less than 5d (where d diameter of stirrups). Such connections can be used by
quantity of compressed reinforcement in the section no more than 3 percent;
d) of longitudinal rods and bent stirrups with binding of crosses (Draft 100, ) and
connection of rigidity elements (bound frameworks);
e) of one or several bent or flat meshes and connection rods with diameters no more
than 6 mm by bending of longitudinal rods of meshes by ends of connection rods
making a closed loop by means of a bending instrument (Draft 100, ). This method
is recommended if there are special conductors providing safe fixing of frameworks.
If there are compressed longitudinal rods so requirements to distances between
connection rods are the same as for distances for welded stirrups (see Item 5.59).
Due to great labor expenditures frameworks mentioned in the present Item can be
used only as exceptions if there are no welding tongs.
Draft 100. Examples of spatial frameworks of linear elements produced without using contact point
welding
of two flat meshes and brackets welded to the cross reinforcement of meshes; of two flat meshes
connected by means of studs by binding of all crosses; of four flat meshes; of longitudinal rods and
bent stirrups with binding of crosses; framework formed of one or several bent or flat meshes and
connecting rods by means of a bending instrument; 1 flat mesh; 2 a bracket or a stud; 3 cross rods of flat
meshes; 4 longitudinal meshes of flat rods; 5 arch welding; 6 a bending instrument; 7 a bent mesh
5.31. Spatial frameworks for reinforcement of flat elements (slabs, wall panels, etc.) should
be produced in the following manner:
) connection of flat meshes of type steps by rods welded by welding tongs (Draft
101, );
b) connection of meshes of type steps of one direction by means of the same flat
meshes of different direction and less height (Draft 101, ). Connection of crosses is
made by tongs; binding is possible in case if there are no tongs.
To provide stability during installation in both mentioned cases flat meshes of type
steps can be replaced by bent Vshaped meshes (Draft 101, ).
Spatial framework of ribbed slabs or panels is made of bent Ushaped meshes with
welding or binding to them of flat meshes of type steps.
Draft 101. Examples of structures of spatial frameworks for reinforcement of flat elements
of flat meshes of type steps and connection rods; of flat meshes of type steps of one direction and
the same meshes of other direction and less height; of Vshaped meshes of the same direction and the
same meshes of other direction and less height
Functions of
reinforcement
Longitudinal
main
Height (thickness)
of the section, mm,
Up to 100
More than 100
The same
15
20
Any
20
30
Bottom
main
The same
35
70
10
15
cross,
distribution,
constructive
10
15
N o t e . For structures mentioned in positions 13 and for structures which are in contact with the ground values of
thickness of the protection layer are increased by 5 mm.
5.34(5.10). For hollowcore elements of ring or boxshaped section distance from rods of
longitudinal reinforcement to internal surface of concrete must meet requirements of
Item 5.33.
5.35. In bending, stretched and eccentric compressed by Ml/Nl > 0.3h, except foundations,
thickness of the protection layer for stretched main reinforcement as a rule must not
be more than 50 mm. In the protection layer more than 50 mm thick it is necessary to
install constructive reinforcement in form of meshes. At the same time section area of
longitudinal reinforcement of meshes must be no less than 0.05As, pacing of cross
reinforcement must be no more than the height of the element section and conform to
instructions of Item 5.54.
5.36. For structures which work in aggressive conditions thickness of the concrete
protection layer must be taken considering requirements of SNiP 2.03.1185.
By specification of the concrete protection layer it is also necessary to follow
instructions of SNiP 2.01.0285.
5.37 (5.9). To install singlepiece reinforcing rods, meshes, frameworks going along the
whole length or width of the element the ends of these rods must be distant from the
surface of the element if the length of the element is: up to 9 m by 10 mm, up to 12
m by 15 mm, more than 12 m by 20 mm.
Minimum distance between reinforcement rods
5.38 (5.11). Distances between reinforcement rods along the height and the width of the
element must provide cooperation work of reinforcement and concrete and must be
specified considering the convenience of installing it into a form and concreting.
By choosing of distances between rods in welded meshes as well as in flat and spatial
frameworks it is also necessary to consider technological requirements for design of
welded reinforcement details mentioned in Items 5.22, 5.23 and 5.28.
5.40 (5.12). By spacelimited conditions it is possible to locate the rods in pairs without any
gap between them or with the distance between the rods of a pair less than the
distance required for separate rods. Such pare of rods by specification of the distance
between rods (due to Item 5.39) and by determination of anchorage length (due to
Items 5.42 5.46) must be considered as a relative rod (where d1 and d2 diameters
of rods brought together, 1 clear distance between these rods, taken no more than
diameter of the least rod; Draft 102).
Draft 102. Perimeters of location of one of rods rows of bottom reinforcement (located in one or two
rows along the height) by producing of the detail on the vibrating plate compactor by d = 32 mm and d
= 16 mm
even distribution of rods; doubled location of rods by decreased distances between the rods of each
pair; the same if there is no a gap between the rods of each pair
5.41 (5.12). Clear distance between the rods of periodic profile mentioned in Items 5.39
and 5.40 are determined due to the nominal diameter without considering any jutting
out and ribs. Taking location of reinforcement in the section with spacelimited
conditions considering the adjoining of other reinforcing elements and embedded
elements it is necessary to take into account diameters of rods considering jutting out
and robs, as well as possible deviations from nominal dimensions of reinforcement
rods, welded meshes and frameworks, embedded elements, shapes and location of
reinforcement and embedded elements in the section.
Anchorage of reinforcement
5.42. To make reinforcement take required forces in the considered section reinforcement
must have enough anchorage.
5.43 (5.13). Rods of periodic profile as well as plain rods used in welded frameworks and
meshes are produced without hooks. Stretched plain rods of bound frameworks and
meshes must end with hooks (see Draft 92) or loops.
5.44 (5.14). Longitudinal rods of stretched and compressed reinforcement must be brought
behind the normal to the longitudinal axis of the element section, where they are
considered with total design resistance on the length no less than lan, determined by
the following formula
R
l an (l l ) = an s + an d
(316)
Rb
but no less than lan = and, where values an an and an, as well as possible
minimum values lan are determined due to Table 44. At the same time plain
reinforcement rods must end with hooks made due to Item 5.11, or have welded cross
reinforcement along the length of embedment. To value Rb it is possible to insert
coefficients of concrete work conditions except b2.
In elements of fine concrete of group (see Item 2.1) values lan, determined by
formula (316), must be increased by 10d for stretched concrete and by 5d for
compressed concrete.
Values of relative anchorage length an = lan/d, determined by formula (316) for
different classes of concrete and reinforcement are given in Table 45.
T a b l e 44 (37)
Work
conditions of
reinforcement
1.
reinforcement
embedment:
)
stretched
reinforcement
in
stretched
concrete
) compressed
or
stretched
reinforcement
in compressed
concrete
2. overlapping
of
reinforcement:
) in stretched
concrete
)
in
compressed
reinforcement
No less
No less
0,70
11
20
250 1,20
11
20
250
0,50
12
200 0,80
15
200
0,90
11
20
250 1,55
11
20
250
0,65
15
200 1,00
15
200
T a b l e 45
Location of
Reinforcement
reinforcement in
class
concrete
1. stretched,
AI
AII
AIII
lan 250
2. compressed,
AI
AII
AIII
lan 200
58
45
55
39
32
40
48
38
46
33
27
33
42
34
40
29
24
29
34
28
33
24
20
24
30
25
29
20
18
21
27
23
26
19
16
19
25
21
24
17
15
17
23
20
22
16
14
16
22
20
21
15
14
15
21
20
21
15
13
15
21
20
20
14
13
15
20
20
20
14
13
14
In case when anchored rods are installed with the reserve on the section area against
the required by the calculation as regards the strength with total design resistance, the
anchorage length lan, calculated by formula (316) can be decreased by multiplying it
by the ratio between the required due to the calculation and actual section area of
reinforcement.
If due to the calculation there are cracks caused by the concrete stretching along the
anchored rods , so rods must be embedded into the compressed zone of concrete on
the length lan calculated by formula (316). At the same time height of compressed
zone can be determined due to Item 4.16.
b) bending of anchored rod at 90 degrees along the arch of the circle with the clear
radius no less than 10d (1 ll/lan) [where ll length of the straight part at the
beginning of embedment (Draft 104)], corresponding to recommendations of Table
37; on the bent part there are installed additional stirrup against the unbending of
rods;
c) welding of anchoring cross rods on the length of embedment; in that case
anchorage length lan, determined due to Item 5.44, is decreased by the length
Nw
, [where Nw see formula (82)]; if l 150 mm, so plain rods can be
l = l an
Rs As
made without hooks, at the same time value lan, is not decreased.
Draft 104. Reinforcement anchorage by means of bending
5.46 (5.15). If longitudinal reinforcing rods going to the end free supports of bending
elements have no special anchors and are not welded to support embedded elements,
so it I necessary to meet the following requirements:
a) If conditions of Item 3.40 are met, the length of overlapping of stretched rods
behind the internal surface of the free support la must be no less than 5d; in welded
frameworks and welded meshes with longitudinal main reinforcement of plain rods to
each stretched longitudinal reinforcement on the length la it is necessary to weld at
least one cross (anchor) rod with diameter d 0,5d located at the distance 15 mm
by d 10 mm from the end of the framework (mesh) and 1,5d by d > 10 mm
(Draft 105, );
) If conditions of Item 3.40 are not met so the length of overlapping of stretched rods
behind the internal surface of the free support l must be no les than 10d; in case if
there area used plain rods on the length l to each longitudinal rod it is necessary to
weld no less than two cross (anchorage) rods with diameter d 0.5d, at the same
time the distance from the end anchor rod to the end of the framework (mesh) must be
no more than the mentioned in Item values (Draft 105, ).
If value ln, determined considering instructions of Item 3.44, less than 10d, the length
of overlapping of rods behind the internal surface of the support is decreased up to ln
and taken no less than 5d.
Draft 105. Additional anchorage of reinforcement by means of welding of cross anchor rods
in slabs; in beams
If connected rods are installed with the reserve on the section area against the
required by the strength calculation as regards the maximum forces in the connection
zone, the overlapping length ll, calculated by formula (316) can be decreased by
multiplying it by the ratio between required by the calculation and actual section area
of reinforcement.
Table 46
Location of Reinforce
reinforcement
ment
12,5
in concrete
class
stretched,
BpI
56
AI
59
AII
46
ll 250 mm
AIII
56
compressed,
BpI
41
AI
39
AII
33
ll 200 mm
AIII
41
B15
49
51
40
49
35
26
29
35
34
35
28
34
24
24
21
24
30
32
26
30
22
21
19
22
27
28
24
27
20
19
17
20
26
27
22
26
19
18
16
19
24
25
21
24
18
17
15
18
23
24
21
23
17
16
15
17
B55
B60
23
23
20
23
17
16
15
17
22
23
20
22
16
16
15
16
5.49 (5.39). Joints of welded meshes and frameworks as well as of stretched rods of bound
frameworks and meshes without welding must locate as a rule in stagger. At the same
time section area of main reinforcement connected in one place or at the distance less
than overlapping length l, must be no more than 50 percent of total section area of
stretched reinforcement by rods of periodic profile and no more than 25 percent by
plain rods.
Displacement of rods located in different places must be no less than 1.5ll (Draft 106,
).
Connection of separate rods, welded meshes and frameworks without stagger is
possible by constructive reinforcement (without calculation), as well as on those parts
where reinforcement is used no more than 50 percent.
In element cross section reinforcement joints must be located symmetrically.
5.50. By rebate joints connected rods must be located as close to each other as its possible;
clear distance between connected rods must be no more than 4d, that means
0 e 4d (Draft 106, a).
Draft 106. Location of rods connected with overlapping and joints
location of rod in the joint; location of joints
Neighbor rebate joints must not be located too close to each other. Clear distance
between them must be no less than 2d (d diameter of connected rods) and no less
than 30 mm (see Draft 106, ).
5.51 (5.40) Joints of welded meshes in the direction of main reinforcement of plain hotrolled steel of class I must be made so that in each of welded in the stretched zone
meshes there were located no less than two cross rods welded to all longitudinal rods
of meshes on the length of overlapping (Draft 107).
Draft 107. Rebate joints of welded meshes in the direction of main reinforcement made of plain rods
by location of distributed rods in one plane; , the same in different planes
Length of overlapping of welded meshes with plain main reinforcement if there are
two welded anchor rods on the length of overlapping must be no less than value ll,
calculated due to Item 5.48.
The same types of joints are used for rebated joints of welded frameworks with oneside location of main rods of all types of steel.
Joints of welded meshes in the direction of main reinforcement of class II, III
and III are made without cross rods within the joint in one or both connected
meshes (Draft 108, , ); at the same time the overlapping length l is taken in
compliance with item 5.48.
By welding of cross anchor rods to main rods of periodic profile of welded meshes
and frameworks (Draft 108, , ) length of overlapping determined in compliance
with Item 5.48, can be decreased by 5d for one cross anchor rod, by 8d for two
cross anchor rods.
In all cases length of overlapping must be no less than 15d in stretched concrete and
10d in compressed concrete.
If diameter of main rods connected with overlapping in the stretched zone is more
d Rs
than 10 mm and distance between rods is less than value
(where d
300 Rbt
minimum diameter of connected rods, mm), in places of joints it is necessary to
install additional cross reinforcement in form of stirrups or suspension in form of Ushaped welded meshes brought into the compressed zone. At the same time section
area of additional cross reinforcement installed within the joint must be no less than
R
0.4 As s (where , section area of all connected rods).
Rsw
By rebate joints of welded frameworks in beams on the length of the joint
independently on the diameter of main rods it is necessary to install additional
reinforcement in form of stirrups or Ushaped welded meshes. At the same time
spacing of additional cross rods within the joint must be no more than 5d (d the
least diameter of longitudinal main rods).
Draft 108. Rebate joints of welded meshes in the direction of main reinforcement of periodic profile
without anchor cross rods on two meshes; the same on one of meshes; by one anchor rod; by
two anchor rods
5.52 (5.41). Joints of welded meshes in not main direction are made with overlapping
(counting between axes of end working rods of the mesh):
by diameter of distributed reinforcement up to 4 mm by 50 mm (Draft 109, a, )
the same more than 4 mm by 100 mm, (Draft 109, , )
Welded meshes in not main direction can be installed close to each other without
overlapping and without additional meshes in the following cases:
 By installation of welded strip meshes in perpendicular directions;
 By additional constructive reinforcement in the direction of distributed
reinforcement.
Draft 109. Joints of welded meshes in not main direction
, with overlapping with diameter of distribution reinforcement up to 4 mm; , the same more than 4
mm; close by diameter of main reinforcement 16 mm and more
5.54 (5.22). All surfaces of reinforced concrete elements near which it is installed
longitudinal reinforcement must have also cross reinforcement taking end
longitudinal rods to prevent formation of longitudinal cracks. At the same time
distance between cross rods at each surface of the element must be no more than 600
mm and no more than double width of the element surface. It is possible not to install
cross reinforcement at surfaces of thin ribs 150 mm and less which have only one
longitudinal reinforcing rod.
5.55. Correspondence of reinforcement location to its project location must be provided by
means of special measures for reinforcement fixing due to Items 5.118 5.120.
Table 47(38)
Work condition of
reinforcement
5.56 (5.17). Diameter, mm, of longitudinal rods of compressed elements must be no more
than:
for heavyweight and fine concrete of class less than 25 .. 40
for lightweight and porous concrete of classes:
12,5 and less 16
15 25 ..25
30 and more .40
bending plate no more than 400 mm, and in the direction of the bending plane no
more than 500 mm.
If distances between axes of main rods in the direction of the bending plane are more
than 500 mm so it is necessary to install construction reinforcement with diameter no
less than 12 mm, so that distance between longitudinal rods was no more than 400
mm.
5.58(5.19). In eccentric compressed elements whose bearing capacity is used less than by
50 percent as well in elements with elasticity lo/i < 17 (for example in column
pockets) where compressed reinforcement is not required by the calculation, and
quantity of stretched reinforcement is no more than 0.3 percent it is possible not to
install longitudinal and cross reinforcement which is required due to Items 5.54, 5.57,
5.59 and 5.60 along the surfaces parallel to the bending plane. At the same time
reinforcement along the surfaces perpendicular to the bending plane is made by
welded frameworks and meshes with the concrete protection layer no less than 50
mm and no less than two diameters of longitudinal reinforcement.
CROSS REINFORCEMENT
If end plane frameworks have intermediate longitudinal rods so these rods must be
connected with longitudinal rods located at opposite surfaces by means of studs, no
less than next nearest and no less than each 400 mm along the width of the element
surface. It is possible not to install studs if the width of the present surface of the
element is no more than 500 mm and number of longitudinal rods at this surface is
any more than four. It is also possible not to install studs at intermediate rods which
are distant from the angle ones no farther than 15dw, independently on the width of
the element and number of rods.
By larger dimensions of the element section it is recommended to install intermediate
flat welded meshes (Draft 110, a).
Draft 110. Structure of spatial frameworks in compressed elements
welded; bound; 1 connection rods; 2 plane welded frameworks; 3 stirrup; 4 intermediate plane
framework; 5 a stirrup
5.61 (5.25). Diameter of stirrups of eccentric compressed elements must be taken no less
than 0.25d (d maximum diameter of longitudinal rods), and in bound frameworks
no less than 5 mm.
Reinforcement of bending elements
LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT
5.62 (5.20). Beams and ribs 150 and less mm wide (Draft 111), working for bending can be
reinforced by one flat vertical framework, and more than 150 wide ones and by great
loads they must be reinforced by several vertical meshes (frameworks).
In beams more than 150 mm wide number of longitudinal main rods brought behind
the surface of the support must be no less than two. In ribs of prefabricated panels,
decks, multiribbed plates and other 150 and less mm wide it is possible to bring one
longitudinal rod to the support.
Draft 111. Reinforcement of beams by plain welded meshes
1 connecting rods; 2 flat welded frameworks
5.63 (5.21). In bending elements by the height of the section more than 700 mm at lateral
surfaces it is necessary to install constructive longitudinal rods with the distance
between them along the height no more than 400 and with the section area no less
than 0.1 percent of the concrete section area which has the dimensions equal to the
distance between these rods along the height, along the width to a half of the width
of the element rib, but no more than 200 mm (Draft 112).
Draft 112. Installation of constructive longitudinal reinforcement along the height of the beam section
5.64 (5.20). Distance between axes of main rods in the middle part of the slab span and
above the support (on the top) must be no more than 200 mm by the plate width up to
150 mm and no more than 1.5h by the height of the slab more than 150 mm (h
height of the slab).
In slabs more than 350 mm wide distance between axes of main rods can be
decreased up to 600 mm.
In solid plates distance between rods brought to the surface of the support must be no
more than 400 mm, at the same time section area of these rods per 1 m of the slab
width must be no less than 1/3 of the section area of rods in the span, determined by
the calculation due to maximum bending moment.
In hollowcore decks distance between axes of main rods can be decreased due to
location of hollows in the section, but no more than up to 2h.
By reinforcement of continuous slabs by means of welded roll meshes it is possible
near intermediate rods to move all bottom rods to the top zone.
Continuous slabs no more than 80 mm thick can be reinforced by means of single flat
meshes without bending.
5.65. If main reinforcement of the slab goes parallel to the rib so perpendicular to it its
necessary to install additional reinforcement with the section no less than 1/3 of
maximum section of main reinforcement of the slab in the span and bring it in the
slab to each side of the rib at the length no less than 1/4 of design span of the slab.
If main reinforcement of the slab above the support goes perpendicular to the rib, it is
necessary to break it no closer than at the distance 1/4 of design span of the slab from
the surface of the rib (. 113).
Draft 113. Reinforcement of support parts of slabs monolithically connected with beams
1 main span reinforcement of the slab; 2 main reinforcement of the slab above the span; l design span of
the slab
In beam slabs section area of distributed reinforcement per width unit of the slab must
be no less than 2 percent of the section area of main reinforcement per width unit of
the slab in the point of maximum bending moment.
Distance between rods of distributed reinforcement of beam slabs must be no more
than 600 mm.
CROSS AND DIAGONAL REINFORCEMENT
5.66 (5.26). In beam structures more than 150 mm high, as well as in hollowcore slabs (or
similar multiribbed structures) more than 300 mm high it is necessary to install cross
reinforcement according to instructions of Item 5.69.
In solid plates independently on the height, in hollowcore plates (or similar multiribbed structures) 300 and less mm high and in beam structures 150 and less mm high
it is possible not to install cross reinforcement, at the same time the requirements of
the calculation due to Items 3.40 and 3.41 must be met.
5.67. To prevent lateral uplift of rods if compressed zone it is necessary to install cross
reinforcement in compliance with requirements of Item 5.59.
5.68 (5.25). Diameter of stirrups in bound frameworks of bending elements must be taken
no less than, mm:
by the section height, equal or less than 800 mm
the same more than 800 mm
6
8
The ratio between diameters of cross and longitudinal rods in welded meshes
determined due to the welding conditions is taken in conformity with positions 1 and
2 of Table 38.
5.69 (5.27). Cross reinforcement in beams and slabs structures mentioned in Item 5.66 is
installed in support parts by distributed loads equal to 1/4 of the span, and by point
loads to the distance from the support to the nearest load but no less than 1/4 of the
span with spacing:
by section height of the element h, equal or less than 450 mm
by section height of the element h more than 450 mm
On the other part of the span by section height of the element h more than 300 mm it
is installed cross reinforcement with spacing no more than 3/4h and no more than 500
mm.
For ribbed plates in the middle part of the span if requirements of Item 3.40 are met
so mentioned above instructions are not to be taken into account.
5.72. Angle of slope of bendings to the longitudinal axis of the element must be taken as a
rule 45 degrees. In beams more than 800 mm high and in beamswalls it is possible to
increase angle of slope of bendings up to 60 degrees and in low beams and slabs to
decrease up to 30 degrees.
Rods with bends should be located at the distance no less than 2d from lateral
surfaces of the element (d diameter of bent rod). It is not recommended to bend the
rods located directly at lateral surfaces.
Rods bends should be located symmetrically relating to longitudinal axis of the beam.
Use of bends in form of floating" rods (Draft 117) is not allowable.
Draft 117. Floating" rod
5.74 (5.50). Big holes in reinforced concrete slabs, panels and others must have additional
reinforcement with the section no less than section of main reinforcement (of the
same direction), with is required by the calculation as for a solid one. Replacing
reinforcement must be brought behind the edges of a hole at the length no less than
overlapping length ll, determined due to Item 5.48.
Holes in sides of elements must have round form and edges of holes must be
reinforced.
REINFORCEMENT OF SLABS IN THE PUNCHING ZONE
5.75 (5.29). Cross reinforcement in slabs in a punching zone is installed with the spacing
no more than 1/3h and no more than 200 mm, at the same time the width of the zone
of cross reinforcement installation must be no less than 1,5h (h thickness of a slab).
Anchorage of the mentioned above reinforcement must correspond to requirements of
Item 5.70.
DESIGN OF SHORT CONSOLES
5.76. Short consoles can be of constant and variable height with enlargement to the
embedment place.
Consoles of variable height should be designed by great loads.
In all cases spacing of stirrups must be no more than h/4 and no more than 150 mm (h
height of a console). By Limited height of the console it is possible to use hard
reinforcement (Draft 119).
Draft 119. Short console with hard reinforcement
CONFINEMENT REINFORCEMENT
5.78 (5.24). Confinement reinforcement prevents cross expansion of concrete, due to that
concrete strength by longitudinal compression is increased.
Confinement reinforcement is used in form of cross welded meshes (Draft 120) or
spirals (rings) (Draft 121).
For confinement reinforcement it is necessary to use reinforcement steel of classes I, II, III and AIIIC with diameter no more than 14 mm and steel of class I.
Confinement reinforcement can be used along the whole length of compressed
elements (columns, piles) or as local reinforcement of column joints, at points of
impact on a pile and others. Besides confinement reinforcement in form of meshes is
used by local compression.
Meshes and spirals (rings) in columns and piles must surround all main longitudinal
reinforcement.
5.79 (5.24). Meshes of confinement reinforcement can be welded of intersectional rods (see
Draft 120) or in form of combs. In both cases it is necessary to provide cooperation
work of mesh rods and concrete.
By using of confinement reinforcement of welded meshes it is necessary to meet the
following conditions:
) section areas of mesh rods per a length unit in one and another direction must not
differ more than by 1.5 times;
b) meshes spacing (distance between axes of rods in one direction) must be taken
no less than 60 mm, but no more than 1/3 of the least side of the element section and
no more than 150 mm;
c) clear dimensions of meshes cells must be taken no less than 45 mm, but no more
than 1/4 of the least side of the element section and no more than 100 mm.
The first welded mesh is located at the distance 15 20 mm from the loaded surface
of the element.
Combs used for confinement reinforcement must be inverted with the overlapping
length corresponding to the length given in Item 5.48, and must be made of
reinforcement of periodic profile.
5.84. Ribs in sides of beams should be designed only by great point loads or if it is
necessary to provide the stability of the side.
5.85. Requirements for accuracy of manufacturing of reinforced concrete elements must be
specified according to the analysis of their adjoining type with other elements. So, for
example, by concreting of joints some deviations from nominal dimensions are
allowable as they are to be balanced during concreting.
Joints of elements of prefabricated structures
5.86 (5.42). By joins of reinforced concrete elements of prefabricated structures the forces
from one element to another are transferred through the abutting main reinforcement,
steel embedded elements, filled by concrete or mortar joints, concrete keys or (for
compressed elements) directly through concrete surfaces of adjoining elements.
5.87 (5.43). Fixed joints of prefabricated structures must be monolithed by filling of joints
between elements by concrete. If during manufacturing of elements the surfaces are
adjusted to each other (for example by using of the butt end of one of the elements is
used as a framework for the butt end of the other element), so by transferring of only
compression force through the joint it is possible to make dry joints.
5.88. It is necessary to make such constructive decisions which provide simplicity of
manufacturing of joint details (embedded elements, meshes and other), their
assembly, fixing in the form, forming of the detail as well as installation and
connecting of reinforced concrete prefabricated elements.
5.89 (5.44). Joints of elements which take stretching forces must be made:
) by welding of steel embedded elements;
b) welding of reinforcement connecting bars;
c) agglutination of elements by constructive polymer mortars using connection derails
of rod reinforcement;
d) monolithing of connecting rods with overlapping.
5.90. Fixed joints of prefabricated columns should be made by means of tub welding of
connecting rods located in special cuttings with the following monolithing of these
cuttings.
In such joints between butt ends of joined columns it is necessary to design a
centralize filler in form of a steel plate anchored in concrete or welded to the spread
plate of the embedded element (see Draft 81; Draft 122). Dimensions of a centralize
filler are taken no more than 1/3 of the corresponding dimension of the element
section.
Form and dimensions of cuttings are determined by means of number of joined rods
and their diameters (see Draft 122). Total height of cuttings is taken no less than 30
cm and no less than 8d (d diameter of connecting rods); depth of a cutting allows to
install prefabricated rods and to exercise a nondestructive ultrasonic control.
Draft 122. Fixed joint of prefabricated columns by tub welding of connecting rods
by four angle connecting rods; by connecting rods located along the section perimeter; 1 connecting
rods; 2 concrete for monolithing of cuttings; 3 centralize filler (meshes of confinement reinforcement in
the sections are not shown)
5.91. Joints of prefabricated column with eccentricities of longitudinal forces during the
use stage less than 0,17h can be made with adjoining of buttends of columns through
the cement layer of polymer mortal layer with break of longitudinal enforcement
(contact joints). Different types of contact joints are given on Draft 123.
In the joint of the 1st type a centering pin is jutting out from the buttend of the
column; the centering pin in form of a reinforcing rod with diameter 32 36 mm is
put into a chase with liquid mortar located in the center of a buttend of the bottom
column. To form a joint filled with mortar at the bottom buttend it is installed a
centering filler with a hole for a pin.
. 123. Types of contact joints of prefabricated columns
1 centering pin; 2 centering filler; 3 mortar; 4 welding; 5 tack weld; 6 rods connected with a plate
by welding; 7 intermediate rods with tack weld; 8 end plates with stamped holes (cross reinforcement is
not shown)
In the joint of the 2nd type the top buttend has a concrete lug in the center, and the
bottom one a chase corresponding to a lug of round or rectangular form in plan.
Rods in connections of the 1st and the 2nd type must be distant from the concrete
surface no more than by 10 mm.
The 3rd type joint with steel plates at the buttends of columns connected by
welding with longitudinal reinforcement rods in stamped or in counterbores or by
means of buttoning plates. Number of rods connected in such manner is determined
by the calculation of assembly rods and is taken no less than for (angle) rods. The rest
of rods (intermediate) are installed by flat buttends fixedly to the plates and are
welded to them by arch welding. After installation of columns end plates are
connected by long welded joints along the perimeter or angles of the section.
Thickness of end plates is taken no less than: by connection of reinforcement with the
plate in stamped holes or fixedly 0.25da and 6 mm; in counter bores 0.35da and 12
mm (da diameter of longitudinal rods required by the calculation). If in the column
shaft there is installed considered in the calculation confinement reinforcement so
thickness of the plates should be increased by 2 mm.
5.92 (5.24). At the end parts of connected plates, if special reinforcement is not provided
(iron ring, embedded elements), it is necessary to install confinement reinforcement
meshes in accordance with the instructions of Items 5.78 and 5.79 no less than four
meshes on the length (counting from the buttend of the element) no less than 20d, if
longitudinal reinforcement is made of plain rods, and no less than 10d of periodic
profile rods (d maximum diameter of longitudinal reinforcement).
Saturation factor of confinement reinforcement xy (see Item 3.57) is taken no less
than 0.0125.
For joints mentioned in Item 5.90, in case of necessity monolithing concrete in zone
of cuttings can be reinforced by welded meshes. In zone of cuttings there are installed
one or two closed stirrups which bend connection rods.
By contact joints of the 3rd type (see Item 5.91) in end parts of joined columns it is
possible not to install meshes of confinement reinforcement, if they are not designed
in the columns. But at the length 10da of end part it is necessary to install cross
reinforcement (stirrups, meshes) of the same structure like in the column shaft taking
its spacing no more than: 0.25 of maximum section dimension; 0.6 of spacing of cross
reinforcement in the column shaft; 80 mm.
5.93. Dimensions of welded joints made by produce of steel embedded elements and by
their connection during installation in the joints of prefabricated elements must be
calculated in compliance with the requirements of SNiP II2381. Alternative of
welding method of connecting rods and constructive elements of these connections
should be provided due to Items 5.15 5.17, as well as due to state standards and
normative documents for welding technologies.
During design of welded joints and embedded elements it is necessary to use welding
methods which dont cause warping of steel details joints.
5.94 (5.51). During design of prefabricated floors elements it is necessary to design the
joints between them which are filled with concrete. Width of joints is taken due to
condition of their qualitative filling and must be taken no less than 20 mm for
elements with the section height 250 mm and no less than 30 mm for elements with
great height. At the same time it is necessary to provide the possibility to arrange to
joined reinforcement or embedded elements and to provide their qualitative welding.
Class of concrete for filling of joints which transfer design forces is taken in
compliance with Item 2.4.
Slinging devices
5.95. During design of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements it is necessary to provide
comfortable methods of their holding by means of loadhandling devices during
removal of frameworks, as well as during loading and unloading operations and
assembly works.
Methods and points of handling must be chosen considering manufacturing and
installation technologies as well as constructive features.
The detail must be checked by the calculations.
5.96. In concrete and reinforced concrete details it is necessary to design devices for their
strapping: strapping holes (including the ones for prefabricated holes), slots etc or
permanent steel strapping loops which must be produced of hotrolled steel due to
Item 2.18.
It is recommended to design handling of details without using any devices which are
made of steel by means of making holes, slots, deepenings and others (Draft 124).
5.97. During design of details with strapping loops it is necessary to use common loops. If
there are no common loops with required characteristics so it is recommended to
design the loops of types shown on Draft 125.
Minimum parameters for loops with straight and bent lags of types 1.1 and 2.1
(see Draft 125) are given in Table 48.
Draft 124. Examples of stripping devices without loops
by stripping of a block; stripping holes in a column; combination of two different stripping devices
in one detail; 1 cargo slings; 2 hole cutout; 3 holes; 4 loops for handling during taking out of the form
Table 48
Loops
,
Symbols of
parameters
d
612 14; 18 25
R
30 16 22 60
r
20 30 40 60
30 40
a1
a2
3d
6d
5.98. Diameter of the loop rod d should be taken due to Item 49 according to the weight of
a detail per a loop. Weight of the detail is determined due to instructions of Item 2.13.
By lifting of flat details by four loops weight of the detail is considered to be
distributed for three loops.
Table 49
Diameter of the rod
of a loop, mm
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
25
28
32
300
700
900
1100
1500
1500
1900
2000
2500
2500
3100
3100
3900
3800
4700
4900
6100
6100
7600
8000
9900
Notes: 1. Values m correspond to the angle between straps and a horizontal line equal to 45 degrees and more;
less angle of slope is not allowable. If detail is slinged by means of vertical slings so it is possible to decrease
weight of the detail per a loop by 1.4 times.
2. By diameter of the loop rod from 8 to 22 mm it is possible to decrease the mentioned values by 25 percent
by special justification.
By lifting by three and more loops located on one buttend of the detail (for example
on the wall panel) weight of the detail is taken as distributed only on two loops, thats
why in that case it is not recommended to install more than two loops.
By using of devices (balanced lifting frame) providing selfbalancing of forces among
slings it is possible to distribute the weight of the detail among loops in accordance
with the structure of the device.
5.99. The height of the lug eye he (see Draft 125) corresponding to the dimensions of
pulling hooks of loading slings must be taken equal to, mm:
60
80
150
from 6 to 16 mm.
18 and 22 mm
from 25 to 32 mm
Length ls and depth of the embedment hb of ends of the loop lugs into the concrete of
the detail (see Draft 125) should be taken due to Table 50.
By location of slinging loops in standard deepenings (Draft 126, ) value hb can be
counted from the top surface of a concrete element.
In all cases value ls should be taken no less than 200 mm.
For loops made of reinforcement steel 25I and 28III and more values ls and
hb should be increased by 20 percent.
Table 50
Standard cubestrength of
concrete at the moment of the
first lifting of the detail, MPa
from 3 to 5
More than 5 up to 8
More than 8 up to 15
More than 15 up to 25
More than 25
Length of
embedment
into the
concrete ls
45d (50d)
35d (40d)
30d (35d)
25d (30d)
20d (25d)
Depth of
embedment
into the
concrete hb
35d (40d)
25d (30d)
20d (25d)
15d (20d)
15d (20d)
Note. Values given in brackets belong to the lifting cases in vertical direction of onelayer thinwalled
elements (wall panels of heavyweight concrete) no more than 220 mm thick.
5.100. It is possible to locate sling loops in the holes so that their eyes were located below
the surface of a concrete or reinforced concrete detail. This location is recommended
by mechanized finishing of the concrete surface, when the loops prevent such
finishing. Holes for loops can be closed (see Draft 126, a) or open (Draft 126, ). In
the last case they dont collect water which can freeze, as well as conditions of fixing
of loops are better.
EMBEDDED ELEMENTS
General positions
5.101. During design of reinforced concrete structures it is recommended to use mainly
unified welded, stamped and stampedwelded embedded elements.
5.102. Embedded elements must be anchored in concrete.
Welded embedded elements usually consist of plates (section of strip steel, angle or
shaped steel) with welded to them normal or inclined anchors (Draft 127).
Stamped embedded elements consist of parts which perform a function of plates and
strip anchors which have stamped jutting for reinforcement of anchorage (Draft 128,
, ).
If during manufacturing of embedded elements there are used pressing and welding,
so such details are called stampedwelded ones (Draft 128, , ). Constructive
requirements for stamped embedded elements and stampedwelded details made with
welding of anchor rods to tamped embedded elements are given in
Recommendations for design of steel embedded elements of reinforced concrete
structures " (oscow., Stroyizdat, 1984).
Embedded elements can also have supports for work against shear (see Draft 127, ),
devices for fixing to forms, bolts for connection of prefabricated elements and other.
5.104. To provide project location of the embedded element in the detail it is necessary to
fix it by temporary fixing devices to elements of the form before concreting.
Examples of such fixing are given in Recommendations mentioned in Item 5.102. By
location of the detail on the open during concrete works surface of the element when
its fixing to the form is not expedient the detail can be welded to the reinforcement.
Draft 127. Examples of structures of welded embedded elements
with inclined and normal anchors open table"; closed table"; open table" with supports; with
angle steel; 1 normal anchors (Twelded); 2 inclined anchors (welded with overlapping); 3 support
working in two directions; 4 the same in one direction; 5 holes for fixing
Draft 128. Examples of embedded elements structures
, stamped; , stampedwelded
5.105. To provide the working life of embedded elements it is necessary to design their
anticorrosive protection. Way of protection is chosen according to the corrosive
power in compliance with requirements of SNiP 2.03.1185 and Guidelines to it, as
well as Recommendations mentioned in Item 5.102.
5.106. In main rods steel consumption for embedded elements must be calculated
separately for reinforcement and connection details. At the same time into the
embedded elements weight it is included also weight of anchors and other welded
rods considering technological allowance required for welding (washing and
settlement into the melt, anchorages embedment and other).
Plates
5.107. Choosing of steel grade for plates of embedded elements is made due to Table 13.
5.108. Thickness of plates or other external details of embedded elements is determined
due to Item 3.105, as well as due to technological requirements for welding
mentioned in Items 5.116 and 5.117 but no less than 4 mm. Besides by welding of
steel elements to the plate which has contact with concrete its thickness must be taken
according to the height of assembly angle joint no less than values mentioned in
Table 51.
5.109. By dimensions of the plate similar to dimensions of the reinforced concrete element
it is necessary to consider their positive deviation limit and to provide the possibility
of free installation of embedded element by negative deviations of form dimensions.
Table 51
Thickness of a plate of Maximum allowable height kf, mm, of
the angle joint
the embedded
element, t, mm
Singlepass
Doublepass
4
5
6
5
6
8
6
8
10
8
12
16
1.8t
10
Anchors
5.110. Anchors of embedded elements must be designed mainly of classes of reinforcement
II and III with diameter 8 25 mm. It is possible to use reinforcement steel AIIIC for anchors welded with overlapping.
Steel grade for anchor rods must be taken in compliance with Table 12. Anchors of
plain reinforcement of reinforcement of class I can be used only if they are
reinforced by plates or buttonheads at the ends. For constructive details it is possible
to use anchors of the same reinforcement with hooks at the ends.
5.111. Number of normal anchor rods in the embedded element is taken no less than four,
but if three are no tearing forces and bending moments it can be decreased up to two.
By action of tearing forces and bending moments if these forces are applied in the
plane of anchors location it is possible to use embedded elements with two normal
anchor rods.
Number of inclined anchors must be taken no less than two. At the same time it is
necessary to design minimum one normal anchor. If there are no less than four
normal anchors in the embedded element so it is possible to take one inclined anchor.
For anchor rods welded with overlapping their angle of inclination towards the shear
force must be taken equal to 15 to 30 degrees.
Distances between anchor axes required by the calculation must be no less than
values shown on Draft 129.
Draft 129. Minimum distances between anchors and from anchors to concrete edge
By anchors made of steel of classes I and II: a = 4dd, b = 6dd, = 3dd, = 3dd; the same of class III:
a = 5dd, b = 7dd, = 3.5dd, = 4dd (dd anchor diameter required by the calculation)
5.112 (5.14). Length of anchor rods of embedded elements by stretching forces applied to
them must be no less than value l, determined due to instructions of Item 5.44. At
the same time length of stretched anchor rods embedded into the stretched concrete or
in compressed concrete by bc/Rb > 0.75 or bc/Rb < 0.25 must be determined by
formula (316), using values w, and due to position 1 of Table 44. In other
cases the mentioned values should be taken due to position 16 of Table 44 (here bc
compression force in concrete acting perpendicular to the anchor rod and determined
as for elastic material by the safety factor f = 1.0
If part of the anchor with the length is located in the zone with the stress in concrete
corresponding to the condition 0.75 bc/Rb 0.25, so is determined due to the
following formula
0.7(l a a ) + 0.5d
an =
,
(317)
la
where la actual anchor length. Other parameters of table 44 are determined in the
same manner.
By acting of stretching and shear forces on normal anchor rods the right part of
formula (316) is multiplied by the coefficient 3, equal to:
0 .3
3 =
+ 0 .7 ,
(318)
1 + Qan1 / N an1
where Qan1, Nan1 stretching and shearing forces in the anchor rod determined due to
Item 3.101.
At the same time value lan must be no less than minimum value lan due to Item 5.44.
For normal anchors the length is calculated from the internal surface of plates, for
inclined ones from the beginning of bending or buttend edge of the plate.
5.114. By acting of pressing force on the embedded element a part of the shear force can be
transferred to concrete through the supports of strip steel or of reinforcement lugs (see
Draft 127, ). Height of supports should be taken no less than 10 and no more than 40
mm by the ration between the thickness of the support and its height no less than 0.5.
Distance between supports in the direction of the shear force is taken no less than six
heights of the support.
5.115. Embedded elements in lightweight concrete of classes 5 10 should be designed
so that tearing forces were taken by normal anchors and shearing forces by inclined
ones. Anchors of embedded elements in such cases should be taken of reinforcement
steel of periodic profile of class II or plain reinforcement steel of class I with
diameter no more than 16 mm. At the ends of anchors it is necessary to provide
reinforcement in form of buttonheads and welded plates. Length of anchor rods and
dimensions of strengthening are determined due to the calculation of chipping and
compression of concrete (see Items 3.106, 3.107 and 3.109), at the same time length
of concrete is taken no less than 15d, and diameter of a buttonhead no less than 3d.
Welded connections of embedded elements
5.116. Welded connections of anchors with plates should be designed due to Table 52.
During manufacturing of Tconnections of anchors with flat elements there are used:
flux arch welding (position 1 3); contact welding (positions 4, 5); mechanized
welding in carbonic acid CO2 (positions 6, 7); tub oneelectrode welding in
prefabricated forms (position 9); manual arch welding with bead joints (position 8).
All mentioned processes can be used by welding of embedded elements of type open
table" (see Draft 127, , ), and welding methods due to positions 69 also for
manufacturing of embedded elements of type closed table" (see Draft 127, ).
5.117. Welded overlapped connections of anchors and reinforcing rods with plates should
be designed according to the instructions of Table 53. It is recommended to use
mainly contact projection welding (positions 2 and 3 of Table 53).
Welded joints by welding of flat elements (plate, angles and other) should be made
due to SNiP II2381.
FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT
5.118 (5.49). Location of reinforcement must correspond to its project location and this
provides by means of fixing means.
Fixing of reinforcement is performed by means of:
) oneuse devices which stay in concrete;
) prefabricated devices which are taken out of concrete before and after its
hardening:
) special details fixed to main surface of a form or formwork which not prevent
removing of reinforced concrete element out of the form.
5.120. In case of use of oneuse fixing devices it in compliance with requirements of Table
54 is necessary to show which of these devices are allowable in the given element.
Thickness of protection layer of concrete in the point of installation of the fillerholder should be taken divisible into 5 mm.
Table 52
Welding
Symbol of the Reinforcement
Rod
Thickness Minimum Distance Distance Rod
Additional
methods of T connection due to
class
diameter
of the
ratio t/d between from the length, instructions
d, mm element t,
rods axes rod axis
connections
GOST 1409885
mm
anchors and Position number of
mm
z,
to the
reinforcing rods Table 1 of
plate edge
with the plates
39378
1. arch
1
I
840
by
Maximum
mechanized
17
length of the
0,50
d22 mm
0,55
flux welding
rod is 400
II
1025
z=25 + d;
0,70
2840
6
by
l,5d
80 mm
0,65
III
825
d25 mm
0,75
2840
z = 2d
0,65
ATIIIC
1018
2. flux arch
welding
with
smallscale
mechanization
2
17
3. mechanized
flux welding on
the
rigidity
element (relief)
3
*
4.
contact
projection
resistance
welding
6
**
10
I
II
III
AIIIC
825
1025
825
1018
I
II
III
620
1020
620
4
4
6
0,75
The same
l,5d
80
0,40
0,40
0,50
0,50
For
d = 816
zd+25;
For
d = 1825
z2d+10
50
l,5d
80
Connections
of type 2
of
reinforceme
nt of class
AIIIC are
not allowed
2d
80
0,40
0,40
0,50
5.
contact
straight
flash
welding
7
***
I
II
III
AIIIC
1020
1020
2240
1022
6.
arch
mechanized
welding in 2,
in a stamped
hole
7.
arch
mechanized
welding in 2
in a galvanized
hole
8. arch manual
welding in a
counterbored
hole
8; 9
**
I
II
III
AIIIC
1036
1036
1036
1022
T10; T11
20
I
II
III
AIIIC
12
21
I
II
III
AIIIC
4
6
12
6
4
0,40
0,50
0,50
0,50
80
1,5d
0,30
0,30
0,30
0,30
50
2d
80
Manual
welding
possible
1225
1225
1225
1218
50
2,5d
l,5d
7d
840
1040
840
1018
6
8
6
8
8
0,50
0,65
0,75
0,75
3d
2d
is
9. tub singleI
1640
0,50
T13
80
2d
150
electrode
18
II
1640
welding in a
III
1640
prefabricated
form
* Welding technology is given in Recommendations for flux welding technologies of inclined connections of embedded
elements and Tconnections as regards the rigidity element " ( , 1982).
** Welding technology is given in Instructions for technologies of light stampedwelded embedded elements of reinforced
concrete structures
*** Welding technology is given in Instructions for technologies of contact welding of embedded elements of type open
table" ( 65), , 1985.
Table 53
Welding
Symbol of the Reinforcement
methods of
connection due to class
overlapped
GOST 1409885
connections of Position number of
anchors and 1 of 39378
reinforcing rods
with plates
1. manual arch
2
AI
sidelap weld
19
AII; AIII
AIIIC
ATIV;ATIVK
ATVCK;AVI;
IVC;ATV
AV
Thickness Minimum
Rod
diamete of
the ratio t/d
r d, mm element t,
mm
1040
1040
1028
1022
1028
1028
1032
2.
contact
welding on one
projection
15
AI
AII
AIII
616
1016
616
3.
contact
welding on two
projections
4
16
AI
AII
AIII
AIIIC
1216
1216
1216
1216
Distance
Distance Overlap Additional
instructions
between
from the ping
rods axes z, rod axis length
to
the in
plate edge diamete
rs d
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
45
0,3
0,3
0,3
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4
3d
3d
4d
4d
5d
5d
5d
5d
Distance from
the buttend of
the rod to the
edge of the
plate must be
no less than d
0,3
4d
2d
4d
46
0,3
7d
2d
7d
Distance from
the center of
the projection
to the buttend
of the rod must
be no less than
2d
Connection
must be used
when influence
of occasional
moments
is
possible
. 130. Oneuse holders which provide required thickness s of concrete protection layer
 with big contact surface with a form, produced of cementsand mortar; with small contact surface with a
form, produced of cementsand mortar; the same of asbestos cement;  the same of plastic (perforated);
the same of aluminum perforated strip;  the same of reinforced steel; 1 main surface of the form; 2
holder; 3 fixed reinforcement; 4 twisting of binding wire; 5 binding wire embedded into the holder; 6
possible elastic ring; 7 supports welded to reinforcement
Table 54
Element
Kind of s face side of the
application
element
conditions
Mortar holder,
concrete holder,
asbestoscement
holder
air
for painting; tiled during
the concrete works and
other
Mechanically treated
+
normal
humidity
conditions
+
Concrete surface for
painting
with
water
compositions
Concrete surface for
+
+
painting with oil, enamel
and synthetic paints;
concrete surface for tiling
Concrete surface for
+
+
wallpaper hanging
Holder kind
plastic
(polyethylene)
Steel holder
Notes: 1. Symbols: Mortar, concrete and asbestoscement holders; plastic and polyethylene holders;
steel holders; small contact surface of a holder and form (formwork); big contact surface of a holder and
form (formwork); holders protected against corrosion; holders not protected against corrosion.
2. Sign +" means possible; sign " means not possible; sign " possible but not recommended.
Draft 131. Oneuse holders which provide required distance
 between single reinforcement details; between rods; 1 a separator of reinforcement steel which is
installed between rows of meshes; 2 holderfiller to provide a concrete protection layer; 3 elongated cross
rods of the framework bent around rods of the mesh; 4 a holder for connection of crossing rods (spatial
spiral of spring wire) ; 5 binding point
Draft 132. Oneuse holders providing required thickness of concrete protection layer and distance
between separate reinforcement elements at the same time
in flat slabs; , in rectangular section beams; in ring section elements; 1 a holder of Ushaped
framework; 2 reinforcement meshes; 3 main surface of the form; 4 a combframework holder; 5 flat
reinforcement framework; 6 rodsholders welded to frameworks in addition; 7 holder in form of a cramp
of reinforcing wire; 8 concentric frameworks; 9 point of bending
5.121 (5.47). Settlement joints are designed as a rule in cases if the building is constructed
up on nonhomogeneous grounds (collapsible soils and other), in points of abrupt
changing of loads etc.
If in mentioned cases settlement joints are not provided so the foundations must have
enough strength and rigidity preventing damage of located above structures or they
must have a special structure for it.
Settlement joints as well as contraction joints in solid concrete and reinforced
concrete structures must be performed as openended one, cutting the structure up to
the foundation base.
Distances between contraction joints in concrete foundations and walls can be taken I
compliance with the distances between joints of the located above structures.
General requirements
5.123. On working projects of reinforced concrete structures or in explanation notes to
them the following information must be given:
) reinforcement class as regards the strength against compression, and in cases
mentioned in Item 2.5 it is necessary to show concrete grade as regards resistance to
frost and water proofing capacity, and for lightweight concrete grade as regards
average density;
b) reinforcement type (rod or wire), its profile, class, and in case of necessity (for
example for structures working by low temperatures) steel grade; number of the state
ANNEX 1
KIND OF LIGHT AND POROUS CONCRETE AND THIR APPLICATION AREA
Kind of concrete
Kind of aggregate
Field of application
coarse
fine
Lightweight concrete with artificial aggregates
1. Expanded clay concrete
Expanded clay
All concrete and reinforced concrete
structures
with
nonstressed
reinforcement, with the exception of
special structures
2. Shungite concrete
Shungite
Wall panels, slabs of floors and roofs
3. Agloporite concrete
Agloporite
The same like in position 1
4. Foam slag concrete
Foam slag
The same like in position 2, except the
slabs of roofs and floors under the
load more than 10000 Pa
5. Perlite concrete
Perlite
(1000 kilogramforce/m2)
6. Slagconcrete
Foam cinder aggregate
The same like in position 2
7. Expanded clay perlite Expanded clay
Perlite
The same like in position 5
concrete
8. Agloporite concrete
Agloporite
9. Foam slag concrete with
Foam slag
Light granulated
granulated slag
slag
10. Expanded clay concrete
Expanded clay Light granulated
slag
Lightweight concrete with natural aggregates
11. Pumeconcrete
or lithoid pumice
The same like in position 1
12. Slag concrete
Slaggy lava
The same like in position 5
13. Tuffcrete
Slaggy lava
The same like in position 1
14. Concrete with shelly
Shelly limestone
The same like in position 5
limestones
Porous concrete (foam)
15. Expanded clay concrete Expanded clay
Without sand with Wall blocks and panels
porous and glass
16. Agloporite concrete
Agloporite
sand
Notes: 1. Lightweight concretes can have mixed fine aggregate porous of different types (including ash
and ashslag mixtures) and glass sand.
2. Lightweight concretes due to positions 1 5 can have fine aggregate only of glass sand.
3. Lightweight concretes of class 7.5 and less with glass sand can be used as an exception by correspondent
justification by porization more than 6 percent.
4. By test data approved in compliance with the established procedure, for design of concrete and reinforced
concrete structures except mentioned above lightweight concrete there can be used also the following kinds of
concrete: thermolite concrete with thermolite crushed stone or gravel and thermolite or glass sand; concrete with
agloporite gravel and agloporite or glass sand; concrete with ash gravel and glass sand.
5. Concretes foamed by gas (expanded clay gas concrete and other), can be used in walling structures by
corresponding justification approved in accordance with the established procedure.
6. For heat insulation structures of multilayer structures can be used lightweight concretes with intergranular
porosity (coarsepored and finepored without fine graded sand).
ANNEX 2
VALUES AND Ao FOR CALCULATION OF BENDING ELEMENTS STRENGTH
Reinforcement class
, %
AII
B15
12,5
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,55
0,60
0,65
0,70
0,75
0,80
0,85
0,90
0,95
1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2,0
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
0,979
0,969
0,958
0,948
0,937
0,927
0,916
0,906
0,896
0,885
0,875
0,864
0,854
0,843
0,833
0,822
0,812
0,801
0,791
0,770
0,749
0,728
0,707
0,687
0,666
Ao
0,274
0,407
0,536
0,664
0,787
0,908
1,026
1,142
1,254
1,363
1,470
1,572
1,674
1,770
1,866
1,956
2,046
2,131
2,215
2,372
2,517
2,650
2,771
2,885
2,984
AIII
Concrete class
B20
B15
A
Ao
o
0,987
0,276 0,976 0,356
0,980
0,412 0,964 0,528
0,973
0,545 0,953 0,696
0,967
0,677 0,941 0,859
0,960
0,806 0,929 1,017
0,953
0,934 0,917 1,171
0,947
1,060 0,905 1,321
0,940
1,184 0,893 1,467
0,933
1,307 0,882 1,610
0,927
1,427 0,870 1,747
0,920
1,546 0,858 1,879
0,913
1,662 0,846 2,007
0,907
1,777 0,834 2,131
0,900
1,890 0,822 2,250
0,893
2,001 0,810 2,365
0,887
2,110 0,799 2,479
0,880
2,218 0,787 2,585
0,873
2,323 0,775 2,687
0,867
2,427 0,763 2,785
0,853
2,628 0,739 2,967
0,840
2,822 0,716 3,136
0,827
3,009 0,692 3,384
0,813
3,188
0,800
3,360
0,787
3,524
0,773
3,681
0,760
3,830
0,747
3,972
0,733
4,107
0,720
4,234
0,707
4,353
0,693
4,465
0,680
4,50
0,982
0,973
0,964
0,955
0,945
0,936
0,927
0,918
0,909
0,900
0,891
0,882
0,873
0,864
0,855
0,845
0,836
0,827
0,818
0,800
0,782
0,764
0,745
0,727
0,709
0,691
0,663
0,655
Ao
0,275
0,409
0,540
0,669
0,794
0,918
1,038
1,157
1,273
1,386
1,497
1,605
1,711
1,814
1,917
2,011
2,107
2,206
2,290
2,464
2,628
2,781
2,920
3,053
3,176
3,289
3,392
3,485
As =
bh0
100
; As =
B25
0,986
0,979
0,972
0,965
0,958
0,951
0,944
0,937
0,930
0,923
0,916
0,909
0,902
0,895
0,888
0,881
0,874
0,867
0,860
0,846
0,832
0,818
0,803
0,789
0,775
0,761
0,747
0,733
0,719
0,705
Ao
0,360
0,536
0,710
0,880
1,049
1,215
1,378
1,539
1,697
1,852
2,006
2,156
2,304
2,449
2,592
2,732
2,870
3,005
3,138
3,395
3,642
3,879
4,106
4,322
4,528
4,724
4,910
5,085
5,250
5,405
B30
0,988
0,982
0,976
0,971
0,965
0,959
0,953
0,947
0,941
0,935
0,929
0,923
0,918
0,912
0,906
0,900
0,894
0,888
0,882
0,870
0,859
3,847
0,835
0,823
0,812
0,800
0,788
0,776
0,765
0,753
0,741
0,729
0,717
Ao
0,361
0,538
0,713
0,886
1,056
1,225
1,391
1,555
1,718
1,877
2,035
2,191
2,344
2,496
2,645
2,792
2,937
3,080
3,220
3,495
3,761
4,019
4,268
4,508
4,740
4,963
5,178
5,384
5,581
5,770
5,950
6,122
6,285
M
M
; A0 = 2 ,
R sh0
bh0
= 1 0.5
Rs
; A0 =
Rs
Rb 100
100
2. By choosing of reinforcement of class III with diameter 6 and 8 mm values are multiplied by 1.03.
ANNEX 3
DIAGRAMS OF BEARING CAPACITY OF ECCENTRIC COMPRESSED ELEMENTS
OF RECTANGULAR SECTION WITH SYMMETRIC REINFORCEMENT OF
HEAVYWEIGHT AND LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
Symbols:
         by 1l/1 = 0.5.
R A
l0
N
M
; n
; m
; s s s
2
h
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Symbols:
R A
l0
N
M
; n
; m
; s s s
2
h
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Symbols:
R A
l0
N
M
; n
; m
; s s s
2
h
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Symbols:
R A
l0
N
M
; n
; m
; s s s
2
h
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Rb bh0
Notes (for Drafts 1 and 2): 1. Diagrams of Draft 1 can be used by concrete class from 15 to 50 by = ' from
0.05ho to 0,15ho.
2. Diagrams of Draft 2 can be used by concrete class from 10 to 40 by = ' from 0,05ho to 0,15ho.
3. By 1l/1 < 0.5 values as are determined by means of linear interpolation.
4. Values are determined due to the calculation as regards nondeformed scheme without considering
coefficient .
ANNEX 4
Design area of the cross rod, mm2, if quantity of rods is
Nominal
diameter of
a rod, mm
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
25
28
32
36
40
45
50
55
60
70
80
7,1
12,6
19,6
28,3
50,3
78,5
113,1
153,9
201,1
254,5
314,2
380,1
490,9
615,8
804,3
1017,9
1256,6
1590,4
1963,5
2376
2827
3848
5027
14,1
25,1
39,3
57
101
157
226
308
402
509
628
760
982
1232
1609
2036
2513
3181
3927
4752
5654
7696
10055
21,2
37,7
58,9
85
151
236
339
462
603
763
942
1140
1473
1847
2413
3054
3770
4771
5891
7128
8481
11544
15081
28,3
50,2
78,5
113
201
314
452
616
804
1018
1256
1520
1963
2463
3217
4072
5027
6362
7854
9504
11308
15392
20108
35,3
62,8
98,2
141
251
393
565
769
1005
1272
1571
1900
2454
3079
4021
5089
6283
7952
9818
11880
14135
19240
25135
42,4
75,4
117,8
170
302
471
679
923
1206
1527
1885
2281
2945
3685
4826
6107
7540
9542
11781
14256
16962
23088
30162
49,5
87,9
137,5
198
352
550
792
1077
1407
1781
2199
2661
3436
4310
5630
7125
8796
11133
13745
16632
19789
26936
35190
56,5
100,5
157,1
226
402
628
905
1231
1608
2036
2513
3041
3927
4926
6434
8143
10053
12723
15708
19008
22 616
30784
40216
63,6
113
176,7
254
453
707
1018
1385
1810
2290
2828
3421
4418
5542
7238
9161
11310
14313
17672
21384
25443
34632
45243
Theoretic
weight of
1 m of
reinforce
ment
length,
kg
0,052
0,092
0,144
0,222
0,395
0,617
0,888
1,208
1,578
1,998
2,466
2,984
3,84
4,83
6,31
7,99
9,865
12,49
15,41
18,65
22,19
30,21
39,46
Diameter of reinforcement of
classes
AI AII III  BpI
IIIC
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Notes: 1. Nominal diameter of rods for reinforcing steels of periodic profiles corresponds to nominal diameter of plain
rods with equal cross section. Actual dimensions of rods of periodic profile are determined in GOST 578182.
2. Sign "+" means presence of diameter for reinforcement of the present class.
3. theoretic weight of 1 m of the length of reinforcement I is taken equal to: by d = 3 mm 0.055 kg; by d = 4 mm
0.099 kg; by d = 5 mm 0.154 kg.
ANNEX 5
MAIN LETTER SYMBOLS
GEOMETRIC FEATURES
b width of a rectangular section; width of a rib of I and Tsections;
bf, b'f width of a flange of I and Tsections in stretched and compressed zones;
h height of rectangular, I and Tsections;
hf, hf height of a flange of I and Tsections in stretched and compressed zones;
, distances from the resultant of forces in reinforcement S and S' to the nearest surface of
the section;
ho main height of the section equal to h a;
height of compressed zone of concrete;
x
;
relative height of compressed zone of concrete, equal to
h0
s distance between stirrups measured along the element length;
eo eccentricity of longitudinal force N relating to the center of gravity of the section,
determined due to Item 3.3;
, distances from the point of application of longitudinal force N to the resultant of forces
in reinforcement S and S;
es distance from the point of application of longitudinal force N to the center of gravity of the
section area of reinforcement S;
l span of the element;
lo design length of the element under compression longitudinal force; value is taken due to
Table17 and Item 3.55;
i radius of inertia of the cross section of the element relating to the center of gravity of the
section;
d nominal diameter of rods of reinforcement steel;
As, As areas of sections of reinforcement S S;
sw section areas of stirrups located in one plane which is normal to the longitudinal axis of
the element and which crosses the inclined section;
Asw1 section area of the one rod of a stirrup;
s1 section area of the one rod of longitudinal reinforcement;
reinforcing coefficient determined as a ratio between the section area of reinforcement S
and area of the cross section of the element bho without considering compressed and stretched
flanges;
concrete area in the cross section;
Ab section area of the compressed zone of concrete;
Ared section area of the element including area of concrete as well as area of all longitudinal
reinforcement multiplied by the ratio of elasticity module of reinforcement and concrete;
Ired inertia moment of the section of the element relating to its center of gravity;
Wred resistance of the section of the element for end stretched fibre determined as for elastic
material;
D diameter of ring or round section.
fact actual;
inc bent, inclined (inclined);
inf bottom (inferior);
int internal (interior);
lim (limit);
loc (local);
max (maximal);
min (minimal);
ov (overhang);
out (output);
pl (nonelastic) (plastic);
red (redacted);
ser (service);
sh (short);
shr (shrinkage) settlement;
sup (support);
sup (super) top;
tot (total);
web rib or side of a beam.