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Neon S. de Jesus

2012

Introduction

Analysis and design of closed-loop physical systems

Should have learned something about this in previous control system course

desired response is obtained

Digital Computers or controllers are inserted in the system to modify the

dynamics

Introduction

Advantages of Digital Control (vs Analog Control)

Easier to modify controller dynamics

No controller degradation or drift due to aging

Can implement exotic control schemes

More expensive?

Continuous systems are easier to grasp?

Mathematics is a bit more involved

Introduction

Closed-loop system is a system wherein the inputs (forcing functions)

are determined somewhat by the outputs (response) of the system

Introduction

Simple closed-loop system

Plant

Control actuator

Sensors

Controllers (Compensator or filters)

controller

The designer may also be tasked to select what sensors, actuators and

controller is to be used.

The plant is usually known (just model it)

Introduction

Pilot landing an aircraft

The aircraft is the plant

ailerons) and engine thrust

The pilot functions as the sensor (perceptions of environment and

instruments)

The controller is the pilots action based on the perceived error in the flight of

the aircraft

Introduction

For the aircraft system, the pilot is a major part of the control system

(sensor, controller, and actuator)

of the pilot based on specific aircraft

Different aircrafts have different dynamics and inputs

Flying a fighter jet is not the same as flying a commercial passenger airliner

Consider the following control system

Digital computer acting as the controller to achieve the desired response

Digital controller can be microprocessors, microcontrollers,

workstations and other digital devices

programmed into the digital controller

We cannot choose the dynamics of the plant, however, we can

choose the design (in some sense, programming) of the controller

We need to design the controller such that we get the desired

(satisfactory) closed-loop system response

landing system

Satisfactory response can be

A good landing approach

A comfortable ride

No undue mechanical stress on the aircraft

Linear system system where the principles of superposition and

homogeneity apply.

All physical systems are by nature nonlinear. However, most system can be

designed to operate within linear region

to time

Continuous-time system system where the parameter have value

for all instant of time

of time

We will be looking at mostly linear time-invariant discrete-time

systems

We will achieve the control of such systems using digital control techniques

Example. Automatic Aircraft

landing system

aircraft via transmitter

Pitch and bank commands result in a

change in aircraft position

The system has three parts

Aircraft receives commands and takes action

Radar unit measures approximate aircraft position

Controller determines appropriate aircraft commands

Lateral control lateral position of the aircraft

Vertical control altitude to the aircraft

Assume that the control is independent (decoupled)

Bank command input affect only the lateral position

Pitch command input affect only the altitude

The lateral aircraft position y(t) is the perpendicular distance of the

aircraft from the centerline of the runway

The control system tries to force y(t) to zero

We have the sampled value y(kT) of y(t) with T = 50 ms and k = 0, 1, 2

The controller process the

sampled values and generates

(also transmits) discrete-time

bank commands (kT)

the aircraft and clamped by a

data hold

Consequently, the bank

command (t) remains constant

at the last value until a new

value is received

The aircraft responds to the

bank commands and changes

lateral position

The bank command is updated

every T = 50ms

T is termed as the sampling period

Two additional inputs to the system

Wind input w(t) disturbances that affect the aircraft position

Radar noise n(t) sensor noise

Noise and disturbance are unwanted inputs but always present in control

systems

and disturbances. Additionally, the system response should be

acceptable

How to go about designing the controller (i.e. solving the control

problem?)

We must know something about the system

Mathematical relationships between bank command (t), wind input w(t), and

the lateral position y(t) would be helpful

of the plant

For an F4 aircraft, the lateral system model is a ninth-order ordinany

nonlinear differential equation.

For small (t), the system may be viewed as linear, however, it is still ninthorder ODE

The controller should account for the ninth-order ODE model, the wind

disturbance, radar noise, the sampling period and the desired system response

Homework

1. Give one example of a physical control system

2. Draw the block diagram of (1) and give a brief explanation of each

block

3. Review Laplace and z Transform

First quiz will be on Nov. 27, 2012

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