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Definite Integrals

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A Definite Integral has start and end values: in other words there is an interval (a

to b).

The values are put at the bottom and top of the "S", like this:

Definite Integral (from a to b)

At x=1: 2x dx = 12 + C

Example:

At x=2: 2x dx = 22 + C

of 2x dx:

Subtract:

(22 + C) (12 + C)

22 + C 1 2 C

41+CC=3

2xdx

2 xdx 2 2 12 3

definite integrals we can ignore C.

The Indefinite Integral is: 2x dx =

x2 + C

area of the shape:

Example:

3x

5

4 x 1 dx

2x 2 x 1

2 5 5 1 21 1

125 50 5 1 2 1

180 4

176

3

o Reversing the direction of the interval gives the negative of the original

direction.

b

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

a

Example:

2x 2

2x 2

3

2

2x 2

2x 2

2

3

(18 8)

(8 18)

10

10

o When the interval starts and ends at the same place, the result is zero:

f ( x)dx 0

Example:

2x 2

2x 2 3

(18 18)

0

Adding intervals

o We can also add two adjacent intervals together:

f ( x) dx f ( x)dx f ( x) dx

Example:

2x 2

2x 2

2x 2

2x 2

(32 8)

24

10

2x 2

2x 2

(18 8)

=

4

3

(32 18)

+

14

Application: Work

In physics, work is done when a force acting upon an object causes a displacement.

(For example, riding a bicycle.)

If the force is not constant, we must use integration to find the work done.

We use:

b

W f ( x)dx

a

f ( x) 2 x 1

Example:

Find the work done if a force

moves it from x = 1 to x = 5.

2 x 1dx

u 2 x 1 & du 2dx

du

dx

2

1 5

2 x 1dx u 2 du

2 1

1 2

u2

2 3

3

x 5

x 1

3

1

2 x 1 2

3

1

1

9 2 12 27 1

3

3

3

26

8.67units

3

Average

f ( x)dx

ba

b is given by:

Example:

Find the average value of x(3x2 - 1)3 from 0 to 1.

x(3x

0

1) 3 dx

In this case, ba=1, so to find the average value, we simply need

to evaluate:

Observing the graph, we notice that it has value near 0 for most values

of x between 0 and 1. We estimate the value of the average to be somewhere

around y = 0.5.

1

x(3 x 2 1) 3 dx

x 1

1 x 1 3

u du

6 x 0

4 1

1 u4

1

2

3

x

1

0

6 4 x 0 24

1

2

2

(31 1) (3 0 1) 4

24

u 3 x 2 1 & du 6 xdx

1

15 5

16 1

du

24

24 8

xdx

0.625units

6

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