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Qazvin Seminar on

Selective coordination
of power systems
Tehran, 26 27 January 2008

Lecturer:
Gerhard Ziegler
Siemens Erlangen

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.

Seminar Contents:
1. Tasks and principles of power system protection
2. Typical protection schemes
3. Protection of MV and LV Distribution networks
4. Transformer protection
5. Basics of Current and Voltage transformers

Page 1

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Tasks and Principles


of
Power System Protection

Page 2

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Tasks of Power System Protection


Protection cannot prevent faults,
but:
minimise the consequences
by:
fast and selective tripping of the
faulted system component
automatic reclosing in case of
transient faults
providing information for fast fault
analysis and system restoration in
case of permanent faults

This would not have happened with appropriate protection!

Page 3

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Requirements on system protection

Fast means:
As fast as necessary,
i. e. tripping of short-circuit within the critical fault clearing time
(z. B. <100 ms in transmission networks)
to minimise damage and to ensure system stability
Negative example:
Reliable means:
New York dark (1965 u. 1977)
Reliable tripping in case of internal faults
(high availability,no under-function)
Reliable non-tripping, in case of load or external faults
(high security, no over-function)
Selective means:
Tripping of only faulty system components,
leaving the healthy parts in service to continue energy supply

Page 4

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Typical protection objects

Generators

< 1MVA to 1500 MVA

Transformers

0,1 MVA to 1000 MVA

Busbars

MV to EHV

Lines

1kV to 750 kV

Motors

Page 5

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

ca. 100 kW to ca. 20 MW

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Fault current, influencing factors


(three phase short-circuit as an example)
Infeed

Load

Line

Example (RF neglected):

1,1 110kV
= 70kV
3
110kV 2
= 2,4Ohm
ZS =
5000MVA

E=

ZS

E
E=

1,1 U N
3

ISC-3-ph

ISC

USC
2

U
ZS = N
SK ''

ZSC

RF

Z SC = z L ' [Ohm / km] l (km)

Z SC = 0,4[Ohm / km] 20(km)


= 8Ohm
70kV
(2,4 + 8,0)Ohm
= 6,7kA

ISC-3-ph =

E
=
ZS + ZSC + RF

Short-circuit power of the infeed (source impedance ZS)


Line impedance to fault location (short-circuit impedance ZSC)
Fault resistance (RF)
Neutral earthing (earth current limitation, e. g. to 2 kA)
Page 6

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Fault currents: Ph-Ph and Ph-E short-circuit

Generator

Transformer

Busbar

Load

Grid

In case of ph-ph faults, the short-circuit current is


normally much higher thn the load current.
The earth short-circuit current can be higher or lower
than laod current dependent on system neutral
earthing and the fault resistance.
High resistance neutral earthing: IE< 10% of nominal
CT current

Page 7

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

IE

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Earth fault System neutral earthing

ZE

ISC

Compen
sation
coil

ICE

Free
star point

ICE

ILE

Low impedance (solid) grounding


Earth fault = short-circuit
ZE=0: normal over-current
protection trips .
ZE>0 (IE < In):
Sensitive earth-current step
(0.1 to 0.5 x In) required
Page 8

2007-08

Compensated

Isolated system

Earth fault = no short-circuit


Small current service can be continued
Fault indication by sensitive directional earth
fault relays
Normally no tripping, only alarm
Manual tripping

Author: G. Ziegler

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Capture of earth-current IE und and neutral displacement


voltage UE for earth-fault protection

IE

Core
balance
CT
60/1 A

IL1
IL2
IL3

ZE

IE

For sensitive
directional
earthfault relaying

IE

UE

I E = I L1 + I L2 + I L3
Page 9

2007-08

UL1
UL2
UL3
Mp

Author: G. Ziegler

U E = U L1 + U L2 + U L3
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Typical Fault criteria

Overcurrent I>
Earth-current IE>
Undervoltage U<
Unterimpedanz Z<
Overvoltage U>
Leakage (Differential) current I
Over- and Under-frequency
Current unbalance (negative sequence current I2>)
Special criteria for machine protection

Page 10

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Protection Criterion: Overcurrent


Applicable when:

ISC-min > 2,5 x Iload-max.


ISC-min

Infeed

I>, t2

I>, t1
Iload-max.

Add-on criterion: Time (t) (to gain selectivity)

Protection methods:
Fuse
Definite time (DT) over-current relay
Inverse time (IT) overcurrent relay

Page 11

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

DT
Fuse

IT

ISC

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Typical fault causes

Line faults
Atmospheric impact (lightning, icing, wind)
Growing plants (trees, bush fire)
Mechanical impact (crane, flying objects)
Thermal overload (too large sag of line conductors)

Cable faults
Insulation flash through (for example due to water treeing, water in cable sealings)
Mechanical damage (for example during digging works )
Thermal overload

Power transformer faults and instrument transformer failures


Insulation failure (due to aging, transient overvoltages)
External short-circuits
Thermal overload

Busbar faults
Short-circuits caused by foreign objects (dropping line conductors, animals)
False switching actions (e. g. switching to earth, opening an isolator under load)

Page 12

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Causes of Faults
German Disturbance Statistics, 1986

20 kV:

110 kV:

380kV

18042
2385
357 disturbances
(13 per 100 km) (4,9 per 100 km) (3,4 per 100 km)
of which:

of which:

of which:

60 %

31 %

51 %

11 %

4%

4%

foreign impact

2%

5%

8%

internal reasons

23 %

40 %

11 %

no obvious reason

4%

20 %

26 %

reaction from other networks

Page 13

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

atmospheric impact

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Fault types

3-phase short-circuit

3-phase interruption

HV

EHV

5%

1%

2-phase short-circuit
25 %

2-phase interruption
6%

1-phase earth short-circuit


70 %

Page 14

2007-08

1-phase interruption

93 %

Author: G. Ziegler

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Requirements on system protection


Fast means:
As fast as necessary,
i. e. tripping of short-circuit within the critical fault clearing time
(z. B. <100 ms in transmission networks)
to minimise damage and to ensure system stability
Negative example:
New York dark (1965 u. 1977)

Reliable means:
Reliable tripping in case of internal faults
(high availability,no under-function)
Reliable non-tripping, in case of load or external faults
(high security, no over-function)

Selective means:
Tripping of only faulty system components,
leaving the healthy parts in service to continue energy supply
Page 15

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Overcurrent protection,
Fuses, Current limitation

Maximum possible assymetric peak


on bolted fault without fuse

Fault occurs

Peak let through current

Time

b
c

Page 16

2007-08

a = Melting time
b = arcng time
c= Total clearing time

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


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Overcurrent protection,
Fuses, Coordination

Minimum melting time

Time

Infeed

Maximum clearing time


Fuse

t2
Fuse 2
Fuse 1

t1
Fuse 1
I

Current
Criteria for fuse-fuse coordination: t1< 0.75 t2

The maximum clearing time of main fuse 1 should not exceed 75% of the minimum
melting time of the backup fuse 2.
Page 17

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Overcurrent protection,
Current-Time graded Protection : (Example definite time)

20 MVA

20 kV

100 kV
Grid

1700 A
0,7 s I>, t

Time
grading

1700 A
0,4 s

I>,t

6000 A

350 A
3500 A

0,3 s
I>,t

1 MVA

M
I>,t
0,7 s

1700 A
0,1 s I>>,t0
150 A I>,t
1,0s

0,1 s
I>>,t

0,3 s
I>,t

I>>,t

Current
grading

3500 A

ISC

1700 A
350 A

A
Page 18

2007-08

B
Author: G. Ziegler

150 A

I>>C,
I>A, I>B
I>C

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Protection criterium Impedance

The relay determines the impedance:

Z = U/I

from voltage and current at the relay location.

In the fault case, the

measured impedance
corresponds to the fault
distance

I
Grid E

Page 19

2007-08

ZL

RF

Z2, t=0,4 s

Time is used as

additional criterion
(for selectivity and
backup)

ZS

Z1, t=0
Operating

characteristic:

Author: G. Ziegler

Fault
area

Load
area

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Distance protection: Graded zones

Infeed

Z<

Z<

Z3

t3
Z2
t2
Z1

t1
A

Page 20

2007-08

B
Author: G. Ziegler

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Line protection using communication (Signal transmission)


Absolutely selective! Instantaneous fault clearance on 100% line length

Forward

U
N
D

ZOR-A

Forward

Protection
Relay A

Protection
Relay B
Communication
(Signal transmission)

ZOR-B

ZOR-B

U
N
D

ZOR-A

Protection range

ZOR-A

ZOR-B

Page 21

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Options for signal transmission

Wire
- Short distances up to 20 km (50/60 Hz oder voice frequency),
(Influence of ground short-circuit currents to be considered)
- Pilot wire differential protection, distance teleprotection, protection command transmission

PLC (Power Line Carrier))


- up to 400 km
- for transmisiion of binary (YES/NO) signals
- distance teleprotection, protection command transmission

S/R

S/R

Microwave 2 - 10 GHz (digital)


- up to about 50 km (Sight connection)
- Digital communication (n times 64 kbit/s), Line differential protection,
Digital line differential protection, Distance teleprotection, protection command transmission

- Optic Fibers
- Digital communication (n times 64 kbit/s), PCM coded data transmission
Save against electromagnetic interferance,
- Direct relay-to-relay communicatin up to ca 100 km with dedicated fibers
- Communication via data communication networks
-Digital line differential protection, Distance teleprotection, protection command transmission
Page 22

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Principle of Differential Protection


Detection of a leakage (current difference)

I1
i1

I2
Protected
object

I>

2007-08

Protected
object

i2
i1

I=I1 - I2
=0

I>

I=I1 + I2

i2

External fault or load


(Through flowing current)

Page 23

I2

I1
i1

i2

Leakage
current

Author: G. Ziegler

Internal fault

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Stabilised Differential Protection

Node criterion (Kirchhoffs law): I1 + I2 + I3 + ... In = Idiff = 0;


I 0 Fault
In creased security by current dependent restraint:
|I1|+|I2|+ ... |In| = Irestraint
Operating characteristic:
Iopertion = Idiff kIrestraint

Idiff

Protection
objekt

Trip
Istab

Advantage: Absolute zone selective (zone borders are CT locations)


Disadvantage: No backup protection for external faults
Application:
Differential protection for Generators, Motors, Transformers,
Lines/Cables and busbars
Page 24

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Pilot wire differential protection

I1

I2

Current differential
I2

Three pilot wires

up to ca. 15 km

I1
I1

Two pilot wires


(Twisted pair)
up to ca. 25 km

Page 25

2007-08

I2

Voltage comparison
I

U1

Author: G. Ziegler

I
U2

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Digital line differential protection


using data communication

Line differential
relay
87L

I1

I2

O.F.

Modem

Dedicated optic fibers


up to ca. 100 km
Communication
options

G703-Interface

Other
Services

Page 26

2007-08

PCM
MUX

Line differential
relay 87L
O.F.

Modem
G703-Interface

Data communication
network

Author: G. Ziegler

PCM
MUX

Other
Services

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PTD SE PTI

Transformer differential protection

I
*)

ZweiwickelTrafo

87T

87T

87T

*)

*)

Zweiwickel-Trafo
mit doppelter Einspeisung

DreiwickelTrafo

*) Intermediate CTs for ratio- and vector group adaptation (not necessary with digital relays,
as they perform these functions internally by numerical calculation )

Page 27

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer Differential Protection


Three-phase function diagram

UA

L1

IA1

IB1

L2

IA2

IB2

L3

IA3

IB3

(110 kV)

UB
(20 kV)

Digital relays contain:


Adaptation of
I

7UT6

Voltage ratio(s)
UA / UB
vector group(s)
e.g. Ynd1

Numerical adaptation

Page 28

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Busbar differential protection

Digital Protection 7SS52

Electromechanical and
static relays 7SS10/11/13

I Central Unit
Optic
fibers

BU

BU

BU

BU

0
BU: Bay Unit

M
Grid
infeed

Page 29

Consumers

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

M
Grid
infeed

Consumers

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Protection of multiple busbar configurations


Double busbar as an example

Bus 1
Bus 2

Isolator
Replica

I1
I2

Page 30

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

The digital busbar protection (7SS5)


uses a software based isolator replica.
Contact switching is therefore no more
necessary!
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.
PTD SE PTI

High impedance differential protection: Principle


Behaviour during external fault
with CT saturation

with ideal current transformers

RCT

ISC

RCT

ISC

ISC

ISC

UR

ECT 1 = (RL + RCT ) iSC

ECT 1 = 2 (RL + RCT ) iSC

UR = 0
ECT 2 = (RL + RCT ) iSC

Page 31

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

U R = (RL + RCT ) iSC

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High impedance differential protection: Principle


Behaviour during internal fault

Em

10%

UKN

RCT

ISC

RCT

ISC

50%

URS

Relay set point


= IR-pick-upRR
ImR

Im

CT requirement:
UKN 2 times URS
E CT 1 = U KN

Page 32

U R U KN

2007-08

E CT 2 = U KN

Author: G. Ziegler

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High impedance differential protection:


Calculation example (busbar protection)
Given:

n = 8 feeders
rCT = 600/1 A
UKN = 500 V
RCT = 4 Ohm
ImR = 30 mA (at relay pick-up value)

Pick-up sensitivity:

RR = 10 kOhm
Ivar = 50 mA (at relay pick-up value)

Stability:

I F min = rCT I R pick up + IVar + n I mR

I F min =

RL= 3 Ohm (max.)


IR-pick-up.= 20 mA (fixed value)

600
(0.02 + 0.05 + 8 0.03)
1

I F min = 186 A (31% )

I F through max < rCT

I F throuh max <

RR
I R pick up
RL + RSW

600 10,000

0.02
1
3+ 4

I F through max < 17 kA = 28 I n

Page 33

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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High impedance differential protection:


Application notes
HI protection can only be used for a galvanically connected circuit
(not for transformer differential protection!)
Other protection relays cannot be connected in series as the CTs
saturate heavily in case of internal faults
Special CT requirements:
CTs must all have the same ratio and construction, normally Class
PX according to IEC 60044-1 with low secondary resistance and
leakage reactance
A voltage limiting device (varistor) may be necessary because high
voltage occurs in case of internal faults
Preferred Application cases:
Restricted earth fault protection (winding earth-fault protection)
Differential protection of single busbars
Differential protection of motors and generators

Page 34

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Backup protection

Remote backup
Infeed
Protection

Protection

Backup zones

Local backup
Infeed

Protection

Protection

Protection

Protection

Local
Backup protection

Page 35

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Breaker
failure
protection

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Local backup protection

If the circuit breaker fails,


the infeeding CB is tripped after tBFP

t BFP=100-200ms
dependent on CB time
and I> reset time

I>, t

I>, t

I>, t

BFP

BFP

BFP

I>

AUS
&
t BFP

Trip

Page 36

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

BFP
Logic

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Protection system

CTs and VTs

Circuit breaker
600 A

110
kV

Wiring
1A

100
V

Distance protection
Battery

Protection relay

S
R

Remote end

Communication

Each system is only as strong as its weakest component !

Page 37

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Current and Voltage transformers

i1

i1 w1 = i2 w2

Load

w1

w1

u1

w2

u2

w2

u1 u 2
=
w1 w2

i2

Protection relay

Page 38

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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PTD SE PTI

Current transformers for protection

Current transformers
transform from primary to 1 or 5 A secondary
define the position of the relay

Relays can be connected


in series to the CT cores

define the border of the protection range


87 BB

21

CT burden in operation:

POB = Pleads +

On transmission level, each main protection


is connected to a separate CT core (redundancy),
for example 87BB and 21

CT cores
Page 39

PRe lays

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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PTD SE PTI

Current transformer:
Principle, transformation ratio, polarity

i1

i2

i1
w1

u1
i2

u2

i1 w1 = i2 w2

Function principle
i1

u2

u1 u 2
=
w1 w2

w2

u1

Polarity marks

P1

P2

i2
i1

u1

i2

u2
S1
Equivalent electrical circuit

Page 40

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

S2

Designation of CT terminals
according to IEC 60044-1
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PTD SE PTI

Design of protection CTs

CT standard: IEC 60044-1: 5P oder 10P


CT specification:

300/1 A

Pi = I sec .2 R CT

5P10, 30 VA RCT 5 Ohm

Ratio: In -prim. / In -sec.

Rated power (Rated burden) PRB

5% Accuracy
up to I= ALF x In

Accuracy limit factor ALF

The accuracy limit factor in operation depends


on the actually connected burden:
Pi + PRB
Accuracy limit in operation:
ALF' = ALF
Pi + POB

Auslegungskriterium:
I
ALF' SC max . K TF
In

KTF (Transient overdimensioning factor) considers the dc offset of the


short-circuit current ISC, (Relay specific requirements, as provided by the manufacturer)

Page 41

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Voltage transformes for protection

Voltage transformers (VTs)


are necessary for
Direction determination
Impedance measurement,
Distance to fault location

100
V
110 kV / 100 V / 100 V /
3

Open delta winding

Micro circuit breakers

Power measurement
Synchro-check
and Synchronising
U<, U>, f<, f> protection

Earth fault relaying


Protection 1
Protection 2
Measurement

Practice:
 In distribution: VTs only at the busbar(s)
 In HV and EHV: VTs at each feeder
 Sezification according to IEC60044-2
1% accuracy sufficient for protection

Page 42

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Auto-reclosure
Fast clearance of transient faults

Trip
1-pole
3-pole

Close Open

Close

Open
finally

CB On

Distribution:
Further 40 %
successful

CB Off
tSC-1

Short ARDead time

tK2

Long ARDead time

2nd shot

1st shot

Page 43

2007-08

Tgrading time

Author: G. Ziegler

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Success rate of Auto-reclosure


(German utilities, 1986)

In Germany:

Disturbances
per 100 km line length
68,5%

15

10

MV:

3-pole AR ( multi-shot)

HV:

3-pole AR

EHV:

1-pole AR

Self extinguishing earth faults

59,1%

Unsuccessful AR
85,3%

Successful AR
89,1%

Page 44

2007-08

95,1%

Author: G. Ziegler

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History of applied protection technology

Electromechanical Technology

Analog electronic Technology

Digital Technology
1950

Page 45

1960

2007-08

1970

1980

Author: G. Ziegler

1990

2000

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Historic development of relay design (HV)

statisch
StaticAnalog
(analog
electronic)

digital
digital

elektromechanisch

electromechanical

Page 46

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Legacy relaying technology


Rectifier bridge comparator
with moving coil relay

Induction relay

I1

I2

Protection
object

I1
i1

I Re s

i1

i2

Page 47

2007-08

Op

Author: G. Ziegler

i2

IOp

I Re s = k (I 1 I 2 )
I = I

I2

Protection
object

I Op = I 1 + I 2

+
Re s

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Digital relay structure

Tripping

A
AI
BO

MP

Alarms

System
BI

Serial
interfaces

Signal from
remote line end

Page 48

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Capture of measuring data (principle)


1ms

IN=1A oder 5A
UN=(100...125V)/3
1

Input
data

S&H

L1
L2
L3
E

2007-08

Digital values

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
A

Analog

Page 49

UL1
UL2
UL3
UE

MUX

UL1
UL2
UL3
UE

L1
L2
L3
E

1kHz
clock
1
1

S&H Sample & Hold


MUX Multiplexer
A/D Analog/Digital-Converter

Digital

Author: G. Ziegler

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PTD SE PTI

Sampling theorem
Requirement: fmax <

a) Spectra

fS
2
x(f)

x(f)

- f S/ 2

fS/ 2

fA

- f S/ 2

f S/ 2

fS

Sampling theorem violated!

Sampling theorem fulfilled!

b) Sampling of different waveforms (fS = 400Hz)


x(t)

x(t)

x(t) = sin (f50,t)

x(t) = sin (f 350,t)

t/ms

t/ms

Page 50

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Dynamic range of A/D conversion


15 bit + sign A/D converter 15 Bit= 215 =32.768 steps resolution
The measuring error corresponds to LSB (Last Significant Bit)
Currents:
15

Voltages:

32.768 steps = 100 x IN

15

234 steps = 1.0 V


Error: 0.2 % of the measuring
value

33 steps = 0.1 x In
Error: 1.5 % of the measuring
value

Page 51

1 step = 0.00305 x IN = 0.3 % x IN

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

32.768 steps = 140 V

1 step = 0.00427 V

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Fourier analysis of measured values

Processing with two


orthogonal filters

Sampled signal i(t)

I(k) = IS(k) + j IC(k)

10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000

IS =

1
2

2,000

I ( t) sin t dt

- 360

0,000
0

20

40

60

80

100

-2,000
-4,000
-6,000

1
IC =
2

Page 52

2007-08

I ( t) cos t

dt

- 360

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Fourier analysis: Filtering characteristics

Half cycle (10 ms at 50 Hz)

Full cycle (20 ms at 50 Hz)


1

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

Page 53

50 100

200

2007-08

300

400

500Hz

Author: G. Ziegler

50 100

200

300

400

500Hz

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Fourier transform
Determination of Voltage and current phasors
Time
domain

diL (t)
uL (t) = RL iL (t)+ LL
dt
1
Re{UL } =
T

+T/2

uL(t) cos(0 t )dt

T/2
+T/2

1
Im{U L } = uL (t) sin(0 t )dt
T T/2

U L = Re{UL }+ jIm{UL }

T
2

T
2

+T/2

1
Re{I L } = iL (t) cos(0 t )dt
T T/2
+T/2

1
Im{I L } = iL (t) sin(0 t )dt
T T/2

I L = Re{I L }+ jIm{I L }

UL = UL [cos( t + U ) + jsin( t + U )] = UL e j(t+U)


IL = IL [cos( t + I ) + jsin( t + I )] = IL e j(t+I )

t=0
Data window

U L = U L e j U = U L e j t U

Frequency
domain
U = tU

I L = I L e j I = I L e j t I
I = t I
t=0

Page 54

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Fault impedance calculation


from complex U- and I-phasors for distance protection
Impedance plane

U L = U L e j U = U L e jt U

IL

UL e

t =0
jU

I L e jI

U L j(U I )
e
IL

2007-08

R L = Re{Z L } =
X L = Im{Z L } =

= R L + jXL

Page 55

XL
Z = U I

I =tI

ZL =

ZL

I L = I L e jI = I L e jt I

U = tU

UL

RL

Author: G. Ziegler

UL
cos( U I )
IL
UL
sin ( U I )
IL

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Differential protection with current phasors (principle)


A

IA

IB

Protection
Object

I
trip

I
IA

jIAS

restraint

I>

I
Operating quantity :

I = I A + I B

Restrainin g quantity : I = I A + I B

IBC
IAC

jIBS

IB
Page 56

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Power System Protection:


Digital relay design (different manufacturers)

Page 57

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Modern digital protection relay, design

Modem

Modem

Page 58

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Relay series SIPROTEC 4


Communication interfaces (1)
PC-interface,
front side
electric RS 232

Analog output 20 mA or
teleprotection interface
electric or optic

System interface
electric or optic
IEC60870-5-103,IEC61850, Profibus FMS,
DNP3.0 or Modbus;
alternatively analog output 20 mA

Page 59

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Service interface
electric RS232 / RS485
DIGSI 4 / modem
Time synchronisation
GPS (IREC-B)
or DCF-77

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Relay series SIPROTEC 4


Communication interface (2)

Teleprotection 1

Teleprotection 2
IEC 870-5-103
61850, Profibus
DNP, Modbus,

Local
control

Remote
operation
Local
operation

Page 60

2007-08

GPS Synchr.

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Main processing bord


and communication interface modules (SIPROTEC 4 relay series)

O.F.
Double
ring
Exchangeable
communication
modules
Wired
IEC61850
Ethernet
100 Mbit

Page 61

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Development of relay processing hardware

Begin of
delivery

Relay
generation

Memories
RAM/EPROM

Bus
width

Clock
frequency

Processing
power

1992

SIPROTEC 3

256/512 k

16 bit

16 MHz

1.0 MIPS *)

2000

SIPROTEC 4

32 bit

80 MHz

35 MIPS *)

512k/4MB
+ 4MB D-RAM

*) MIPS: Million Instructions per second

Page 62

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Digital Relay, Data aquisition


SIPROTEC 4 relay series

Sampling rate:

1000 Hz (1200 Hz at 60 Hz nominal frequency)

Samples per period:

20

Anti-aliasing filter:

500 Hz (600 Hz) limiting frequency

A/D-conversion:

16 bit, corresponding to 65536 steps

Measuring value storage:

15 s

Program language:

C/C++

Page 63

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Multi-function digital relay


Example Feeder protection

Close

Trip

Backup
prot.

59

25

79

ST

21

FL

FR

49

67N

85

59
25
79
ST
21
FL
FR
M
49
67N
85

Overvoltage
Synchro-check
Auto-reclosure
Control
Distance protection
Fault locator
fault recording
Measurement
Overload
Directional EF protection
Teleprotection supplement

Modem
Remote
line end

Page 64

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Combined Protection and Control devices

Scope of functions:

Protection
Monitoring
Measuring (Load monitoring)
Control
Automisation
Data capture and storage
Communication

Page 65

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Distribution Switchgear Innovation


One IED replaces a conglomeration of black box devices
Traditional panels
with mechanical relays and control

Page 66

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Modern panels with


digital multifunction relays

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Relays as components of Substation Automation

Remote relay
opertion

Substation
control

Office
DIGSI

DIGSI
central relay
opertion

Telefon/Modem
connection
Ethernet, IEC 61850

Modem

RUN

7SJ61-0000ERRORDE

RUN

7SJ61-0000ERRORDE

DIGSI
Local relay
opertion

F1
F2
F3
F4

Page 67

2007-08

7
4
1
.

8
5
2
0

9
6
3
+/-

Author: G. Ziegler

F1
F2
F3
F4

7
4
1
.

8
5
2
0

9
6
3
+/-

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Relay communication options

Protection using
communication

Mobile Service

50 100
%

I
O
V

50 100
%

I
O
V

Intranet
ISDN, Internet
Engineering
Office
0

50 100%

Substation control

I
O
V

Local operation
Page 68

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

PC controlled relay operation

Page 69

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Software marshalling matrix

Page 70

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

PLC (Progammable logic control)

Page 71

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Digital relays: Fault reporting

Detailed information
for fault analysis

Fault history
Time tagged event recording
Fault recording
Distance to fault

Fast fault clearance


SIGRA
Fault analysis Programm

Short outage times

Page 72

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Protection examples

Page 73

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

ANSI Device function numbers


(Selection of most important functions)
51, 51N

Time delayed phase and earth overcurrent protection

50, 50N

Instantaneous phase and earth overcurrent protection

21, 21N

Phase and earth fault distance protection

85

Supplement (Logics) for teleprotection

87

Differential Protection

87N

Earth differential protection (Restricted E/F protection)

27

Undervoltage protection

59

Overvoltage protection

79

Automatic reclosing

81

Frequency protection

49

Overload protection

46

Unbalanced load protection

Page 74

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Line protection, Overview

OH-lines

Cables

MV:

Radial: I>, t 51
Ring: I>-directional, t 67
Meshed: Z< 21

IL+ I>, t

HV:

Z< with communication 21


+ I>-directional, t 67

EHV:

2 x Z< 21 + 21
or IL + Z<

87

+ 21

51
if signalling links available,
else as OH-lines

IL + Z< 87

21
with communication

IL + Z<

87

21

each with communication

each with communication


Page 75

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Earth fault protection

Solid grounding

Earth fault current Phase short-circuit current:


Earth overcurrent, distance, differential protection
Sensivity IE>: 0.25 to 0.5 x In

Impedance grounded
Same as above
but higher sensivity: 0,1 to 0,2 x In

High impedance grounded


Special earthfault protection necessary!

isolated

Page 76

Compensated
(Peterson coil)

2007-08

UE> for alarming (20 to 50% of 3xU0)


Sensitive directional earth current relays (10 to 50 mA)
Core balanced CTs required

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Application of Time-Overcurrent Protection


Example: Radial feeders with Definit Time O/C relays
0.4 kV
20 kV

1 MVA

1 MVA
3 MVA

100 kV

30 MVA

I>, t

t = 1,0 s

I>>
I>, t

I>, t

I>, t

t = 0,7 s

t = 0,4 s

tI>> =0,1 s
tI> =tLV+ 0,4 s

Fuse

Page 77

Advantage: Simple relays, no VTs required

I>, t

51

Disadvantage: Tripping time increase in


infeed direction

I>>
I>, t

50

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

51

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Application of Directional O/C Protection


Example: Ring network
x
I>>
I>, t
x

x
I>, t

t = 1,2 s
x
I>, t

I>, t
t = 0,0 s
x

x
I>, t

t = 0,0 s

I>, t

t = 0,8 s
x

I>, t

t = 1,2 s

tI>> =0,1 s
tI> =tLV+ 0,4 s

t = 0,4 s
x
I>, t

I>, t

t = 0,4 s

t = 0,8 s
x
I>>
I>, t

Page 78

2007-08

tI>> =0,1 s
tI> =tLV+ 0,4 s

Author: G. Ziegler

x
I>>
I>, t

tI>> =0,1 s
tI> =tLV+ 0,4 s

I>, t

I>, t

I>>
I>, t

50

I>, t

I>, t

51
51
67

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Application of Distance Protection


Example: HV Double circuit lines

x
Z<

Z<

Z<
x

Z<

Z<

t1 = 50 ms

t1 = 50 ms

Z<

x
Z<

t1 = 50 ms

Z<
t1 = 50 ms

Advantage:

Instantaneous fault clearance on protected line


and backup for folloeing lines
Disadvantage: Higher cost

Page 79

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Application of line differential protection


Example: Cable feeders

Backup

Backup

x
x

Backup

Backup

t = 0ms

I>, t

I
87L
Backup

Page 80

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Pilot wire differential


or
Digital differential with
optic fibers
MV:

I>, t

51

HV:

Z<

21

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Protection of distribution transformers

> ca. 500 kVA

< ca. 500 kVA


Short-circuit and
overload protection

HH-Fuse
Type: GTr

Short-circuit and
overload protection

I>>
I>, t
2

Relay

I t

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Page 81

LV-Fuse
or
?
LV-CB with I>, t

LV-Fuse
or
LV-CB with I>, t

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Protection of larger transformers

I>>
I>, t

50

51

Main protection:
Current differential

>

Overload protection

I>, t

Backup protection
Time-overcurrent

>

Thermal monitoring

BU

Gas pressure relay


(Buchhulz relay)

>

>

BU

49
87T

Page 82

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Busbar protection

Single busbars
without feedback

Single busbars
with feedback

Multiple busbars

MV:

I>, t
with reverse
interlocking

Busbar
differential

Busbar
differential

HV/
EHV:

Busbar differential

Busbar differential

Busbar differential

High impedance type

High impedance type


or
Low impedance type

Low impedance
type

High impedance differential protection requires special Class X current transformers!

Page 83

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Busbar protection
Reverse interlocking method
Infeed
I>, t

Blocking

t0= 50ms
t2= 0.3 s

I>, t1
+
I>

I>, t1
+

I>

I>, t1
+

I>

Feeder protection blocks 50 ms element of infeed protection and trips faulted feeder

Infeed 50 ms step trips bus as there is no protection pick-up in the feeders

Page 84

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Dual service with transformation


Choice of protection ranges

Infeed 1

Page 85

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Infeed 2

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI

Dual service with transformation


Protection functions
79

79

A
Infeed 1

87L

87B
50
50N

21

87N

51
51N

51
51N
T>

T>

BU

BU

D
51
51N

87B
51
51N

2007-08

50
50N

21

87T

87N

51
51N

51
51N

Author: G. Ziegler

Infeed 2

87L

87B

87T

Remote
end

Page 86

Remote
end
51
51N

87B
51
51N

51
51N

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


PTD SE PTI