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ECE-3201

Rating:

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

I.

OBJECTIVES:

1. To compare DC and AC voltages and currents

2. To study the voltages and current in an AC circuits

II.

DISCUSSION:

Alternating voltage is when a current changes direction as well as magnitude,

while pulsating direct current is when current varies in magnitude but never reverses in

direction of flow through a circuit.

The waveform of alternating currents may have different shapes and may be

periodic, which occur at regular time, and aperiodic, occur at random time. One type of

alternating current wave is the sine or sinusoidal wave.

The time period (T) of a wave determines how many waves occur per second.

Frequency (f) of the wave is the number of cycles completed in one second. Amplitude is

used to denote the magnitude of current or voltage change in a cycle or wave. Amplitude

sine waves can be expressed in several ways, (a) peak amplitude is when the

magnitude of the variation measured from horizontal axis of the wave to its highest peak,

(b) peak-to-peak amplitude is when the magnitude is measured from negative peak to

the highest positive peak, (c) average amplitude is obtained by averaging all

instantaneous values occurring during half an alternation, and (d) root mean square

(rms) or effective amplitude is when instantaneous value were squared before

averaging, the minus sign from the negative alternations would disappear.

Commercial power today is distributed as alternating current with a frequency of

60 Hz (cycles per second). An advantage of using alternating current is that its E/I ratio

can be changed with transformers, whereas with direct current this is not possible. In

additional, AC machines may be built in larger sizes and the cost of transmitting AC

power is lower.

III.

AC voltmeter

AC ammeter

Lamp, 220 V, 25 W

Lamp, 12 V, 25 W

3F capacitor

1 H inductor

IV.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the 25 W lamps across 12 V AC and 12 DC, which lamp is brighter?

2. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 10.2. the source is 220 V AC.

Measure and record the voltage across the lamp and the capacitor.

Measure and record the current.

3. Change the source in the step 2 to 220 V DC. Compare the brightness of the lamp in

step 2 to 3.

4. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 10.3. measure and record the voltages across the

lamp and the inductor. Measure and record the current.

5. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 10.4 Measure and record the voltages across the

two lamps. Measure and record and the current.

6. Using a VOM, measure the resistance of the inductor and capacitor

V.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VI.

Step 1:

Step 2: E (lamp) = 175 V, E (capacitor) = 158 V, I = 0.06 A

Step 3: Theres no light in DC source

Step 4: E (lamp) = 233 V, E (capacitor) = 28 V, I = 0.07 A

Step 5: E (10 W lamps) = 164 V, E (5W lamps) = 67 V, I= 0.08 A

Step 6: R (inductor) = 45.8 , R (capacitor) = infinite

VII.

PROBLEMS

1. Describe the differences between the current that exist in the wires leading to a

capacitor when these wires are connected to a) a DC source and b) an AC source.

a) When a capacitor is in DC voltage, current leaves the source and charges the

capacitor. A large current initially exists and decays to zero current. This is why an

ohmmeter measures infinite resistance. It uses a small DC voltage and measures

the corresponding current. If the corresponding current is zero, the resistance is

infinite. In the case of a capacitor, it is eventually zero current.

b) When connected to an AC voltage source, the capacitor and the source

resistance of the source form a low pass filter. At frequencies low enough (below

Capacitive Reactance), the voltage across the capacitor is nearly the source voltage.

At frequencies near capacitive reactance, the filter shifts the phase of the signal 45

degrees and reduces the amplitude to 70.7% of the original amplitude. At high

frequencies, the capacitor starts behaving like a direct connection, and the voltage

drop approaches zero.

2.

Explain why the resistance of the capacitor is infinite when measured with an

ohmmeter.

Because you are charging the capacitor with the test voltage of the meter when it

is set on resistance, the capacitor will climb in resistance reading until it levels off

then flip flop your leads and it will decay

3. A resistor and capacitor are connected in parallel and the combination is connected

to 120 V DC source. Determine the voltages across the resistor and capacitor.

each component is equal to DC source which is 120 V.

4. A 60 Hz AC circuit has a voltage of 120 V and a current of 6 A (effective value). What

are the peak to peak values of this voltage and current?

Peak-to-peak Value (current) =

( ( 2 ) ( I ( rms ) ) ) (2)

( ( 2 ) ( 6 ) ) (2)

12 2

( ( 2 ) ( V ( rms ) ) ) (2)

( ( 2 ) ( 120 ) ) (2)

240 2

5. A capacitor is frequently placed across 110V line to reduce the noise in radios. What

is the smallest voltage rating such a capacitor have?

The radio has coils inside it (which are inductances); the capacitor is put so that

at a certain frequency, Resonance occurs between L & C (inductance and

capacitance). When resonance occurs the capacitive effect cancels the inductive

effect so noise is suppressed. The net impedance is purely resistive.

VIII.

CONCLUSION

Alternating current describes the flow of charge that changes direction periodically. As

a result, the voltage level also reverses along with the current. Rather than oscillating back

and forth, DC provides a constant voltage or current.

The voltage of alternating current can be easily controlled with transformers; this is the

type of electricity generated by power stations. The transformers raise the voltage to make it

easier to transmit over long distances, and then lower the voltage for safer use in homes

and buildings.

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