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TEXTBOOK

Flight Controls

020 00 00 00 AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE


021 05 00 00 FLIGHT CONTROLS

RH

LH
ELEVATOR

RUDDER
AILERON

NU

TRIM
AIL

RUD

E
L
E
V

ND
ROLL

ROLL
GND

GND
FLAPS

12
12

20

10

32

FLIGHT HYDR
CONTROL

SYSTEM 1 / 3
ENGINE FUEL

NEXT
RNG

Flight Controls

Table of Contents:

Flight Controls (construction and operation) _______________________________ 3


Primary Flight Controls _________________________________________________ 5
Secondary Flight Controls _____________________________________________ 24

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Page 2

Flight Controls

Flight Controls (construction and operation)


As mentioned earlier four forces act upon an aircraft in flight in other words lift,
thrust, weight, and drag. These four forces are connected as follows.

LIFT
DRAG

THRUST
WEIGHT
Lift depends on the wing area and the forward speed.

The higher the speed the greater the lift will be. Drag depends on the area
expose to the airflow. It also increases with speed. Thrust depends on the engine
power available and the weight of the aircraft. In flight in other words with the
same power setting thrust increases as weight decreases.
At the same time the amount of lift required decreases as the weight decreases
to keep the aircraft in level flight.

T
H
R
U
S
T

W
E
I
G
H
T

L
I
F
T
TIME

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Flight Controls

An aircraft has three axis of control: the longitudinal axis, the lateral axis, and the
vertical axis.
The longitudinal axis runs along the center of the fuselage from the nose to the
tale. Movement about this axis is called rolling. The aircraft is set to roll.
The lateral axis run spanwise from wing tip to wing tip. Movement about this axis
is called pitching. The aircraft is set to pitch.
The vertical axis passes vertically through the center of the aircraft. Movement
about this axis is called yawing. The aircraft is set to yaw.

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Page 4

Flight Controls

Primary Flight Controls


Flight controls are proudly classified into primary controls, and secondary
controls.
The primary flight controls are used to move the aircraft about one of the three
primary control axis.
The three primary flight controls and resulting movements are: ailerons for rolling
operated by rotation of the control wheel.
Elevators for pitch operated by fore and aft movements of the control column.
Rudder for yawing operated by the rudder paddles.

Mark the three primary flight controls

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Flight Controls

Longitudinal control is exercised by means of elevators.


These are hinge-mounted at the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer.
The elevators are operated by fore - and aft - movements of the control column.
In the neutral position of the control column the elevators are also at neutral.
The aircraft maintains a steady altitude.
If the control column is moved back, the elevator is moved up. This creates an
increase of down-force at the tail, making it move down.
This down-movement of the tail causes the nose of the aircraft to move upwards.
The aircraft assumes a climbing attitude.
If the control is moved forward the elevators move down.
There is an increase in stabilizer down-force, which causes the tail to move
upwards. When the tail moves up, the nose of the aircraft moves down and the
aircraft assumes a diving attitude.

The elevator is a displacement control device.


This means that pitch displacements are aposed by aerodynamic damping in
pitch and by the longitudinal stability. The response to an elevator deflection is a
steady change of pitch attitude.
This emplies that the elevators must be kept in a certain position to obtain an
maintain a certain pitch attitude.
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Page 6

Flight Controls

Lateral control is exercised by means of ailerons which are hinge mounted to the
trailing edge of the wing.
In the control wheels neutral position the ailerons are also at neutral.
The aircraft maintains a steady lateral attitude wings level condition because
there is no difference between the lift of the left and that of the right wing section.

If the control wheel is moved to the right, the right aileron is displaced upwards
and at the same time the left aileron is displaced downwards.
The upgoing aileron reduces the lift at the right wing causing the wing to slightly
descent. The downgoing aileron increases the lift at the left wing which results in
an upgoing of the wing.
This causes a rolling moment to the right and the aircraft assumes a banking
attitude to the right.
The opposite effect is obtained if the control wheel is moved towards the left.

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Flight Controls

The ailerons are rate control devices.


This means that any rolling moment is always apposed by an aerodynamic
damping force.
A steady rate of roll is obtained when the actual rolling moment and aerodynamic
damping are in the state of balance.
To sum up movement of the aileron is only required to initiate a certain rate of
roll. When the required bank is reached they should be returned to neutral to
maintain the selected bank angle.

ROLLING MOMENT

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Flight Controls

Directional control is exercised by means of the rudder. It is hinge mounted to the


trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer.
The rudder is operated by moving the appropriate rudder paddles.
Pushing the left paddle moves the rudder to the left, pushing the right paddle
moves the rudder to the right.
In both cases the airflow behind the vertical stabilizer is changed, making the tail
move to the right or left.
The response of the aircrafts nose is into the opposite direction. I. e. into the
direction of the paddle used.
RUDDER PEDALS

RUDDER

The rudder is a displacement control device.


The yawing movement set up by a rudder operation is always opposed by
aerodynamic damping forces and in herend directional stability.
When these forces are in balance a steady state of yaw is kept up.
To sum up the rudder must be kept in a certain position to obtain a selected state
of yaw.
In practice the aircraft is turned with the combined effects of ailerons and rudder.

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Page 9

Flight Controls

The primary flight control systems of the Fairchild Dornier 328 Jet.
The aircraft primary flight control system consist of conventional ailerons,
elevators and rudder.
The primary control surfaces are moved manually by linkage systems consisting
of cables, pulleys, levers and rods.
The secondary flight controls consist of the aileron trim, the elevator trim and the
rudder trim systems and trailing edge flaps.

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Page 10

Flight Controls

Dual controls in the cockpit are installed for the three primary flight controls.
In addition the elevator and aileron control runs are each equipped with a
disconnect unit which allows the captain's and first officer's controls to be
disconnected from each other should one control run become jammed.
FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS
Elevators

Dornier
328

Pilot

Co pilot
Yokes

Disconnect unit
Disconnect unit

Conventional ailerons

The rudder pedals drive a Flettner-type spring tab on the trailing edge of the
rudder.
At airspeeds up to 160 knots the rudder is
deflected by aerodynamic servo reaction from
the tab.
The rudder itself is not connected to the rudder
pedals directly except at airspeeds above 160
knots.
This arrangement limits the rudder deflection at
higher airspeeds

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Flight Controls

"Fairchild Dornier 328 Jet Aileron system"


The aircraft is controlled about the roll axis by a conventional aileron control
system.
The ailerons are operated manually by dual control wheels, or by signals from the
automatic flight control system (AFCS) when the aircraft is flying under automatic
control.
A Flettner-type servo tab, which provides aerodynamic assistance to reduce pilot
effort, is installed on each aileron.
The LH aileron tab can be electrically trimmed.

The linkage from the control wheels to the ailerons is an system of pulleys,
cables, quadrants, push-pull rods, levers and bellcranks.

pulleys, cables

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Quadrants

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Page 12

Flight Controls

push-pull rods

levers

Bellcranks

The captain's and first officer's aileron control runs are joined by a disconnect
unit.
This unit allows the two control runs to be separated by the application of higher
than normal input forces, should one control run become jammed.
The aileron linkage in the LH and RH wings is also mechanically connected to the
LH and RH roll spoiler actuators.
The maximum Aileron movement is 30 up and 25 down.

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Flight Controls

The position of each aileron is indicated by a blue synoptic on the FLIGHT


CONTROL page of the EICAS.
If the transmitter signal is invalid, the blue synoptic is replaced by an amber X.
Under normal operating conditions the LH and RH aileron synoptics are joined by
a white bar.
The bar changes to amber if the aileron disconnect unit is activated.
In addition, an aileron disconnected message will be displayed on the CAS field.

RH

LH
ELEVATOR

RUDDER
AILERON

NU

TRIM
AIL

RUD

E
L
E
V

ND
ROLL

ROLL
GND

GND
FLAPS

12
12

20

10

32

FLIGHT HYDR
CONTROL

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SYSTEM 1 / 3
ENGINE FUEL

for Training only

NEXT
RNG

Page 14

Flight Controls

"Dash 8 Elevator control system"


Pitch control consists of two independent elevator control circuits.
The Pilots control column operates the left elevator. The Co-pilots column
operates the right elevator.
The two control columns are normally interconnected, by a shaft.

So simultaneous movement of both elevators is provided.


In the case of a jamming elevator, the two systems can be disconnected from
each other. Limited pitch control is provided by the remaining elevator.

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Flight Controls

Each system consists of the control column, the output-quadrant, and a the cable
circuit. Routed in the under floor compartment, to the tail cone up in the vertical
stabilizer, to the terminal quadrant.

Please mark: the elevator, the push rod, the input lever and the torsion spring
The quadrant is connected to the elevator via a push rod, the input lever, and the
torsion spring. Via a torque tube, and a push rod, the elevator spring tab is
connected to the quadrant. A trim system is provided for each elevator.

C
O
N
T.
L
O
C
K

OFF

E
L
E
V
A
T
O
R
T
R
I
M

E
M
E
R
G
N U

T
O

FLT
IDLE

PARK

DISC

N D

TRIM LT.

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ON

B
R
A
K
E

P
O
W
E
R

MAX
REV

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MAX

P
R
O
P

5
MIN

U
N
F
E
A
T
H
E
R

F
L
A
P
S
10

START&
FEATHER

15

FUEL
OFF

35

Page 16

Flight Controls

The two elevators are mounted independently of each other.


Each elevator is mounted on the trailing each of the vertical stabilizers.
The elevator horn on the outboard end, provides aerodynamically assistance.
The horn carries internal mass balance weights, to balance the elevator.
The horn is electrical heated to prevent ice build up.
Bumper stops are located on the inboard side, to limit the maximum deflection.
A spring-loaded gust lock latch is also secured to this fitting.

A spring tab is hinged to the inboard trailing edge of each elevator. The spring tab
provides aerodynamic assistance to the elevator movement.
With the aircraft on ground and the absence of air load the input movement from
the column, is transmitted directly to the elevator, via the torque shaft.
The elevator makes the full movement, and the spring tab moves just a little.

Aerodynamic assistance

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Flight Controls

In flight, air load on the elevator, opposes the input force of the pilot.
This produces a twisting movement on the torque shaft. Which is transmitted via
the torque tube to the spring tab.
The spring tab deflects in the opposite direction of the elevator.
Aerodynamic assistance is provided. Maximum tab deflection is limited by crank
stops. At further movement of the column the elevator is moved directly.

In the event of a jammed elevator, the left and right system can be separated by
the pitch disconnect system.

P
I
T
C
H

Pitch Disconnect System

The system is controlled by a vertically mounted handle; on the center consol.


In normal position the clutch is engaged. A spring retains the clutch to the clutch
plate, to connect the pilots and co-pilots control columns positively.

Pulling the handle, draws back the clutch lever and cam assembly.
The turning calm pulls the clutch from the clutch plate. The two columns are now
separated and move independently.
Turning the handle 90 degrees locks it in this position. Turing the handle back 90
degress, and releasing the handle, allows the springs to force the clutch-to-clutch
plate. The clutch reengages if the column are aligned.

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Flight Controls

"FD 328 JET Rudder control system"


The aircraft is controlled about the yaw axis by a manually operated rudder
control system. At low airspeeds the rudder is moved by the aerodynamic effects
of a Flettner-type spring tab located on the lower trailing edge of the rudder.
Movement of the rudder pedals drives the tab in the opposite sense to the yaw
command and aerodynamic effects from the tab move the rudder in the
commanded sense.

At airspeeds above 160 KIAS the spring tab is locked and therefore aerodynamic
assistance for rudder commands is no longer available.
The pedal assemblies are then effectively connected directly to the rudder and
flight crew commands are not assisted by the spring tab. This limits the rudder
deflection at high airspeeds and prevents structural overload conditions.
The spring tab can be unlocked and the limiter actuator disabled by manually
operating a switch in the flight compartment.
A facility for testing the actuator is also provided.

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Page 19

Flight Controls

The rudder control subsystem consists of the following components:


-

LH and RH rudder pedal assemblies

LH and RH pedal adjustment assemblies

control cables, pulleys, rods, levers and bellcranks

LH and RH forward quadrant assemblies

pressure bulkhead fairleads

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Page 20

Flight Controls

aft quadrant assembly

spring tab lever assembly

torsion bars

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Page 21

Flight Controls

rudder limiter actuator

TEST TAB LOCK switch/light


ENG MAINT
SEL
LH
RH

NORM MAINT NORM MAINT

ENG SYNC
MSTR SEL

LH

TEST
TAB
LOCK

RH

RUD LIMIT switch/light

REFUEL QTY

TREND

EXCEED

+
IMT/FDR

rudder position transmitter

various controls and indicators

G
N
D

R
U
D

S
P
O
I
L

L
I
M
I
T

RUDDER NOT LIMITED

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Page 22

Flight Controls

various circuit breakers and control relays.

AVIONICS
ELEC

STBY
ATT

STBY
ALT/ASI

STBY
INST LTS

EM
PWR

GCU
2

RMU1
PRI(23)

DAU
CH 1B

DAU
CH 1A

DAU
CH 2A

MFD
1

EICAS

IAC
1

ADC
1

FD/AP&DISP
CTL1

TONE
GEN1

BACK-UP
BATT

AOA/STALL
WARN LH

DC TIE
IND

TRU

INV
1

RMU2
AUX(U1)

AHRS1
AUX(F1)

IRS2
AUX(M5)

PFD
2

MFD
2

15

10

15

15

15

10

15

7,5

15

15

15

COM
2

ADF
1

AUDIO
3

FMS
CDU

STBY RUD
LIMIT(B12)

STBY AIL
TRIM(B10)

STBY ELEV
TRIM(B9)

ELEV
TRIM(B7)

AIL
TRIM(B6)

RUDDER
TRIM

RUDDER
LIMIT(B5)

GND SPOIL
B

GND SPOIL
B

FLAPS

HGS
OHU

HGS
HCP

HGS
COMP

RAD ALT
1

CLR DLY
HEAD

NAV
1

DME
1

ATC
1

COM
1

PAX
BRIEF

PAX
ADDRESS

AUDIO
1

IAC
2

ADC
2

10

7,5

7,5

10

7,5

10

REFUEL
RH

NRM A-SKID
PRIM

NWS

AP SERVO

YD
SERVO

ALT A-SKID
SEC

GEAR
RETRACT

GEAR
EXTEND

FUEL
XFEED LH

ELPMP
LH

JETPMP
LH

FUEL SOV
LH

FIRE DET
LH

FIRE BOT
LH

APU FIRE
DET

APU FIRE
BOT

FIRE DET
RH

FIRE BOT
RH

FUEL SOV
RH

JET PMP
RH

ELPMP
RH

FUEL
XFEED RH

DAU
CH 2B

AHRS2
PRI(F2)

25

25

DIMMER
AUX(V5)

NAV
LTS

HYD PRSS
IND A

BRK COV

HYD PRSS
IND B

FADEC A
LH

CONT IGN
IND LH

IGN
LH

15

AVIONICS
B
COMNAV FL

FUEL LDG
AP LTS

LTS LDG
AP LTS

LDG LTS
LH1

LDG LTS
LH2

ECS OXY
ICE ENG

20

ENG BLEED
LH

ECS PACK
LH

CLOCK
1

7,5

FLOW MODE CAB TEMP


PRI(X2)
CTL

WARN PANEL WARN PANEL NRM A-SKID


PRI(X7)
AUX(X7)
PRIM

CAB PRSS
PRI(X7)

TTO 1
LH

TTO 1
RH

10

OXYG

10

WIPER
LH

FADEC B
LH

WS HEAT
SIDE LH

HYD STBY
PMP AUTO

VIB MTR
LH

HYD STBY
PMP MAN

MLS
1

AOA
HEAT LH

EL HORN LH
RUD HORN

PITOT
HET LH

OIL PRSS
LH

DE ICE
BLEED LEAK
PRESS LH
DET LH

START B
LH

START A
LH

7,5

X BLEED
AUX(X3)

BLEED LEAK
DET RH

10

10

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

BUS 1

ICE PROT
AIRF CYCLE

PFD
1

DE ICE
PRSS RH

7,5

7,5

ICE PROT
AIRF SGL

START B
RH

7,5

TAT
HEAT

IGN
RH

WS HEAT
FRONT LH

CONT IGN
IND RH

FADEC A
RH

OIL PRSS
RH

CAB PRSS
DUMP

CAB PRSS
BACKUP

FADEC B
RH

WS HEAT
SIDE RH

ENG A-ICE
LH

PROXI
A/1

PROXI
B/1

15

7,5

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

ESSENTIAL BUS

ICE
DET

START A
RH

RMU1
AUX(A7)

26

LDG LTS
RH 1

27

LDG LTS
RH 2

AVIONICS
ELEC

AVIONICS
FLCOM/NAV

AVC LTS
FUEL FIRE

HYD LTS
CPCS ENG

ECS PROXI
ENG ICE

20

BUS 2

28

Rudder control system position indicating and fault monitoring is provided on the
EICAS and on the MFD flight control system page.
Rudder position indication is provided by the rudder position transmitter
potentiometer, which sends its signals to data acquisition unit 1 for processing.
The position of the rudder is indicated by a blue synoptic on the FLIGHT
CONTROL page.
If the transmitter signal is invalid, the blue synoptic is replaced by an amber X.

Rudder position transmitter


potentiometer

RUDDER LIMIT FAIL


0.0

END

0.0

N1

22

21

ITT

0.0

0.0

CABIN
22 C

1200 FT
50 FPM

N2
NU

OIL
TEMP
OIL
PRESS

0
0

FF LBS/HR
FQ

LBS

ND

0
750

MAIN
REF
DATA

COPY

EICAS

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AHRS

MSG

MFD (MultiFunction Display)

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Page 23

Flight Controls

Secondary Flight Controls


This table compares the different highlift device designs.
The plain flap, the split flap and the slotted flap increase the lift by increasing the
camber of the wing airfoil. However, the deflection of a flap or camber increase is
limited by the airflow separation or stall of the boundary layer.
The slotted flap allows for a larger deflection or additional lift as the slot forms a
jet which adds energy-rich air to the energy-starved boundary layer on top of the
flap.
This thins the boundary layer and helps the airflow to follow the flap contour.
Maximum Lift increase Speed range increase
_______
V max
at full deflection
V min

Different types of high lift devices

Normal Airfoil

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Plain Flap

55 %

51 %

Split Flap

65 %

63%

Slotted Flap

71%

42 %

Fowler Flap

93 %vv

83 %

Slat

37 %

35 %

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Page 24

Flight Controls

The fowler flap has the advantage of the slotted flap, but by moving rearward on
tracks it actually increases the area of the wing.
Most fowler flaps initially or in the take-off position move back without downward
deflection. When the approach and landing positions are reached the deflection
increases progressively.

"Tripple slotted flap" This is an example of a wing with triple-slotted flaps and
slats in the cruise position. Slat, fore-, mid- and trailing flap segments are fully
retracted and form a high speed airfoil with minimum drag.

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Page 25

Flight Controls

Slat

Fore Mid Trailing

In the take-off position the slat and the flap segments are partially extended for
additional lift, but still have low drag in order to achieve fast acceleration and
short take-off run.
In the landing position slat and flap segments are fully extended for maximum lift
and maximum drag to allow a steep angle of descent at low speed.

"Different flap designs"


The Airbus A 300 B uses a fore- and trailing flap.
The fore flap is mounted on a flap carrier, the trailing flap hinged on the fore flap.
A screw jack moves the flap assembly along the carrier in the aft direction.
Once the rear carrier stop is reached, the flap assembly deflects downwards with
the trailing flap extending even further to increase the drag.

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Page 26

Flight Controls

The DC 10 also uses a fore and trailing flap combination.


Here the flap assembly is hinged externally and the fore flap is attached to the
trailing flap through a rail. As hydraulic actuators pivot the fore flap in the hinge,
the fore flap extends along the rail and forms a slot.

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Page 27

Flight Controls

On the Boeing 707 fore- and trailing flaps are one unit with a fixed slot.
The flap assembly extends along a curved rail.
The lower flap shroud on the wing is hinged and moves upward to improve the
airflow through the slot during flap extension.

The Cessna, as an example of a small aircraft, uses a dual roller system on the
single flap support arm.
These two rollers follow individual slots in a guide rail.
The upper and lower slots are initially parallel which allows aft movement of the
flap.
Towards the last third of the travel the upper slot is curved down and the lower
curved up which deflects the flap downwards.

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Page 28

Flight Controls

A single, cockpit-operated, electric motor drives a single screw jack connected to


control rods. A cable circuit assures symmetrical operation on both wings.

Aft roller

Fowler Flaps
FLAP
Control cables
Control rods

Forward roller

Screwjack
Electric Motor
Flap select lever

Flap 0

CESSNA
"Slats and leading edge flaps"
A wind tunnel experiment shows us the need for high lift devices on the leading
edge. Smoke is used to visualise the airflow over a flat plate.
Using a bend in the plate to simulate flap deflection the smoke trail is deflected
downwards.
As a result of the so-called pre-orientation of flow the airflow ahead of the plate is
also deflected downwards. This increases the angle of attack and especially on
fast airfoils with a small nose radius can lead to an early stall. To reduce this
effect leading edge flaps or slats are commonly used.

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Page 29

Flight Controls

SMOKE TRAIL
MARKER

SMOKE JET

PLATE

SMOKE TRAIL
MARKER

SMOKE JET

PLATE

"Leading edge flaps"


Leading edge flaps fold down when the trailing flaps are lowered.
The drooped leading edge is hinged at the bottom and when extended maintains
a smooth surface on top of the wing.
The Kruger flap is a hinged panel hinged slightly aft of the leading edge.
During extension an additional hinged portion folds out and forms a new leading
edge.
Both types of leading edge flaps actively increase the camber of the wing. Both
devices can be operated by hydraulic actuators or mechanical screw jacks.

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Page 30

Flight Controls

"Slats"
The Slat forms the leading edge of the wing when retracted.
When it is extended the slat increases the camber of the wing and forms a slot
that directs high-energy air over the top surface of the wing to prevent stalling of
the airflow at high angles of attack.
Slats can be mechanically or hydraulically operated.
On some fighter airplanes and small airplanes the operation of the slats is
automatic as a result of aerodynamic forces.

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Page 31

Flight Controls

"Flap system of the Dash 8"


The wing flap system consists of two segments on each wing.
The flap selector transfers the input via a cable circuit, to the flap power unit.
The flap power unit is powered by the number 1 hydraulic system and operates
the flaps via a flap drive system.
A flap setting of 5, 10, 15 and 35 is available on the Dash 8-300.

The wing flap system consists of a drive system, a control system, and four flap
sections.
The inboard flap is located between the fuselage and the nacelle.
The outboard flap is located between the nacelle and the aileron.
The flap position can be seen on the flap position indicator on the co pilots panel.

F
L
A
P
S
10

0
15

DEG

35

35

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5
15

FLAP

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Page 32

20

Flight Controls

The flap control system is operated by the flap selector.


The detente cam provides settings from 0 degree in the full forward position, via
5, 10, and 15 degrees to 35 degrees in the full aft position.
To change the flap setting, the trigger must be pulled, to lift the cam follower.
At the next position the trigger must be released.
The cam follower will engage in this position.

The Quadrant transmits the movement via a cable circuit to the hydraulic flap
power unit.
The cable circuit is routed from the cockpit under-floor, up behind the copilot to
the ceiling. and in the ceiling backwards to the center wing area, up to the flap
power unit.

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Page 33

Flight Controls

The flap drive system consists of the flap power unit, the primary drive system
and the secondary drive system.
Four ball screw actuators in each wing drive the flaps.
One transfer gearbox on each side, connects the secondary drive to the primary.
The torque sensor unit will illuminate a caution light, if the secondary drive is
used.
Five flap tracks, on each wing support the flaps.

TRANSFER
GEARBOX

INPUT
PULLEY

PRIMARY
DRIVE
COUPLING

FLAP POWER
UNIT

TORQUE
SENSOR

COUPLING

SECONDARY
DRIVE
COUPLING

POSITION
SENSOR

POSITION
SENSOR

OUTBD
FLAP
NO. 4
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

NO. 3
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

NO. 2
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

OUTBD
FLAP

INBD
FLAP

INBD
FLAP
NO. 1
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

LEFT WING

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TRANSFER
GEARBOX

NO. 2
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

NO. 3
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

RIGHT WING

for Training only

Page 34

NO. 4
BALLSCREW
ACTUATOR

Flight Controls

"Dash 8 Spoiler control system"


The roll spoilers augment the ailerons in providing lateral control.
They are hinged to the trailing edge of the wing.
The spoilers extend 75upwards when fully deflected.
The system is hydraulically operated by the number 1 system for the inboard
spoilers, and the nr. 2 system for the outboard spoilers.
The spoilers rise in parallel with the up-going aileron.
At speeds above 140 knots only the inboard spoilers operate.

The spoilers are controlled from the pilot's control column.


Rotary movement of the pilot's control wheel is
transmitted by a chain and sprocket mechanism
to a lever on the base of the column.
The lever is connected to the spoiler quadrant via
a push rod.
The quadrant integrates a tension regulator.
The tension of the roll spoiler cable to the splitter
quadrant is maintained constant under all
temperature conditions by the tension regulator.

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Flight Controls

"Ground spoilers and speed brake system of the Embraer 145"


The outboard surfaces provide the speed brake and ground spoiler functions,
while the inboard surfaces provide only the ground spoiler function.
The spoiler surfaces are made of composite material, and the subsystem is
hydraulically actuated and electrically controlled.
The control of the ground spoiler function is automatic during the landing and
rejected take off.
The speed brake function is controlled by the pilot.
TO CONFIG
PRESS
AND
PULL

PRESS
AND
PULL

GUST

CHECK

LOCK

GO AROUND

MAX

GO AROUND

THRUST SET
ELEV
DISC

AIL
DISC

CLOSE

SPEED BRAKE

IDLE

UP

FLAP
OPEN

P
U
L
L

18

18

A
N
D

22

22

R
O
T
A
T
E

45

45

EMERG/PARK
BRAKE

DOWN

The operation of the ground spoiler is automatic during the landing and rejected
takeoff procedures.
With the aircraft on ground, the ground spoiler logic receives the first signal from
the landing gear proximity switches.
When the wheel speed gets up to 25 knots of the turning speed, the speed
sensor sends the second signal.
When the pilot moves the two thrust levers to below 30, the spoiler control unit
will operate the spoiler surfaces to open.

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Page 36

Flight Controls

The indications of the spoilers on the EICAS display are:

The spoiler OPEN or CLOSED


END

ALT T/0 1

indicating the surfaces condition.

35.0

35.0

The SPOILER FAIL indicates a

490

failure found in the spoiler control


unit.

490

55
450 KGH
1500 KG

There is also an aural warning

55
450 KGH
1500 KG

message TAKE OFF SPOILER

DN DN DN
0

when the pilot tries a takeoff with

86 86

70 70

the spoiler surface open

1210
0.0
0
103%

630

To operate the speed brake, the aircraft must have engine thrust lever angles
below 50, flaps set to 0and the airspeed below 202 knots IAS.
In these conditions, when the pilot operates the speed brake lever, the spoiler
control unit commands the outboard spoiler surfaces to open.
If one of these conditions does not occur, and the pilot operates the speed brake
lever, the EICAS display will show the caution message SPEED BRAKE LEVER
DISAGREE and the surfaces remain closed.

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Flight Controls

"Dash 8 Trim control systems"


A trim tap is hinged on the inboard trailing edge of the right aileron.
The trim tap is electrically operated and controlled by the trim switch.
The actuator is installed in the aileron and connected to the trim tap by an
adjustable push rod.
A position potentiometer sends a signal to the indicator next to the switch.
Pressing LEFT WING DOWN releases the internal magnetic brake and extends
the actuator. When the switch is released to neutral, the magnetic brake
operates, arresting the actuator movement. Pressing right wing down retracts the
actuator.

RIGHT AILERON

TRIM TAB
+

AIL
TRIM

NOSE
R

LWD

RWD

R
W
D

L
W
D
AILERON

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RUDDER
TRIM

TRIM
L

RUDDER

Page 38

Flight Controls

A trim tab is mounted on the outboard trailing edge of each elevator.


The trim tab is operated manually from the trim hand-wheel, on the center consol.
The movement is transmitted via chains to the cable circuit in the under-floor
compartment, to the tail cone.
Up in the vertically stabilizer, to the horizontal stabilizer.
The trim actuator converts the rotary movement of the cable in a linear
movement, to adjust the trim tab.
Elevator trim indication is accomplished mechanically. A spiral on the inside face
of the pilots hand-wheel converts rotary movement to linear movement of the
pointer.

Elevator Trim Tab System

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Page 39

Flight Controls

A standby elevator trim system is provided. In the event of a trim cable fracture
forward of servo, electrical trim can be accomplished.
The servo of the auto flight control system is used for this feature.
Selecting the guarded switch on the pilot's side panel arms the system.
Now either control switch on the co-pilots or pilot's side can be used to activate
the trim.

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
PNL LTG

PLTS
FLTPNL
OFF

OFF
OFF BRT
ARM
S
T
D
B
Y

O
F
F

NOSE
DOWN

E
L
E
V
A
T
O
R
T
R
I
M

TEST
PROPELLERS
OVERSPEED

COPLTS
FLTPNL

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
PNL LTG
OFF

BETA BACKUP TEST


P/L SW 1
P/L SW 2

OFF BRT

BACKUP

ADC
TEST 1

STALL
WARNING
TEST 1

TEST 2

TEST 2

BACKUP

STDBY ELEVATOR TRIM


NOSE DOWN
STEERING

INPH

XMIT
NOSE UP

NOSE
UP

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