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CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF NORTH


SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, CIVIL CONSTRUCTION AND
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

Development of a multimedia learning environment for learning


the structure area in the careers of the Faculty of Architecture,
Construction and Civil Engineering

AUTHOR: JUAN MUSIC Tomii


DATE: MARCH 2005
E-Mail: JMUSIC@UCN.CL

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

Development of a multimedia learning environment for


learning the structure area in the careers of the Faculty
of Architecture, Construction and Civil Engineering

Summary
In the Department of Civil Engineering at the Catholic University of the North, we have
incorporated various software for the design of structures. Among them we can
mention the ETABS, SAP and SAFE.
The classes give students the theoretical and practical, for the management of new
design tools and their application to new technologies and current market trends
knowledge.
To achieve this goal, we set out to develop learning environments based on
multimedia technologies, aportasen a number of positive elements, from a
pedagogical point of view, the assimilation of knowledge necessary for the student to
work proficiently within and commented design tools.
As part of this work, we have prepared these notes and added material developed,
which is delivered on a CD, to facilitate student learning in the area of structure.
Here is exposed in a clear and concise manner, how to use the ETABS and SAP
software.
It is important to note that to use software properly prerequisite is mastering the theory
in which the program is based. Without it, it is neither possible nor advisable to use
any program.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

Development of a multimedia learning environment for


learning the structure area in the careers of the Faculty
of Architecture, Construction and Civil Engineering
1) Introduction
The approach to teaching structural analysis is changing rapidly due
to the profusion of use and availability of the computer. The ever lower costs and ever
increasing computing capacity have had, as expected, a positive effect on structural
analysis programs. The number and variety of programs for the analysis and design of
structures has grown at the same pace as computers have been developed. It is very
likely that one or even several programs such as SAP2000, ETABS, Visual Analysis,
STAAD / Pro, RISA, GT-Strudl, Robot, Cypecad and others, are today in all offices
calculation and design.
In tune with the times, the group of teachers in the area Structure of the Department
of Civil Engineering at the Catholic University of the North, has implemented and
continues to consider changes in the content of their courses of analysis and design.
In particular, it is putting more emphasis on analysis of undergraduate courses in the
stiffness matrix method.
Technological changes in education in general and in structural engineering are
inevitable and irreversible and makes no sense to oppose them; on the contrary we
should accept and adopt them judiciously and intelligent. Current students were born
and grown up immersed in the age of computers and generally feel very comfortable
with the use of computers. It is therefore logical and reasonable to exploit these
opportunities to improve their technique.
Mentioned it before, but provides us with a powerful tool, it is important to reflect on
the use (and abuse) of structural analysis programs. As opportunity to appreciate later
be taken, it is possible for a user to create a model of a relatively complicated structure
and analyze for different load conditions very easily and with minimal knowledge of the
subject. However, this can have very negative and even catastrophic consequences.
Like any professional or experienced teacher knows, it is impossible (and dangerous)
to replace the expertise and years of study with a computer. It is well known English
adage "garbage-in, garbage-out". In other words, the results delivering a computer
program are as bad (or good ...) as data is entered.
Using the computer to optimize the design to be feasible to consider various structural
systems, geometry or sections for the same structure in a reasonable time. You can
also increase the structural reliability to power relatively easily considered various
scenarios or combinations of loads beyond the minimum required by code. The same
goal is achieved by the analytical model closer to the actual structure making it more
sophisticated and detailed (eg considering dimensional effects, etc.). By reducing the

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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time for analysis and design, efficiency and hence the competitiveness of an
engineering company is benefiting.
All this is possible through the use of professional programs for structural analysis.
What can not be replaced by a computer is the effort behind years of study and good
engineering judgment. Therefore, our basic philosophy in teaching art and science of
structural engineering has not changed. All students must learn and understand clearly
the assumptions and simplifications are made to create a model, or method of
calculation. Must be able to play hand what the computer can do to a simple structure,
including the famous diagrams of internal forces and moments. Must be able to
determine if the test results, either by hand or machine, make sense or not.
Methodology should know and be able to calculate the loads (dead, live, wind,
earthquake, etc.) for analysis of the structure. You should know the differences
between the various structural systems and how they work. Only once you have
mastered these aspects (and maybe one other not cited), the student or professional
is trained to use successfully and productively as powerful a tool as a structural
analysis program. Therefore, if the programs are used by people who have solid
knowledge of the conceptual foundations of the methods used and their assumptions
and apply their experience and good structural criteria, these are a good tool support
engineer.
In the Department of Civil Engineering at the Catholic University of the North, we have
incorporated various software for the design of structures. Among them we can
mention the ETABS, SAP and SAFE.
The classes give students the theoretical and practical, for the management of new
design tools and their application to new technologies and current market trends
knowledge.
To achieve this goal, we set out to develop learning environments based on
multimedia technologies, aportasen a number of positive elements, from a
pedagogical point of view, the assimilation of knowledge necessary for the student to
work proficiently within and commented design tools.
As part of this work, we have prepared these notes and added material developed,
which is delivered on a CD, to facilitate student learning in the area of structure.
Here is exposed in a clear and concise manner, how to use the ETABS and SAP
software.
It is important to note that to use software properly prerequisite is mastering the theory
in which the program is based. Without it, it is neither possible nor advisable to use
any program.

2) Practical Manual for using the ETABS program


Exposed, then the main aspects to learn and master the use of ETABS program.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

5
a) General Aspects
ETABS is a program of structural analysis and design based on the finite element
method, with special features for analysis and structural design of buildings. The
numerical methods used in the program design procedures and international design
codes allow you to be versatile and productive, whether it is designing a twodimensional gantry or performing a dynamic analysis of a high-rise building at the base
insulator.
b) Fundamental Concept
ETABS works within an integrated data system. The basic concept is that you create a
model system consisting of flat and vertical systems and side porch (or wall system) to
analyze and design the entire building. All that is needed is to integrate the model into
a versatile system analysis and design with an interface. No external maintenance
modules and not worry about data transfer between modules. The effects on a part of
the structure due to changes elsewhere are instantaneous and automatic.
c) Variety of Options Analysis
The analysis methods include a variety of options for static and dynamic analysis. The
integrated model can include systems, steel beams, resisting frames, complex
systems of shear walls, slabs of rigid and flexible floor, sloping roofs, ramps and
parking structures, trusses systems, multiple buildings and systems staggered
diaphragm.

d) Numerical Methods
The numerical methods used to analyze the building floor systems allow modeling of
steel deck and concrete slab that can automatically transmit their loads to the main
girders. The finite element meshing automatically made of a complex system of floor
displacement interpolated transitions meshes different characteristics associated with
Ritz vector analysis for dynamic analysis, allows for the inclusion of the effect of
flexibility of the diaphragm in the analysis in a practical way.
The options allow dynamic vertical analysis include the effects of the components of
the vertical ground motion in its seismic analysis. This will also allow a detailed
evaluation of vertical vibration problems, in addition to the traditional empirical
methods are also included within the software floors.
The special problems associated with the construction of typical structures have been
associated with allowing customized easily include their effects on numerical analysis
techniques. The special problems including, among others, are: Calculating the center
of rigidity, local and global P-Delta effects, including panels isolated on deformable
zone, effect of rigid joints at the ends and

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displacement ends of elements relative to the cardinal points of a section.
e) Advanced Capabilities
More advanced options include sophisticated numerical methods for modeling
nonlinear damping, pushover analysis, based insulation, construction sequential load,
impact and structural survey.
f) Using the Manual Developed
The manual that comes introduces the use of the program ETABS Version 8.4.5.
ETABS is an extremely versatile and powerful program with many features and
benefits. This manual is not intended as a document that covers a whole these
features and benefits. He was drafted thinking you want to do structural analysis of a
multistory building, which has rigid diaphragm at floor level and a seismic analysis be
undertaken by the dynamic method of spectral modal superposition, according to the
provisions of the Nch433of96 standard.
To capture the full value of ETABS, this manual should be used in conjunction with
other program documents, such as the reference manual-use graphical interface and
design manuals steel, concrete shear walls and floors section composed.
It is important to note finally that the program includes lots of online help is available
whenever the graphical interface is open. The documentation is available in two forms:
a standard helps the Windows style and a document library.
You access the Windows style help by clicking the Help menu and selecting Search
for Help on ...., Or by pressing the F1 function key on the keyboard. If the F1 key is
pressed while a form is open, help related to that item will be displayed. Windows style
aid provides guidance regarding data entry into various forms used in the program.
Often also clarify the meaning of the data entered into the forms.
The document library is a set of .pdf files that can be viewed or printed using Adobe
Acrobat Reader. You access the document library using the Help> Documentation and
Tutorials command, which present the ETABS Documentation form. This form displays
several of the categories of documentation available.
Doing Double click (left mouse button) on the name of a category will present a list of
individual documents available in .pdf format. Note that some categories also have
subcategories.
Double clicking on the right mouse button on the name of an individual document
presented summary information about content, size and date.
Double-click (left mouse button) on behalf of an individual document, or highlighting it
and clicking the button Display Selected Document will run the Adobe Acrobat Reader
and display the selected document. Note that many files contain hyperlinks for easy
navigation between documents.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

MANUAL OF USE
ETABS PROGRAM.

1. General Considerations
Are presented the Main
commands
the ETABS program, version 8.4.5.
The building is supposed to analyze features rigid
diaphragm at floor level.
The provisions of the Nch standard apply. 433 Of.
96.
A seismic analysis will be performed by the
method of overlapping spectral mode.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

2. Steps to perform a structural analysis of a


building with Etabs Software V8.
Are ccaann ddiissttiinngguuiisshh 6ssttaaggeess M
Maaiinn::

Step 1: Structuring the building.


Step 2: Creating the structural model.
Step 3: Perform Modal Analysis.
Step 4: Defining and analyzing seismic loads states.
Step 5: Perform structural analysis.
Step 6: Viewing results.

STEP 1: Structuring the building.


It is the most important stage and is to define
the location, dimensions and materials of all
structural elements to adequately withstand the
loads acting on the building, according to
provisions of Chilean standards.
For proper structuring, requires:
Mastery of the fundamentals of a good structure;
Practical experience of the engineer.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

Before using the program must:


i) Define the structure of the building;
ii) Set the global coordinate system (X, Y, Z);
iii) Define the axes required to locate the resistant elements
(Beams, columns, walls, slabs, etc.) building.

Upon completion, you must open the ETABS program, which


brings us to the main screen of it, which is shown in the figure
below, where we choose the unit system (these can be changed
later).

Main.
Point and assign
joint.

Frame assign line.


Shell and assign area.

Display
Define.

Design.

Draw.

Select.

Coordinate
System.

Option
Allocation
By levels.

Work Units.

Snap.

Etabs Software Main Window.

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A 2 ETAP: Creation of the structural model.


Step 1:Create new file and save as job file.
File New Model /

FFiillee SSaavvee ace /

Step 2:Edit the grid.


Edit Edit Edit grid data grid /

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Form Editor Grids.

Step 3:Edit floors or levels.


Edit Edit Edit story dating story /

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A
Form Level Editor.

B
Form Insert new levels.

C
Form Remove levels.

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Step 4:Definition of materials.


Define Material Properties /

Step 5Define sections beams, columns


and diagonals.
Define Frame sections /

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The armor
reinforcement
specified shall be
verified by the
program.
The reinforcement
shall
be
determined by the
program.
It
is
necessary
to
define bars.

Step 6:Define sections of walls and slabs.


Define Wall / Slab / Deck sections /

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Step 7:Draw and assign walls (Surface elements).


Generate walls from the plan view or elevation, defining start node and end
node.

Generate walls from the plan view or elevation, with a single click on the line of the
grid.

Step 8:Draw and assign columns, beams and diagonal


(Line items).

This button lets you draw a beam or


column between the points where
you clicked.

This button lets you draw a beam or


column in a particular region on the
grid.

This button lets you draw a column


in the grid intersection.

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Insertion Point Command

To determine if a beam is normal, inverted or semi-inverted (by default, the beam is centered on the
level of the floor), it must be selected once you have been assigned and then proceed as follows:

Assign Frame / Line Insertion point.

This window modifies the location of the


beam relative to the global axes (X, Y, Z)
or local (1, 2, 3).

Step 9:Draw and assign slabs (Surface elements).

Draw Areas (Plan, Elev, 3D).

Draw Rectangular Areas


(Plan, Elev).

Draw Areas with a click


(Plan, Elev).

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Step 10:Meshing of slabs and walls


OPTION 1: Manual Case.

Edit Mesh Areas

Option helpful.

OPTION 2: Automatic Case.


Assign Shell / Area Area Object Mesh Options

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Step 11:Ensure connectivity in all elements Assign


Shell / Area Auto Line Constraint.

Step 12:Assign rigid diaphragms


You must select the slab, then:

Assign Shell / Area Rigid diafragm /

If the structure has only one floor diaphragm on each level, it is convenient to
identify them all with the same name (eg. Diafrag.). This is easy to determine the
cumulative mass floor to floor to see the results of the analysis.

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Step 13:Allocating in the base support


Points Assign Joint Restraints (Supports) /

STAGE 3: Perform Modal Analysis.


The goal is to find the periods associated
with increased translational mass in both X
and Y, ie, finding Tx and Ty * * directions, to
determine the spectrum of design as standard
Nch. 433 Of. 96.

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Step 14:Define the types of loads


Define Static Load Cases /

PP = Dead
Weight. SC =
overload.
TERM = Terminations.

Step 15:Assignment of gravitational loads on slabs


i) Select slabs;
ii) Selecting appropriate option allowance levels.

Assign Shell / Area Loads Uniform /

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The program comes with a built-in calculator, which has a set of


functions that are useful for assigning loads. This may be obtained by
keeping the Shift key and double click on the Load field.

Step 16:Definition of mass to be considered in the seismic


analysis
Define Mass Source /

Recommended option.

By specifying the masses through


the assigned loads, it is necessary
to define what percentage of these
charges should be considered in
determining the seismic mass,
according to the provisions of
Nch433 Of.96.

Prevents vibration modes of


vibrations
are
generated
outside the plane of the
diaphragms (vertical).

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Step 17:Run Modal Analysis


Analyze Set Analysis Options.
The number of modes
to be considered
must be sufficient to
accumulate at least
90% of the seismic
mass
in
each
direction of analysis
(Nch433 Of.96).

Step 18:

Look For period


associated to higher
translational mass (Tx and Ty * *), verifying
that amount of vibration modes is considered adequate.
Display Set Output Table Mode /

Selecting Freight
charges or states.

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Ty *

Tx *

Accumulated more than


90%
of
the
mass
analysis
in
each
direction.

Form deployment periods and equivalent masses associated with each mode of
vibration.

A 4 ETAPDefinition of Quake to
analyze and United Cargo.
Step 19:Define the acceleration spectrum
Define Responce Spectrum Functions /

A
B

There are two ways to incorporate design


spectrum to the program, which are
explained below:

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A) From Text File.

B) Income Manual.

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Step 20:Definition of earthquakes Define


analyze Responce Spectrum Cases /

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Step 21: Consideration of


accidental torsion
You can enter in 2 ways:
i)

Transversely moving the location of the centers


of mass of the model b 0.05 *kyTo the quake X
direction and 0.05 * bkx for earthquake Y
direction

Earthquake acting with an eccentricity


of 5%.

ii) Applying twisting moments at each level static, calculated as the product of the combined
effort variation cut at that level by an accidental eccentricity, given by:

Bky 0.1 * * Zk / H for the quake as X


BKX 0.1 * * Zk / H for the quake as Y.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Entry form accidental torsion moments Mz.

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Step 22:Definition States Define Loads


Load Combinations /

Step 5:Perform Structural Analysis.


Step 23:Check Model
Analyze Check Model.

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Step 24:Define type of analysis


Analyze Set Analysis Options.

Step 25:Structural Analysis Analyze


Run Run Analysis /

Choose any of the two


options.

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STAGE 6:Display results.


The analysis results can be viewed therefore screen as via database
generated by the program.

Step 26:Display results screen


Display Set Output Table Mode /

As an example, you can display the floor cuts generated by the spectra for each of the
directions of analysis, as shown in the following figure:

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Viewing the seismic weight.

Location of the centers of mass and stiffness centers of each level.

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Step 27:Display results through a database generated.


To this must go to the Microsoft Access program and open the file that
was created in step 24.

Options
mo
st used.

As an example, you can display the floor cuts generated by the spectra for each of the
directions of analysis, through an Access database in a pivot table, as shown in the following
figure:

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Viewing the seismic weight.

Location of the centers of mass and stiffness centers of each level.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Design of
Reinforced
Concrete Walls.

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1) Go to Option menu> Preferences> Shear Wall Design and then
define the design code with their respective output units

Amounts
design

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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2)

Select the wall full model M20.

3)

Go to the Assign menu> Shell Area> Pier Label and add


an identifying name Pier

4)

Go to the View Options menu in September Building and Pier


Labels enabled, disabling the other options identification labels to
visually verify the name assigned to the Pier.

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5)

Go to the Design menu> Shear Wall Design> Select Design Combo and then add the defined
load combinations for design, removing the combinations generated by default.

6)

Go to the Design menu> Shear W all Design> View / Check pier Overwrites to

activate the seismic design with the provisions of Chapter 21 of the ACI318-99

6)

There are 3 methods for the design of walls:


a) Tension-compression: Only the pillars edge designs, determining the length edge
of Pier and flexural reinforcement edge, also designs the entire section cut. The
design is based on efforts of a two-dimensional plane.
b) Armor evenly distributed : Flexural and shear design for the entire section. It also
allows comparing the longitudinal reinforcement given by the user with the calculated by
the program. The design is based on the interaction dimensional diagram.
c) Armor General: flexural and shear design for the entire section. You can create
different sections with irregular armor. It also allows comparing the armor given by the
user with the calculated by the program. The design is based on the diagram is three
dimensional interaction.
* For the last two cases you can check Demand v / s Capacity section where this factor is
an indicator of the wall stress conditions with respect to their ability, based on threedimensional diagram interaction. *

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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6.1)

Tension - compression:

Select the entire wall or the desired section, then go to the Design menu> Shear Wall Design>
Assign Pier sections for Checking> Simplified C and T section

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Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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For the uniform reinforcement, only to define the type of distributed armor longitudinal sides and
bars in the corners

8 @ 25 (unif)
12 (corners)

View of reinforcement placed on the wall


when she gets defined as strengthening
uniform

Required Reif Ratio: Current REINF design


Amount Ratio: Amount Provided.

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6.3) Strengthening General:


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Of the previous figure, Section Designer enabled to change the default placed armor and
permit comparison between the design v / s or placed by the ability of the armor section.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Required Reif Ratio: Current REINF design


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Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

44

3) Practical Manual Using the SAP Program


Exposed, then the main aspects to learn and master the use of SAP.

MANUAL OF USE
SAP2000 PROGRAM.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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1. General Considerations
Are presented the Main
commands
the SAP2000 software, version 8.3.3.
The building is supposed to analyze features rigid
diaphragm at floor level.
The provisions of the Nch standard apply.
433 Of. 96.
A seismic analysis will be performed by the
method of overlapping spectral mode.

2. Steps to perform a structural analysis of a


building with SAP2000 software.
Are ccaann ddiissttiinngguuiisshh 6ssttaaggeess M
Maaiinn::

Step 1: Structuring the building.


Step 2: Creating the structural model.
Step 3: Perform Modal Analysis.
Step 4: Defining and analyzing seismic loads states.
Step 5: Perform structural analysis.
Step 6: Viewing results.

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STEP 1: Structuring the building.


It is the most important stage and is to define
the location, dimensions and materials of all
structural elements to adequately withstand the
loads acting on the building, according to
provisions of Chilean standards.
For proper structuring, requires:
Mastery of the fundamentals of a good structure;
Practical experience of the engineer.

Before using the program must:


i) Define the structure of the building;
ii) Set the global coordinate system (X, Y, Z);
iii) Define the necessary axes to locate the resistant elements
(Beams, columns, walls, slabs, etc.) building.

Upon completion, you must open the SAP2000 program,


which brings us to the main screen of it, which is shown in the
figure below, where we choose the unit system (these can be
changed later).

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Design.
Main.
Display
Draw.

Select.

Coordinate
System.

Snap.

Work Units.

Coordinates of the cursor.

Main Window Software SAP2000.

STAGE 2: Creation of the structural model.


Step 1:Create new file and save as job file.
File New Model /

FFiillee Save ace /

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Step 2:Edit the grid.


Edit Edit grid data.

Form Editor Grids.

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Step 3:Definition of materials.


Define Material Properties /

Step 4Define sections beams,


columns and diagonals.
Define Frame / Cable Sections /

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The armor
reinforcement
specified shall be
verified by the
program.
The reinforcement
shall
be
determined by the
program.
It
is
necessary
to
define bars.

Step 5:Define sections of walls and slabs.


Define Area sections /

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Step 6:Draw and assign columns, beams and diagonal


(Line items).

This button lets you draw a beam


or column between the points
where you clicked.

This button lets you draw a beam


or column in a particular region on
the grid.

Insertion Point Command

To determine if a beam is normal, inverted or semi-inverted (by default, the beam is centered on the
level of the floor), it must be selected once you have been assigned and then proceed as follows:

Assign Frame / Cable Insertion point.

This window modifies the location of the


beam relative to the global axes (X, Y, Z)
or local (1, 2, 3).

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Step 7:Draw and assign slabs and walls (Surface elements).

Draw Areas (Plan, Elev, 3D).

Draw Rectangular Areas (Plan,


Elev).

Draw Areas with a click


(Plan, Elev).

Step 8:Meshing of slabs and walls


OPTION 1: Manual Case.

Edit Mesh Areas /

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OPTION 2: Automatic Case.


Assign Area Automatic Area Mesh

Step 9:Ensure connectivity in all elements


Assign Area Generate Edge Constraints.

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Step 10:Assign rigid diaphragms


You must select the nodes that make up the slab, then:

Assign Joint Constraints.

Step 11:Assign pads to the base


Assign Joint Restraints /

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Step 12:Define Define


Groups Groups /

Step 13:Define Sections of cuts.


Define Sections Cuts.

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Step 14:Assign the selected items to a defined group.


This step is necessary for cuts per floor. For this you must select floor by floor and then
assign it to a group as defined in step 13.

Assign Assign to group /

STAGE 3: Perform Modal Analysis.


The goal is to find the periods associated
with increased translational mass in both X
and Y, ie, finding Tx and Ty * * directions, to
determine the spectrum of design as standard
Nch. 433 Of. 96.

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Step 15:Define the types of loads


Sets Load Cases /

PP = Dead
Weight. SC =
overload.
TERM = Terminations.

Step 16:Assignment of gravitational loads on slabs


i) Select slabs

Assign Area Loads Uniform (Shell) /

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Step 17:Definition of mass to be considered in the seismic


analysis
Define Mass Source /

Recommended option.

By specifying the masses through


the assigned loads, it is necessary
to define what percentage of these
charges should be considered in
determining the seismic mass,
according to the provisions of
Nch433 Of.96.

Step 18:Run Modal Analysis


Analyze Set Analysis Options.

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Step 19:Number of modes to consider


Define Analysis Cases /

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Step 20:Running the analysis.


Analyze Run Analysis.

Step 21:

Look For period


associated to higher
translational mass (Tx and Ty * *), verifying
that amount of vibration modes is considered adequate.
Display Show Results Analysis Tables /

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STAGE 4Definition of Quake to analyze


and United Cargo.
Step 22:Define the acceleration spectrum
Define Functions Responce Spectrum /

There are two ways


to incorporate the
program
design
spectrum, which are
explained below:

A) From Text File.

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B) Income Manual.

Step 23:Definition of earthquakes


analyzed Sets Analysis Cases /

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Step 24:Consideration of accidental torsion


Applying twisting moments at each level static, calculated as the product of the
combined effort variation cut at that level by an accidental eccentricity, given by:

Bk 0.1 * and * Zk / H for the quake as X


Bk 0.1 * x * Zk / H
for the quake as Y.

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North

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Entry form accidental torsion moments Mz.

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Step 25:Definition Define Loads States


Combinations /

Step 5:Perform Structural Analysis.


Step 26:Define type of analysis
Analyze Set Analysis Options.

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Step 27:Structural Analysis Analyze


Run Run Analysis /

STAGE 6:Display results.


The analysis results can be viewed therefore screen as via database generated by
the program.

Step 28:Display results per screen Display Set


Output Table Mode /

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As an example, you can display the floor cuts generated by the spectra for each
of the directions of analysis, as shown in the following figure:

Viewing the seismic weight.

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Location of the centers of mass and stiffness centers of each level.

Step 29:Display results through a database generated.


To this must go to the Microsoft Access program and open the file that was
created in step 24.

Options
mo
st used.

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As an example, you can display the floor cuts generated by the spectra for each
of the directions of analysis, through an Access database in a pivot table, as
shown in the following figure:

Viewing the seismic weight.

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Location of the centers of mass and stiffness centers of each level.

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REFERENCES

1. ETABS: "USER INTERFACE REFERENCE MANUAL".


2. SAP2000: "ANALYSIS REFERENCE MANUAL".
3. WILSON, EDWARD "THREE DIMENSIONAL STATIC AND DYNAMIC
ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES".

Juan Music Tomicic - Department of Civil Engineering - Catholic University of the North