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Balochistan conflict

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Balochistan conflict

Map of Pakistan, with the province of Balochistan in red.

Date
Location
Status

1948-present
Main incidents: 1948, 195859, 196369,
197377, 2004present
Balochistan
Ongoing

Pakistan Army operation, 1973


1977

Killing of Akbar Bugti

Human rights issues

Missing persons (Pakistan)

Political violence largely subdued,


talks underway (May 2012)[5][6]

Belligerents
Baloch separatist groups

Pakistan

Pakistan Army
Frontier Corps

BLA

BRA

Iran

BLF

LeB

BLUF

BSO (Azad)

[1]

Imperial Iranian
Army(until 1979)
IRGC (since 1980)

Supported by:
Iraq (1970s)[2]

Sectarian groups
Jundallah[3][4]
Jundallah (Pakistan)
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi[2]
Sipah-e-Sahaba[2]

Commanders and leaders


Karim Khan (POW)

Liaquat Ali Khan


Ayub Khan
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Tikka Khan

Nowroz Khan (POW)


Khair Bakhsh Marri

Rahimuddin Khan

Balach Marri

Pervez Musharraf

Brahamdagh Bugti[7]

Ashfaq Parvez Kayani

Allah Nazar Baloch


Javed Mengal[8]

Shah Reza Pahlavi


Ali Khamenei
Mohammad Khatami

Dad Shah
Abdolmalek Rigi

Hassan Firouzabadi

Abdolhamid Rigi
Muhammad Dhahir
Baluch[9]

Strength
Pakistan

BLA: 10,000[11]

Pakistan
Army: 50,000[10]

Frontier Corps:
50,000[10]

Jundallah: 700[12]2,000[13]

Casualties and losses


Pakistani security

Baloch fighters

forces
19731977
19731977:

5,300 killed[14]

3,0003,300 killed[14]

20062009:

20062009:

380+ killed[15]

303+ killed[15]

Iran
154 killed (security forces
and civilians)[16]
~6,000 civilians killed in Pakistan (19731977)[14]

1,628+ civilians killed in Pakistan (20042009)[10][15]


~4,500 arrested (20042005)[10]
~140,000 displaced (20042005)[10]

The Balochistan conflict is an ongoing conflict between Baloch nationalists and the governments
of Pakistan and Iran in theBalochistan region of South Asia, which includes Balochistan Province in
southwestern Pakistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran, and the Balochistan
region of southern Afghanistan.
Balochi demands include greater autonomy, increased royalties from natural resources and
provincial revenue, and in some cases full independence. There have been many claims of human
rights abuses.[17] Recently, militants have clashed with the Islamic Republic of Iran over its
respective Baloch region, which borders Pakistan. The belligerent groups operate in the Pakistani
and Iranian parts of the region, and in southern Afghanistan. Since the2010s, attacks against
the Shia community by sectarian groups - though not always directly related to the political struggle have been on the rise, contributing to tensions in Balochistan.[citation needed]
Shortly after Pakistan's independence in 1947, the Pakistan Armybegan operations to subdue Kalatbased insurgents who had rejected the King of Kalat's decision to accede to Pakistan. A subsequent
Baloch separatist movement gained momentum in the 1960s, following the introduction of a new
constitution which limited provincial autonomy and enacted the 'One Unit' concept of political

organization in Pakistan. Tension continued to grow amid consistent political disorder and instability
at the federal level. The unrest continued into the 1970s, cumulating with a governmentordered military operation in the region in 1973. Assisted by Iran, Pakistani forces inflicted heavy
casualties on the separatists. The insurgency fell into decline after a return to the four-province
structure and the abolishment of the Sardari system. In the 2000s, however, the insurgency gained
strength in conjunction with the deteriorating law and order situation in neighboring afghanistan and
instability at the Federal level.
Although it has vast natural resources, Balochistan is one of Pakistans poorest regions. [18] Baloch
separatists allege that the central government of Pakistan is systematically suppressing
development in Balochistan in order to keep the Balochs weak, whilst their opponents argue that
international business interests have been unwilling to invest in the region due to the continuing
unrest.[18]
The Balochistan Liberation Army, identified as a terrorist organization by Pakistan, Britain, [19] and
other governments, is the most widely-known Baloch separatist group. Since 2000 it has conducted
numerous deadly attacks on Pakistani troops, police, and civilians. Other violent separatist groups
include Lashkar-e-Balochistan and the Baloch Liberation United Front (BLUF).[20][21][22][23]
Contents
[hide]

1 Area of dispute

2 Class division

3 History
o

3.1 Background

3.2 First conflict 1948

3.3 Second conflict 195859

3.4 Third conflict 196369

3.5 Fourth conflict 197377

3.6 Fifth conflict 2004to date


3.6.1 Attacks by Jundallah in Iran

4 Foreign support
o

4.1 Afghanistan

4.2 India

4.3 Iraq

4.4 USA

4.4.1 Dissociation of Baloch Society of North America

4.4.2 Baloch Council of North America


5 Human rights issues

5.1 Sunni Extremism & Religious Persecution of Zikris


6 Development issues

6.1 Multiculturalism and immigration

6.2 Economic effects and shortage of skilled workers and goods

6.3 MPA personal development budget

6.4 Gadani Energy Corridor

6.5 Farm subsidy

7 Education issue
o

7.1 Army Education City at Sui


8 Supreme Court investigation

8.1 Missing people found

8.2 Supreme Court orders

9 See also

10 References

11 External links

Area of dispute[edit]
Historical Balochistan covers the southern part of Sistan o Baluchestan Province, Iran, in the west,
the Pakistani province of Balochistan in the east, and, in the
northwest, Afghanistan's Helmand Province. The Gulf of Oman forms its southern border. Mountains
and desert make up much of the region's terrain. Most Balochis live in Pakistan.
Although Balochistan Province is the largest region of Pakistan (44% of the country's total area), it is
also the least inhabited (5% of total population), and the least developed. [24] Sunni Islam is the
predominant religion.[25]
Stuart Notholt, in his Atlas of Ethnic Conflict, describes the unrest in Balochistan as a
"nationalist/self-determination conflict".[26]

Class division[edit]
A report published in Dawn, Pakistan's leading English-language news publication, highlighted the
economic dimensions to the conflict. Noting that while Balochistan was considered a "neglected
province where a majority of population lacks amenities", its ruling elite enjoyed glamorous lifestyles
that provided a different perspective. The report observed that members of Balochistan's elite
society, including provincial government ministers and officials, owned "pieces of land greater in size
than some small towns of the country", and had luxury vehicles, properties, investments and
businesses valued at millions of rupees.[27]

History[edit]
Background[edit]

Balochs (pink), Pashtuns (green), Punjabis (brown), Sindhis (yellow)

First conflict 1948[edit]


Balochistan consisted of four princely states under the British Raj. Three of these, Makran, Las
Bela and Kharan willingly joined with Pakistan in 1947 after independence.[28]
The Khan of Kalat, Ahmed Yaar Khan chose independence as this was one of the options given to
all of the 535 princely states by Clement Attlee.[29]

Second conflict 195859[edit]


Nawab Nowroz Khan took up arms in resistance to the One Unit policy, which decreased
government representation for tribal leaders. He and his followers started a guerrilla war against
Pakistan, and were arrested, charged with treason, and imprisoned in Hyderabad. Five of his family
members (sons and nephews) were subsequently hanged under charges of treason and aiding in
the murder of Pakistani troops. Nawab Nowroz Khan later died in captivity.[30]

Third conflict 196369[edit]


After the second conflict, the federal government tasked the Pakistan Army with building several new
bases in key areas of Balochistan. Sher Muhammad Bijrani Marri led like-minded militants into
guerrilla warfare by creating their own insurgent bases, spread out over 45,000 miles (72,000 km) of
land, from the Mengal tribal area in the south to the Marriand Bugti tribal areas in the north. Their
goal was to force Pakistan to share revenue generated from the Sui gas fieldswith the tribal leaders.
The insurgents bombed railway tracks and ambushed convoys. The Army retaliated by destroying
vast areas of the Marri tribe's land. This insurgency ended in 1969, with the Baloch separatists
agreeing to a ceasefire. In 1970 Pakistani President Yahya Khan abolished the "One Unit" policy,

which led to the recognition of Balochistan as the fourth province of West Pakistan (present-day
Pakistan), including all the Balochistani princely states, the High Commissioners Province,
and Gwadar, an 800 km2 coastal area purchased from Oman by the Pakistani government.
[31]

Fourth conflict 197377[edit]


For more details on this topic, see Baloch Insurgency and Rahimuddin's Stabilization.
In 1973, citing treason, President Bhutto dismissed the provincial governments of Balochistan and
NWFP and imposed martial law in those areas,[32] which led to armed insurgency. Khair Bakhsh
Marri formed the Balochistan Peoples Liberation Front (BPLF), which led large numbers of Marri
and Mengal tribesmen into guerrilla warfare against the central government. [33] According to some
authors, the Pakistani military lost 300 to 400 soldiers during the conflict with the Balochi separatists,
while between 7,300 and 9,000 Balochi militants and civilians were killed. [14]

Fifth conflict 2004to date[edit]


In 2005, the Baluch political leaders Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir Balach Marri presented a 15point agenda to the Pakistan government. Their stated demands included greater control of the
province's resources and a moratorium on the construction of military bases. [34] On 15 December
2005 the inspector general of the Frontier Corps, Major General Shujaat Zamir Dar, and his deputy
Brigadier Salim Nawaz (the current IGFC) were wounded after shots were fired at their helicopter in
Balochistan Province. The provincial interior secretary later said that "both of them were wounded in
the leg but both are in stable condition." The two men had been visiting Kohlu, about 220 km
(140 mi) southeast ofQuetta, when their aircraft came under fire. The helicopter landed safely.[35]
In August 2006, Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, 79 years old, was killed in fighting with the Pakistan Army,
in which at least 60 Pakistani soldiers and 7 officers were also killed. Pakistan's government had
charged him with responsibility of a series of deadly bomb blasts and a rocket attack on President
Pervez Musharraf.[36]
In April 2009, Baloch National Movement president Ghulam Mohammed Baloch and two other
nationalist leaders (Lala Munir and Sher Muhammad) were seized from a small legal office and were
allegedly "handcuffed, blindfolded and hustled into a waiting pickup truck which is in still [sic] use of
intelligence forces in front of their lawyer and neighboring shopkeepers." The gunmen were allegedly
speaking in Persian (a national language of neighbouring Afghanistan and Iran). Five days later, on 8
April, their bullet-riddled bodies were found in a commercial area. The BLA claimed Pakistani forces
were behind the killings, though international experts have deemed it odd that the Pakistani forces
would be careless enough to allow the bodies to be found so easily and "light Balochistan on fire"
(Herald) if they were truly responsible.[37] The discovery of the bodies sparked rioting and weeks of
strikes, demonstrations, and civil resistance in cities and towns around Balochistan. [38] (See Turbat
killings).
On 12 August 2009, Khan of Kalat Mir Suleiman Dawood declared himself ruler of Balochistan and
formally announced a Council for Independent Balochistan. The council's claimed domain
includes Sistan and Baluchestan Province, as well as Pakistani Balochistan, but does not include
Afghan Baloch regions. The council claimed the allegiance of "all separatist leaders including
Nawabzada Bramdagh Bugti." Suleiman Dawood stated that the UK had "a moral responsibility to
raise the issue of Balochistans illegal occupation at international level." [39]
The Economist writes:
"[The Baloch separatists] are supportedwith money, influence or sympathyby some members of
the powerful Bugti tribe and by parts of the Baloch middle class. This makes todays insurgency
stronger than previous ones, but the separatists will nevertheless struggle to prevail over Pakistans
huge army."[20]
The Economist, April2012

Attacks by Jundallah in Iran[edit]


In the early 2000s the radical Islamist group Jundallah became active in Balochistan. The al Qaedalinked terrorist organization has branches in both Iran and Pakistan. It carried out a wave of attacks
in Iran in the late 2000s, including:

2007 Zahedan bombings: 18 people were killed.

2009 Zahedan bombing: 20 people were killed.

2009 Pishin bombing: 43 people were killed.

July 2010 Zahedan bombings: 27 people were killed.

2010 Chabahar suicide bombing: 38 people were killed.

Among the deaths in the Pishin bombings were two Iranian Revolutionary Guards generals: Noor Ali
Shooshtari, the deputy commander of the Revolutionary Guards' ground forces, and Rajab Ali
Mhammadzadeh, the Revolutionary Guards' Sistan and Baluchistan provincial commander.[40]
From 2006 to 2010, 254-346 people were killed in Jundullah-related violence in Iran. [41]

Foreign support[edit]
Pakistan has repeatedly accused India, and occasionally the U.S., of supporting Baluch rebels. Both
countries have denied the charge.[42][43] Iran has accused America of supporting Jundallah "for years";
the US government, which officially recognizes Jundallah as a terrorist organization, has denied this
charge also.[44]

Afghanistan[edit]
Main articles: Afghanistan-Pakistan relations and Durand Line
According to Robert Wirsing, Pakistan supported Islamist extremists, particularly Gulbuddin
Hekmatyar and his Hezb-e Islami, in their insurgency against the Afghan government of Mohammed
Daoud Khan beginning in the early 1970s.[45]R. T. Naylor states that Islamabad supported these
groups in reaction to efforts by Daoud Khan to arm Pashtun rebels in Pakistan. Daoud also
established militant training camps in Afghanistan for Baloch rebels. These were the first modern
training camps in the country.[46]
The former Pakistani ambassador to the US, Hussain Haqqani, wrote that in the 1970s training
camps were set up in Afghanistan by Daoud to support Baloch separatists in Pakistan. [47] According
to a student paper, "Pakistans fear that a communist Afghanistan would embolden the Baloch and
Pashtun Marxist separatists in the western Pakistani province of Balochistan was confirmed when
Daoud began supporting Marxist Baloch and Pashtun groups in eastern Afghanistan". [48]

As president, Daoud started antagonising Pakistan [...] He set up a training cam

Christian Parenti, Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence (2011), p.103[49]

Daoud Khan was removed from power in Afghanistan in 1978 by a communist coup.

In 2012, Pakistani interior minister Rehman Malik stated that Baloch Republican Party
chief Brahamdagh Bugti was operating militant training camps in Afghanistan, which were
dismantled only after Islamabad conveyed its knowledge of these camps to Kabul. Malik said that
the camps in Afghanistan were responsible for training up to 5,000 insurgents, and that Bugti had
hired three large houses in Kabul. The Pakistani minister claimed that the president of
Afghanistan,Hamid Karzai, had accepted that militants based in Afghanistan were fuelling terrorism
in Balochistan.[50] The PakistaniTribune wrote that "in response to Islamabads request, Kabul has
formally given its assurance [that it will] stop the infiltration of militants from Kandahar to
Balochistans border district Chaman."[51] Previously, Karzai had always denied that Balochs in
Afghanistan were supporting an armed struggle in Balochistan.[52] According to wikileaks cables,
Karzai said in a 2007 conversation with U.S. officials, "that [Baloch leader] Bugti had once tried to
call Karzai but he had refused for the sake of good relations with Pakistan. Now he cannot forgive
himself for refusing. Karzai assessed that Pakistan had troubles with many other tribes too, as a
result of its trying to divide and conquer and turn the tribes against each other. Pakistan needed to
address the bigger picture, Karzai urged."[52] Baloch leaders such as Bugti left Afghanistan for
Switzerland.[50]
Against the backdrop of heavy criticism of Pakistan's paramilitary Frontier Corps over its alleged role
in forced disappearances and human rights violations in Balochistan, the chief of FC troops in
Balochistan, Major GeneralObaidullah Khan Khattak, said in June 2012 that "over 30 militant camps"
had been established in Afghanistan and were being used "to launch terrorist and anti-state activities
in Balochistan".[53]
Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency has been accused of working with the Afghan Taliban
in Balochistan, with the Taliban's leadership council, Quetta Shura, named after the provincial
capital Quetta.[54][55][56] Some observers hope that the anti-Taliban Baloch separatists could act against
the spread of Taliban and Al-Qaeda forces which are operating in Pakistani Balochistan and crossing
into Afghanistan.[57]

India[edit]
Brahamdagh Bugti stated in a 2008 interview that he would accept aid from India, Afghanistan, and
Iran in defending Baluchistan.[58] Pakistan has repeatedly accused India, and at times the U.S., of
supporting Baluch rebels, but has failed to present clear evidence of a link. [42][43] Wright-Neville writes
that besides Pakistan, some Western observers also believe that India secretly funds the
Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA).[59] In August 2013 US Special Representative James Dobbins
said Pakistan's fears over India's role in Afghanistan are not groundless. [60] Defence Secretary and
former Senator Chuck Hagel said "India for some time has [...] used Afghanistan as a second front,
and India has over the years financed problems for Pakistan on that side of the border". [61] However,
former Af-Pak envoyRichard Holbrooke said in 2011 that while Pakistan had repeatedly shared its
allegations with Washington, it had failed to provide any evidence to the United States that India was
involved in separatist movements in Balochistan. He did not consider Pakistan's accusations against
India credible.[62] Holbrooke also strongly rejected the allegation that India was using its consulates in
Afghanistan to facilitate Baloch rebel activity, saying he had "no reason to believe Islamabad's
charges", and that "Pakistan would do well to examine its own internal problems". [62] India has
categorically denied the allegations, pointing to Pakistan's failure to provide evidence. [43]
Wikileaks cables strongly suggest that British intelligence officials are convinced of India's covert
support for insurgents in Baluchistan, and were concerned that this support would increase in
response to alleged Pakistani support forLashkar-e-Taiba, following the 2008 Mumbai attacks.[63]

Iraq[edit]
Main article: Iraqi support of Baloch rebels
On 10 February 1973, Pakistani police and paramilitary raided the Iraqi embassy in Islamabad,
seizing a large cache of small arms, ammunition, grenades and other supplies, which were found in

crates marked 'Foreign Ministry, Baghdad'. The ammunition and weaponry was believed to be
destined for Baloch rebels. Pakistan responded by expelling and declaring persona non grata the
Iraqi Ambassador Hikmat Sulaiman and other consular staff. In a letter to President Nixon on
February 14, Bhutto blamed India and Afghanistan, along with Iraq and the Soviet Union, for
involvement in a conspiracy [with] subversive and irredentist elements which seek to disrupt
Pakistans integrity[64]

USA[edit]
Syed F. Hasnat alleges that the Russian Federation (then Soviet Union), during the Soviet war in
Afghanistan (19791989), helped establish the Balochistan Liberation Army;[65][not in citation given] David
Wright-Neville, however, writes that the Balochistan Liberation Army wasn't established until 2000. [59]
In February 2010 a Jundullah leader captured by Iran, Abdulmalek Rigi, alleged on Iranian TV "that
the US had promised to provide" Jundullah "with military equipment and a base in Afghanistan, near
the Iranian border" for its fight against Iran. Rigi did not mention assistance in fighting Pakistan
(which Iran accuses of backing the Jundullah, according to the BBC). The US has denied links with
Jundullah, and according to the BBC, "it is not possible" to determine whether Abdolmalek Rigi
"made the statement freely or under duress."[66]
In late 2011, the Balochistan conflict became the focus of dialogue on a new U.S. South Asia
strategy brought up by some U.S. congressmen, who said they were frustrated over Pakistan's
alleged continued support to the AfghanTaliban, which they said led to the continuation of the War in
Afghanistan (2001-present). Although this alternative to the Obama Administration's Af-Pak policy
has generated some interest, "its advocates clearly do not yet have broad support". [57]
In the 1980s the CIA, the Iraqi Intelligence Service, Pakistani Sunni extremist group Sipah-e-Sahaba
Pakistan, and theMujahedin e-Kalq supported a Baluchi tribal uprising against Iran.[2] A February
2011 article by Selig S. Harrison of theCenter for International Policy called for supporting "antiIslamist forces" along the southern Arabian Sea coast, including "Baluch insurgents fighting for
independence from Pakistan", as a means of weakening the rising tide of anti-American passion in
Pakistan and heading off any alliance between Islamabad and Beijing Pakistan having granted
China access to a naval base at Gwadar.[67]
Dissociation of Baloch Society of North America[edit]
The Baloch Society of North America (BSO-NA) was a Baloch lobbying group founded in 2004
in Washington D.C.[68] by Dr. Wahid Baloch, a graduate of Bolan Medical College who had gone into
self-imposed exile in the United States in 1992. Between 2004 and 2014, his group had been trying
to gain American (as well as Israeli) support for the independence of Balochistan. He held meetings
with several American Congressmen and allegedly had meetings with several CIA officials. Dr.
Baloch had long claimed that the Pakistani state was committing acts of genocide against the Baloch
people, and that Islamabad's aim was to plunder the province's vast mineral resources. In January
2014 he released a letter appealing to the United States and Israel for direct assistance in
preventing an alleged "killing spree of Baloch people" by the "Pakistani army". [69]
In May 2014, Dr. Baloch surprisingly decided to disband the BSO-NA, claiming that the War of
Independence of Balochistan was actually a "war of independence of Khans, Nawabs and Sardars".
He has since formed the Baloch Council of North America (BCN), which has dedicated itself to
working with all democratic and nationalist forces in Pakistan to secure Baloch rights through
democratic, nonviolent means, within the federation of Pakistan. [70]
Baloch Council of North America[edit]
Formerly the BSO-NA, the Baloch Council of North America (BCN), led by Dr. Wahid Baloch, is a
Baloch human rights group which aims to secure the rights of the Baloch people within a united
Pakistan federation. Dr. Baloch has vowed that the BCN will work "within the Pakistani federation
with the elected Balohcistan provincial government and pro-federation democratic, secular and

nationalist forces of Pakistan to fight for and ensure the rights of Baloch people within the
federation".[68]

Human rights issues[edit]


Main article: Human rights violations in Balochistan
In the period 2003 to 2012, it is estimated that 8000 people were abducted by Pakistani security
forces in Balochistan.[20] In 2008 alone, an estimated 1102 Baloch people disappeared.[71] There have
also been reports of torture.[72] An increasing number of bodies "with burn marks, broken limbs, nails
pulled out, and sometimes with holes drilled in their heads" are being found on roadsides as the
result of a "kill and dump" campaign conducted by Pakistani security forces, particularly InterServices Intelligence (ISI) and the Frontier Corps (FC) which, until the 9/11/01 World Trade
Center attacks, had sided with the Afghan Taliban and Al-Qaeda against the Northern Alliance in
Afghanistan.[73][74] In July 2011, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan issued a report on illegal
disappearances in Balochistan and identified ISI and Frontier Corps as the perpetrators.
[75]
The Pakistan Rangers are also alleged to have committed a vast number of human rights
violations in the region.[76] No one has been held responsible for the crimes.[73]
Islamist parties such as Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Jamaat-e-Islami have systematically targeted Shia
Muslims in Balochistan, with about 600 being killed in attacks in recent years. [20]
About 800 non-Baloch settlers (mostly Punjabis) and anti-BLA Balochis have been killed by Baloch
militant groups since 2006.[20][21][22][23]

Sunni Extremism & Religious Persecution of Zikris[edit]


According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) and other
independent national and internationalmedia sources, the efforts of Pakistan governmental
agencies in countering Baloch nationalism, as well as the activities of terrorist organizations such
as Lashkar-i-Jhangvi and Pakistani Taliban, have produced a surge in religious extremism
in Balochistan. Hindus, Shias (including Hazaras) and Zikris have been targeted, resulting in the
migration of over 300,000 of them from Baluchistan.[77][78][79][80]

Development issues[edit]
The government of Pakistan has repeatedly stated its intention to bring industrialisation to
Balochistan, and continues to claim that progress has been made by way of the "Aghaz-e-Haqooq-eBalochistan" package of political and economic reforms issued in 2009. [81] This is challenged by
Baloch nationalist groups, who argue the benefits of these policies have not accrued to native
Baloch residents of the province.[citation needed] Baloch nationalist groups continue to highlight the
extraction of natural resources, especially natural gas, from the province, without discernible
economic benefit to the Baloch people.[citation needed] Nonetheless, the government of Pakistan continues
to insist that industrial zones are planned along the new Gawadar-Karachi highway. According to the
government, this development is envisaged to bring accelerated progress in the future for the
Baloch.[citation needed]
In February 2006 three Chinese engineers assisting in the construction of a local cement factory
were shot and killed in an attack on their automobile, [82] while another 11 injured in a car bomb attack
by BLA.[citation needed] China called back her engineers working on the project in Balochistan. [citation needed] The
progress in the hydro-power sector has been slow since then.
The people of the region have largely maintained a nomadic lifestyle marked by poverty andilliteracy.
[83][not in citation given]
The indigenous people are continuously threatened by war and other means
ofoppression, which have resulted in the loss of thousands of innocent lives over many years. [84][85]
[86]
Presently, according to Amnesty International, Baluch activists, politicians and student leaders are

among those that are being targeted in forced disappearances, abductions, arbitrary arrests and
cases of torture and other ill-treatment.[87]
Balochistan Province receives Rs32.71 per unit on gas revenues, including a royalty of Rs13.90,
excise duty of Rs5.09, and gas development surcharge of Rs13.72. Many private individuals with
gas deposits on their land also receive payments. Many Balochs argue that such royalties are too
low.[88] In response, in 2011 Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani announced an addition of Rs. 120
billion (US$2.5 billion) to the gas development surcharge and royalty portion of the "Aghaz-eHaqooq-e-Balochistan" package.[89] However, royalties often do not trickle down to the common
people in Balochistan due to the corruption and wealth-hoarding of Baloch tribal chiefs. This has
hindered the growth of infrastructure.[citation needed]

Multiculturalism and immigration[edit]


Skill is imported from other regions, due to the historical shortage of skilled workers in the sparsely
populated and inaccessible terrain.[90] The arrival of skilled workers means new industries can
develop and boost the local economy; nationalists argue that this creates resentment amongst the
local inhabitants. Like Karachi, which after migration from Balouchistan, Central Asia, Iran, East Asia
and especially a large number of people arriving from other areas of Pakistan in search of daily living
settled there, it has been a national financial hub in Pakistan.[91] thus the local inhabitants (Sindhis)
became a minority in the largest city of their province. Nationalists argue against multiculturalism and
non-Baloch immigration. Karachi city has been playing a key role as a financial hub for Pakistan and
its economy has exploded to become on the major cities in Asia as a seaport. However, the city
continues be a home for ethnic andsectarian violence. Balouch nationalist argue that migration leads
to such events, and they are opposed to similar situation in Baluchistan. Mir Suleiman Dawood
claims that the people in Balochistan remain deeply resentful of Pakistan's policies in the region and
he, apart from other, rather militant, Baloch nationalist organisations have openly called for India's
assistance in Balochistan's separation from Pakistan. On 12 August 2009, Khan of Kalat Mir
Suleiman Dawood declared himself ruler of Balochistan and formally made announcement of a
Council for Independent Balochistan. The Council's claimed domain includes "Baloch of Iran", apart
from Pakistani Balochistan, but does not include Afghan Baloch regions, and the Council contains
"all separatist leaders including Nawabzada Bramdagh Bugti."[92]

Economic effects and shortage of skilled workers and goods [edit]


The chief minister of the province has said
"A large number of professors, teachers, engineers, barbers and masons are leaving the province for
fear of attacks, This inhuman act will push the Baloch nation at least one century back. The Baloch
nation will never forgive whoever is involved in target killings... He said the government has
approved three university campuses, three medical colleges and hospitals for Turbat, Mastung,
Naseerabad and Loralai districts but there was shortage of teachers in the area". [93]
Rice traders from Punjab have also been killed in target killing, this has resulting in higher prices of
foods items in Balochistan. Almost 40 people of non-Balochi ethnic groups were killed in 2009. [94]

MPA personal development budget[edit]


Balochistans annual development programme for 201011 was Rs27bn as compared to Rs13bn in
200708. This allowed each Member of the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan to have a personal
development budget for his or her consistency of Rs 180 million [95] which will be increased to Rs 250
million in 20112012. However, critics argue development funding is not a substitute for deep
political issues, and MPA have no incentive to find a political solution with the insurgents as they
believe as long as the insurgency continues they will get more funds. There have also been
allegations that MPAs are exploiting the PSDP programme to get kickbacks and engage in
corruption.[96]

Gadani Energy Corridor[edit]


Four coal-fired power plants will be built Gadani, creating a power corridor in Balochistan based
on Houston Energy Corridor. This was announced by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif during to the
region, the project will be called Gadani Power Park and it is expected to generate 5200 MW.[97]
[98]
Some nationalist groups objected to the project, saying they had not been consulted and instead
favoured expanding access to electricity in the province rather than increasing capacity.[citation
needed]
However, Nawaz Sharif's PMLN party is the largest party in the Provincial Assembly.

Farm subsidy[edit]
The Federal government announced it would transfer Rs4 billion subsidy to Provincial Government
to be passed onto farmers in Balochistan to promote for tube-wells. The Provincial Government
announced it would spend further Rs 3 billion to support the Federal Programme. [99] However, high
levels of corruption amongst civil servants and senior ministers may mean the common man only
gets partial benefit.

Education issue[edit]
Education is a major factor in the Balouchistan conflict, which nationalist feeling as sense of being
neglected. The government of Pakistan recognises that importing skilled labour from other regions
causing tensions in the region, so it has sought to encourage scholarships for Balochistan students
so they can go home and lead development programmes. The quota for Baloch students in Punjab
university was doubled in 2010 under the Cheema Long Scheme on the order of CM Shabaz Sharif.
The provincial governments of Sindh, Punjab and KP said they would take steps to encourage
Balochistan students to enroll and benefits from 100% scholarships. [100][101] However, nationalists
argue that not enough education development is taking place, and the government has neglected its
duty.

Army Education City at Sui[edit]


The Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army, General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani in January 2011
announced the establishment of Education City in Sui. The military said it had built colleges in
Balouchistan to promote education levels such as Balochistan Institute of Technical Education
(BITE) and the Gwadar Institute of Technical Education (GITE), approximately 1,673 individuals had
graduated from the technical colleges. Historically, the military administrated institutions are less
corrupted than civilian managed ones. Presently, around 22,786 Baloch students are studying in
military-run educational institutions.[102]

Supreme Court investigation[edit]


There are more than 5,000 cases of forced disappearances in Balochistan. [103][104] Many are innocent
and stuck in Pakistan's slow court system whilst other are in prison awaiting charges on a range of
things such as gun smuggling and robbery.[105] The chief justice of an apex court of Pakistan asked
about the situation and said it was going out of control in Balochistan. [103][104] The Supreme Court is
currently investigating the "missing persons" and issued an arrest warrant for the former Military
Dictator Pervez Musharaff. Furthermore, the Chief Justice of the court said the military must act
under the government's direction and follow well-defined parameters set by the Constitution. [106]

Missing people found[edit]


In June 2011, the prime minister was informed that 41 missing people had returned to their homes,
false cases against 38 had been withdrawn and several others had been traced. The PM urged
police to trace the missing people and help them to return to their homes. [99]

Supreme Court orders[edit]

The Supreme Court apex court headed by Justice Iqbal decided ordered the government to the
grant of subsistence allowance to the affected families. Justice Iqbal advised families not to lose
hope. He said the issue of missing persons had become a chronic problem and, therefore, the
Commission of Inquiry on Enforced Disappearances, constituted on the orders of the apex court,
should be made permanent.[107]

See also[edit]

Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province)

Makran

Las Bela

Kharan

Khanate of Kalat

Baluchistan States Union

Human rights violations in Balochistan

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