'
"75
gale bicentennial publications
VECTOR ANALYSIS
gale 'Bicentennial publications
With
the
approval of the
President
and Fellows
of Tale University, a series of volumes has been
prepared by a number of the Professors and Instructors,
to
tion
be
issued
in
connection
with
the
a partial indicathe
the
character
studies
in which the
of
of
Bicentennial
Anniversary, as
University teachers are engaged.
This
series
of volumes
is
of
respectfully
tijc
dedicated
to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
A TEXTBOOK FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS
OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS
FOUNDED UPON THE LECTURES OF
J.
WILLARD
GIBBS,
PH.D., LL.D.
Professor of Mathematical Physics in Yale University
BY
EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON,
PH.D.
Instructor in Mathematics in Yale University
NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
LONDON: EDWARD ARNOLD
:
1901
Copyright, 1901,
BY YALE UNIVERSITY.
Published, December, 1901.
UNIVERSITY PRESS
AND SON
JOHN WILSON
CAMBRIDGE,
U.S.A.
PKEFACE BY PROFESSOR GIBBS
SINCE the printing of a short pamphlet on the Elements of
Vector Analysis in the years 188184,
never published, but
somewhat widely circulated among those who were known to
be interested in the subject,
the desire has been expressed
in more than one quarter, that the substance of that treatise,
perhaps in fuller form, should be made accessible to
the public.
As, however, the years passed without my finding the
meet this want, which seemed a real one, I was
very glad to have one of the hearers of my course on Vector
leisure to
Analysis in the year 18991900 undertake the preparation of
a textbook on the subject.
I
have not desired that Dr. Wilson should aim simply
at the reproduction of my lectures, but rather that he should
use his own judgment in all respects for the production of a
textbook in which the subject should be so illustrated by an
adequate number of examples as to meet the wants of students of geometry and physics.
J.
YALE UNIVERSITY,
WILLARD
September, 1901.
G47442
BHGINKEKING LIBRARY
GIBBS.
GENERAL PREFACE
WHEN I undertook to adapt the lectures of Professor Gibbs
on VECTOR ANALYSIS for publication in the Yale Bicentennial Series, Professor Gibbs himself was already so fully
engaged upon his work to appear in the same series, Elementary
Principles in Statistical Mechanics, that it was understood no
material assistance in the composition of this book could be
expected from him. For this reason he wished me to feel
entirely free to use my own discretion alike in the selection
of the topics to be treated and in the mode of treatment.
It has been
my
only in so far as
endeavor to use the freedom thus granted
was necessary
for presenting his
method
in
textbook form.
far the greater part of the material used in the following pages has been taken from the course of lectures on
Vector Analysis delivered annually at the University by
By
Professor Gibbs.
Some
use,
however, has been made of the
chapters on Vector Analysis in Mr. Oliver Heaviside's Elec~
tromagnetic Theory (Electrician Series, 1893) and in Professor
Foppl's lectures on Die MaxwelVsche Theorie der Electricitdt
(Teubner, 1894). My previous study of Quaternions has
also
been of great assistance.
The
material thus obtained has been arranged in the
way
which seems best suited to easy mastery of the subject.
Those Arts, which it seemed best to incorporate in the
text but which for various reasons may well be omitted at
the first reading have been marked with an asterisk (*). Numerous illustrative examples have been drawn from geometry,
mechanics, and physics. Indeed, a large part of the text has
to do with applications of the method.
These applications
have not been set apart in chapters by themselves, but have
GENERAL PREFACE
been distributed throughout the body of the book as fast as
the analysis has been developed sufficiently for their adequate
treatment. It is hoped that by this means the reader may be
Great care
better enabled to make practical use of the book.
has been taken in avoiding the introduction of unnecessary
ideas, and in so illustrating each idea that is introduced as
make its necessity evident and its meaning easy to grasp.
Thus the book is not intended as a complete exposition of
to
the theory of Vector Analysis, but as a textbook from which
so much of the subject as may be required for practical appli
may be learned. Hence a summary, including a list
more important formulae, and a number of exercises,
have been placed at the end of each chapter, and many less
essential points in the text have been indicated rather than
fully worked out, in the hope that the reader will supply the
The summary may be found useful in reviews and
details.
cations
of the
for reference.
The subject of Vector Analysis naturally divides itself into
three distinct parts.
First, that which concerns addition and
the scalar and vector products of vectors.
Second, that which
concerns the differential and integral calculus in its relations
and vector functions. Third, that which contains
the theory of the linear vector function.
The first part is
a necessary introduction to both other parts. The second
to scalar
and third are mutually independent. Either may be taken
up first. For practical purposes in mathematical physics the
second must be regarded as more elementary than the third.
But a student not primarily interested in physics would naturally pass from the first part to the third, which he would
probably find more attractive and easy than the second.
Following this division of the subject, the main body of
the book is divided into six chapters of which two deal with
each of the three parts in the order named. Chapters I. and
II. treat of addition, subtraction, scalar
multiplication, and
the scalar and vector products of vectors. The exposition
has been
made
stood by and
knowledge
is
quite elementary. It can readily be underespecially suited for such readers as have a
of only the elements of
Trigonometry and Ana
GENERAL PREFACE
xi
Those who are well versed in Quaternions
lytic Geometry.
or allied subjects may perhaps need to read only the summaries.
III.
Chapters
and IV. contain the treatment
of
those topics in Vector Analysis which, though of less value
to the students of pure mathematics, are of the utmost importance to students of physics. Chapters V. and VI. deal with
the linear vector function.
vector function
is
To
students of physics the linear
of particular importance in the
mathemati
treatment of phenomena connected with nonisotropic
media and to the student of pure mathematics this part of
the book will probably be the most interesting of all, owing
cal
to the fact that it leads to Multiple
of Matrices.
Algebra or the Theory
which contains the
A concluding chapter, VII.,
development of certain higher parts of the theory, a number
of applications, and a short sketch of imaginary or complex
vectors, has been added.
In the treatment of the integral calculus, Chapter IV.,
questions of mathematical rigor arise. Although modern
theorists are devoting much time and thought to rigor, and
although they will doubtless criticise this portion of the book
it
adversely,
has been deemed best to give but
to the discussion of this subject.
And the
reason that whatever system of notation be
little
attention
more so
for the
employed ques
tions of rigor are indissolubly associated with the calculus
and occasion no new difficulty to the student of Vector
Analysis,
who must
first
learn
what the
facts are
and may
postpone until later the detailed consideration of the restrictions that are put upon those facts.
Notwithstanding the efforts which have been made during
half a century to introduce Quaternions into
the
fact remains that they have not found wide favor.
physics
more than
On
hand there has been a growing tendency espedecade toward the adoption of some form of
Vector Analysis. The works of Heaviside and Foppl referred to before may be cited in evidence.
As yet however
no system of Vector Analysis which makes any claim to
the other
cially in the last
completeness has been published. In fact Heaviside says
"I am in hopes that the chapter which I now finish may
:
GENERAL PREFACE
x ii
serve as a stopgap till regular vectorial treatises come to be
written suitable for physicists, based upon the vectorial treat"
ment of vectors (Electromagnetic Theory, Vol. I., p. 305).
Elsewhere in the same chapter Heaviside has set forth the
claims of vector analysis as against Quaternions, and others
have expressed similar views.
then, to any system of vector analysis must
This, I feel confident, was Professor
practical utility.
He uses it
Gibbs's point of view in building up his system.
The keynote,
be
its
on Electricity and Magnetism and on
Electromagnetic Theory of Light. In writing this book I
have tried to present the subject from this practical standpoint, and keep clearly before the reader's mind the quesentirely in his courses
tions:
What
combinations or functions of vectors occur in
And how may these be represented
physics and geometry ?
symbolically in the way best suited to facile analytic manipulation ? The treatment of these questions in modern books
on physics has been too much confined to the addition and
This is scarcely enough. It has
to
aim
here
been the
give also an exposition of scalar and
f divergence and curl
vector products, of the operator
which have gained such universal recognition since the appearance of Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism,
of slope, potential, linear vector function, etc., such as shall
subtraction of vectors.
be adequate for the needs of students of physics at the
present day and adapted to them.
It has
been asserted by some that Quaternions, Vector
Analysis, and all such algebras are of little value for investigating questions in mathematical physics. Whether this
assertion shall prove true or not, one
vectors are to mathematical physics
may
still
maintain that
what invariants are to
geometry. As every geometer must be thoroughly conversant with the ideas of invariants, so every student of physics
should be able to think in terms of vectors. And there is
no way
in
which
he, especially at the beginning of his scican come to so true an appreciation of the
importance of vectors and of the ideas connected with them
as by working in Vector
Analysis and dealing directly with
entific studies,
GENERAL PREFACE
the vectors themselves.
success
of
Professor
To
xiii
those that hold these views the
Vorlesungen uber
Fb'ppl's
Technische
Mechanik (four volumes, Teubner, 18971900, already in a
second edition), in which the theory of mechanics is developed by means of a vector analysis, can be but an encouraging sign.
I take pleasure in
thanking
script.
The good
colleagues, Dr. M. B. Porter
assisting me with the manu
my
and Prof. H. A. Bumstead, for
services of the latter have been particularly
valuable in arranging Chapters III. and IV. in their present
form and in suggesting many of the illustrations used in the
am
also under obligations to my father, Mr. Edwin
for help in connection both with the proofs and
the manuscript. Finally, I wish to express my deep indebt
work.
H. Wilson,
For although he has been so
preoccupied as to be unable to read either manuscript or
proof, he has always been ready to talk matters over with
me, and it is he who has furnished me with inspiration sufedness to Professor Gibbs.
ficient to
cany through the work.
EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON.
YALE UNIVERSITY,
October, 1901.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
PREFACE BY PROFESSOR GIBBS
vii
GENERAL PREFACE
ix
CHAPTER
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
ARTS.
13
4
5
67
810
SCALARS AND VECTORS
EQUAL AND NULL VECTORS
THE POINT OF VIEW OF THIS CHAPTER
SCALAR MULTIPLICATION. THE NEGATIVE SIGN
ADDITION. THE PARALLELOGRAM LAW
11
SUBTRACTION
12
LAWS GOVERNING THE FOREGOING OPERATIONS
COMPONENTS OF VECTORS. VECTOR EQUATIONS
THE THREE UNIT VECTORS 1, j, k
1316
17
1819
2022
2324
25
4
6
....
8
11
....
....
14
18
APPLICATIONS TO SUNDRY PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY.
VECTOR RELATIONS INDEPENDENT OF THE ORIGIN
CENTERS OF GRAVITY. BARYCENTRIC COORDINATES
THE USE OF VECTORS TO DENOTE AREAS
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER i
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER i
CHAPTER
12
21
...
27
39
46
51
52
II
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
2728
2930
3133
3435
36
THE DIRECT, SCALAR, OR DOT PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS
THE DISTRIBUTIVE LAW AND APPLICATIONS
THE SKEW, VECTOR, OR CROSS PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS
THE DISTRIBUTIVE LAW AND APPLICATIONS
THE TRIPLE PRODUCT A* B C
55
58
60
63
67
CONTENTS
XVI
ARTS.
3738
3940
4142
4345
4647
4850
51
52
53
54
THE SCALAR
THE VECTOR
TRIPLE PRODUCT A* B X COR [ABC]
TRIPLE PRODUCT A X (B X C)
68
71
PRODUCTS OF MORE THAN THREE VECTORS WITH APPLICATIONS TO TRIGONOMETRY
RECIPROCAL SYSTEMS OF THREE VECTORS
SOLUTION OF SCALAR AND VECTOR EQUATIONS LINEAR IN
AN UNKNOWN VECTOR
SYSTEMS OF FORCES ACTING ON A RIGID BODY
KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY
CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM OF A RIGID BODY
RELATIONS_JBETWEEN TWO RIGHTHANDED SYSTEMS OF
TIIKKK I'KKI'I.M>I<TLAU T N IT VKCTOKS
PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY. PLANAR COORDINATES
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER n
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER n
....
.
75
81
87
92
97
101
104
106
109
113
CHAPTER HI
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
DERIVATIVES AND DIFFERENTIALS OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS
WITH RESPECT TO A SCALAR VARIABLE
115
57 CURVATURE AND TORSION OF GAUCHE CURVES
120
5859 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE. THE HODOGRAPH
125
60 THE INSTANTANEOUS AXIS OF ROTATION
131
61 INTEGRATION WITH APPLICATIONS TO KINEMATICS
133
62 SCALAR FUNCTIONS OF POSITION IN SPACE
136
6367 THE YECTORJDIFFEUENTIATING OPERATOR
138
68 THE SCALAR OPERATOR A * 'v7
147
69 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF POSITION IN SPACE
149
70 THE DIVERGENCE
AND THE CURL
150
X
71
INTERPRETATION OF THE DIVERGENCE S7
152
72 INTERPRETATION OF THE CURL
155
X
*
73
LAWS OF OPERATION OF V>
157'
X
7476 THE PARTIAL APPLICATION OF V EXPANSION OF A VECTOR FUNCTION ANALOGOUS TO TAYLOR'S THEOREM.
159
APPLICATION TO HYDROMECHANICS
77
THE DIFFERENTIATING OPERATORS OF THE SECOND ORDER 166
78 GEOMETRIC INTERPRETATION OF LAPLACE'S OPERATOR
As THE DISPERSION
170
V*
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER in
172
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER in
177
5556
....
V
>
CONTENTS
xvii
CHAPTER IV
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
PAGE
ARTS.
7980
81
82
83
84
LINE INTEGRALS OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS WITH APPLICATIONS
GAUSS'S THEOREM
STOKKS'S THEOREM
CONVERSE OF STOKES'S THEOREM WITH APPLICATIONS
TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINE, SURFACE, AND VOLUME INTEGRALS. GREEN'S THEOREM
.
91
REMARKS ON MULTIPLEVALUED FUNCTIONS
POTENTIAL. THE INTEGRATING OPERATOR " POT "
COMMUTATIVE PROPERTY OF POT AND ^7
REMARKS UPON THE FOREGOING
THE INTEGRATING OPERATORS "NEW," "LAP," " MAX "
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTEGRATING AND DIFFER
92
THE POTENTIAL
85
8687
88
89
90
ENTIATING OPERATORS
"
POT "
MAXWELLIANS
193
197
200
205
211
215
222
230
234
240
CERTAIN BOUNDARY VALUE THEOREMS
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER iv
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER iv
96
187
A SOLUTION OF POISSON'S
95
184
228
is
EQUATION
SOLENOIDAL AND IRROTATIONAL PARTS OF A VECTOR
FUNCTION. CERTAIN OPERATORS AND THEIR INVERSE
MUTUAL POTENTIALS, NEWTONIANS, LAPLACIANS, AND
9394
179
243
.
249
255
CHAPTER V
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
9798
99
100
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS DEFINED
DYADICS DEFINED
ANY LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTION MAY BE REPRESENTED
BY A DYADIC. PROPERTIES OF DYADICS
THE NONION FORM OF A DYADIC
THE DYAD OR INDETERMINATE PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS IS THE MOST GENERAL. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTY
OF THE SCALAR AND VECTOR PRODUCTS
PRODUCTS OF DYADICS
DEGREES OF NULLITY OF DYADICS
THE IDEMF ACTOR
....
101
102
103104
105107
108
...
...
260
264
266
269
271
276
282
288
XV111
CONTENTS
PAGE
ARTS.
109110
111
112114
115116
117
118119
120
121
122
POWERS AND ROOTS OF DYADICS
SELFCONJUGATE AND ANTICONJUGATE DYADICS.
SELFCONJUGATE PARTS OF A DYADIC
RECIPROCAL DYADICS.
ANTISELFCONJUGATE
DYADICS.
THE VECTOR
290
294
PROD
UCT. QUADRANTAL VERSORS
REDUCTION OF DYADICS TO NORMAL FORM
DOUBLE MULTIPLICATION OF DYADICS
THE SECOND AND THIRD OF A DYADIC
CONDITIONS FOR DIFFERENT DEGREES OF NULLITY
NONION FORM. DETERMINANTS
INVARIANTS OF A DYADIC. THE HAMILTONCAYLEY
EQUATION
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER v
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER v
....
.
297
302
306
310
313
315
319
321
329
CHAPTER VI
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
123124
125126
127
128
129
130
131
132
HOMOGENEOUS STRAIN REPRESENTED BY A DYADIC
ROTATIONS ABOUT A FIXED POINT. VERSORS
THE VECTOR SEMITANGENT OF VERSION
BlQUADRANTAL VERSORS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
CYCLIC DYADICS
RIGHT TENSORS
TONICS AND CYCLOTONICS
REDUCTION OF DYADICS TO CANONICAL FORMS, TONICS,
CYCLOTONICS, SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SHEARERS
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER vi
332
334
339
CHAPTER
343
347
351
353
356
368
VII
MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
136142
143146
147148
149157
158162
QUADRIC SURFACES
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS
VARIABLE DYADICS
CURVATURE OF SURFACES
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS
....
372
392
403
411
426
YECTOft ANALYSIS
VECTOR ANALYSIS
CHAPTER
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
1.]
IN mathematics and especially
two
in physics
different kinds of quantity present themselves.
very
Consider, for
example, mass, time, density, temperature, force, displacement
of a
point, velocity,
and
Of
acceleration.
these quantities
some can be represented adequately by a single number
temperature, by degrees on a thermometric scale time, by
mass and density, by numerical val3^ears, days, or seconds
;
ues which are wholly determined when the unit of the scale
On the other hand the remaining quantities are not
is fixed.
capable of such representation. Force to be sure is said to be
of so many pounds or grams weight; velocity, of so many
But in addition to this each
feet or centimeters per second.
of
them must be considered
as
having direction as well as
A force points North, South, East, West, up,
magnitude.
down, or in some intermediate direction. The same is true
of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
No scale of numbers can represent
them adequately.
It
can represent only
their magnitude, not their direction.
2.]
Definition
vector is a quantity
which
is
considered
as possessing direction as well as magnitude.
Definition
A scalar is a quantity which is considered as pos
sessing magnitude but no direction.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
The positive and negative numbers of ordinary algebra are the
For this reason the ordinary algebra is called
typical scalars.
when
necessary to distinguish it from the vector
algebra or analysis which is the subject of this book.
The typical vector is the displacement of translation in space.
scalar algebra
Consider
first
a point
(Fig. 1).
straight line
Let
and take a
This change of position
line
PP. The
ment
it is
P'.
be displaced in a
new
position
P'.
represented by the
magnitude of the displaceis
is the length of PP' ; the direction of
the direction of the line PP' from P to
Next consider a displacement not
of one,
the points in space. Let all the
but
points move in straight lines in the same direction and for the
same distance D. This is equivalent to shifting space as a
of all
body
rigid
in that direction through the distance
without
Such a displacement is called a translation.
It
and
direction
When
possesses
magnitude.
space undergoes
rotation.
a translation T, each point of space undergoes a displacement
equal to
in
magnitude and direction; and conversely if
PP' which any one particular point P suf
the displacement
T is known, then that of any other
Q is also known for Q Q' must be equal and parallel
toPP'.
The translation T is represented geometrically or graphically
by an arrow T (Fig. 1) of which the magnitude and direction
fers in the translation
point
are equal to those of the translation.
The absolute position
of this arrow in space is
immaterial.
entirely
Technically the
arrow is called a stroke. Its tail or initial point is its origin ;
and
its
head or
is
designated by
metric quantity, a stroke,
origin
In the figure the
and the terminus by T. This geo
final point, its terminus.
is
used as the mathematical symbol
for all vectors, just as the
ordinary positive and negative
bers are used as the
symbols for all scalars.
num
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
*
As examples
3.]
sity,
of scalar quantities
and temperature have been mentioned.
mass, time, denOthers are dis
moment of inertia, work, etc. Magnitude,
means the sole property of these quantities.
no
by
tance, volume,
however,
is
Each implies something besides magnitude.
Each has its
an example of which
own
distinguishing characteristics, as
dimensions in the sense well known to physicists may
distance 3, a time 3, a work 3, etc., are verybe cited.
The magnitude 3 is, however, a property common
different.
its
to
them
tities
perhaps the only one.
all
pure number
the simplest.
is
Of
all scalar
It implies
quanti
nothing but
magnitude. It is the scalar par excellence and consequently
used as the mathematical symbol for all scalars.
it is
As examples
city,
of vector quantities force, displacement, veloacceleration have been given.
Each of these has
and
other characteristics than those which belong to a vector pure
and simple. The concept of vector involves two ideas and
two alone
vector.
,to
But
a rigid
body the
consideration
fice.
magnitude of the vector and direction of the
force is more complicated.
When it is applied
And
line in
which
it
acts
must be taken
into
magnitude and direction alone do not suf
in case
it is
applied to a nonrigid body the point
is as important as the magnitude or
of application of the force
direction.
than force.
Such is frequently true for vector quantities other
Moreover the question of dimensions is present
as in the case of scalar quantities.
the stroke, which
The mathematical
vector,
the primary object of consideration in
this book, abstracts from all directed quantities their magniis
tude and direction and nothing but these
just as the mathe
the magnitude and
matical scalar, pure number,
Hence one must be on his guard lest from
that alone.
abstracts
analogy he attribute some properties to the mathematical
vector which do not belong to it and he must be even more
;
careful lest he obtain erroneous results
by considering the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
vector quantities of physics as possessing no properties other
For example
than those of the mathematical vector.
never do to consider force
and
would
it
effects as unaltered
its
by
This warning may not be
parallel
shifting
it may possibly save some confusion.
necessary, yet
Inasmuch as, taken in its entirety, a vector or stroke
4.]
to
it
itself.
it may appropriately be designated
by
to the fundamental difference
however
Owing
between scalars and vectors, it is necessary to distinguish
Sometimes, as in mathecarefully the one from the other.
is
but a single concept,
one
letter.
matical physics, the distinction is furnished by the physical
Thus if n be the index of refraction it
interpretation.
must be
scalars
scalar;
but
/,
the time, are also
m, the mass, and
are
force, and
a, the acceleration,
,
the
When, however,
vectors.
the letters are regarded merely
with no particular physical significance some
typographical difference must be relied upon to distinguish
as symbols
vectors from scalars.
Hence
book Clarendon type
in this
is
used for setting up vectors and ordinary type for scalars.
This permits the use of the same letter differently printed
to represent the vector
and
C be the electric current in
its
Thus
scalar magnitude. 1
magnitude and
direction,
if
C may
be used to represent the magnitude of that current if g be
the vector acceleration due to gravity, g may be the scalar
;
value of that acceleration
mass, v
may be
if
v be the velocity of a moving
the magnitude of that velocity.
Clarendons to denote vectors makes
it
The use
possible to pass
of
from
quantities to their scalar magnitudes by a mere
change in the appearance of a letter without any confusing
change in the letter itself.
directed
Definition
Two vectors
are said to be equal
when they have
the same magnitude and the same direction.
1
This convention, however,
instances
it
would prove
is
by no means invariably followed.
just as undesirable as
it
is
In some
convenient in others.
chiefly valuable in the application of vectors to physics.
It is
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
The equality of two vectors A and
usual sign =. Thus
A B
is
denoted by the
Evidently a vector or stroke is not altered by shifting it
about parallel to itself in space. Hence any vector A = PP'
(Fig. 1)
for the
as origin
be drawn from any assigned point
until
PP'
to
itself
be
moved
parallel
segment
may
may
the point
P falls
A=
In this way
all
and P' upon some point
upon the point
PP = OT= T.
vectors in space
be replaced by directed
may
segments radiating from one fixed point
in space will of course coincide,
Equal vectors
0.
when placed with
Thus (Fig. 1) A = PP'
mini at the same point 0.
both fall upon T = ~OT.
are necessary.
with
its
their ter
and B =
For the numerical determination of a vector
If r, $,
T.
Q~Q',
three scalars
These may be chosen in a variety of ways.
be polar coordinates in space any vector r drawn
origin at the origin of coordinates may be represented
by the three
scalars
r,
<, 9
the vector.
which determine the terminus of
(r,
/,,
$, V)
Or if z, y, z be Cartesian coordinates in space a vector r may
be considered as given by the differences of the coordinates x\
y , z' of its terminus and those #, y, z of its origin.
f
(x
 x, y'
y,z'
z).
If in particular the origin of the vector coincide
with the
origin of coordinates, the vector will be represented
three coordinates of
its
r~(x',
When two
by the
terminus
y', z').
vectors are equal the three scalars which repre
sent them must be equal respectively each to each.
one vector equality implies three scalar equalities.
Hence
VECTOR ANALYSIS
A vector A
Definition
magnitude A is
Such a vector
equal to
is
said to be equal to zero
when
its
zero.
is
called a null or zero vector
in the usual manner.
naught
A=
if
and
is
written
Thus
A = 0.
All null vectors are regarded as equal to each other without
of direction.
any considerations
In fact a null vector from a geometrical standpoint would
that is to
be represented by a linear segment of length zero
say,
by a
It consequently
point.
terminate direction
all.
If,
direction
which
finite vector,
would have a wholly indeto the same thing, none at
what amounts
be regarded as the limit approached by a
length, it might be considered to have that
however,
vector of finite
or,
is
it
the limit approached by the direction of the
the length decreases indefinitely and ap
when
proaches zero as a limit.
The
justification for disregarding
and looking upon all null vectors as equal is
that when they are added (Art. 8) to other vectors no change
occurs and when multiplied (Arts. 27, 31) by other vectors
this direction
the product
is
zero.
In extending to vectors the fundamental operations
5.]
and arithmetic, namely, addition, subtraction, and
multiplication, care must be exercised not only to avoid selfof algebra
contradictory definitions but also to lay down useful ones.
Both these ends may be accomplished most naturally and
easily
by looking to physics (for in that science vectors conand by observing how such
tinually present themselves)
If then A be a given displaceor
what
is two, three, or in general x
ment, force,
velocity,
times A? What, the negative of A? And if B be another,
quantities are treated there.
what
is
the
sum
equivalent of
of A and B ?
That
and B taken together ?
is
to say,
what
is
the
The obvious answers
to these questions suggest
immediately the desired definitions.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
Scalar Multiplication
Definition:
6.]
positive scalar
and
Thus
v
when
direction
its
vector
its
is left
said to be multiplied
is
magnitude
is
by a
multiplied by that scalar
unaltered.
v be a velocity of nine knots East by North, 2 J times
a velocity of twentyone knots with the direction still
is
if
East by North.
Or
if f
be the force exerted upon the scale
gram weight, 1000 times f is the force exerted by a
kilogram. The direction in both cases is vertically down
pan by a
ward.
A be
the vector and x the scalar the product of x and
denoted as usual by
x A or A x.
If
A is
however, more customary to place the scalar multiplier
before the multiplicand A. This multiplication by a scalar
It
is
is,
and
called scalar multiplication,
x (y A)
as in ordinary algebra
mediately obvious
(x y)
it
follows the associative law
A=
y (x A)
and arithmetic.
when the
fact is
This statement
is
im
taken into consideration
that scalar multiplication does not alter direction but merely
multiplies the length.
Definition
Any
vector
vector a in
its
A unit vector is
A may
one whose magnitude
is
unity.
be looked upon as the product of a unit
direction
by the
positive scalar
A,
its
magni
tude.
A=A
= a A.
The unit vector
A by \/A
a may similarly be written as the product of
or as the quotient of A and A.
1
VECTOR ANALYSIS
The negative
Definition
7.]
reverses its direction
For example
 A
if
but leaves
sign,
prefixed to a vector
its
magnitude unchanged.
be a displacement for two feet to the right,
a displacement for two feet to the left. Again if the
B be A, the stroke B A, which is of the same length
stroke
is
A
A B but which is in
from A to B, will be
as
of the negative sign
of motion.
" reaction."
If
The
B to A
the direction from
A.
may
Another
instead of
illustration of the use
be taken from Newton's third law
denote an "action,"
positive sign,
+ may
,
will denote the
be prefixed to a vec
tor to call particular attention to the fact that the direction
The two
has not been reversed.
signs
and
when used
in connection with scalar multiplication of vectors follow the
same laws
of operation as in ordinary algebra.
These are
symbolically
++=+
+  = ;  + = ;
(ra
The
interpretation
is
= ra
A)
 = +
A).
obvious.
Addition and Subtraction
The
8.]
addition of two vectors or strokes
may
be treated
most simply by regarding them as defining translations in
Let S be one vector and T the other. Let P
space (Art. 2).
be a point of space (Fig. 2). The translation S carries P into P' such that the
line
PP'
is
equal to S in magnitude and
The transformation T will then
the line P'P" being
carry P' into P"
parallel to T and equal to it in magnitude.
direction.
FIG.
2.
Consequently the result of S followed by
T
P".
If
is
now Q be any
into Q' such that
to carry the point
QQ =
1
into the point
other point in space, S will carry Q
S and T will then carry Q' into Q"
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
= T.
such that Q' Q"
Thus S followed by T carries Q into Q".
For
Q Q' Q" is equal to PP'P".
Moreover, the triangle
two
the
sides
Q'
and
Q' Q", being equal
and T respectively, must be likewise
and
parallel to S
P P'
parallel to
and
P' P" respectively which are also parallel to S and T. Hence
the third sides of the triangles must be equal and parallel.
That
is
Q Q"
As Q
is
equal and parallel to
PP".
any point in space this is equivalent to saying that
by means of S followed by T all points of space are displaced
the same amount and in the same direction. This displacement is therefore a translation.
Consequently the two
is
translations S
and T are equivalent
to a single translation
B,.
Moreover
S
if
The
= PP' and
stroke
strokes S
B,
is
= P' P",
called the
and T to which
it
then
resultant
is
E = PP".
or
sum
equivalent.
of the
two
sum
de
This
is
noted in the usual manner by
From analogy with
the
R=
sum
or resultant of
T.
two translations
the following definition for the addition of any
laid
two vectors is
down.
Definition
The sum
or resultant of
two vectors
is
found
by placing the origin of the second upon the terminus of the
first and drawing the vector from the origin of the first to the
terminus of the second.
9.]
Theorem.
added does not
The order
affect the
in
which two vectors S and T are
sum.
S followed by T gives precisely the same result as
by S. For let S carry P into P' (Fig. 3) ; and T,
T followed
into P".
+ T then carries P into P". Suppose now that T carries P
into P'". The line PP'" is equal and parallel to P'P".
Con
VECTOR ANALYSIS
10
and P'" lie at the vertices of
sequently the points P, P', P",
Hence
a parallelogram.
i
j
ua
an(
pin pn j s e q
p ar_
allel
to
PP'.
Hence S
T fol
carries P'" into P".
lowed by S therefore
car
P into P" through P',
whereas S followed by T
ries
carries
P'".
This
either case the same.
may
into
The
P" through
final result is in
be designated symbolically
by writing
It is to
be noticed that S = PP' and T
of the parallelogram
= P P'" are the two sides
the point P as
PP' P" P'" which have
R=
PP" is the diagonal drawn
origin ; and that
through P. This leads to another very common way of
stating the definition of the sum of two vectors.
common
two vectors be drawn from the same origin and a parallelogram be constructed upon them as sides, their sum will be that
If
diagonal which passes through their common origin.
"
This is the wellknown " parallelogram law according to
which the physical vector quantities force, acceleration, velocIt is important to
ity, and angular velocity are compounded.
note that in case the vectors lie along the same line vector
addition becomes equivalent to algebraic scalar addition.
The
if
the
of
to
be
added
are
added
vectors
the
two
vectors
lengths
have the same direction
site directions.
but subtracted
if
they have oppo
In either case the sum has the same direction
as that of the greater vector.
10.]
After the definition of the
been laid down, the
sum
of several
sum
of
may
be found by adding
two vectors has
together the first two, to this sum the third, to this the fourth,
and so on until all the vectors have been combined into a sin
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
11
gle one. The final result is the same as that obtained by placing
the origin of each succeeding vector upon the terminus of the
preceding one and then drawing at once the vector from
In case
the origin of the first to the terminus of the last.
these two points coincide the vectors form a closed polygon
and
that
their
if
strokes
sum
is
zero.
Interpreted geometrically this states
are such that the
number of displacements R, S, T
T
the
sides
a
closed
form
of
R, S,
polygon taken in
order, then the effect of carrying out the displacements
Each point
of space
is
brought back to
terpreted in mechanics it states that
if
its
is nil.
starting point.
any number
In
of forces
act at a point and if they form the sides of a closed polygon
taken in order, then the resultant force is zero and the point
is
in equilibrium under the action of the forces.
The order of sequence of the vectors in a sum
sequence.
cent vectors
This
may
is
of
no con
may be shown by proving that any two adjabe interchanged without affecting the result.
To show
A+B+C+D+E=A+B+D+C+R
A = ~0~A, B = Zi?, C = ~BC, D = (TlT, E = WE.
Then
Ofi = A + B + C + D + E.
Let
B C' = D. Then C' B C D
consequently C' D = C. Hence
0~E = A + B + D +
Let now
is
a parallelogram and
E,
which proves the statement. Since any two adjacent vectors
may be interchanged, and since the sum may be arranged in
any order by successive interchanges of adjacent vectors, the
order in which the vectors occur in the sum is immaterial.
11.]
is
Definition:
added
vector
is
said to be subtracted
after reversal of direction.
when
it
Symbolically,
A  B = A + ( B).
By
this
means subtraction
is
reduced to addition and needs
VECTOR ANALYSIS
12
is however an interesting and
the
difference of two vectors
of representing
no special consideration.
important
way
geometrically.
Let
There
A = OA, B = OB
Complete
(Fig. 4).
the parallelogram of which A and B
are the sides.
Then the diagonal
=C
is
the
sum A + B
of the
Next complete the
of
which A and
B
parallelogram
OB' are the sides. Then the ditwo
vectors.
agonal
OD = D will
be the
sum
of
But the
and
OD
is
parallel
equal
segment
Hence BA may be taken as the difference to the two
to EA.
This leads to the following rule The differvectors A and B.
ence of two vectors which are drawn from the same origin is
the vector drawn from the terminus of the vector to be subtracted to the terminus of the vector from which it is subThus the two diagonals of the parallelogram, which
tracted.
is constructed upon A and B as sides, give the sum and difference of A and B.
In the foregoing paragraphs addition, subtraction, and
12.]
scalar multiplication of vectors have been defined and interand the negative of
B.
To make
the development of vector algebra matheexact
and
matically
systematic it would now become necessary
to demonstrate that these three fundamental operations follow
the same formal laws as in the ordinary scalar algebra, alpreted.
though from the standpoint of the physical and geometrical
These
interpretation of vectors this may seem superfluous.
laws are
Ia
I
II
III a
III 6
III,
= (m ri) A,
=
A+ (Bf C),
(A + B) + C
A B = B + A,
(m, + n) A = m A + n A,
m (A + B) = m A + m B,
 (A + B) =  A  B.
(n A)
I
n (m A)
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
13
and commutation
of
the scalar factors in scalar multiplication.
I 6 is the law of association for vectors in vector addition.
It
I a is the socalled
law
of association
states that in adding vectors parentheses
any points without altering the result.
II
is
III a
be inserted at
may
the commutative law of vector addition.
is
the distributive law for scalars in scalar multipli
is
the distributive law for vectors in scalar multipli
cation.
IIIj
cation.
III C
The
the distributive law for the negative sign.
proofs of these laws of operation depend upon those
is
propositions in elementary geometry which have to deal with
the first properties of the parallelogram and similar triangles.
They will not be given here; but it is suggested that the
reader work them out for the sake of fixing the fundamental
ideas of addition, subtraction,
The
clearly in mind.
in the statement
and
scalar multiplication
result of the laws
may
be
more
summed up
The laws which govern addition, subtraction, and scalar
multiplication of vectors are identical with those governing these
operations in ordinary scalar algebra.
It is precisely this identity of formal laws
the extension of the use of the familiar signs
of arithmetic to the algebra of vectors and
which ensures the correctness of
which
justifies
=, +, and
it is
results obtained
also this
by operat
ing with those signs in the usual manner. One caution only
need be mentioned. Scalars and vectors are entirely different
For this reason they can never be equated
except perhaps in the trivial case where each is
For the same reason they are not to be added together.
sorts of quantity.
to each other
zero.
So long as this is borne in mind no difficulty need be anticipated from dealing with vectors much as if they were scalars.
Thus from equations in which the vectors enter linearly with
VECTOR ANALYSIS
14
unknown
coefficients
scalar
vectors
may
be eliminated or
same way and with the same limitafound by
tions as in ordinary algebra; for the eliminations and solutions depend solely on the scalar coefficients of the equations
If for
and not at all on what the variables represent.
solution in the
instance
aA + &B +
then A, B,
C,
or
D may
cC
+ dD =
0,
be expressed in terms of the other
three
=
as
(a
A + bB+
C).
(M
And two
vector equations such as
and
yield
A+4B=E
A+
=F
by the usual processes the solutions
A=3E4F
B
and
=3F
2 E.
Components of Vectors
13.]
Definition
Vectors are said to be collinear when
they are parallel to the same line; coplanar, when parallel
to the
same plane.
Two
or
more vectors
to
which no
line
can be drawn parallel are said to be noncollinear. Three or
more vectors to which no plane can be drawn parallel are
said to be noncoplanar.
Obviously any two vectors are
coplanar.
vector b collinear with a
may be expressed as the
product of a and a positive or negative scalar which is the
ratio of the magnitude of b to that of a.
The sign is positive
Any
when b and
a have the same direction
have opposite directions.
If
then
OA =
negative, when they
a, the vector r drawn
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
from the origin
either direction
any point of the
to
line
OA
15
produced in
is
= x a.
(1)
x be a variable scalar parameter this equation may therefore be regarded as the (vector) equation of all points in the
If
OA.
line
upon
now B be
OAor that
Let
the line
any point not
line produced
in either direction (Fig. 5).
Let
B = b. The
not of the form x
a line parallel to
point upon
it.
vector b
OA
The
and
let
vector
to
0~R=
r
This equation
all
FlG 5
be any
a.
collinear with a and is
Hence the vector drawn
is
E is
or
may
CTB
+ B~R
=b+
a.
(2)
be regarded as the (vector) equation of
the points in the line which
B is
surely
BE
consequently expressible as x
from
is
Draw through B
a.
is
parallel to a
and of which
one point.
vector r coplanar with two noncollinear vectors
a and b may be resolved into two components parallel to a
and b respectively. This resolution may
14.]
Any
be accomplished by constructing the parallelogram (Fig. 6) of which the sides are
parallel to a and b and of which the di
agonal is r. Of these components one is
x a the other, y b.
x and y are respec;
tively the
scalar ratios (taken with the
proper sign) of the lengths of these components to the lengths
of a and b.
Hence
r
x a + yb
(2)'
If
a typical form for any vector coplanar with a and b.
as
in
form
be
this
several vectors r v r 2 , r 3
expressed
may
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
16
=x a+
r2 = z 2 a +
r = ^3 a +
rx
their
sum
r is
sum
b,
b,
2/3
then
+
This
yl
2/2
(2/i
y2
2/3
) b
the wellknown theorem that the components of a
of vectors are the sums of the components of those
is
vectors.
each of
If the vector r is zero
its
components must
Consequently the one vector equation r
equivalent to the two scalar equations
be zero.
2/i
2/2
2/3
is
(3)
vector r in space may be resolved into three
components parallel to any three given noncoplanar vectors.
Let the vectors be a, b,
15.]
Any
and
The
c.
may
resolution
then be
accom
plished by constructing
the parallelepiped (Fig.
which the edges
are parallel to a, b, and
7) of
and of which the
agonal
p IG
is r.
di
This par
allelopiped may be
drawn easily by passing
three planes parallel respectively to a and b, b and c,
of the vector r ; and a similar set of three planes through its
terminus R. These six planes will then be parallel in pairs
c
and a through the origin
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
and hence form a
parallelepiped.
That the
17
intersections of
the planes are lines which are parallel to a, or b, or c is
The three components of r are x a, y b, and z c ;
obvious.
where #, y, and z are respectively the scalar ratios (taken with
the proper sign) of the lengths of these components to the
length of
a, b,
and
c.
Hence
= #a +
2/b
zc
(4)
a typical form for any vector whatsoever in space. Several
vectors i v r 2 , r 3 . may be expressed in this form as
is
^ = x a + y b + z c,
r 2 = a a + y^ b + z 2
r 3 = # 3 a + yB b + * 3 c,
l
aj
Their
sum
c,
r is then
+
+ 2/2 + 2/3 +
+ (2J+Z2 + 23+
'
(.l/i
If the vector r is zero
each of
its
*1
+ 2 + 2/3 +
+ *2 + 2 3 +
'
'
'
'
'
'
2/
)<>
three components
Consequently the one vector equation r
the three scalar equations
yi
=
= '
is
 0.
is zero.
equivalent to
(5)
Should the vectors all be coplanar with a and b, all the components parallel to c vanish. In this case therefore the above
equations reduce to those given before.
If two equal vectors are expressed in terms of the
16.]
same three noncoplanar
vectors, the corresponding scalar co
efficients are equal.
2
VECTOR ANALYSIS
18
Let
r',
= x' a + y' b + z' c,
= x', y = y', z = z
 x') a + (y  y'} b + (z  z')
=
=
r
r'
For
(x
= 0, z z' = 0.
x' = 0,
x
Hence
y
y'
r'
Then
c.
But this would not be true if a, b, and c were coplanar. In
that case one of the three vectors could be expressed in terms
of the other
two
as
= m a + n b.
r =rca + 2/b + 2c = (ic + m2)a+(2/ + 7i2)b,
c = (x' + m z') a + (y' + n z') b,
r' = x' a + y b +
=
m
r
r'
z)
[(x +
(#' + m 2')] a,
+ [(y + nz)(y' + nz')'] b = 0.
c
Then
Hence
z'
the individual components of r
in the directions
r'
a and b (supposed different) are zero.
ri
I
o H
i"i
O"
*/
/*
L\ _.
T^
vfl
//t
v
*
/
y*
tX/
J^
^^
^ + n z = y' +
But
this
tively to
by no means
#', y', z'.
necessitates
/>ri
//(>
a?,
*y'
z'.
be equal respeca and b were col
y, z to
In a similar manner
if
impossible to infer that their coefficients vanish
The theorem may perhaps be stated as follows
individually.
linear it
is
In
case two equal vectors are expressed in terms of one vector,
or two noncollinear vectors, or three noncoplanar vectors, the
corresponding scalar coefficients are equal. But this is not necessarily true if the two vectors be collinear ; or the three vectors,
coplanar.
(Arts. 18
This principle will be used in the
applications
et seq.).
The Three Unit Vectors
i, j,
k.
In the foregoing paragraphs the method of expressin terms of three given noncoplanar ones has been
vectors
ing
The simplest set of three such vectors is the rectexplained.
17.]
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
19
Cartesian Geometry. This
angular system familiar in Solid
be either of two very distinct
rectangular system may however
l
axis
lies upon
In one case (Fig. 8, first part) the
rotation
which
Y plane on
that side of the
through a right
Faxis appears counterclockwise
angle from the Xaxis to the
or positive according to the convention adopted in Trigonome
types.
This relation
try.
may
be stated in another form.
axis be directed to the right
and the Faxis
the Z'axis will point upward.
the
X
right,
state
Lefthanded
FIG.
common
if
Righthanded
is
Or
and the Faxis to the
Still another method of
ment
X
vertically, the
^axis will be .directed toward the observer.
axis point toward the observer
If the
8.
in mathematical physics
and engineering.
If
a righthanded screw be turned from the Xaxis to the Faxis it will advance along the (positive) Zaxis. Such a sys
tem
of axes is called righthanded, positive, or counterclockwise. 2
It is easy to see that the Faxis lies upon that side of
Z JTplane
the
axis
is
on which rotation from the .Zaxis to the Xand the Xaxis, upon that side of
counterclockwise
the X, Y, or Zaxis the positive half of that axis is meant.
YThe
0.
plane means the plane which contains the X and Yaxis, f. e., the plane z
2
convenient righthanded system and one which is always available consists
1
By
of the
first
thumb,
first finger,
and second finger of the right hand. If the thumb and
from the palm perpendicular to each other, and if the
finger be stretched out
second finger be bent over toward the palm at right angles to first finger, a righthanded system is formed by the fingers taken in the order thumb, first finger,
second finger.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
20
the YZplaue on which rotation from the Faxis to the ZThus it appears that the relation
axis is counterclockwise.
between the three axes
same
cyclic order
screw
is
is
perfectly symmetrical so long as the
If a righthanded
is observed.
X YZX Y
turned from one axis toward the next
it
advances
along the third.
In the other case (Fig. 8, second part) the Z'axis lies upon
that side of the
Fplane on which rotation through a right
the
JTaxis
to the Faxis appears clockwise, or negfrom
angle
The
ative.
Faxis then lies
upon that
on which rotation from the
side of the ^"J^plane
the JTaxis appears
made concerning
be
may
In this case, too,
relation to the F^plane.
to
^"axis
clockwise and a similar statement
the Xaxis in
its
the relation between the three axes
symmetrical so long
is
X YZX Y
is preserved but it is just
cyclic order
the opposite of that in the former case. If a lefthanded screw
as the
is
same
turned from one axis toward the next
the third.
Hence
this
system
is
it
advances along
called lefthanded, negative,
or clockwise. 1
The two systems
metric.
One
mirror.
If the
is
are not superposable.
the
image
X and Faxes
the
of
of the
They
other
two
as
are sym
seen in a
different systems be
superimposed, the ^"axes will point in opposite directions.
Thus one system may be obtained from the other by reversing
the direction of one of the axes.
little
thought will show
two of the axes be reversed in direction the system will
not be altered, but if all three be so reversed it will be.
that
if
Which
asmuch
of the
two systems be used, matters little. But ingeometry and mechanics differ
as the formulae of
slightly in the matter of sign, it is advisable to settle once for
all which shall be adopted.
In this book the righthanded or
counterclockwise system will be invariably employed.
1
lefthanded system may be formed by the
one was formed by the right.
left
hand
just as
a righthanded
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
Definition
The
k will be reserved to deunit length drawn respectively in the
F, and Z axes of a righthanded rectan
three letters
note three vectors of
directions of the X,
i,
j,
gular system.
In terms of these vectors, any vector
= x'\ +
The
21
y\
may
be expressed as
ak.
(6)
coefficients x, y, z are the ordinary Cartesian coordinates
of the terminus of r
coordinates.
if its
origin be situated at the origin of
of r parallel to the JT, F, and
The components
.Zaxes are respectively
The
rotations about
about k from
By means
to
i,
from
z k.
j,
to k, about
from k to
i,
and
are all positive.
of these vectors
i,
j,
k such a correspondence
is
established between vector analysis and the analysis in Cartesian coordinates that it becomes possible to pass at will
from either one to the other.
There
is
nothing contradic
On the contrary it is often desirable
tory between them.
or even necessary to translate the formulae obtained by
vector methods into
Cartesian coordinates for the sake of
comparing them with results already known and it is
more frequently convenient to pass from Cartesian
still
analysis to vectors both
on account of the brevity thereby
obtained and because the vector expressions show forth the
meaning of the formulae.
intrinsic
Applications
*18.] Problems in plane geometry
easily
by vector methods.
the plane
solved
in
be taken as the fundamental ones in terms of
others in that plane may be expressed.
The origin
also be selected at pleasure.
Often it is possible to
which
may
may
may frequently be
Any two noncollinear vectors
all
VECTOR ANALYSIS
22
choice of the origin and fundathat
the
mental vectors
analytic work of solution is materially
The adaptability of the vector method is about
simplified.
make such an advantageous
the same as that of oblique Cartesian coordinates with different scales upon the two axes.
(Example?^} The
gram
O
to the
onal (Fig.
Let
line
which
one vertex of a parallelo
joins
side
middle point of an opposite
ii
t
trisects the diagO
9).
A BCD
BE
be the parallelogram,
the line joining the
of the side
vertex B to the middle point
^^J
Z^^^/
AC
is
the point in which this line cuts the
diagonal
A C.
A R is one third of
origin, A B and A D as the
To show
Choose A as
two fundamental vectors S and T.
Then
the sum of S and T. Let A~R = R. To show
'
AD, R
AC.
EB = A~R =
where x
is
is
(S
T).
AE + ER = T + x (S   T),
the ratio of
ER to EB
an unknown
E=y
(S
the scalar ratio of
jl(
And
where y
scalar.
T),
to
AG
to be
shown equal
toj.
Hence
or
x (S
i
T)
= y (S +
T)
Sl
Hence, equating corresponding
coefficients (Art. 16),
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
From which
Inasmuch as x
also
is
well as the diagonal
g
23
.
EB
the line
must be
trisected as
A C.
Example %j) If through any point within a triangle lines
be drawn parallel to the sides the sum of the ratios of these
lines to their corresponding sides is 2.
Let
A B C be the triangle, R the point within
A B and A C as the two fundamental
and
Choose
it.
as origin,
vectors S
Let
T.
2TB
= R = mS+
wT.
(a)
m S is the fraction of A B which is cut off by the line through
R parallel to A C. The remainder of A B must be the fracm S. Consequently by similar triangles the ratio of
tion 1
the line parallel to A G to the line A C itself is (1
m).
Similarly the ratio of the line parallel to A B to the line A B
itself is
n ).
(1
Next express
third side of the triangle.
E = (m +
Hence (m
line
+ n) S
through
is
angles the ratio of this
the three ratios
and the theorem
and T
S the
Evidently from (a)
n) S
+n
(T
 S).
A B which is cut off by the
B C. Consequently by similar triline to B C itself is (m f n).
Adding
w) +
is
in terms of S
the fraction of
R parallel
(1
to
(1
TO)
+ (m +
n)
= 2,
proved.
If from any point within a parallelogram lines
Example 3
be drawn parallel to the sides, the diagonals of the parallelo:
grams thus formed
intersect
upon the diagonal
of the given
parallelogram.
Let
A B CD
and Z^Vtwo
be a parallelogram,
lines
through
R parallel
?
N
a point within
respectively to
it,
KM
AB and
VECTOR ANALYSIS
24
AD,
the points K, Z,
M>
N lying
B C, CD respectively. To
LM
show
upon the
KEND
two parallelograms
on A C. Choose A as origin, A B and
mental vectors S and T. Let
of the
let
P be the
point of intersection of
KN=KR + RN = m S +
Then
Zlf =
m) S
(1
?i
and
A D as
and
sides
DA,AB,
that the diagonals
KN and
LBMR
meet
the two funda
KN with LM.
(1
 n)
T,
T,
P = w T + x [m S + (1  n) T],
P = mS + y [(lm)S + wT],
Hence
and
Equating
coefficients,
By
solution,
=
=
m+
n
n
m
m+
7i
Substituting either of these solutions in the expression for P,
the result is
m+
which shows that P
*
19.]
solved in
sions.
is
collinear with
A G.
Problems in three dimensional geometry may be
essentially the same manner as those in two dimen
In this case there are three fundamental vectors in
others can be expressed. The method of
analogous to that in the simpler case. Two
terms of which
solution
is
all
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
25
expressions for the same vector are usually found. The cocorresponding terms are equated. In this way
efficients of the
unknown
the equations between three
from which those
scalars
scalars are obtained
be determined by solution and
may
then substituted in either of the expressions for the required
vector.
The vector method has the same degree of adapta
method
bility as the Cartesian
different scales are employed.
those in the foregoing section
which oblique axes with
in
The following examples like
are worked out not so much for
their intrinsic value as for gaining a familiarity with vectors.
Example 1
point within
Let
A B CD
be
a tetrahedron
Join the vertices to
it.
and
P and produce
until they intersect the opposite faces in A',
B\
any
the lines
C', D'.
To
show
PA'
PB'
PC'
A~A'
~B'
~GG'
PD' _
~
"
'
LTD'
AD
and the edges A B, AC,
three fundamental vectors B, C, D.
Let the vector
Choose
as origin,
= AP=l"B + mC + D,
A' = A A' = k P = k (I B + m C +
P
The
A'
vector
B.
BA'
Hence
A'
Equating
it
= AA' = AB+
=B+
x l (C
coefficients
Jc
kl

*
D).
BA'.
BC =
 B) +
m = xv
=
I
B and
C
coplanar with
may be expressed in terms of them,
is
Hence
and
A P be
?i
Also
as the
~
n
i
 B).
+m + n
y l (D
~4
SI
(7
+m+
N.
n).
BD =
VECTOR ANALYSIS
26
A B' = # 2 C + yz D
In like manner
~AB'
and
Hence
= ~AB '+
y2
and
&'= B + k
(P
 B).
= B + & 2 (/B + mC + wD= 1 f k z (I  1),
x z =Jc z m,
Hence
7/2
=&
&
ll
&:
PB'
and
n.
"2
In the same
way
may
be shown that
PC'
,PZ>'
it
Adding the four
1
ratios the result is
(l
+m+
n)
+l+
m+n = l.
Example 2 : To find a line which passes through a given
point and cuts two given lines in space.
Let the two lines be fixed respectively by two points A
be the given point. Choose
and B,
and D on each. Let
it as origin and let
V=OD.
Any
point
Any
point
P of A B may be
expressed as
= OP= OA + x TB = A + x
Q
If the points
are.collinear.
of
CD may likewise be
P and
That
lie
is
in the
same
(B
 A).
written
line
through
0,
P and
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
possible to equate coefficients one of the four
of the other three.
Before
it is
vectors
must be expressed in terms
= lA. + m'B + nC.
P = A + x (B  A)
= z [C + y (IA.+ ra B + nC
1
x=zy
=
x
zym,
= z [1 + y (n  1)J.
m
x =
Let
27
J)
Then
Hence
0)].
I,
Hence
+m
1
Substituting in
P and Q
+m
_ A+ m B
+m
I
Either of these
and cutting
may be taken
as defining a line
drawn from
A B and
Vector Relations independent of the Origin
Example 1: To divide a
20.]
find the vector
the terminus
ratio
in a given ratio
is,
P =~OP
divides
of
AB
as
'&.
which
in the
A^*^^ P
&/ Px^^Jv^
f^^^
FlQ 10
n.
P= OP=
That
AB
(Fig. 10).
Choose any arbitrary point
Let OA = L and OB
origin.
To
line
Oil
^ ~AB = &+ ^
m+
m+n
n A + m B
P =
m+n
n (BA).
/7 ,
(<)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
28
The components
of
AP
to the segments
divided by the point P.
the line
AB
parallel to
and
PB
If it
and B are in inverse ratio
into which the line A B is
should so happen that
externally, the ratio
AP PB
/
P divided
would be nega
and the signs of m, and n would be opposite, but the
formula would hold without change if this difference of sign
in m and n be taken into account.
tive,
Example 2
To find the
point of intersection of the medians
of a triangle.
at random.
Let A BC be the given
Choose the origin
=
'=
and
~OC = C. Let A\ B\ 0'
OA
OB
Let
B,
A,
triangle.
be respectively the middle points of the sides opposite the
vertices
A, B,
medians and
G.
Let
M be
the point of intersection of the
M = OM the vector drawn to
it.
Then
and
Assuming
that
has been chosen outside of the plane of the
triangle so that A, B, C are noncoplanar, corresponding coefficients
may be
equated.
Hence
Hence
=y=
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
The
29
vector drawn to the median point of a triangle is equal
sum of the vectors drawn to trie vertices.
to one third of the
In the problems of which the solution has just been given
the origin could be chosen arbitrarily and the result is independent of that choice. Hence it is even possible to disre
gard the origin entirely and replace the vectors A, B, C, etc.,
by their termini A,B,C, etc. Thus the points themselves
become the subjects of analysis and the formulae read
nA
+mB
m+
M=\(A + B+C).
and
This
typical of a whole class of problems soluble
by vector
methods. In fact any purely geometric relation between the
different parts of a figure must necessarily be independent
of the origin assumed for the analytic demonstration.
In
some
is
cases,
such as those in Arts. 18, 19, the position of the
origin may be specialized with regard to some crucial point
but in many
of the figure so as to facilitate the computation
;
other cases the generality obtained by leaving the origin unspecialized and undetermined leads to a symmetry which
renders the results just as easy to compute and more easy
to
remember.
: The
necessary and sufficient condition that a
vector equation represent a relation independent of the origin
is that the sum of the scalar coefficients of the vectors on
Theorem
one side of the sign of equality
coefficients of the vectors
upon
is
sum
Or if
of the
equal to the
the other side.
all
the
terms of a vector equation be transposed to one side leaving
zero on the other, the
sum
of the scalar coefficients
be zero.
Let the equation written in the
latter
form be
must
VECTOR ANALYSIS
30
'
to
by adding a constant vector
Change the origin from
=
E 00' to each of the vectors A, B, C, D  The equation
then becomes
+ E) + b (B + B) + c
= aA + 5B + cC + dD +
a (A
If this is to be
must vanish.
That
is
(C
...
+ E) +
d (D
+B
j,
+ R) f
+c+d+
...).
independent of the origin the coefficient of
Hence
this condition is fulfilled in the
two examples
cited
obvious.
m+
_*_.+
m+n m+
If
+ B +
M=(A
i
*
21.]
The
_1
~
^
3
,
,1
7" *."
C),
necessary and sufficient condition that two
vectors satisfy an equation, in which the sum of the scalar
coefficients is zero, is that the vectors be equal in magnitude
and in direction.
First let
and
It is of course
vanish.
=
0.
coefficients a and I
would mean nothing. Sub
assumed that not both the
If they did the equation
stitute the value of
the
A+
a obtained from the second equation into
first.
= B.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
Secondly
if
and B are equal
the equation
subsists
in
31
magnitude and direction
AB =
The sum
between them.
The necessary and
of the coefficients is zero.
sufficient condition that three vectors
satisfy an equation, in which the sum of the scalar coefficients
is zero, is that when drawn from a common origin they termi
nate in the same straight
line. 1
A + &B + cC =
a + b + c = 0.
First let
and
Not all the coefficients a, b, c, vanish or the equations
would be meaningless. Let c be a nonvanishing coefficient.
Substitute the value of a obtained from the second equation
into the first.
(& + c)A+&B + cC =
c (CA) = &(AB).
or
Hence the vector which
collinear with that
0,
joins the extremities of C
which
joins the extremities of
Hence those three points A, B, C lie on a
suppose three vectors A = OA, B = OB,C=
the same origin
terminate in a straight
line.
00
and
and
is
B.
Secondly
drawn from
line.
Then
the
vectors
A~B
are collinear.
= B  A and AC = C  A
r
Hence
the equation
(B
subsists.
The sum
 A) = x
(C
 A)
of the coefficients
on the two sides
is
the same.
in
The necessary and
which the sum of
sufficient condition that
an equation,
the scalar coefficients
zero, subsist
Vectors which hare a common origin and terminate
Hamilton " terminocollinear."
1
in
is
one
line are called
by
VECTOR ANALYSIS
32
between four vectors, is that
1
they terminate in one plane.
if
drawn from a common
origin
aA + 6B + cC + dD =
a + b + c + d = Q.
First let
and
Let d be a nonvanishing
Substitute the value
coefficient.
of a obtained from the last equation into the
first.
d(DA) = 6 (AB) + c (A  C).
The line A D is coplanar with A B and A C. Hence all four
D of A, B, C, D lie in one plane. Secondly
termini A, B,
or
(7,
suppose that the termini of A, B, C, D do lie in one plane.
Then A~D = D  A, ~AC = C  A, and
B  A are covectors.
of
One
them
be
planar
expressed in terms of
may
AB
the other two.
I
where
Z,
TO,
(B
This leads to the equation
 A) + m
 A) +
and n are certain
cients in this equation
of
(C
is
B, C, D,
 A) = 0,
The sum
scalars.
of the coeffi
zero.
Between any five vectors there
whose coefficients is zero.
Let A,
n (D
be the
five
exists one equation the
sum
Form
the
given
vectors.
differences
EA, EB, EC, ED.
One
of these
may
be expressed in terms of the other three
what amounts to the same thing there must
equation between them.
or
k (E
 A) +
The sum
(E
 B) + m
(E
C)
+n
of the coefficients of this equation
1
Vectors which have a common origin and terminate
"
by Hamilton terminocomplanar.
1'
(E
exist
 D) ==
an
0.
is zero.
in
one plane are called
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
33
The results of the foregoing section afford simple
*22.]
solutions of many problems connected solely with the geometric properties of figures. Special theorems, the vector
equations of lines and planes, and geometric nets in
three dimensions are taken up in order.
Example 1:
If a line
two and
be drawn parallel to the base of a
triangle, the line which joins the opposite vertex to the intersection of the diagonals of the
trapezoid thus formed bisects the
base (Fig. 11).
Let
be the triangle,
ABC
ED
the line parallel to the base CB,
G the point of intersection of the
and DC of the trapezoid CBDE, and jP'the intersection of A G with CB.
To show
that F bisects CB.
Choose the
diagonals
EB
rIG. 11.
Let the vectors drawn from it to the
origin at random.
various points of the figure be denoted by the corresponding
Then
Clarendons as usual.
lel to
D=n
E
The sum
holds true.
it
since
ED is by hypothesis
paral
CB, the equation
should be.
(C
 B)
is evidently zero as
that the equation
terms
so
the
Rearrange
of the coefficients
takes on the form
WC
=D
w B.
n C is coplanar with E and C. It must cut
n B is coplanar with D
The equal vector D
and B. It must cut the line DB. Consequently the vector
represented by either side of this equation must pass through
the point A. Hence
The
vector
the line
E C.
7iC
=D
wB =
a;A.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
34
However the points E, C, and A lie upon the same straight
Hence the equation which connects the vectors E, C,
line.
and A must be such that the sum of its coefficients is zero.
This determines x as 1
By
nC = D 
Hence
n.
n~B
(1
 w) A.
another rearrangement and similar reasoning
E+
Subtract the
first
wB=D + wC= (1 + w) G.
equation from the second
n (B + C)
This
vector
cuts
BO
(1
n)
and AG.
(1
It
 n) A.
must therefore be a
that the
multiple of F and such a multiple
cients of the equations which connect B,
and F
Hence
sum
C,
of the coeffi
and F or
G, A,
shall be zero.
n (B + C)
(1
n)
Hence
(1
=B+
A=
2 nJf.
C
>
SB
The proof has covered
considerable space because each detail of the reasoning has
been given. In reality, however, the actual analysis has con
and the theorem has been proved.
sisted of just four equations obtained simply
Example 2 :
To determine
from the
first.
the equations of the line and
plane.
Let the line be fixed by two points A and B upon it. Let
be any point of the line. Choose an arbitrary origin.
The vectors A, B, and P terminate in the same line. Hence
and
Therefore
+ p = 0.
aA + 6B
P=
a + 6
a
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
For
different
points
the scalars a and I have different
They may be replaced by x and y, which
Then
to represent variables.
values.
35
are used
more generally
_ xA. + yE
x
Let a plane be determined by three points A,B, and C.
Let P be any point of the plane. Choose an arbitrary origin.
The
vectors A, B,
and P terminate in one plane.
C,
aA+
Therefore
a,
Z>,
c,
SB + cC
+ c+p = Q.
aA. + JB + cC
P=
a + b + c
a
and
As
Hence
vary for different points of the plane,
customary to write in their stead x, y,
The
Example 3 ;
line
which
it is
more
z.
joins
one vertex of a com
plete quadrilateral to the intersection of
divides the opposite sides har
two diagonals
monically (Fig. 12).
Let A, B, C, D be four vertices
Let
of a quadrilateral.
CD
A B meet
and A D
in a fifth vertex E,
BC
meet
in the sixth vertex F.
Let the two diagonals
AC
BD
intersect in
To show
that
FG
G.
AB
intersects
AB
such that the lines
E' and
by E.
E"
in the
That
is
(A
to
same
and
in a point
and
CD
E' and
CD
in a point
1'
are divided internally at
ratio as they are divided externally
show that the
cross ratios
B EE') = (CD EE") =  1.
.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
36
Choose the origin at random. The four vectors A, B, C, D
drawn from it to the points A, B, C\ D terminate in one
Hence
plane.
and
aA + &B + cC + dD =
af& + c + ^ = 0.
Separate the equations by transposing two terms
A + cC = (Z>B
a + c =
(b + d).
= A + cC 5B +
Divide
a + c
b + d
6B + cC
A + d"D
In like manner
F=
a + d
b + c
cG
(a + c)0
(a + d)?
Form:
(a + c)
(a + d)
(a + c)
(a +
= cCdJ> =
or
c
Separate the equations again and divide
A + JB
cC
c
+ dD =
+d
d)
E.
(&)
E divides A B in the ratio a b and CD in the ratio
But equation (a) shows that J" divides CD in the
c : d.
Hence E and E" divide CD internally and
ratio
Which of the two divisions is
externally in the same ratio.
internal and which external depends upon the relative signs
of c and d.
If they have the same sign the internal point
Hence
<2.
E; if opposite signs, it is E". In a similar way
E' and E may be shown to divide A B harmonically.
Example 4 To discuss geometric nets.
of division
is
'
a geometric net in a plane is meant a figure composed
of points and straight lines obtained in the following manner.
Start with a certain number of points all of which lie in one
By
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
Draw
plane.
These
37
the lines joining these points in pairs.
all
lines will intersect each other in a
number
of points.
the lines which connect these points in pairs.
This second set of lines will determine a still greater number
Next draw
of points
all
which may in turn be joined in
pairs
and so
on.
The construction may be kept up indefinitely. At each step
the number of points and lines in the figure increases.
Probably the most interesting case of a plane geometric net is
that in which four points are given to commence with.
Joining these there are six lines which intersect in three
points different from the given four. Three new lines may
now be drawn in the figure. These cut out six new points.
From these more lines may be obtained and so on.
To treat this net analytically write down the equations
aA + 6B + cC + dD =
a + b + c + d = Q
and
(c)
which subsist between the four vectors drawn from an unde
From
termined origin to the four given points.
possible to obtain
E
F
= A+
a
=o
cC
b"B
+_c_
these
it is
= dD
+
+d
"B + cG
b + c
splitting the equations into two parts and dividing. Next
four vectors such as A, D, E, F may be chosen and the equa
by
tion the
sum
of
whose
coefficients is zero
may
be determined.
This would be
aA.
d'D
(a
b)'E+
treating this equation as (c)
be obtained.
By
(a
c)
= 0.
was treated new points may
VECTOR ANALYSIS
38
aA
+ dD
+d
(a
a
1
 a A + (a
&)
6) E + (a +
2a + b + c
_ dD +
+ c) F
+c+d
(a
dD + (a +
a + b +
c)
6)E
d
Equations between other sets of four vectors selected from
A, B,C, D, E, F, G may be found; and from these more points
The
process of finding more points goes forward
fuller account of geometric nets may be
indefinitely.
" Elements
Hamilton's
found in
of Quaternions," Book I.
obtained.
As
regards geometric nets in space just a word may be
Five points are given. From these new points may be
obtained by finding the intersections of planes passed through
said.
sets of three of the given points
The
with lines connecting the
may then be carried for
construction
remaining pairs.
ward with the points thus obtained.
is
The
analytic treatment
similar to that in the case of plane nets.
There are
drawn from an undetermined origin to the given
Between these vectors there exists an equation
the sum of whose coefficients is zero. This equation may be
separated into parts as before and the new points may thus
five vectors
five points.
be obtained.
aA + b"B
a + b
then
a
are
two
way.
of the points
cG
+ dD + E
+d+e
and others may be found
in the
Nets in space are also discussed by Hamilton,
same
loc. cit.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
39
Centers of Gravity
*
The center of gravity of a system of particles may
23.]
be found very easily by vector methods. The two laws of
physics which will be assumed are the following:
1.
The
center of gravity of two masses (considered as
situated at points) lies on the line connecting the two masses
and divides
it
into
two segments which are inversely pro
portional to the masses at the extremities.
2.
In finding the center of gravity of two systems of
may be replaced by a single mass equal
masses each system
in
magnitude to the sum of the masses in the system and
situated at the center of gravity of the system.
Given two masses a and b situated at two points
Their center of gravity
is
and B.
given by
where the vectors are referred
any origin whatsoever.
to
This follows immediately from law 1 and the formula (7)
for division of a line in a given ratio.
The
center of gravity of three masses
three points A, B,
masses a and
mass a
f b
C may
be found by means of law
= (a +
A + &B
a + b
6)
a
a
Hence
situated at the
2.
The
may be considered as equivalent to a single
situated at the point
b
Then
a, o, c
+b+
= a A + &B +
a
cC
VECTOR ANALYSIS
40
Evidently the center of gravity of any number of masses
a, 6,
c,
d,
. . .
situated at the points
The
be found in a similar manner.
A,
C, Z>, ...
JB,
may
result is
_ aA + &B + cC + ^D +
a + l + c + d+ ...
Theorem 1 :
The
lines
which
join the center of gravity of a
triangle to the vertices divide it into three triangles
which
are proportional to the masses at the op
Let
posite vertices (Fig. 13).
A,B,C
be the vertices of a triangle weighted
with masses a, Z>, c. Let G be the center of gravity.
Join A, B,
to
G and
produce the lines until they intersect
the opposite sides hi A', 2?', C" respectively.
To show that
the areas
The
GBC:GCA:GAB:ABC=a,:l:c:a + l +
last proportion between ABC and a + I + c
from compounding the
first three.
It
is,
c.
comes
however, useful in
the demonstration.
ABC ~ A A'
GBC
Hence
GA' _b +
=
~~
ABC
GBC
In a similar manner
and
AG
G A'
a
BCA a + J 4 c
GCA
b
CAB _
a + I +
=
GAB
~c
Hence the proportion is proved.
Theorem 2 : The lines which
'
join the center of gravity of
a tetrahedron to the vertices divide the tetrahedron into four
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
41
tetrahedra which are proportional to the masses at the opposite vertices.
C, D be the vertices of the tetrahedron weighted
with
respectively
weights a, b, c, d. Let G be the center of
Join A, B, C, D to G and produce the lines until
gravity.
Let A, B,
they meet the opposite faces in A',
the volumes
To show
D'.
C\
',
that
BCDG:CDAG:DABG:ABCG:ABGD
=a
BCD A ~ A A'
BCDG ~G~A7
d a
:
AG
+c+
d.
G A'
+c+
"
~GA'
~GAJ
b
+c+
a
In like manner
and
CD A G _ a + b + c + d
"'
CDAB~
b
DABG _a
+b+
=
d
~
DABC
ABCG _ a+b+c+d
"'
'
and
A BCD'
~d~
which proves the proportion.
*
24.]
By a suitable choice of the three masses, a, 6, c located at the vertices A, B, C, the center of gravity G may
be made to coincide with any given point
of the triangle.
not obvious from physical considerations it cerbecomes
so in the light of the foregoing theorems.
tainly
If this be
For in order that the center of gravity
fall at P, it is
necessary to choose the masses a,
proportional to the
areas of the triangles
Thus not merely one
an infinite number of
PBC,
PC A,
and
set of masses a,
which
&,
&,
PAB
c
only
respectively.
may be
found, but
from each other only
a
common
of
factor
These quantities
by
proportionality.
sets
differ
VECTOR ANALYSIS
42
a, 5, c
points
may
therefore be looked
upon
as coordinates of the
ABC. To
inside of the triangle
each set there
corresponds a definite point P, and to each point
there
corresponds an infinite number of sets of quantities, which
however do not differ from one another except for a factor
of proportionality.
To
obtain the points
of the triangle
ABC
of the plane
one
ABC which lie outside
resort to the conception of
may
negative weights or masses. The center of gravity of the
and
1 situated at the points
masses 2 and
respectively
the
line
a
G
would be
externally in the
point
dividing
A
AB
ratio 1
That
2.
is
B produced may be represented by
point of the line
a suitable set of masses a, b which differ in sign.
Similarly
Any
any point
of the
plane
suitable set of masses a,
from the other two
ABC.
Z>,
ABO
c of
may be
represented by a
which one
will differ in sign
the point
lies outside of the triangle
as only the ratios of a, Z>, and c are imif
Inasmuch
two
of the quantities may always be taken positive.
portant
The idea of employing the masses situated at the vertices
as coordinates of the center of gravity is due to Mobius and
was published by him in his book entitled " Barycentrische
This
Calcul" in 1826.
point of
modern
may be
fairly
regarded as the starting
analytic geometry.
of negative masses which have
The conception
no existence
in nature
vertices
may be avoided by replacing the masses at the
by the areas of the triangles GBC, GCA, and
GAB
to which they are proportional.
The coordinates of
a point
would then be three numbers proportional to the
areas of the three triangles of which
is the common vertex ;
and the
sides of a given triangle
of these areas
is
ABC,
the bases.
The
determined by the following definition.
sign
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
The area
Definition:
positive
when
ABC
positive or counterclockwise
a triangle
of
C follow
the vertices A, B,
direction
is
43
said to be
each other in the
upon the
circle de
scribed through them. The area is said to be negative when
the points follow in the negative or clockwise direction.
not alter
Cyclic permutation of the letters therefore does
the sign of the area.
ABG = BCA = CAB.
Interchange of two letters which amounts to a reversal of
the cyclic order changes the sign.
If
P be
any point within the triangle the equation
PA B + PB C + PGA = A B C
must
The same
hold.
will also
hold
if
be outside of the
triangle provided the signs of the areas be taken into conThe areas or three quantities proportional to
sideration.
them may be regarded as coordinates of the point P.
"
The extension of the idea of " larycentric coordinates
space is immediate. The four points A, B, C, D situated
the vertices of a tetrahedron are weighted with mass a, &,
The center of gravity Gr is represented
respectively.
these quantities or four others proportional to them.
obtain
points
outside
to
at
c,
by
To
the tetrahedron negative masses
in the light of theorem 2, page 40,
of
be employed. Or
may be replaced by the four tetrahedra which
are proportional to them.
Then the idea of negative volumes takes the place of that of negative weights. As this
may
the masses
idea
it
is
here
of considerable importance later, a brief treatment of
Definition
to
not be out of place.
may
:
be positive
The volume A B CD of a tetrahedron is said
when the triangle ABC appears positive to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
44
The volume is negative
the eye situated at the point D.
if the area of the triangle appear negative.
To make the discussion of the signs of the various
tetrahedra perfectly clear
solid model.
A plane
difficult to see
from
it
almost necessary to have a
it is
drawing is scarcely sufficient. It is
which triangles appear positive and
which negative. The following relations will be seen to
hold if a model be examined.
The interchange of two letters in the tetrahedron A B CD
changes the sign.
ACBD=CBAD=BACD=DBCA
The
sible
sign of the tetrahedron for any given one of the postwentyfour arrangements of the letters may be obtained
D by
by reducing that arrangement to the order A B
means of a number of successive interchanges of two letters.
If the number of interchanges is even the
sign is the same
as that of
AB CD ;
if
Thus
odd, opposite.
CADB = CABD = + A CBD = ABCD.
If
is
any point inside of the tetrahedron
ABCD
the
equation
ABCPBCDP+ CDAPDABP=ABCD
P
holds good. It still is true if
be without the tetrahedron
provided the signs of the volumes be taken into considera
The equation may be put into a form more symmetriand more easily remembered by transposing all the terms
to one number.
Then
tion.
cal
ABCD + BCDP + CDPA + DPAB+PABC=Q.
if
The proportion in theorem 2, page 40, does not hold true
the signs of the tetrahedra be
regarded. It should read
BCDG:CDGA:DOAB:GABC:ABCD
=a
f b
d.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
45
If the point G lies inside the tetrahedron a, 5, c, d represent quantities proportional to the masses which must be
located at the vertices A,B,C,D respectively if G is to be the
G lies outside of the tetrahedron they may
be regarded as masses some of which are negative
or
as
four
better
numbers
whose
ratios determine
perhaps
merely
center of gravity. If
still
the position of the point G. In this manner a set of "Jary"
centric
coordinates is established for space.
The vector P drawn from an indeterminate
point of the plane
A B G is
_
Comparing
this
origin to
any
(page 35)
+ yB + aC
+y+
a?A
with the expression
_ A+
a
6B + cC
b
05, y z are in reality nothing
than the barycentric coordinates of the point
with respect to the triangle ABO. In like manner from
it
will be seen that the quantities
more nor
less
equation
_xA. +
x
y'B
+ zG + w'D
+z+w
which expresses any vector P drawn from an indeterminate
origin in terms of four given vectors A, B, C, D drawn from
the same origin, it may be seen by comparison with
aA.
l'B
b
+ c C + d"D
+c+d
z, w are precisely
the barythat the four quantities #, y,
of
centric coordinates of P, the terminus
P, with respect to
CD. Thus the vector methods in which
the tetrahedron
the origin is undetermined and the methods of the " Bary"
are practically coextensive.
centric Calculus
AB
It
was mentioned before and
it
may be
well to repeat here
VECTOR ANALYSIS
46
that the origin
may
be
left
wholly out of consideration and
The
the vectors replaced by their termini.
vector equations
then become point equations
xA + y B + zC
x
P=
and
xA + yB + z C + wD
x
+ z + w.
This step brings in the points themselves as the objects of
"
"
Barycentrische Calcul
analysis and leads still nearer to the
"
"
of Grassmann.
of Mb'bius and the Ausdehnungslehre
The Use of Vectors
Definition
25.]
An
denote
area lying in one
bounded by a continuous curve
itself
to
PQR
Areas
plane
PQR
letters
At
and
when
said to appear positive from the point
is
MN
which nowhere cuts
follow
the
each
other in the counterclockwise
or positive order; negative,
when they follow in the
negative or clockwise order
(Fig. 14).
It is evident that an area
can have no determined sign
per se^ but only in reference
Cf
FIG.
14.
to that direction in
boundary
side of
PQR;
is
which
supposed to be traced and to some point
For the area P
plane.
and an area viewed from
its
is
its
out
negative relative to
negative relative to the
is
same area viewed from a point 0' upon the side of the plane
opposite to 0. A circle lying in the JTFplane and described
in the positive trigonometric order appears positive from every
point on that side of the plane on which the positive Zaxis
lies,
but negative from
all
points on the side
upon which
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
the negative ^axis
and the direction
lies.
For
47
view
must
be
boundary
kept
this reason the point of
of description of the
clearly in mind.
Another method
of stating the definition is as follows
If
a person walking upon a plane traces out a closed curve, the
is said to be positive if it lies upon his left
area enclosed
hand
negative if upon his right. It is clear that if two
persons be considered to trace out together the same curve by
walking upon opposite sides of the plane the area enclosed
side,
will lie
upon the right hand
other.
To one
it
seems positive
which
is
and the
left
hand
will consequently appear positive
That
other, negative.
of one
side of the plane
called
the positive
of the
to the
upon which the area
side
the side
upon
appears negative, the negative side. This idea is
familiar to students of electricity and magnetism.
If an
it
around a closed plane curve the lines of
magnetic force through the circuit pass from the negative to
electric current flow
the positive side of the plane.
positive magnetic pole
placed upon the positive side of the plane will be repelled by
the circuit.
A plane
area
may be looked upon
as possessing
more than
or negative magnitude. It may be considered to
possess direction, namely, the direction of the normal to the
Hence a plane
positive side of the plane in which it lies.
positive
area is a vector quantity. The following theorems concerning
areas when looked upon as vectors are important.
Theorem 1
magnitude
direction
is
is
If a plane area be denoted by a vector whose
the numerical value of that area and whose
the normal upon the positive side of the plane,
then the orthogonal projection of that area upon a plane
will be represented by the component of that vector in the
direction normal to the plane of projection (Fig. 15).
lie in the plane MN.
Let it be projected
Let the area
M'
N'.
the
Let
and M' N' interplane
orthogonally upon
MN
VECTOR ANALYSIS
48
sect in the line
and
let the diedral
angle between these
MN
two planes be x. Consider first a rectangle PQRS in
whose sides, PQ, RS and QR, SP are respectively parallel
and perpendicular to the line I. This will project into a
rectangle P'Q'R'S' in M'N'. The sides P' Q' and R' S'
will be equal to PQ and RS; but the sides Q' R' and S'P'
will be equal to QR and SP multiplied by the cosine of #,
the angle between the planes.
P'Q'R'S'
Consequently the rectangle
= PQRS coax.
FIG. 15.
Hence
parallel
two
rectangles, of
which the
and perpendicular to
I,
sides
are
respectively
the line of intersection of the
planes, project into rectangles
whose
sides are likewise
and whose area is
respectively parallel
equal to the area of the original rectangles multiplied by the
cosine of the angle between the planes.
and perpendicular
From
to
projected into an
equal to the given area multiplied by the cosine
of the angle between the planes.
For any area
may be divided up into a large number of small rectangles by drawing a
this it follows that
area which
any area
is
is
series of lines in
MN parallel and perpendicular to the line
/.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
49
Each of these rectangles when projected is multiplied by the
cosine of the angle between the planes and hence the total
On the
area is also multiplied by the cosine of that angle.
other hand the component A' of the vector A, which represents the given area, in the direction normal to the plane
M'N' of projection is equal to the total vector A multiplied
by the cosine of the angle between its direction which is
and the normal to M'N'. This
the normal to the plane
x
for
the
between
the normals to two planes
is
;
angle
angle
MN
is
the same as the angle between the planes.
A and A' is therefore
The
relation
between the magnitudes of
A'
=A
cos
ic,
which proves the theorem.
Definition
26.]
said to be
Two
plane areas regarded as vectors are
added when the vectors which represent them are
added.
A vector
ponents
area
is
obtainable
consequently the
by orthogonal
sum
of its three
projection
upon
comthree
Moreover in adding two
mutually perpendicular planes.
areas each may be resolved into its three components, the
corresponding components added as scalar quantities, and
these
sums compounded
as vectors into the resultant area.
A generalization of this statement to the case where the three
planes are not mutually orthogonal and where the projection
oblique exists.
surface made up of several plane areas may be represented by the vector which is the sum of all the vectors
is
representing those areas.
In case the surface be looked upon
as forming the boundary of a portion of the boundary of a
solid, those sides of the bounding planes which lie outside of
the body are conventionally taken to be positive.
The vectors which represent the faces of solids are always directed
out from the
solid,
not into
it.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
50
Theorem 2
surface
The vector which represents
a closed polyhedral
is zero.
be proved by means of certain considerations of
Suppose the polyhedron drawn in a body of
hydrostatics.
This
fluid
may
assumed
cluded.
pressures.
surface
to be free
from
all
external forces, gravity in
The fluid is in equilibrium under its own internal
The portion of the fluid bounded by the closed
moves neither one way nor the
other.
Upon each face
of the surface the fluid exerts a definite force proportional
to the area of the face
these forces
and normal
must be zero,
to
it.
The resultant of all
Hence
as the fluid is in equilibrium.
sum of all the vector areas in the closed surface is zero.
The proof may be given in a purely geometric manner.
the
Consider the orthogonal projection of the closed surface upon
any plane. This consists of a double area. The part of the
surface farthest from the plane projects into positive area ;
the part nearest the plane, into negative area. Thus the
surface projects into a certain portion of the plane which is
covered twice, once with positive area and once with negative.
Hence the total projection of a
a
upon plane (if taken with regard to sign) is
But
zero.
by theorem 1 the projection of an area upon a
plane is equal to the component of the vector representing
that area in the direction perpendicular to that plane. Hence
These cancel each other.
closed surface
the vector which represents a closed surface has no component
along the line perpendicular to the plane of projection. This,
however, was any plane whatsoever.
Hence the vector
is
zero.
The theorem has been proved
closed surface consists of planes.
for the case in
which the
In case that surface be
1
Such a state of affairs is realized to all practical purposes in the case of a
polyhedron suspended in the atmosphere and consequently subjected to atmospheric pressure. The force of gravity acts but is counterbalanced by the tension
in the suspending string.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
curved
it
may
51
be regarded as the limit of a polyhedral surface
whose number
of faces increases without limit.
Hence the
vector which represents any closed surface polyhedral or
curved is zero. If the surface be not closed but be curved it
be represented by a vector just as
were polyhedral.
approached by the vector which
represents that polyhedral surface of which the curved surface
is the limit when the number of faces becomes
indefinitely
may
That vector
is
the limit
if it
great.
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
A vector is a quantity considered as possessing magnitude
and direction. Equal vectors possess the same magnitude
and the same direction. A vector is not altered by shifting it
A null or zero vector is one whose magparallel to itself.
nitude
is zero.
multiply
its
unchanged.
To
multiply a vector by a positive scalar
length by that scalar and leave its direction
To multiply a vector by a negative scalar mul
length by that scalar and reverse its direction.
Vectors add according to the parallelogram law. To subtract
tiply its
its direction and add.
Addition, subtracand multiplication of vectors by a scalar follow the same
laws as addition, subtraction, and multiplication in ordinary
a vector reverse
tion,
algebra.
vector
may be
resolved into three components
any three noncoplanar vectors.
can be accomplished in only one way.
parallel to
The components
= xa, +
y'b
This resolution
zc.
(4)
of equal vectors, parallel to three given
noncoplanar vectors, are equal, and conversely if the components are equal the vectors are equal. The three unit
vectors
i, j,
k form a righthanded rectangular system.
1 This limit exists and is
unique. It is independent of the
the polyhedral surface approaches the curved surface.
method
in
In
which
VECTOR ANALYSIS
52
terms of them any vector may be expressed by means of the
Cartesian coordinates x, y, z.
r
is
y\
zk.
(6)
The
point which divides a line in a given
given by the formula
Applications.
ratio
= xi +
m+
(7)
The necessary and
sufficient condition that a vector equation
a
relation
independent of the origin is that the sum
represent
Between
of the scalar coefficients in the equation be zero.
any four vectors there
If the
cients.
sum
an equation with scalar
exists
of the coefficients
is
coeffi
zero the vectors are
terminocoplanar. If an equation the sum of whose scalar
coefficients is zero exists between three vectors they are
terminocollinear.
masses
a,
Z>,
The center
situated
at
of
the
gravity of a number of
termini of the vectors
common
supposed to be drawn from a
given by the formula
A, B, C
origin
is
.

vector
may
\

be used to denote an area.
If the area is
plane the magnitude of the vector is equal to the magnitude
of the area, and the direction of the vector is the direction of
the normal
upon the
positive side of the plane.
representing a closed surface
is
The
vector
zero.
EXEECISES ON CHAPTER I
1.
Demonstrate the laws stated in Art.
2.
triangle
and equal
to the
may
12.
be constructed whose sides are parallel
medians of any given triangle.
ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
3.
The
six points in
53
which the three diagonals of a com
meet the pairs of opposite sides lie three
four
three
upon
straight lines.
by
If
two
4.
triangles are so situated in space that the three
plete quadrangle
points of intersection of corresponding sides lie on a line, then
the lines joining the corresponding vertices pass through a
common
point and conversely.
Given a quadrilateral in space. Find the middle point
5.
of the line which joins the middle points of the diagonals.
Find the middle point of the line which joins the middle
Show that these two points are
points of two opposite sides.
the same and coincide with the center of gravity of a system
of equal masses placed at the vertices of the quadrilateral.
If two opposite sides of a quadrilateral in space be
6.
divided proportionally and if two quadrilaterals be formed by
joining the two points of division, then the centers of gravity
of these
two quadrilaterals
lie
on a
gravity of the original quadrilateral.
is
meant the center
the vertices.
Can
line with the center of
By the center of gravity
of gravity of four equal masses placed at
this
theorem be generalized to the case
where the masses are not equal?
7.
The
bisectors of the angles of a triangle
meet in a
point.
8.
If the edges of a
hexahedron meet four by four in three
points, the four diagonals of the hexahedron meet in a point.
In the special case in which the hexahedron is a parallelepiped
the three points are at an infinite distance.
9.
Prove that the three straight lines through the middle
points of the sides of
any face
of a tetrahedron, each parallel
to the straight line connecting a fixed point
with the middle point of the opposite edge of the tetrahedron, meet in a
A complete quadrangle consists of the six straight lines which may be passed
through four points no three of which are collinear. The diagonals are the lines
which join the points of intersection of pairs of sides.
1
VECTOR ANALYSIS
54
point
and
is
10.
PE
E and
that this point is such that
passes through
by the center of gravity of the tetrahedron.
Show that without exception there exists one vector
bisected
equation with scalar coefficients between any four given
vectors A, B,
C,
L.
Discuss the conditions, imposed upon three, four, or
five vectors if they satisfy two equations the sum of the co11.
efficients in
each of which
is zero.
CHAPTER
DIRECT AND
II
SKEW PEODUCTS OF VECTORS
Products of
Two
Vectors
THE
operations of addition, subtraction, and scalar
multiplication have been defined for vectors in the way
27.]
suggested by physics and have been employed in a few
It now becomes necessary to introduce two
applications.
new
combinations of vectors. These will be called products
because they obey the fundamental law of products i. e., the
distributive law which states that the product of A into the
;
sum of B and C is equal to the sum of the products of A into
B and A into C.
The direct product of two vectors A and B is
Definition :
the scalar quantity obtained by multiplying the product of
the magnitudes of the vectors by the cosine of the angle be
tween them.
The direct product is denoted by writing the two vectors
with a dot between them as
AB.
This
is
read
dot
B and
therefore
may
often be called the
dot product instead of the direct product.
the scalar product owing to the fact that
lar.
If
definition
be the magnitude of
AB = ^cos
and
(A,B).
It
its
is
also called
value
is
sca
that of B, then
(1)
Obviously the direct product follows the commutative law
A B=B
A.
(2)
by
VECTOR ANALYSIS
56
If either vector
be multiplied by a scalar the product
That
multiplied by that scalar.
(x A)
=A
In case the two vectors
is
is
(x B)
= x (A
and B are
B).
collinear the angle be
tween them becomes zero or one hundred and eighty degrees
and its cosine is therefore equal to unity with the positive or
Hence the scalar product of two parallel
negative sign.
vectors is numerically equal to the product of their lengths.
The sign of the product is positive when the directions of the
vectors are the same, negative when they are opposite.
The
of
a
is
itself
therefore
to
the
vector
product
equal
by
square
of its length
AA=^
if
Consequently
vector
is
2.
(3)
the product of a vector by itself vanish the
a null vector.
In case the two vectors
and B are perpendicular the
angle between them becomes plus or minus ninety degrees
and the cosine vanishes. Hence the product A B vanishes.
Conversely
if
the scalar product
AB
Hence
A B
cos (A, B)
vanishes, then
0.
or cos (A, B) is zero, and either the
vectors are perpendicular or one of them is null. Thus the
condition for the perpendicularity of two vectors, neither of
either
which vanishes,
28.]
vectors
The
k
i, j,
is
or
A B=
scalar products of the three fundamental unit
are evidently
i.i
If
0.
= j.j = kk = l,
(4)
more generally a and b are any two unit vectors the
product
a
= cos
(a, b).
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
Thus the
57
scalar product determines the cosine of the angle
is in a certain sense equivalent to
between two vectors and
For
it.
this reason
might be better to give a purely
the product rather than one which
it
geometric definition of
depends upon trigonometry. This is easily accomplished as
If a and b are two unit vectors, a b is the length
follows
upon the other. If more generally
and B are any two vectors A B is the product of the length
of the projection of either
by the length
of either
From
of projection of the other
upon
it.
these definitions the facts that the product of a vector
the square of its length and the product of two
perpendicular vectors is zero follow immediately. The trigo
by
itself is
nometric definition can also readily be deduced.
The
scalar product of
two vectors
cosine of the included angle
may be
examples
vector
The
whenever the
will appear
The following
a vector B upon a
of importance.
projection of
is
'
A A
where a
cited.
is
is
A=
AA
a cos (A, B)
= B cos
(A,
a unit vector in the direction of A.
B)
If
a,
(5)
is itself
unit vector the formula reduces to
If
(A B) A = B cos (A, B) A.
be a constant force and B a displacement .the work done
by the force
during the displacement
is
B.
If
repre
sent a plane area (Art. 25), and if B be a
vector inclined to that plane, the scalar product A B will be the volume of the cylinder
of
which the area
is
the
base and of
which B
For
is the directed slant height.
the volume (Fig. 16) is equal to the base
multiplied by the altitude h. This is
FlG
the projection of
B upon A
or
v = A h = A B cos
cos (A, B).
(A, B)
=A
B.
Hence
VECTOR ANALYSIS
58
The
29.]
scalar or direct product follows the distributive
That
law of multiplication.
(A
is
B)
=A
+B
C.
(6)
may be proved by means of projections. Let C be
magnitude C multiplied by a unit vector c in its
To show
This
equal
its
direc
to
tion.
(A
or
B)
(A
=A
c = A
(G c)
B)
c is the projection of
(A
B)
c,
that of
(A
is
+B
c.
B upon
that of
of the projections.
ft+)
scalar product
nary algebra.
If
three unit vectors
and
no peculiar
A and B
k
i, j,
A=A
2 j
k)
+ A Bz i k
k
j + A 2 #, j
2 j
^ 3 8 k.k.
2 k.j +
of (4) this reduces to
A B = A l B + 4, 2 + A 8 JSS
particular A and B are unit vectors, their
.
A ^A Z ^A 8
lines
l j
terms of the
i + A
+ A k,
z
= B i + #2 + Bz k,
If in
as
= A B^ i i + A
+ A2 B i + A2
+ ^ 3 k.j + ,4 3
By means
...
difficulties.
are expressed in
A.B^^i + ^j + ^gk) .(^1 +
then
Hence
be used just as the product in ordi
may
It has
two vectors
= A.P + A.a+...
+ B.P + B.Q +
The
the projection of the
By an immediate generalization
proved.
+ B+...)(P +
sum
B. (Co)
c,
equal to the
is
the relation (6)
A upon c B
A + B upon c. But
sum A + B
(tfc)
and JS^Szt
A and B
&
are
(7)
components
the direction cosines of the
referred to X, Y, Z.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
A =
1
^ = cos
Moreover
A z = cos (A,
= cos (B,
3
cos (A, JT),
(B, JT),
A B
is
59
A = cos (A,
^3 = cos (B <&)
F),
F),
"),
Hence
the cosine of the included angle.
the equation becomes
cos (A, B)
= cos
(A,
Z)
cos (B,
Z) +
+
A and B
In case
known
cos (A,
cos
F) cos
(A,)
(B,
F)
cos (B,^).
are perpendicular this reduces to the well
relation
= cos
(A,
Z)
cos (B,
Z) +
cos (A,
cos
F) cos
cos
A,
(B,
F)
B^
between the direction cosines of the
A and
line
If
30.]
the line B.
A and B
are
two
OB
side
^isC = BA (Fig. 17).
C C
= (B  A)
C*
or
That
sum
of a triangle
is,
(B
OAB,
sides
and
the third
 A) = B
+ A A  2 A B cos
= A* + *2Acos
(AB).
the square of one side of a triangle
of the squares of the other
two
(A, B) ,
is
equal to the
by twice
sides diminished
their product times the cosine of the angle
between them.
Or, the square of one side of a triangle is equal to the sum of
the squares of the other two sides diminished bj twice the
projection of either of those sides
upon the
other, the
theorem
sometimes known as the generalized Pythagorean theorem.
If A and B are two sides of a parallelogram, C = A +
= A B are the diagonals. Then
C.C = (A + B).(A + B)=A.A + 2A.B + BB,
DD = (AB).(AB)=A.A2AB + B.B,
and D
or
=2
VECTOR ANALYSIS
60
That
is,
gram
is
sum of
the squares of the diagonals of a paralleloequal to twice the sum of the squares of two sides.
the
In like manner also
CCD.D = 4 AB
C*D* = AB cos (A, B).
or
That
is,
sides
by the projection of the other upon
the difference of the squares of the diagonals of a
parallelogram is equal to four times the product of one of the
If
is
any vector expressed
it.
in terms of
i,
j,
k as
A = A i f A 2 j + A B k,
A A = A 2 = A? + A* + A*.
l
then
But
if
vectors
(8)
be expressed in terms of any three noncoplanar unit
as
a, b, c
A 2 = a? +
This formula
is
ft
2 a b cos
a,
b)
b c
cos
(b, c)
a cos
(c,
a)
analogous to the one in Cartesian geometry
which gives the distance between two points referred to
If the points be x^ y v z v and x v yz z z the
oblique axes.
,
distance squared
D2
is
 zj) 2 + (y,  yi ) + (*,  Zi) 2
+ 2 O 2  xj (2/ 2  yj) cos (JT, F)
 2/i) (a ~ *i) cos (^ ^)
+ 2
+ 2 2 zj (x z  ajj) cos (^,X).
(a,
(2/2
The skew product of the vector A into
the vector quantity C whose direction is the
normal upon that side of the plane of A and B on which
31.]
Definition:
the vector
is
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
61
rotation from A to B through an angle of less than one
hundred and eighty degrees appears positive or counterclockwise and whose magnitude is obtained by multiplying
;
the product of the magnitudes of
angle from
The
A X B may
of
direction
which an
and B by the
sine of the
denned
as that in
to B.
also be
ordinary righthanded
it turns so as
screw advances as
AXB
toward B (Fig. 18).
The skew product is denoted by
a cross as the direct product was
to carry
by a
It is written
dot.
FIG. 18.
and read
B*
cross B.
For
= AxB
this reason it is often called the cross
product. More frequently, however, it is called the vector product, owing to the fact that it is a vector quantity and in contrast with the direct or scalar product whose value is scalar.
The vector product is by definition
when
where
and
c is a
=A
B are the
X B
= A B sin
(A, B)
c,
(9)
magnitudes of A and B respectively and
In case A and
C.
unit vector in the direction of
are unit vectors the
AXB
skew product
reduces to the
unit vector c multiplied by the sine of the angle from A to B.
Obviously also if either vector A or B is multiplied by a scalar
x their product
is
multiplied by that scalar.
(x A)
If
x B
=Ax
(zB)
= xC.
A and B are parallel the angle between them is either zero
or one hundred and eighty degrees. In either case the sine
vanishes and consequently the vector product A X B is a null
vector.
And
conversely
if
A X B is zero
A B sin
(A, B)
= 0.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
^62
Hence
or
or sin (A, B)
is
Thus
zero.
the condition
for
is A X B
parallelism of
As a corollary the vector product of any vector into
0.
two vectors neither
of which vanishes
itself vanishes.
The vector product
32.]
of
two vectors
will appear wher
ever the sine of the included angle is of importance, just as
the scalar product did in the case of the cosine. The two products are in a certain sense complementary. They have been
denoted by the two common signs of multiplication, the dot
In vector analysis they occupy the place held
cross.
and the
by the trigonometric functions of scalar analysis. They are
at the same time amenable to algebraic treatment, as will be
seen later. At present a few uses of the vector product may
be cited.
If
and B
(Fig. 18) are the
two adjacent sides
of a parallel
ogram the vector product
C
=A
x B
= A B sin
(A,
B)
represents the area of that parallelogram in magnitude
direction (Art. 25).
This geometric representation of A
is
of such
common occurrence and importance
that
it
and
x B
might
well be taken as the definition of the product. From it the
trigonometric definition follows at once. The vector product
appears in mechanics in connection with couples. If A and
A are two forces forming a couple, the moment of the
couple
any
is
A x B
point of
provided only that B
to
any
point of
A.
is
a vector drawn from
The product makes
its
appearance again in considering the velocities of the individual particles of a body which is rotating with an angular veIf B, be the
locity given in magnitude and direction by A.
drawn from any point of the axis of rotation A
the product A x E will give the velocity of the extremity of
radius vector
This velocity is perpendicular alike to the axis
(Art. 51).
of rotation and to the radius vector R.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
63
The vector products A X B and B x A are not the
same. They are in fact the negatives of each other. For if
rotation from A to B appear positive on one side of the plane
33.]
of
and
from B
B, rotation
Hence A x B
to
A will
appear positive on the
the normal to the plane of A and B
upon that side opposite to the one upon which B x A is the
normal. The magnitudes of A X B and B X A are the same.
other.
Hence
is
AxB = BxA.
The factors in a
if the sign
of
the
vector product
product
can
be
(10)
interchanged if
and only
be reversed.
instance in which the laws of operation in
vector analysis differ essentially from those of scalar analysis.
It may be that at first this change of sign which must
This
is
the
first
accompany the interchange of factors in a vector product will
give rise to some difficulty and confusion. Changes similar to
this are, however, very familiar. No one would think of interchanging the order of x and y in the expression sin (x
without prefixing the negative sign to the result. Thus
sin (y
although the sign
is
x)
if
sin (x
y),
not required for the case of the cosine,
cos (y
Again
y)
x)
= cos
the cyclic order of the letters
y~).
A B C in the
area of a
triangle be changed, the area will be changed in sign (Art.
25).
A B C = A
CB.
In the same manner this reversal of sign, which occurs
when
the order of the factors in a vector product is reversed,
will appear after a little practice and acquaintance just as
natural and convenient as
34.]
The
distributive
it is
necessary.
law of multiplication holds in the
case of vector products just as in ordinary algebra
except
VECTOR ANALYSIS
64
order of the factors must
that the
carefully maintained
be
when expanding.
A very simple proof may be given by making use of the ideas
developed in Art. 26. Suppose that C
Let A
is not coplanar with A and B.
and B be two
sides of a triangle taken
(A + B)
Then
in order.
Form
third side (Fig. 19).
of
which
of
which C
the prism
this triangle is the base
and
the slant height or edge.
areas of the lateral faces of this
The
FIG. 19.
will be the
is
prism are
A X
The
C,
(A
B)
C.
areas of the bases are
s
ii
But the sum
is
prism
A x
B X
C,
(A X B) and
x~C
B).
Hence
(A
X C
B)
AxC + BxC
A x
or
The
(A x
of all the faces of the prism is zero; for the
a closed surface.
+B
+B x
\ (A X B)
(A + B) x C
= (A 4
 (A
\
= 0,
B) x
X B)
C.
0,
(11)
therefore proved in case C is noncoplanar
Should C be coplanar with A and B, choose D,
any vector out of that plane. Then C + D also will lie out of
with
relation
and
that plane.
Ax
is
B.
Hence by
(C
D)
(11)
+B x
(C
D)
(A
B)
(C
D).
Since the three vectors in each set A, C, D, and B, C, D, and
A + B, C, D will be noncoplanar if D is properly chosen, the
products
may
be expanded.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
65
AxC+AxD+BxC+BxD
= (A +
+ B) x D.
A^D + BxD=(A + B)xD.
AxC + BxC (A + B)xC.
But by (11)
Hence
B) x C
(A
The
This completes the demonstration.
for a vector product.
The
(A + B +
<J
x (P +
distributive
generalization
is
law holds
immediate.
= AxP + Axft+
(11)'
+B xP+BXQ+
The
vector products of the three unit vectors
seen
easily
by means of Art. 17 to be
35.]
ixi = jxj = kxk =
i
= k,
j x i
k x j = i,
ixk
xk
k x
i, j,
k are
0,
(12)
j.
The skew product of two equal 1 vectors of the system i, j, k
The product of two unequal vectors is the third taken
is zero.
with the positive sign if the vectors follow in the cyclic order
k but with the negative sign if they do not.
If two vectors A and B are expressed in terms of i, j, k,
i j
may be found by expanding according
law and substituting.
their vector product
to the distributive
vi4>4
*X
1
7? iA
i'o
^.
,i
j4
T)
+ A3 B
Hence
A x B
1.
^
i 4
k x
I
>4
v
/'X
+ A 3 BZ k x
= (^4 2 ^3
J!
4
K
'
j 4
A 3 BJ) i +
+
This follows also from the fact that the sign
factors
is
reversed.
Hence
jXj =
X j = 0.
>4
7?
*'
^*1
I
>4
4 3 J?3
is
kx
lr
k.
A ^3 ) J
BZ A,B^*.
(A 3 B^
(A 1
v k
O i* ^ *^
O
??
changed when the order of
MifliU
*V*r*
/
s
VECTOR ANALYSIS
66
This
may be
written in the form of a determinant as
A x B
The
sum
formulas for the sine and cosine of the
or dif
ference of two angles follow immediately from the dot and
Let a and b be two unit vectors lying in the
cross products.
i j plane.
If
x be the angle that a makes with
i, then
i,
and y the
angle b makes with
cos x
cos y
cos (a, b)
ab
Hence
cos (y
x)
b'
If
ab'
Hence
cos (y
x)
x b
a x b
a
Hence
sin (y
If
Z,
x)
j,
= cos
+
+
sin y
= k sin
(sin y cos x
x)
sin ^ cos
sin
(sin y cos x
x).
{y
#),
sin x cos y).
=k
sin (a, b')
(y
sin y sin x.
sin y cos x
m\n
j,
= cos
sin (a, b)
sin (y
x),
sin y sin x.
cos y cos x
k
k
(y
sin x sin y.
cos y
cos (a, b')
b'
j,"
x
x
m, w and l\
sin
cos y cos
b'
sin
cos x cos y
k
k
Hence
+
+
a;
cos y.
sin (y
sin x cos
#)
?/).
sin x cos y.
are the direction cosines of
unit vectors a and a' referred to
JL,
two
F, Z, then
w'k,
a
a' = cos
(a, a')
+ m m' +
as has already been shown in Art. 29.
for the square of the sine of the angle
be found.
The
familiar formula
between a and
a'
may
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
a
a'
= sin
(a,
(7m'
f
where
(a
sin
m' n)
(run'
I'm)
a')
(a
a')
= sin
(a,a')
= (mn'm'n) +
z
n' I)
(nl'
k,
e is a unit vector perpendicular to a
67
(a, a') e
(nl'
n'
and a
f
.
= sin 2
2
Z)
(a, a').
+(lm'
I'
w)
2
.
This leads to an easy way of establishing the useful identity
(7
Products of More than
Two
Vectors
to this point nothing has been said concerning
products in which the number of vectors is greater than
36.]
two.
Up
If three vectors are
combined into a product the result
a triple product. Next to the simple products
and AxB the triple products are the most important.
All higher products may be reduced to them.
called
is
AB
The
simplest triple product is formed by multiplying the
scalar product of two vectors A and B into a third C as
(AB)
C.
This in reality does not differ essentially from scalar multiplication (Art. 6).
The
scalar in this case merely happens to
be the scalar product of the two vectors A and B. Moreover
inasmuch as two vectors cannot stand side by side in the
form of a product as B C without either a dot or a cross to
unite them, the parenthesis in (AB) C is superfluous. The
expression
cannot be interpreted in any other way
of the vector C by the scalar AB.
than as the product
Later (Chap. V.) the product BC, where no sign either dot or cross occurs,
But it will be seen there that (A.B) C and A(BC) are identical
and consequently no ambiguity can arise from the omission of the parenthesis.
i
will be defined.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
68
37.]
two
The second
vectors, of
triple
which one
the scalar product of
itself a vector product, as
product
is
is
A(BxC)or (AxB>C.
This sort of product has a scalar value and consequently
is
often called the scalar triple product. Its properties are perhaps most
deduced from
easily
its
commonest
geometrical interpretation. Let A, B,
and C be any three vectors drawn
from
same origin
the
Then BxC
B and C
allelogram of which
scalar
A(BxC)
volume
will therefore be the
BxC
is
the base and
This volume v
is
positive
B Cplane
two adjacent
(14)
of the parallelepiped of
and
BxC
lie
which
See Art. 28.
upon the same
positive system of three vectors the scalar
tive; but
is
20).
The
sides.
the slant height or edge.
if
(Fig.
the area of the par
but negative if they lie on opposite
In other words if A, B, C form a righthanded or
side of the
sides.
are
is
if
A(BxC)
is
posi
they form a lefthanded or negative system,
it
negative.
In case A, B, and C are coplanar this volume will be
neither positive nor negative but zero. And conversely if
the volume
is
piped must
lie
zero the three edges A, B, C of the parallelein one plane.
Hence the necessary and suffi
for the coplanarity of three vectors A, B, C none
which
vanishes
is A(BxC) = 0.
As a corollary the scalar
of
cient condition
triple
product of three vectors of which two are equal or
must vanish for any two vectors are coplanar.
collinear
The two products A(BxC) and (AxB)C
are equal to the
same volume v of the parallelepiped whose concurrent edges
are A, B, C.
The sign of the volume is the same in both
cases.
Hence
(14)'
(AxB)C = A.(BxC) = v.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS Of VECTORS
This equality
and
may
the cross in
be stated as a rule of operation.
a scalar
triple product may
without altering the value of the product.
It may also be seen that the vectors A, B, C
muted
~be
69
The dot
interchanged
may
be per
cyclicly without altering the product.
= B.(CxA) = C.(AxB).
A(BxC)
(15)
For each of the expressions gives the volume of the same
parallelepiped and that volume will have in each case the
same
sign, because if
plane,
upon the
is
positive side of the
upon the
may
positive side of the
A Bplane.
The
C
triple
product
therefore have any one of six equivalent forms
= B(CxA) = i(AxB)
= (AxB>C = (BxC).A = (CxA)B.
A(BxC)
If
on the positive side of the C Aplane and C
will be
however the
cyclic order of the letters
is
(15)'
changed the
product will change sign.
A(BxC)
This
may
=  A<CxB).
be seen from the figure or from the fact that
BxC
Hence
(16)
CxB.
scalar triple product is not altered by interchanging
the dot or the cross or by
permuting
cyclicly the order
of the
in sign if the cyclic order be changed.
necessary upon the subject of parentheses
vectors, but it is reversed
38.]
in
this
biguity ?
word
triple
is
Can they be omitted without amThe expression
product.
They
can.
ABxC
can have only the one interpretation
A<BxC).
For the expression (AB)xC is meaningless. It is impossible to form the skew product of a scalar AB and a vector
VECTOR ANALYSIS
70
only one way in which ABxC may
be interpreted, no confusion can arise from omitting the
Furthermore owing to the fact that there are
Hence
C.
as there
is
parentheses.
and C which have the same
value and are consequently generally not worth distinguishit is often convenient to use the
ing the one from another,
six scalar triple products of A, B,
symbol
[ABC]
any one of the six equal products.
to denote
[A B C]
then
= ABxC = BCxA = CAxB
= AxB.C = BxCA =' CxAB
 [A C B].
[A B C] =
(16)'
scalar triple products of the three unit vectors i, j, k
vanish except the two which contain the three different
The
all
vectors.
Hence
[ijk]=[ikj] =
if
l.
(17)
three vectors A, B, C be expressed in terms of
i, j,
as
A=A
+ A z j + A 3 k,
B = B i + 2 j + #, k,
C=C i+ <72 j + C3 k,
= A l z C3 + Bl C2 A 3 + C, A t Bz
 S C3 A 2  0, A s Br
A, Bz <72
l
[A B C]
then
This
tions
be obtained by actually performing the multiplicawhich are indicated in the triple product. The result
may
may be
written in the form of a determinant. 1
A A A
\ ^2 "*
[A B C]
(18)'
C1
1
This is the formula given in solid analytic geometry for the volume of a
tetrahedron one of whose vertices is at the origin. For a more general formula
see exercises.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
If
more generally A,
noncoplanar vectors
vectors,
B, C are expressed in terms of
any three
which are not necessarily unit
a, b, c
A = &J
where a v
3 ;
2,
B=\a+
C =c a +
stants,
&2
c2
and
b v 62 , J3 ;
+ 3c
+ &3 c
+ c3 c
e?
x,
2,
are certain con
then
[ABC] (a
&2 c 3
ft,
c2
a2
[ABC]
or
The
39.]
Cl
Co
[a
6 2 ) [a
c].
be]
(19)'
d.
third type of triple product
two vectors of which one
J3
a3
Cj
&1 &2 &
Ci
of
71
is itself
is
the vector product
a vector product.
Such
are
Ax(BxC) and (AxB)xC.
The vector Ax(BxC) is perpendicular
But (BxC) is perpendicular to the plane
Ax (BxC),
plane of
to
of
B and
and
being perpendicular to (BxC) must
take the form
Hence
lie
in the
B and C and thus
Ax(BxC)
where x and y are two
= x B + y C,
scalars.
In like manner also the
(AxB)xC, being perpendicular to (AxB) must
the plane of A and B. Hence it will be of the form
vector
in
to (BxC).
C.
(AxB)xC
where
and
v are
two
= mA + wB
scalars.
From
in general
(AxB)xC
The parentheses
changed.
It
is
is
not equal to
therefore
essential
to
lie
this it is evident that
Ax (BxC).
removed or interknow which cross product is
cannot be
VECTOR ANALYSIS
72
formed
first
and which second.
This product
is
termed the
vector triple product in contrast to the scalar triple product.
The vector triple product may be used to express that com
ponent of a vector B which is perpendicular to a given vector
A. This geometric use of the product is valuable not only in
itself but for the light it sheds
AXB
AXB
upon the properties of the product.
Let A (Fig. 21) be a given vector
and B another vector whose components parallel and perpendicular
to
are
X
p
Let the
and per
be found.
to
components of
parallel
B'and B" reDraw A and B from a
spectively.
common origin. The product AxB
The product
plane of A and B.
pendicular to
(AXB)
21
perpendicular to the
Ax (AxB) lies in the plane of
is
and
B.
be
It is
furthermore
Hence it is collinear with B". An
perpendicular to A.
examination of the figure will show that the direction of
Ax (AxB) is opposite to that of B". Hence
where
Now
but
if
c is
some
scalar constant.
Ax(AxB) =~A
 c B" =  c B
b" be a unit vector
B sin
(A,B) b"
sin (A, B) b",
in the direction of B".
Hence
Hence
B"
= A = AA.
z
Ax (AxB)
77
(20)
AfA
The component
of
B perpendicular
to
has been expressed
in terms of the vector triple product of A, A,
component B' parallel to
was found in Art. 28
and
to
B.
be
The
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
B'=?A
73
(21)
00
The vector triple product Ax (BxC) may be expressed
sum of two terms as
40.]
as the
AX (BXC) =
A.C
BAB
In the
first place consider the product
vectors are the same. By equation (22)
when two
= AB A  Ax(AxB)
Ax(AxB) = A.B A  A A B
A A
or
of the
(22)
(23)
This proves the formula in case two vectors are the same.
To prove it in general express A in terms of the three
noncoplanar vectors B,
C,
and BxC.
A = 6B+cC +
where
a,
Z>,
are scalar constants.
Ax(BxC)
By
(23)
of
(I)
Then
= SBx(BxC) +
+
The vector product
(BxC),
cCx(BxC)
(II)
a (BxC)x(BxC).
any vector by
itself is zero.
Hence
(BxC)x(BxC) =
Ax(BxC) = JBx(BxC) + c Cx(BxC).
Bx(BxC) = BC B  BB C
Cx(BxC) =  Cx(CxB) =  C.B C + CC B.
Hence Ax(BxC) = [(6BC + cCC)B (6B.B + cCB)C].
But from (I) AB = JBB + cCB + a (BxC)B
and
By
= b BC + c CC + a (BxC>C.
(BxC)B = and (BxC>C = 0.
AB = JBB + cCB,
AC = &BC + cCC.
AC
Art. 37
Hence
(II)'
(II)"
VECTOR ANALYSIS
74
Substituting these values in (II)",
Ax(BxC)
The
= AC
A.B
C.
(24)
therefore proved for any three vectors A, B, C.
Another method of giving the demonstration is as follows.
relation
was shown that the vector
It
form
of the
Since
it
is
Ax (BxC) = #B +
Ax(AxC)
by
product
triple
is zero.
is
Ax (BxC) was
2/C.
perpendicular to A, the direct product of
Hence
= zAB + 2/AC =
x : y = AC
AB.
=
Ax (BxC). n (AC B AB C),
A.[Ax(BxC)]
and
Hence
where n
is
Multiply by
a scalar constant.
remains to show n
1.
B.
Ax(BxC>B
The
It
.'
= n (AC
BB
 AB
CB).
scalar triple product allows an interchange of dot and
cross.
Hence
Ax(BxC>B = A<BxC)xB =  A[Bx(BxC)],
if
the order of the factors (BxC) and
B be
inverted.
A.[Bx(BxC)] =A.[BC BBBC]
= B.C A,B + B.B A.C.
Hence n
=1
and
Ax(BxC)
= AC
 A^B
C.
(24)
From tne three letters A, B, C by
four allied products in each of which B and C are included in
parentheses may be formed. These are
different arrangements,
Ax(BxC),
As
Ax(CxB),
factors is
(BxC)xA.
sign whenever the order of
the
above products evidently
interchanged,
a vector product changes
two
(CxB)xA,
its
satisfy the equations
Ax (BxC) =Ax(CxB) = (CxB)xA = (BxC)xA.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
The expansion
75
a vector triple product in which the
parenthesis comes first may therefore be obtained directly
from that already found when the parenthesis comes last
for
(AxB)xC
=  Cx(AxB) =  C.B A + CA
B.
The formulae then become
Ax (BxC) = A.C B  A.B
and
(AxB)xC
= AC
(24)
CB A.
(24)'
These reduction formulae are of such constant occurrence and
great importance that they should be committed to memory.
Their content may be stated in the following rule.
To expand
vector triple
product first multiply
the exterior factor into the
remoter term in the parenthesis to form a scalar coefficient for
the nearer one, then multiply the exterior factor into the nearer
term in the parenthesis
remoter one,
41.]
As
and
to
form a scalar coefficient for
from the first.
the
subtract this result
far as the practical applications of vector analysis
concerned, one can generally get along without any
formulae more complicated than that for the vector triple
are
product. But it is frequently more convenient to have at
hand other reduction formulae of which all may be derived
simply by making use of the expansion for the triple product
Ax (BxC) and of the rules of operation with the triple pro
duct
ABxC.
To
is
reduce a scalar product of two vectors each of which
itself a vector product of two vectors, as
(AxB).(CxD).
Let
this
be regarded as a scalar triple product of the three
CxD thus
vectors A, B, and
AxB.(CxD).
Interchange the dot and the cross.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
76
AxB.(CxD)=ABx(CxD)
= BD C  BC D.
 AD
(AxB).(CxD) = AC BD
Bx(CxD)
Hence
This
may
(25)
be written in determinantal form.
(AxB)(CxD)
If
B.C.
AC
AD
BC
BD
and D be called the extremes
and C the antecedents; B and
B and C
(25)'
the means
the consequents in this
product according to the familiar usage in proportions, then
the expansion may be stated in words. The scalar product
of two vector products is equal to the (scalar) product of the
antecedents times the (scalar) product of the consequents
diminished by the (scalar) product of the means times the
product of the extremes.
reduce a vector product of two vectors each of which
(scalar)
To
is itself
a vector product of two vectors, as
(AxB)x(CxD).
Let
CxD
= E.
The product becomes
(AxB)xE
Substituting the value of
(AxB)x(CxD)
Let F
= AxB.
= A.E
E back
 B.E A.
into the equation
(A.CxD)B
(BCxD)
By
A.
(26)
The product then becomes
Fx(CxD) = FD CF.C D
(AxB)x(CxD) = (AxBD)C  (AxBC)
all
D.
(26)'
equating these two equivalent results and transposing
the terms to one side of the equation,
[B C D]
A
[C
D A] B + [D A
B] C
[A B C] D
= 0.
(27)
an equation with scalar coefficients between the four
vectors A, B, C, D. There is in general only one such equaThis
is
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
77
tion, because any one of the vectors can be expressed in only
one way in terms of the other three thus the scalar coefficients of that equation which exists between four vectors are
:
found to be nothing but the four scalar
those vectors taken three at a time.
be written in the
[A B C D]
More examples
also
form
[B C D]
A+
[C
D] B
[A B D]
of reduction formulae, of
important, are given
among
In view of these
chapter.
triple products of
The equation may
C.
(27)'
which some are
the exercises at the end of the
it
becomes
fairly obvious that
any number of vectors connected in
any legitimate way by dots and crosses or the product of any
number of such combinations can be ultimately reduced to
the combination
of
sum of terms each of which contains only one cross at most.
The proof of this theorem depends solely upon analyzing the
a
and showing that they all
under the reduction formulae in such a way that the
possible combinations of vectors
fall
crosses
may
be removed two at a time until not more than
one remains.
*
The
formulae developed in the foregoing article have
interesting geometric interpretations.
They also afford a
simple means of deducing the formulae of Spherical Trigo42.]
nometry. These do not occur in the vector analysis proper.
Their place is taken by the two quadruple products,
= A.C BD  B.C A.D
(AxB)x(CxD) = [ACD] B  [BCD] A
= [ABD] C  [ABC] D,
(AxB).(CxD)
and
(25)
(26)
which are now to be interpreted.
Let a unit sphere (Fig. 22) be given. Let the vectors
A, B, C, D be unit vectors drawn from a common origin, the
centre of the sphere, and terminating in the surface of the
sphere at the points A, B, C, D.
The great
circular arcs
VECTOR ANALYSIS
78
AB,
and
(7,
etc.,
give the angles between the vectors A and B,
determine a quadrilateral
points A, B, (7,
The
C, etc.
upon the sphere.
AC
and
BD are
one
A D and
the
A B and CD are the diagonals.
 A.D B.C
(AxB).(CxD) = A.C B.D
=
=
AxB sin (A,B), CxD sin(C, D).
pair of opposite sides
B C,
other.
The angle between AxB and CxD
FIG. 22.
the angle between the planes themselves.
(AxB). (CxD)
The
the
Let
it
be denoted
Then
x.
by
is
angle between the normals to the ABand CDplanes.
This is the same as
angles
(A, B), (C,
= sin
(A,B) sin (C,D) cos a;.
D) may be replaced by the great
AB, CD which measure them. Then
sin A B sin CD cos x,
(AxB).(CxD)
=
B.D A.D BC
cos AC cosBD
cos AD cos BC.
circular arcs
A.C
Hence
sin
A B sin CD cos x = cos A C cos B D
In words
The product
of the cosines of
cos
AD
cos
B C.
two opposite sides
of a spherical quadrilateral less the product of the cosines of
the other two opposite sides
is
equal to the product of the
of the
sines
diagonals multiplied
cosine of the angle between them.
theorem
is
by the
This
credited to Gauss.
C (Fig. 23) be a spherical trithe
sides
of which are arcs of great
angle,
circles.
Let the sides be denoted by a, &, c
Let A, B,
FIG. 23.
respectively.
drawn from the center
Furthermore
let
p^ p b p c
,
Let A, B, C be the unit vectors
of the sphere to the points A, B, C.
be the great circular arcs dropped
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
perpendicularly from the vertices A, B,
Interpret the formula
(AxB).(CxA)
= sin
(AxB)
Then
(A, B)
c,
is
the
sin b cos x,
AxB
between
angle
J, c.
<z,
BA
sin
(AxB). (CxA)
where x
to the sides
 BC A A.
(Cx A) = sin (C, A) = sin b.
= AC
= sin
79
and
CxA.
This
between the plane of A, B and the
angle
plane of C, A. It is, however, not the interior angle A which
is one of the angles of the triangle
but it is the exterior
equal to the angle
is
angle 180
as
A,
Hence
an examination of the figure will show.
= sin c sin b cos (180 A)
= sin c sin b cos A
BC A A = cos b cos c cos a 1.
(AxB)x(CxA)
AC BA
By
equating the results and transposing,
cos a
= cos b
cos
sin b sin
cos b =' cos c cos a
cos
The
last
letters or
= cos a
two may be obtained by
from the identities
(CxA)x(BxC)
cases in
(AxB)x(AxC)
BxC, CxA,
AxB
cyclic permutation of the
(AxB)x(CxD)
which one of the vectors
a, b, c
A
B
= B.A C.B  C.A,
= CB A.C  B.C.
interpret the identity
Let the three vectors
cos
sin a sin b cos C.
cos b
(BxC)x(AxB)
Next
sin
sin a cos
is
in the special
repeated.
= [A B C] A.
be unit vectors in the direction of
respectively.
Then
AxB = c sin
AxC = b sin b
cxb sin c sin b
A sin c sin b sin A
(AxB)x(AxC) =
[A B C] = (AxB).C = c.C sin c = cos (90
p sin c
=
[ABC] A sin c sin p
c,
e)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
80
By
common
results and cancelling the
equating the
sin
The
last
letters.
triangle
pe
= sin b sin A
= sin c sin B
= sin a sin C.
two may be obtained by cyclic permutation of the
The formulae give the sines of the altitudes of the
Again
in terms of the sines of the angle and sides.
write
(AxB)x(AxC)
(BxC)x(BxA)
(CxA)x(CxB)
Hence
sin
= [ABC]A
= [BCA]B
= [C AB] C.
[A B C]
sin b sin A
sin a sin c sin B =
=
sin b sin a sin
The
factor,
expressions
[B C A]
[C
A B].
[ABC], [BCA], [CAB]
are equal.
Equate
the results in pairs and the formulae
A = sin a sin B
sin c sin B = sin b sin C
sin a sin C *= sin c sin A
sin b sin
are obtained.
These may be written in a single
sin
A _ sin B _ sin C
sin a
The
obtain.
is
zero
for the
all
triangle
equation
a
is
sin
this
almost
sin b
formulae of Plane Trigonometry are even more easy to
If
B C be a triangle, the sum of the sides taken
as vectors
From
line.
is
a closed polygon.
the elementary formulae follow immediately.
to be hoticed that the
angles
from a to
b,
from b to
c,
It
from
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
81
a are not the interior angles A, B, C, but the exterior
c to
angles ISO
A,
 B,
180
 C.
180
=b+c
+ c) = bb +
a
a.a
If a,
= (b +
c).(b
be the length of the sides
&, c
= J 2 f c 2
b = c f a 2
2
2
2
c = a + 6
a2
2
The
last
a, b, c. this
2 b
(7.
area of the triangle
to the first
letters.
is
b
b sin
C=
b c sin
A = ^ c a sin B.
each of the last three equalities be divided by the product
 a
c,
the fundamental relation
sin
sin
a
is
A
cos 5
two are obtained in a manner similar
2
If
becomes
cos
2 a b cos
one or by cyclic permutation of the
The
ec + 2 bc.
obtained.
Another formula
the product
(bxc)(bxc)
2 Area (b
sin
A) =
2 Area
sin
for the area
(c
a2
The problem
1
sin
Let
a, b, c
b sin
G)
B sin G
of expressing
three noncoplanar vectors
may be found from
(cxa)(axb)
a sin B} (a
Reciprocal Systems of Three Vectors.
43.]
Solution of Equations
any vector
may
r in terms of
be solved as follows.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
82
where
a,
constants to be determined.
are three scalar
6,
bx
Multiply by
c.
//
rbxc
= a abxc +
&
bbxc
ccbxc
[rbc]=a[abo].
or
In like manner by multiplying the equation by
. a x b the coefficients & and c may be found.
X a and
= & [b c a]
= c [c a b]
[r a b]
[r c a]
Hence
c]
[r a]
,[r b] c.
b+
= 4.
a +
^\
^ a b
r^
J
[c
aj
[be
be]
[a
The denominators
equation
[a
c] r
are
all
Hence
equal.
 [b c r] a +
[c r a]
[r
which must exist between the four vectors
The equation may
rb
r
=r
gives the
this
a b]
r, a, b, c.
also be written

raxb
rcxa
[abc]
or
(28)
[abc]
bxc
[abc]
[a
cxa,b
+r
be]
axb
c.
[abc]
[abc]
_ __
The three vectors which appear here multiplied by r, namely
bxc
axb
cxa
[a
[a b c]
be]
[a b c]
are very important.
They are perpendicular respectively to
the planes of b and c, c and a, a and b.
They occur over and
over again in a large number of important relations. For
this reason
they merit a distinctive
Definition
The system
b x
[abc]'
name and
of three vectors
cxa
axb
[abc]'
[abc]
notation.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
83
which are found by dividing the three vector products b x
c
a,
x b
product
of three noncoplanar vectors
a b
is
a, b, c
called the reciprocal system to
c,
by the scalar
a, b, c.
The word noncoplanar
If a, b, c were cois important.
the
scalar
b
would
vanish and
triple product [a
planar
c]
fractions
consequently the
bxc
cxa
axb
[a b c]
[a b c]
>
[a be]
would all become meaningless. Three coplanar vectors have
no reciprocal system. This must be carefully remembered.
Hereafter
when
the term reciprocal system
understood that the three vectors
The system
of three vectors
will be denoted
by primes
bxc
'
[a
The expression
used,
it
a,
b, c
as a', b', c'.
[a b
'
= axb
= r.a'a +
(29)
[a b c]
c]
for r reduces then to the very simple
r
will be
not coplanar.
reciprocal to system
= cxa
be]
is
are
b, c
a,
r.b'b
r.c'c.
form
(30)
may be expressed in terms of the reciprocal
c' instead of in terms of a, b, c.
In the first
Tl^e vector r
system
place
a', b',
it
is
a', b', c'
c
and
a,
necessary to note that
if a, b, c
are noncoplanar,
which are the normals to the planes of b and c,
a and b must also be noncoplanar. Hence r may
be expressed in terms of them by means of proper scalar
coefficients #, y,
z.
= x a' + 7/b' + z c'
[abc]r = zbxc + 2/cxa + zaxb.
r
or
Multiply successively by
c.
This gives
ra
rb
[a be]
= x [b c a],
rc
= z [a b c],
[a b c]
[a b c]
Hence
b,
^a,
[c
ab],
= raa' + rbb' +
ra
y = rb
z = rc
rc
c'.
(31)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
84
be the system reciprocal to a, b, c the
any vector of the reciprocal system into the
If a', b', c'
44.]
scalar product of
the given
corresponding vector of
the product of
system
is
unity;
two noncorresponding vectors is zero.
= b'b = c'.c = l
a'.b = a'.c = b'.a = b'c = c'a = c'b =
a'.a
That
is
(32)
0.
be seen most easily by expressing a', b',
terms of themselves according to the formula (31)
This
but
may
c'
in
= ra a' + rb b' + rc c'.
a' = a'aa' + a'bb' + a'"c c'
b' = b'.aa' + b'bb' + b'cc'
o' = c'aa' + c'bb' + c'.cc'.
r
Hence
Since
noncoplanar the corresponding coefficients on the two sides of each of these three equations must
b', c'
a',
are
Hence from the
be equal.
= a'.a
= b'a
l=b'b
O^c'.a
= c'.b
From
the second
From
the third
This
proves
the
first
= a'.b
relations.
= a' c.
b'.c.
= c'c.
They may
also
be
proved
directly from the definitions of a', b', c'.
a'a =
,
bxc
a
b x
[abc]
a
'
bxc
b =
[abc
.
=[be a] = 1
[a
be]
[abc]
=0
[abc]
forth.
Conversely
and
= bxc.b =
[abc]
and so
a, b, c,
if
two
sets of three vectors each,
satisfy the relations
Aa = B'b = Cc = 1
A.a = A.c = Ba = B.C = Ca = (M> =
say A, B,
C,
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
then the set A, B, C
By
is
the system reciprocal to
85
a, b, c.
reasoning similar to that before
A=
C
Aa
a'
+ Ab
= Ca a' + Cb
+ Ac
b'
b'
Cc
c'
c'.
Substituting in these equations the given relations the result
is
A=
a',
= b',
= c'.
Hence
Theorem
The necessary and
set of vectors
a', b', c'
sufficient conditions that the
be the reciprocals of
a, b, c is
they satisfy the equations
= b'.b = c'c = l
= a'.c = b'.a = b'.c = c'.a = c'.b = 0.
a'.a
a'.b
that
(32)
As
these equations are perfectly symmetrical with respect
to a', b', c' and a, b, c it is evident that the system a, b, c may
be looked upon as the reciprocal of the system a', b', c' just
may be regarded as the reciprocal of
as the system a', b', c'
a, b, c.
That
is
Theorem: If
then
a, b, c will
b'
"
to say,
a', b', c'
be the reciprocal system of
be the reciprocal system of
a', b', c'.
a'
c'
c'
a'
[a'bV]'
"[a'b'c']'
b'
a, b, c,
(29)'
~[a'b'c']'
These relations may be demonstrated directly from
definitions of a', b', c'.
The demonstration
is
the.
straightfor
ward, but rather long and tedious as it depends on complicated reduction formulae. The proof given above is as short
as could be desired.
The relations between a', b', c' and
symmetrical and hence if a', b', c' is the reciprocal
system of a, b, c, then a, b, c must be the reciprocal system of
a, b,
c are
a', b', c'.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
86
45.]
Theorem
If a
'
the scalar triple products
That
reciprocals.
'
and
'
be reciprocal systems
and [a b c] are numerical
a, b, c
[a'bV]
is
[a'bV] [abc]=l
,
,,
b x
~L[abc]
=
[abc]
Hence
Hence
[a'bV]
By means
is
[abc]
[abc]J
[bxc cxa axb].
(bxc) x (cxa)
[bxc cxa axb]
axbl
= (bxc)x(cxa>(axb).
[bxc cxa axb]
But
(33;
ex
[abc]c.
caxb
[abc]
[abc]
[abc]
2
.
(33y
[abc]
[abc]
between
of this relation
[a' b' c']
and
[a b c]
it
possible to prove an important reduction formula,
(P.QxE)(ABxC)
P.A
P.B
Q.A
E.A
Q.B
Q.C
E.B
EC
PC
(34)
which replaces the two scalar triple products by a sum of
nine terms each of which is the product of three direct products.
Thus the two
products are removed.
expressed as
But
To
which occur in the two scalar
give the proof let P, Q,
= P.A
A'
E = E.A
A'
+ E.B
Then
crosses
FPQE1=
P.B B'
B'
p.c c
E.C
P.A
P.B
p.c
QA
Q.B
QC
E.A
E.B
E.C
[A'B'C'J
[ABC]
c'.
[A'B'C'].
be
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
Hence
[PftR] [ABC]
The system of
P.A
P.B
P.C
Q.A
S.A
Q.B
Q.C
BB
R.C
three unit vectors
i, j,
 
is its
own
87
reciprocal
system.
.,_jxk _i_. ,,_kxi
k ,_ixj_
J'
For this reason the primes i', j', k' are not needed to denote
a system of vectors reciprocal to i, j, k. The primes will
therefore be used in the future to denote another set of rect
',
F', Z are used to denote a
angular axes i, j, k just as
set of axes different from JT, Z, Z.
TJie only systems of three vectors which are their own reciprocals
,
and lefthanded systems of three unit
k.
the system i, j, k and the system i, j,
Let A, B, C be a set of vectors which is its own reciprocal.
are
the righthanded
That
vectors.
is
Then by (32)
A.A
Hence the vectors
= B.B = cc = i.
are all unit vectors.
A.B
Hence
is
perpendicular to
B.A
Hence B
is
= A.C =
B and
o.
C.
= BC = o.
perpendicular to
A and
C.
=CB = O.
to A and B.
C.A
Hence C is perpendicular
Hence A, B, C must be a system
*
46.]
A scalar equation
like
i,
j,
k or
like
i,j,
k.
of the first degree in a vector r
is
an equation in each term of which r occurs not more than
once.
The value of each term must be scalar. As an example of such
an equation the following may be given.
a abxr
&(cxd).(exr)
+ c fr
f
= 0,
VECTOR ANALYSIS
88
where
are
a, b, c, d, e, f
known
vectors
and
a,
Z>,
c,
of the
Obviously any scalar equation
form
to
the
reduced
be
r
vector
an unknown
may
first
scalars.
rA
where
complish
is
known
vector
d,
known
degree in
=a
and
a,
known
this result in the case of the
scalar.
To
ac
given equation proceed
as follows.
a axbr
{a
+ b (cxd)xer + c fr + d
+ b (cxd)xe + c f}r =
axb
d.
be nec'essary to make use
of various reduction formulae before the equation can be made
In more complicated forms
to take the desired form,
As
may
it
rA =
a.
a vector has three degrees of freedom it is clear that one
Three
is insufficient to determine a vector.
scalar equation
scalar equations are necessary.
The geometric
interpretation of the equa
tion
rA
=a
(36)
'A
Let r be a variable vector
drawn
from a fixed origin. Let
(Fig. 24)
A be a fixed vector drawn from the same
is
origin.
interesting.
The equation then becomes
r
or
if
cos
(r,
r cos (r,A)
r be the magnitude of r
and
r cos
A)
= a,
=.
A
A
(r,
that of A.
The
expression
A)
the projection of r upon A.
The equation therefore states
that the projection of r upon a certain fixed vector A must
is
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
89
always be constant and equal to a!A. Consequently the terof r must trace out a plane perpendicular to the vector
minus
equal to a/A from the origin. The projecof any radius vector drawn from the origin to a
at a distance
tion
upon
point of this plane is constant and equal to a/A.
the following theorem.
Theorem
scalar equation in
This gives
an unknown vector may be
which is the locus of the
regarded as the equation of a plane,
unknown
terminus of the
vector
if its
origin be fixed.
It is easy to see why three scalar equations in an unknown
vector determine the vector completely. Each equation determines a plane in which the terminus of r must lie. The
common
three planes intersect in one
tor r
is
determined.
equations
is
The
point.
Hence one
vec
analytic solution of three scalar
If the equations are
extremely easy.
rA
=I
rC =
rB
(37)
c,
it is
only necessary to call to mind the formula
Hence
The
solution
is
= a A' +
6 B'
c C'.
therefore accomplished.
(38)
It is expressed in
which is the reciprocal system to A, B, C. One
be observed. The vectors A, B, C will
however
must
caution
terms
A', B', C'
have no reciprocal system
In this
solution will fail.
if
they are coplanar.
Hence the
however, the three planes dethree
the
termined by
equations will be parallel to a line.
They will therefore either not intersect (as in the case of the
case,
lateral faces of a triangular prism) or
common
line.
Hence there
they will intersect in a
will be either
there will be an infinite number.
no solution
for r or
VECTOR ANALYSIS
90
From
four scalar equations
rA = a
=b
rC = c
r.B
(39)
r.D=d
the vector r
may be
To accomplish
entirely eliminated.
this
solve three of the equations and substitute the value in the
fourth.
a [BCD]
or
*
47.]
[CAD] +c [ABD]
&
A vector equation
=d
[ABC].
of the first degree in an
(40)
unknown
an equation each term of which is a vector quantity
containing the unknown vector not more than once. Such
vector
is
an equation
is
(AxB)x(Cxr)
where A,
and
r the
B, C, D, E,
unknown
eral be solved for
+ F =0,
known vectors, n a known scalar,
One such equation may in gen
are
vector.
That
one vector equation is in
to determine the unknown vector which is
r.
general sufficient
contained in it to the
The method
+ D ET + n
first
is
to say,
degree.
of solving a vector equation is to multiply it
with a dot successively by three
arbitrary
vectors.
may
first
three scalar equations are obtained.
be solved by the methods of the
foregoing article.
These
In the
place let the equation be
A
where A,
a*r
+B
B, C, D, a, b, c are
br
C cr
known
= D,
vectors.
cients are written in the terms, for
they
the vectors.
Multiply the equation
It is
known noncoplanar
Thus
may
No
scalar coeffi
be incorporated in
successively by A', B',
understood of course that A, B, C are noncoplanar.
C'.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
91
= DA
br = DB'
a.r
= a' ar + b' br + c' cr.
r = DA' a' + DB' b' + DC'
But
Hence
The
solution
therefore accomplished in case A, B, C are nonThe special cases in
a, b, c also noncoplanar.
is
coplanar and
which either
c'.
of these sets of three vectors
is
coplanar will not
be discussed here.
The most general vector equation of the first degree
unknown vector r contains terms of the types
A
That
is it
ar.
r,
D.
Exr,
contain terms
will
in an
which consist of a known
vector multiplied by the scalar product of another known vecterms which are scalar multitor and the unknown vector
;
unknown vector; terms which are the vector
ples
product of a known and the unknown vector and constant
The terms of the type A ar may always be reduced
terms.
of the
number.
to three in
multiplied into r
coplanar vectors.
may
For the vectors
all
Hence
a,
b,
c,
which are
be expressed in terms of three nonall the products ar, br, cr,
expressed in terms of three. The sum of all terms of
the type A ar therefore reduces to an expression of three
may be
terms, as
A ar + B
The terms
of the types
br
C cr.
and Exr may
also be expressed
in this form.
Exr
Adding
to the
all
= wa'ar +
==
Exa' ar
n b'br
+n
c'cr
+ Exb' br+Exc' cr.
these terms together the whole equation reduces
form
L ar +
M br + N cr = K.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
92
This has already been solved as
r
The
solution
is
= K.L' a' +
KN'
c'.
in terms of three noncoplanar vectors a', b',
These form the system reciprocal to
the products containing the
*
K.M' b'
a,
unknown
b, c in terms of
c'.
which
vector r were expressed.
SUNDRY APPLICATIONS OF PRODUCTS
to
Applications
Mechanics
In the mechanics of a rigid body a force is not a
See Art. 3.
48.]
vector in the sense understood in this book.
magnitude and direction but it has also a line
of application.
Two forces which are alike in magnitude
and direction, but which lie upon different lines in the body
force has
do not produce the same
Nevertheless vectors are
effect.
sufficiently like forces to be useful in treating
If a
number
.same point
them.
act on a body at the
of the forces added as vectors is called
of forces f v f 2 , f g ,
0, the
sum
the resultant R.
R=f +
fa
In the same
way
if f , f
x
the term resultant
added just as
if
2,
...
applied to the
sum
of these forces
they were vectors.
R = f1 +
The
f,
do not act at the same point
f3
is still
fa
...
(41)
idea of the resultant therefore does not introduce the
As far as the resultant
a force does not differ from a vector.
line of action of a force.
is
concerned
The moment of a force f about the point is
Definition :
equal to the product of the force by the perpendicular distance from
to the line of action of the force.
The moment
however
is
nitude
as defined above.
is
best looked
upon
as a vector quantity.
Its direction is
usually
Its
mag
taken to
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
93
be the normal on that side of the plane passed through the
and the
point
line f
upon which the force appears
to pro
in the positive
duce a tendency to rotation about the point
Another
method
direction.
of
defining the
trigonometric
is as follows
moment of a force f = P Q about the point
:
The moment
of the force f
= PQ
to twice the area of the triangle
about the point
is equal
P Q. This includes at once
both the magnitude and direction of the moment (Art. 25).
The point P is supposed to be the origin and the point Q,
;
the terminus of the arrow which represents the force f. The
letter
will be used to denote the moment.
subscript will
be attached to designate the point about which the moment is
taken.
Mo
{t}
The moment of a number
sum of the moments of the
of forces f x , f 2 ,
= Pi0i. ** = ?*Qi'~
 2 (0 P! Q + OPZ
Mo {f n f a
}
If
the (vector)
*i
This
f
is
individual forces.
known
"
is
'
*2'
49.]
as the total or resultant
moment
..).
of the forces
'
If f
be a force acting on a body and
drawn from the point
the force, the
to
moment
dxf
d be the vector
line of action of
is
the
Mo
For
any point in the
if
of the force about the point
vector product of d into f
if e
Qz
W  dxf
= d/sin
(d,f)
(42)
e,
be a unit vector in the direction of dxf.
dxf
Now
sin (d,
f)
The magnitude
is
= d sin
(d,
f)/e.
the perpendicular distance from
dxf
to
f.
accordingly equal to this perpendicular distance multiplied by /, the magnitude of the force.
of
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
94
The direction
the magnitude of the moment MO {f}.
moment.
Hence
the
of
direction
the
as
same
of dxf is the
This
is
is
the relation
proved.
Mo
The sum
= dxf.
{f}
moments about
of the
number
of a
of forces
moment
is equal to the
f r f 2,
acting at the same point
of the forces acting at that point.
of the resultant
d be the vector from
to P.
Mo
Mo
Mo
{fJ
+ Ko
{f a }

{f !>
{f a 
= dxf
 dxf 2
l
= dxf +
dxf a
moment about 0'
total
let
Then
of
...
H
The
For
(43)
any number of forces
f x, f 2,
acting on a rigid body is equal to the total moment of those
forces about
increased by the moment about 0' of the
resultant
Mo
Ro
considered as acting at 0.
{f !, f a
Let d 15 d 2
,} = Mo
{f p f jp
be vectors drawn from
f
Let d/, d 2
j,
2
respectively.
from 0' to the same points in f v f 2
be the vector from
to 0'.
Then
',
d1
Mo
{f !, f 2
#!,
'
+M
f2,
\.
'
any point in
be the vectors drawn
Let c
respectively.
'
\
But
is
the
(44)
to
= d + c,
d 2 = d 2 + c,
= d xf + d 2 xf +
}
= d/xf + d 2 'xf 2 +
= (d  c)xf + (d 2  c)xf 2 +
= djXf i+daxf 2 +  cx(f + f 2 +
.
(Ho
'
c is the vector
moment about
drawn from 0'
to 0.
Hence
f,
0' of a force equal in magnitude and
parallel hi direction to f 1 but situated at 0.
Hence
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
cxCfj+fjj
Hence
{f 1? f a
95
+ ...)= cxR = M {Ro}= M {f f 2 ,} + M {Ro .
}
'
'
15
The theorem is therefore proved.
The resultant R is of course the same at all points. The
is attached
subscript
merely to show at what point it is
to
act
when
the
moment about 0' is taken. For
supposed
the point of application of R affects the value of that moment.
The scalar product of the total moment and the resultant
is
the same no matter about
what point the moment be taken.
In other words the product of the total moment, the resultant, and the cosine of the angle between them is invariant
for all points of space.
BM
where 0' and
'{fi,f a
}=
Mo {fi,*2"}
any two points in space. This important
from the equation
are
relation follows immediately
Me?
{fj, f a
But
moment
the
{fj
}=. Mo
ForEMo^f^fa,
the point
= Mo
of
is
is
about
A point
it
is
parallelism
0'
may
parallel
f i
fa
{Ro}.
'
{R
}
no matter what
The
of
variation in the
total
the point about which the
perpendicular to the resultant.
be found such that the total moment
to the
The condition
resultant.
is
'
'
=0
RxM
+M
+R
Hence
proved.
moment due to a variation
moment is taken is always
50.]
perpendicular to
of application be.
relation
.
,
{f^fj,
R.Mo' IRo}
and the
f2
= RxM
+RX M
{ lf f a
'
B
for
VECTOR ANALYSIS
96
where
by
its
random. Replace
any point chosen at
write the f v f 2
to
omit
for
value and
brevity
braces
is
Then
{ }.
= ExM
ExM(y
The problem
is
Ex(cxE)
to solve this equation for
ExM
Now E
'{E O }
in the
R'B. c
0.
c.
+ Ec E =
0.
quantity. MO is also supposed to be
Let c be chosen in the plane through
perpen
known.
known
is
=
ExM
and the equation reduces
Then Ec
dicular to E.
to
BB c
EE
chosen equal to this vector the total moment about
at a vector distance from
the point
', which is
equal to c,
If c be
Moreover, since the scalar product of
is constant and since the
will be parallel to E.
the total
moment and
resultant itself
is
the resultant
constant
it is
clear that in the case
they are parallel the numerical value of the total
will be a minimum.
The
total
about which
For
If c
about 0'
(Jf
is
is
moment
it is
'
is
moment
unchanged by displacing the point
taken in the direction of the resultant.
fi,f a ,
}=M
parallel to E,
cxE
{f 1
,f a ,
parallel to the resultant
 cxB.
vanishes and the
Hence
equal to that about 0.
find not merely one point 0'
is
where
it is
moment
possible to
moment
moment about any
about which the total
but the total
point in the line drawn through
parallel to E is parallel
to E.
Furthermore the solution found in equation for c is
the only one which exists in the
plane perpendicular to E
unless the resultant E vanishes.
The results that have been
'
obtained
may be summed up
as follows
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
97
whose resultant is not
any system of forces f 1? f 2
zero act upon a rigid body, then there exists in space one
and only one line such that the total moment about any
If
point of
it is
The
parallel to the resultant.
of
it is
same and
the
This line
parallel to the resultant.
is
total
numerically
moment about
less
itself
is
all
points
than that about any
other point in space.
equivalent to the one which states that
upon a rigid body is equivalent
any system
to a single force (the resultant) acting in a definite line and
a couple of which the plane is perpendicular to the resultant
This theorem
is
of forces acting
and
may
which the moment is a minimum. A system of forces
be reduced to a single force (the resultant) acting at any
of
desired point
of space
and a couple the moment
(regarded as a vector quantity)
about
of the forces acting
is
equal to the total
on the body.
But
of
which
moment
in general the
plane of this couple will not be perpendicular to the resultant, nor will its moment be a minimum.
Those who would pursue the study of systems of forces
acting on a rigid body further and more thoroughly may
consult the Traite de Mechanique Rationelle 1 by P. APPELL.
The first chapter of the first volume is entirely devoted to
the discussion of systems of forces. Appell defines a vector
as a quantity possessing magnitude, direction, and point of
application.
His vectors are consequently not the same as
those used in this book.
carried through in the
however may be
analysis.
The treatment
of his vectors
Cartesian coordinates.
Each
is
step
easily converted into the notation of vector
number
of
exercises
is
given at the close of
the chapter.
Suppose a body be rotating about an axis with a con51.]
stant angular velocity a.
The points in the body describe
circles concentric with the axes in planes perpendicular to
1
Paris, GauthierVillars et Fils, 1893.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
98
in its circle is equal
velocity of any point
and
the radius of the
the
of
to the product
angular velocity
the
to
It is therefore equal
product of the angular
circle.
the axis.
The
and the perpendicular distance from the point to the axis.
velocity
The
direction
of
the velocity
to the
axis
is
and to
perpendicular
the radius of the circle described
by the
point.
Let a (Fig. 25) be a vector drawn
along the axis of rotation in that
direction in which a righthanded
screw would advance
if
turned in
the direction in which the body is
Let the magnitude of a
rotating.
FIG. 25.
The vector a may be taken to
the angular velocity.
Let r be a radius vector
represent the rotation of the body.
drawn from any point of the axis of rotation to a point in the
be
a,
The
body.
vector product
axr
= a r sin (a, r)
equal in magnitude and direction to the velocity v of the
terminus of r. For its direction is perpendicular to a and r
and its magnitude is the product of a and the perpendicular
is
distance r sin
(a, r)
from the point to the line
v
If the
a 2< a
*3a
case
of
a.
= axr.
That
is
(45)
body be rotating simultaneously about several axes
which pass through the same point as in the
the gyroscope
the
rotations are
v.
velocities
due
to
the various
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
where
99
drawn from points
same point of the body. Let
be drawn from the common point of
are the radii vectores
r x, r 2 , r g,
on the axis a 1} a 2 a 3
,
to the
the vectors r 1? r 2 , r 3 ,
Then
intersection of the axes.
rl
= r2 = r3 =
v3
=r
and
v
= vx +
v2
= a xr + a xr + a
= (a + a 2 + a +
2
This shows that the body moves as
angular velocity which
is
velocities a 15 a 2 , a 3 ,
This theorem
the vector
if
3
.
xr
)xr.
rotating with the
of the angular
sum
is
sometimes known
law of angular velocities.
It will be shown later (Art.) 60 that the motion of any
rigid body one point of which is fixed is at each instant of
time a rotation about some axis drawn through that point.
as the parallelogram
This axis
axis
is
position.
fixed
is
called the instantaneous axis of rotation.
not the same for
is
The
but constantly changes its
The motion of a rigid body one point of which is
all time,
therefore represented
by
= axr
(45)
the instantaneous angular velocity; and r, the
radius vector drawn from the fixed point to any point of the
where a
is
body.
The most general motion
body no point of which
is fixed may be treated as follows.
Choose an arbitrary
0.
At
this
instant
will
have a velocity v
point
any
point
Eelative to the point
the body will have a motion of rotation
about some axis drawn through 0. Hence the velocity v of
of a rigid
any point of the body may be represented by the sum of
and axr the velocity of that point
v the velocity of
relative to 0.
=v +
axr.
(46)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
100
In case v
is
body moves around a and
precisely the motion of a
parallel to a, the
This is
along a simultaneously.
In case v is perpendicular to a, it
a.
screw advancing along
such that
is possible to find a point, given by the vector r,
its
velocity
is
That
zero.
is
axr
This
may
Multiply by xa.
be done as follows.
v xa
(axr)xa
ar a
be chosen perpendicular to
a.
aa
or
Let
aa r =
~

v xa.
Then ar
is
zero
and
v x a
v x a
a*a
The
point
r,
a,
thus determined, has the property that its velocbe drawn through this point parallel to
If a line
ity is zero.
the motion of the
about
this
new
In case v
is
one of instantaneous rotation
is
body
axis.
neither parallel nor perpendicular to a
it
may
be resolved into two components
= V*o
Vv o
'
4Vv o
i
"
which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to
v = v
point
'
4
may now be found such
v
"
"
a.
+ axr
that
axr.
Let the different points of the body referred to this point be
denoted by
r'.
Then
the equation becomes
=v +
'
axr'.
(46)'
The motion here expressed consists of rotation about an axis
a and translation
along that axis. It is therefore seen that
the most general motion of a
is at
instant
rigid
body
any
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
101
the motion of a screw advancing at a certain rate along a
The axis of the screw and its rate
definite axis a in space.
of advancing per unit of rotation
(i, e. its
pitch) change from
instant to instant.
The
52.]
of
principle
methods.
conditions for equilibrium as obtained by the
virtual velocities may be treated by vector
Suppose any system of forces
f x , f 2,
act
on a
body be displaced through a vector disrigid body.
tance D whether this distance be finite or infinitesimal the
If the
work done by the
forces is
...
Dfj, D.fa ,
The
total
work done
therefore
is
W = D.f
If the
the
D.f 2
body be in equilibrium under the action of the forces
work done must be
W = Df
Df 2
zero.
.
= D(f +
f2
)= D.E = 0.
The work done by
the forces is equal to the work done by
This must be zero for every displacement
their resultant.
D.
The equation
D.R
holds for
all
=O
Hence
vectors D.
The total resultant must be zero if the body be in equilibrium.
The work done by a force f when the rigid body is displaced by a rotation of angular velocity a for an infinitesimal
time t is approximately
adxf
where d
is
a vector
drawn from any point
tion a to any point of
components
f ', f
t,
To prove
f.
"
parallel
adxf
this
of the axis of rota
break up
f into
and perpendicular respectively
= adxf +
'
adxf ".
two
to
a.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
102
As
'
is
scalar
parallel to a the
adxf
On
the other hand the
done by
product [a d
']
vanishes.
= a.dxf ".
work done by
"
For
during the displacement.
equal to the work
is
'
being parallel to
If h be the common
perpendicular to its line of action.
a
to
the
force t", the work
the
line
from
vector perpendicular
"
a for time
a
of
is
done by
t is
rotation
during
angular velocity
approximately
W=hf" at = *hxt"t.
The vector d drawn from any point of a to any point of f may
be broken up into three components of which one is h, another
In the scalar
is parallel to a, and the third is parallel to f ".
only that component of d which
"
perpendicular alike to a and f has any effect. Hence
triple
product [a d
f "]
W= ahxf"
= a.dxf f = adxf
is
t.
act be disbody upon which the forces t lt f 2
placed by an angular velocity a for an infinitesimal time t
and if d 15 d 2
be the vectors drawn from any point
of
If a rigid
a to any points of f 1?
by the forces f v f 2 ,
2,
respectively, then the
work done
will be
approximately
W= (a^xfj + a.d
xf 2
= aCdjXfj + d 2 xf 2 +
= a.M {fj.fj,, }
+
..)
)*
t
t.
If the
body be
work must be
in equilibrium this
Hence
a .M
flf f2 ,
.} t
zero.
= 0.
The scalar product of the
angular velocity a and the total
moment of the forces tv f
about any point
must be
a
.
zero.
As
may
be any vector whatsoever the
must vanish.
Mo
{t v t v
.}
= 0.
moment
itself
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
103
The necessary
conditions that a rigid body be in equilibrium under the action of a system of forces is that the result
ant of those forces and the total
moment about any
point in
space shall vanish.
if
Conversely
the resultant of a system of forces
and the
moment
of those forces about any one particular point in space
vanish simultaneously, the body will be in equilibrium.
= 0, then for any displacement of translation D
If
D.R
and the
total
work done
is
= 0.
zero,
when
the body suffers any
displacement of translation.
Let
MO
{fp
f 2,
be zero for a given point 0.
Then
for
any other point 0'
MO
{fi? f 2 >
But by hypothesis
'I
is
= MO
f: , f 2 ,
also zero.
MO' (fp
Hence
aMo'
MO* {BO}.
Hence
f2
0.
{fp f a
=Q
any vector whatsoever. But this expression is
equal to the work done by the forces when the body is rotated
for a time t with an angular velocity a about the line a
where a
is
passing through the point 0'. This work is zero.
Any displacement of a rigid body may be regarded as a
translation through a distance D combined with a rotation
for a time t with angular velocity a about a suitable line a in
space.
It has
been proved that the
forces during this displacement
must be
in equilibrium.
is
total
zero.
The theorem
is
work done by the
Hence the forces
proved.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
104
Applications
to
Geometry
Relations between two righthanded systems of three
Let i, j, k and i', j', k'
mutually perpendicular unit vectors.
53.]
be two such systems.
They form
own reciprocal systems.
their
Hence
and
r = r.ii + r.jj + rkk
= r.i'i' + r.j'j' + r.k'k'.
From
this
=
+
+ i'.k k = a +
= j'.i + j'.j + j'.k k = b, i +
1 k' = k'.i
+ k'j j + k'.k k = Cj +
i'.i i
i'
i'.j j
j'
The
scalarsaj,
2,
a3
direction cosines of
That
bv
i'; j';
Z>
2,
2 j
J2 j
c2 j
+
+
+
53
k
k
(47')
c 3 k.
b 3 ; c r c2 , c 3 are
respectively the
k' with respect to
i,
j, k.
is
= cos
= cos
&!
= cos
cj
ax
= cos
= cos
2
c = cos
2
a2
(i', i)
Z>
(j', i)
(k', i)
(i',
j)
(j',
j)
= cos
= cos
3
c = cos
3
3
Z>
(k', j)
(i',
k)
(j',
k)
(48)
(k', k).
In the same manner
s
]
(
== i.i'i'
ij'j'
i.k'
k'=
= ji'i' + jj'J' + jk'k' = aa
k = k.i'i' + kj'j' + kk'k' = a
and
i'
i'
i'
+ ^ j' + Cj k'
+ &a j' + c2 k'
+ 6, j' + c 3 k'
 1 = a22 + 622 + C22
= 1 = a 32 + &3 + C32
= = ai 6j + a 62 + a 8 J3
r
= 6 lCl +62C2 + 5 3C3
j'k' =
I k'.i' =
= cj a, + c2 a2 + c as
(47)"
jj
)
C k.k
i'.j'
(50)
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
= =a
= 2
j.k =
i.j
and
+
+
&j 6 2 f Cj c 2
&2 b s
(50)'
and
(51)
Cj
k'
= i'xj'= (a a
But
k'
&g
= Cj +
i
8 6j
Cg
ax
68 ) j
c 2 j 4 c 3 k.
Hence
(52)
Or
Co
and similar relations may be found
a x,
2,
orthogonal axes JT',
important and well
ease with
for the other six quantities
All these scalar relations between the
J p J2 , J3.
coefficients of a transformation
The
105
which expresses one
set of
Y\ Z in terms of another set X, I Z are
known to students of Cartesian methods.
7
",
which they are obtained here may be note
worthy.
number
which are perhaps not so well
known, but nevertheless important, may be found by multiof vector relations,
plying the equations
i'
in vector multiplication.
a2
k.
(53)
The quantity on either side of this equality is a vector. From
its form upon the right it is seen to possess no component in
VECTOR ANALYSIS
106
direction but to lie wholly in the jkplane ; and from
form upon the left it is seen to lie in the j'k 'plane.
the
its
Hence
Its
it
must be the
magnitude
is
line of intersection of those
2
a
or
V bf + c^.
two planes.
This gives the
scalar relations
the square of the sine of the angle
and i'. Hence the vector
The magnitude 1
af
between the vectors
is
k'c
&1
j'
= a,ja s
(53)
and jkplanes, and
its magnitude is the sine of the angle between the planes.
Eight other similar vectors may be found, each of which gives
the line of intersection of the j'k'
is
one of the nine lines of intersection of the two sets of mutually orthogonal planes.
The magnitude
of the vector
is
each case the sine of the angle between the planes.
Various examples in Plane and Solid Geometry
54.]
in
may
be solved by means of products.
The perpendiculars from the vertices of a trianmeet in a point. Let A B C be the
Let
the
triangle.
perpendiculars from A to B C and from B
to CA meet in the point 0.
To show C is perpendicular
to A B.
Choose
as origin and let OA
A, OB = B, and
Example 1
gle to the opposite sides
~C. Then
By
hypothesis
 B) =
B(A  C) = 0.
C.(BA) = 0,
A.(C
aQ d
Subtract;
which proves the theorem.
Example 2:
To
through the point
find the vector
equation of a line
parallel to a given vector A.
drawn
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
be the origin and
Let
dius vector from
is
the vector
OB.
any point of the required
to
be the ra
line.
Hence the vector product
parallel to A.
Ax(RB) = 0.
This
Let
107
Then
vanishes.
^\
the desired equation. It is a vector equation in the
unknown vector R. The equation of a plane was seen (page
88) to be a scalar equation such as
is
EC = c
in the
unknown
The point
vector B.
of intersection of a line
found at once.
The equations
and a plane may be
are
Ax(B  B) =
B.C = c
AxB = AxB
(AxR)xC = (AxB)xC
A.C B  C.R A = (AxB)xC
A.C B  c A = (AxB)xC
(
(AxB)xC +
Hence
A
,
A.C
In this case howsolution evidently fails when A C
0.
ever the line is parallel to the plane and there is no solution ;
The
or, if it lies in the plane, there are
an
infinite
number
of solu
tions.
Example 3: The introduction of vectors
to represent planes.
Heretofore vectors have been used to denote plane areas of
The direction of the vector was normal to
definite extent.
the plane and the magnitude was equal to the area to be represented. But it is possible to use vectors to denote not a
plane area but the entire plane itself, just as a vector represents
a point. The result is analogous to the plane coordinates of
analytic geometry.
a plane in space.
MN
be an assumed origin. Let
be
is to be denoted by a vector
plane
Let
The
MN
VECTOR ANALYSIS
108
whose direction is the direction of the perpendicular dropped
and whose magnitude is the
upon the plane from the origin
Thus the nearer
that perpendicular.
reciprocal of the length of
is to the origin the longer will be the vector which
a
plane
represents
it.
any radius vector drawn from the origin to a point
the plane and if p be the vector which denotes the plane,
If r be
in
then
r.p
is
the equation of the plane.
r.p
=l
For
= r cos
(r,
p) p.
Now PI
the length of p is the reciprocal of the perpendicular
to the plane.
distance from
On the other hand r cos (r, p)
is that perpendicular distance.
Hence rp must be unity.
and p be expressed
If r
in terms of
i, j,
= ui + vj + wk
rp = xu + yv + zw = l.
p
Hence
quantities u, v, w are the reciprocals of the intercepts of
the plane p upon the axes.
The
The
relation
tion of duality.
between
and p
is
symmetrical.
It
is
a rela
If in the equation
r be regarded as variable, the
equation represents a plane p
which is the locus of all points given
If however p be
r.
by
regarded as variable and r as constant, the equation represents a point r
through which all the planes p pass. The
development of the idea of duality will not be carried out
It
is
familiar to all students of
geometry.
tors to denote
planes will scarcely
Chapter VII.
The use
of vec
be alluded to again until
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
The
two vectors
scalar products of
A.B
II
equal to the product
by the cosine of the angle between
of their lengths multiplied
them.
is
= A B cos (A, B)
A.B = B.A
AA = ^ 2
(1)
(2)
The necessary and
of
(3)
sufficient condition for the perpendicularity
two vectors neither of which vanishes
The
product vanishes.
are
109
is
that their scalar
scalar products of the vectors
M=
= kk = 1
=j.k = k.i =
A.B = A B + A 2 B2 + A s B3
AA = A 2 = A? + A* + A*.
i,
j,
j'j
i.j
If the projection of a vector
The
(7)
B upon
vector product of two vectors
a vector
is
(8)
is B',
equal in magnitude to
the product of their lengths multiplied by the sine of the anThe direction of the vector product is the
gle between them.
normal to the plane of the two vectors on that side on which
a rotation of less than 180 from the first vector to the second
appears positive.
AxB = A B
The vector product
is
sin (A,
B)
c.
(9)
equal in magnitude and direction to the
vector which represents the parallelogram of which A and B
are the two adjacent sides.
The necessary and sufficient condition for the parallelism of
two vectors neither of which
VECTOR ANALYSIS
110
vanishes
is
that their vector product vanishes.
The com
mutative laws do not hold.
AxB=BxA
ixi
ixj
jxk
kxi
Bs 
AxB =
a)
(10)
= jxj = kxk =
= jxi = k
= kxj =
= ixk =
+ (^3 B  A
(12)
(13)
j
AxB =
The
to the
A,
(13)'
scalar triple product of three vectors
[A B
C] is equal
volume of the parallelepiped of which A, B, C are three
edges which meet in a point.
[AB C]
= ABxC = B.CxA = CAxB
= AxBC = BxCA = CxAB
[ABC]
The dot and the
=
(15)'
[ACB].
cross in a scalar triple product
(16)'
may
be inter
changed and the order of the letters may be permuted cyclicly
without altering the value of the product ; but a change of
cyclic order
changes the sign.
[ABC]
[ABC]
(18)'
[a
be]
(19)'
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
If the
component of B perpendicular
to
A be
B",
>_
Ax (BxC) = A.C B 
(20)
AB C
(24)
(AxB)xC = AC B  C.B A
(AxB).(CxD) = A.C B.D  A.D B.C
(AxB)x(CxD) = [A CD] B  [BCD] A
= [ABD] C[ABC] D.
The equation which
subsists
111
(24)'
(25)
(26)
between four vectors A, B,
C,
is
[BCD]
A[CDA]B+
[DAB]
C
[ABC] D
= 0.
(27)
Application of formulae of vector analysis to obtain the formulae of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.
The system
of vectors
a',
V,
c' is
said to be reciprocal to the
system of three noncoplanar vectors
bxc
a'= ,..,
when
[a
be]
cxa
V = p
a, b, c
r'
c'
= axb
[a b c]
[a
A vector r may be expressed in terms of a set
its
reciprocal in
(29)
c]
of vectors
and
two similar ways
= r.a' a + r.b' b + r.c' c
r = r.aa' + r.bb' + r.cc'.
(30)
(31)
The necessary and sufficient conditions that the two systems of
noncoplanar vectors a, b, c and a', b', c' be reciprocals is that
= b'.b = c'c = 1
= b'.c = b'.a = c'a = c'b = 0.
a'.a
a'.b
a'.c
b', c' form a system reciprocal to
form a system reciprocal to a', b', c'.
If a
a, b, c
then
a, b, c
will
VECTOR ANALYSIS
112
[PftR]
The system
system be
its
i, j,
own
[ABC]is
its
own
reciprocal
P.A
P.B
P.C
Q.A
E.A
aB
R.B
R.C
reciprocal
ac
and
must be a right
it
if
(34)
conversely a
or left
handed
mutually perpendicular unit vectors. Application of the theory of reciprocal systems to the solution of
system of three
scalar
and vector equations of the
vector.
The
first
degree in an
vector equation of a plane
rA
unknown
is
= a.
(36)
Applications of the methods developed in Chapter II., to the
treatment of a system of forces acting on a rigid body and in
particular to the reduction of
any system of forces to a single
and a couple of which the plane is perpendicular to that
force.
Application of the methods to the treatment of
force
instantaneous motion of a rigid body obtaining
where v
=v +
(46)
the velocity of any point, v a translational velocity in the direction a, and a the vector angular velocity of rotation.
Further application of the methods to obtain the
is
conditions for equilibrium
virtual velocities.
by making use
of the principle of
Applications of the method to obtain
the relations which exist between the nine direction cosines
of the angles between two
of
systems
mutually orthogonal
Application to special problems in geometry including
the form under which
plane coordinates make their appearance in vector analysis and the method
by which planes (as
distinguished from finite plane areas) may be represented
axes.
by
vectors.
DIRECT AND SKEW PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER
113
II
Prove the following reduction formulae
= [ACD]B AB CxD
= B.D AxC  BC AxD.
1.
Ax{Bx(CxD)}
2.
[AxB CxD ExF] = [A B D]
 [A B C]
= [ABE] [FCD]  [ABF]
= [CD A] [BEF]  [CDB]
BxC
3.
[AxB
4.
[PQR] (AxB)
CxA]
P.A
E F]
[C
[ABC]
[D
E F]
[E C D]
[AEFj.
2
.
P.B
QA
Q.B
RA
R.B
5.
Ax(BxC) + Bx(CxA) + Cx(AxB)
6.
[AxP
7.
Obtain formula
= 0.
BxQ CxR] + [AxQ BxR CxP]
+ [AxR BxP CxQ] = 0.
(34) in the text
by expanding
[(AxB)xP].[Cx(CtxR)]
in
two
different
ways and equating the
results.
Demonstrate directly by the above formulae that if
b', c' form a reciprocal system to a, b, c; then a, b, c form
8.
a',
a system reciprocal to
Show
9.
tors
a',
b', c'.
the connection between reciprocal systems of vecObtain some of the
triangles upon a sphere.
and polar
geometrical formulae connected with polar triangles by interpreting vector formulae such as (3) in the above list.
10.
The perpendicular
meet in a
bisectors of the sides of a triangle
point.
Find an expression for the common perpendicular
two lines not lying in the same plane.
11.
to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
114
Show by
12.
ume
vector methods that the formulae for the vol
of a tetrahedron
whose four vertices are
is
1/3
13.
Making use
of formula (34) of the text
1
[a b c]
where
a, b, c
I
14.
which
= abc
show that
are the lengths of a, b, c respectively
= cos
m = cos
(b, c),
(c, a),
= cos
and where
(a, b).
Determine the perpendicular (as a vector quantity)
is dropped from the origin upon a plane determined by
the termini of the vectors
a, b, c.
Use the method of solution
given in Art. 46.
15.
Show
that the
volume of a tetrahedron
is
equal to one
two opposite edges by the perpendicudistance between them and the sine of the included angle.
sixth of the product of
lar
16.
If a line is
drawn in each face plane
of any triedral angle
through the vertex and perpendicular to the third edge, the
three lines thus obtained lie in a plane.
CHAPTER
III
THE DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTOES
Differentiation of Functions of One Scalar Variable
IF a vector varies and changes from r to
55.]
ment
of r will be the difference
denoted as usual
between
r'
and
r'
Ar
(1)
must be a vector quantity.
unrestricted the increment
it
will be
by A r.
Ar = r'r,
where
the incre
and
Ar
is
If the variable r
be
of course also unrestricted
may have any magnitude and any
direction.
If,
however,
the vector r be regarded as a function (a vector function) of
a single scalar variable t the value of A r will be completely
determined when the two values
two values
and
r',
are
and
t'
of
which give the
known.
To
it
obtain a clearer conception of the quantities involved
will be advantageous to think of the vector r as drawn
from a fixed origin
(Fig. 26).
When
the independent variable t changes its
value the vector r will change, and as t
possesses one degree of freedom r will
vary in such a way that its terminus
describes a curve in space, r will be
of
the radius vector of one point
the curve; r', of a neighboring point P'.
P' of the curve. The ratio
chord
Ar
Al
FIG. 26.
r will be the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
chord
will be a vector collinear with the
in
the ratio 1
but magnified
When A t approaches zero P' will ap7 will
approach the tangent at P, and
t.
proach P, the chord
the vector
PP'
PP
ArAt
...
dT
will approach
dt
directed in that
a vector tangent to the curve at
sense in which the variable t increases along the curve.
which
If r
is
be expressed in terms of
i, j,
as
the components r v r 2 , rz will be functions of the scalar
r'
(>!
+ A rt ) i +
Ar
l i.
t?
+ A ra ) j +
+ A r3 ) k
(r 8
A r2$
An
4T A*
A J J ^ A.I
A*
A r,
A*
t.
V
*
'
and
Hence the components
spect to
of the first derivative of r
are the first derivatives with respect to
components of
The same
r.
derivatives.
dn
d
~ d* r
__ __
k
dt*
.
t*
In a similar manner
if r
noncoplanar vectors
a, b, c
_
d n r2
dt*
of the
true for the second and higher
is
_i
_
dt*
dt*
with re
7r
d n r3
'
(2)'
'
~dr'
be expressed in terms of any three
as
aa + 5b +
d^r_d^
"~
cc
<Z*J
dn c
c'
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Example
The
are
Let
= a cos +
t
b sin
t.
vector r will then describe an ellipse of which a and b
This may be seen by assum
two conjugate diameters.
ing a set of oblique Cartesian axes X,
and
117
Then
b.
X = a cos
Y=b sin
t,
coincident with a
t,
the equation of an ellipse referred to a pair of conjugate diameters of lengths a and 5 respectively.
which
is
dr
a
Hence
= a cos
( t
CL t
The tangent
+ 90) +
t.
b sin
(t
90).
=
The second
+ b cos
to the curve is parallel to the radius vector
+ 90).
for
a sin
derivative
is
(a cos
b sin
the negative of
t).
Hence
r.
_
~
is
evidently a differential equation satisfied by the ellipse.
Example
The
vector
Let
r will
=a
cosh
b sinh
t.
then describe an hyperbola of which a and
b are two conjugate diameters.
dr
=a
b cosh
= a cosh +
b sinh
sinh
t,
CL b
and
TT
Hence
is
dt 2
t.
a differential equation satisfied by the hyperbola.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
118
56
A combination
same
scalar variable
of vectors all of
may be
which depend on the
differentiated very
much
as in
ordinary calculus.
For
(a
A (a
b)
= (a + A a)
+ Ab) 
(b
Aa
Ab
A(a.b)A2
= a TT + ~T7
A
A
Hence in the limit when A = 0,
'
AaAb
A~7
Ac
db
(ab) = ar
/ d b\
<^
da.
,o,
f
cZ
a\
(o)
.
//<x
<4 >
(axb) = ax l77J+(T7) xb
d
dt
(abxc) = a.bx
v
'
fdv\
\ +
a( ^Ixc
(5)
[bx.].
The
last three of these formulae
may be demonstrated
(6)
exactly
as the first was.
The formal process
of
differentiation in vector analysis
no way from that in scalar analysis except in this
one point in which vector analysis always differs from scalar
differs in
analysis,
namely
The order
of the factors in a vector product
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
119
cannot be changed without changing the sign of the product.
Hence
of the
two formulae
and
first is
evidently incorrect, but the second correct. In
other words, scalar differentiation must take place without
The
altering the order of the factors of a vector product.
the
factors
must be
differentiated in situ.
This of course was to
be expected.
In case the vectors depend upon more than one variable
the results are practically the same. In place of total derivatives
with respect to the scalar variables, partial derivatives
Suppose a and b are two vectors which depend on
occur.
three scalar variables
depend upon
#, y,
z.
The
these three variables,
scalar product
and
it
ab
will
will have three
partial derivatives of the first order.
CT)
The second
partial derivatives are
formed in the same way.
5x9y
VECTOR ANALYSIS
120
Often
it is
more convenient to use not the derivatives but
particularly true when dealing with
formulae (3), (4) become
This
the differentials.
is
The
first differentials.
= da.b + a
= da. x b + a
d (ab)
d (a X b)
and so
forth.
example.
The
As an
(3)'
x db,
(4)'
consider the following
illustration
If r be a unit vector
locus of the terminus of r
is
a spherical surface of unit
radius described about the origin,
ables.
db,
depends upon two
vari
Differentiate the equation.
(d r)
= 2r
d r = 0.
(d r)
(d r)
Hence
Hence the increment dr
of a unit vector
the vector.
= 0.
perpendicular to
This can be seen geometrically. If r traces a
is
sphere the variation d r must be at each point in the tangent
plane and hence perpendicular to r.
Vector methods may be employed advantageously
*57.]
in the discussion of curvature and torsion of curves.
Let r
denote the radius vector of a curve
where
f is some vector function of the scalar t.
In most applications in physics and mechanics t
Let
represents the time.
s be the
length of arc measured from some definite point of
the curve as origin.
curve.
Hence A r / A
to unity
The increment A
s is
chord of the
approximately equal in magnitude
and approaches unity
infinitesimal.
r is the
Hence dr/ds
as its limit
when A
becomes
will be a unit vector tangent
the curve and will be directed toward that
portion of the
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
curve along which
is
increasing (Fig. 27).
Let
121
be the
unit tangent
=t
The curvature
(8)
of the curve is the
limit of the ratio of the angle through
which the tangent turns^ to tile length
The tangent changes by the increment At.
of the arc.
is
of unit length, the length of
At
is
As
approximately the angle
through which the tangent has turned measured in circular
measure. Hence the directed curvature C is
C
The vector C
t
to
is
At
dt
d*r
As=0 As
ds
ds*
LIM
collinear with
inasmuch
for
At
and hence perpendicular to
as t is a unit vector
At
is
perpendicular
t.
The
tortuosity of a curve is the limit of the ratio of the
angle through which the osculating plane turns to the length
of the arc.
vector
The
osculating plane is the plane of the tangent
and the curvature vector C. The normal to this
N = txC.
planeis
If c be a unit vector collinear
n
will be a unit
with C
=t
normal (Fig. 28) to the osculating plane and
t, c, n form an i, j, k system,
the three vectors
a righthanded rectangular system.
the angle through which the osculating
plane turns will be given approximately by
A n and hence the tortuosity is by definition
that
is,
Then
d n
FIG. 28.
s.
From
vectors
the fact that
t, c,
n form an
i,
j,
k system of unit
122
VECTOR ANALYSIS
and
= cc = nn = l
tc = cn = nt = 0.
t.t
Differentiating the
first
t.dt
set
= cdc = nd!n = 0,
and the second
do
But d t
is
parallel to c
and consequently perpendicular
dn
Hence
The increment
n
is
of n
is
0.
to n.
= 0.
t = 0.
dt
of
dcn = ndt + dnt =
+ dt'C = cdn +
perpendicular to
also perpendicular to n.
It
As the tortuosity is T = dn/ds, it
is
is
But the increment
t.
therefore parallel to
parallel to
dn and
c.
hence
too.
The
tortuosity
is
ds (txc)
dr
d*r d
T~
ds z ds
The
first
term of
d fdr
d*r
x
(
ds*2
dsds
^c
1
.
(11)
this expression vanishes.
been seen to be parallel to C
= d z i/d s 2
T moreover has
Consequently the
magnitude of T is the scalar product of T by the unit vector c in the direction of C.
It is desirable however to have
the tortuosity positive when the normal n appears to turn in
the positive or counterclockwise direction if viewed from
that side of the n cplane upon which t or the positive part
of the curve lies.
With this convention d n appears to move
in the direction
when
the tortuosity
is
positive, that
is,
away from c. The scalar value of the tortuosity will
therefore be given by
c . T.
turns
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
cT =
But
c.
dr d B r
x
ds ds 3
c is parallel to the
And
dz r d
^s
vector d r/d
ft ^
T=
ur
The
tortuosity
may
somewhat shorter
dt
n=
if
ct
^s
VCC
Hence
Hence
*?
(13)
be obtained by another method which
not quite so straightforward.
tc = cn = nt = 0.
dtc = dc t
dc n =
dnc
dnt = dt*n.
Hence
Now
s2
= 0.
^
r=c.T = as'^x^
2
as ds* C
Hence
dt
Y/cC
2
T
dr
c
c is a unit vector in the direction C.
is
123
is
0.
parallel to c
hence perpendicular to
Hence dnt = 0.
Hence d n must be
parallel to
n.
Hence
But<Znis perpendicular to
c.
The
tortuosity
is
n.
the mag
taken however with the negative sign
n
because d appears clockwise from the positive direction of
the curve. Hence the scalar tortuosity T may be given by
nitude of
dn/ds
r=
dn
.c
ds
= n. dc
ds
(14)
dp
T = txc^>
as
(14)'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
124
>
dC
do
ds
dc
.
=t
c.c
x
dC
,.
 
ds
But
t
VC C
r=
= 0.
dV /^
VC
^1
c.c
t
x C
s
'
^TC
dr
T=
(13)
ds z
In Cartesian coordinates this becomes
T=
dx
dy
dz
ds
ds
ds 2
ds 2
ds z
ds x
ds*
ds y
dB
ds
ds 9
(13)'
'
ds 2
Those who would pursue the study of twisted curves and
surfaces in space further from the standpoint of vectors will
find the book " Application de la Methode Vectorielle de Grass
mann d
la
Geomttrie Infinitesimale"
1
Paris,
Cam?
et
by FEHB extremely
Naud, 1899.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
He works
helpful.
is
The
elegant.
The treatment
with vectors constantly.
notation used
however
is
from that used by the present writer.
125
slightly different
The fundamental
points of difference are exhibited in this table
EJ
ct
One used
I
Clo
Jj
to either
Clo
~ [j
<* 1
L.
J.
<*
o
i
Q
O_
/N^
CZl
Li
I
method need have no
2]
$oi ^Qo_
difficulty
with the
All the important elementary properties of curves
and surfaces are there treated. They will not be taken
other.
up
here.
* Kinematics
58.]
Let
be a radius vector drawn from a fixed origin to
Let t be the time. The equation
a moving point or particle.
of the path is then
The
velocity of the particle is its rate of
This
is
the limit of the increment
LIM
* as
rArn
change of position.
increment A t.
r to the
di
A**.nrTTL*jFr
( 15 )
This velocity is a vector quantity.
Its direction is the
direction of the tangent of the curve described by the particle.
The term speed is used frequently to denote merely
the scalar value of the velocity.
followed here. Then
This convention will be
be the length of the arc measured from some fixed point
of the curve.
It is found convenient in mechanics to denote
if s
differentiations with respect to the time by dots placed over
the quantity differentiated. This is the oldfluxional notation
VECTOR ANALYSIS
126
introduced by Newton.
It will also be convenient to denote
the unit tangent to the curve by
The equations become
t.
dr
T=r= j*
dS
= s=
The
is
acceleration
is
a vector quantity.
=v
rtR\
(16)
t.
(17)
the rate of change
Let
it
of velocity.
be denoted by A.
It
Then by
definition
LIM
Av
= d v =_
and
v
Differentiate the expression
_dv_d(vt)
=
=
d7
~d~T
dv
=v
t.
dt
dv
i
'dt
di*
dz s
dt _dt d
dt
ds d
s
t
where C
is the (vector) curvature of the curve and v is the
in
the
curve. Substituting these values in the equation
speed
the result is
g? ~
+ oZ
'
The
A=st+
acceleration of a particle
C.
moving
%*
in a curve has there
fore been
lel
broken up into two components of which one is paralto the
tangent t and of which the other is parallel to the
curvature C, that
is,
That this
would be unimportant were
perpendicular to the tangent.
resolution has been
accomplished
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
it
not for the remarkable fact which
component of the acceleration
127
The
brings to light.
it
parallel to the tangent is equal
magnitude to the rate of change of speed. It is entirely
independent of what sort of curve the particle is describing.
It would be the same if the particle described a right line
in
with the same speed as
hand the component
it
On
describes the curve.
of the acceleration
the other
normal to the tangent
equal in magnitude to the product of the square of the
speed of the particle and the curvature of the curve. The
is
sharper the curve, the greater this component. The greater
the speed of the particle, the greater the component. But the
of change of speed in path has no
normal component of the acceleration.
If r be expressed in terms of i, j, k as
effect at all
rate
= # + yj + 2 k,
v = T = xi + j/j + zk,
r
V x* +
A=v=r=
A = v=s=
^t
change
is
y*
(16)'
+ ^j+sk,
x x + yy y + 2
(15)'
Jr
(18)'
z
apparent.
A=f
and
Just
when
\V*v\
T==g ^
these formulae the difference between
of speed,
this
From
on
s>
the rate of
the rate of change of velocity,
this difference first
became clearly
But certain it is that
recognized would be hard to say.
Newton must have had it in mind when he stated his second
law of motion. The rate of change of velocity is proportional
to the impressed force
59.]
but rate of change of speed
is
not.
The hodograph was introduced by Hamilton
as
an
aid to the study of the curvilinear motion of a particle.
With any assumed origin the vector velocity f is laid off.
The locus of its terminus is the hodograph. In other words,
the radius vector in the hodograph gives the velocity of the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
128
It is
at any instant.
magnitude and direction
one step further' and construct the hodopossible to proceed
This is done by laying off the
graph of the hodograph.
The
=
an assumed origin.
from
r
vector acceleration A
particle in
radius vector in the hodograph of the hodograph therefore
at each instant.
gives the acceleration
in a circle (Fig. 29)
a
particle revolve
Example 1 : Let
of radius r with a uniform
a.
angular velocity
The
speed of the particle will then
be equal to
v
Let
velocity v
is
perpendicular to
r
The
vector v
r.
be the radius vector
=v=a
r.
always perpendicular and of constant magnia r.
is therefore a circle of radius v
radius vector f in this circle
just ninety degrees in
is
advance of the radius vector r in
its
which
circle,
and
it
conse
same angular velocity
quently describes the circle with the
The
The
drawn to the particle.
It is
r and to a.
The hodograph
tude.
The
is
=a
the rate of change of v
always perpendicular to v and equal in magnitude to
a.
acceleration
is
A = a v = a2
The
acceleration
A may
r.
be given by the formula
r = A = axv = ax(axr) = ar
But
as a
is
Hence
The
=A=
acceleration
a circle
is
aa
perpendicular to the plane in which r
r
is
aa
a2
r.
lies,
= 0.
r.
due to the uniform motion of a particle in
and is equal in magni
directed toward the centre
tude to the square of the angular velocity multiplied by the
radius of the circle.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Example 2:
Consider the motion of a projectile.
acceleration in this case
The hodograph of
vector.
The curve
the
hodograph reduces to a constant
the
is
any given
=v +
Thus the hodograph
ing through the
At
instant.
will be
a later instant the velocity
t
g.
a straight line parallel to g and passThe hodograph of a
extremity of v
is
particle moving under the influence of gravity
The path
straight line.
Example 3
The
the acceleration g due to gravity.
is
merely a point. It is easy to find
Let v be the velocity of the projectile
hodograph.
in path at
129
well
is
known
is
hence a
to be a parabola.
In case a particle move under any central
acceleration
= A = f(r).
The tangents to the hodograph of r are
But these tangents are approximately
the accelerations
r.
collinear with the
chords between two successive values r and f of the radius
That
vector in the hodograph.
is
approximately
A*
Multiply by rx.
=rx
Since r and r are parallel
r
Hence
But ^
r
r
x
x
 r ) = 0.
r = r x f
(r
r is the rate of description of area.
when
Hence the
a particle moves under an acequation
celeration directed towards the centre, equal areas are swept
states
that
over in equal times by the radius vector.
9
VECTOR ANALYSIS
130
it
Perhaps
would be well
this question.
go a
to
little
more carefully
If r be the radius vector of the
into
particle in
path at one instant, the radius vector at the next instant
r + A r.
The area of the vector of which r and r + A r are
its
is
the bounding radii is approximately equal to the area of the
This
triangle enclosed by r, r + A r, and the chord A r.
area
is
rx(r + Ar)=irxr + ^r
The
rate
of description
xAr=rxAr.
of area
by the radius vector
consequently
Lm
y r
irx(r*Ar)
A*
A*=02
Let
Lm
~A*=0
r <
Ar_i.
A t~*
and
r be two values of the
velocity at two points
which are near together. The acceleration r at P
P and P
is
is
the limit of
r
_ Af
r'
A*
Break up the vector
parallel
= Lz
'
into
two components one
and the other perpendicular to the acceleration f
Af
if
n be a normal to the vector
i?
The quantity x apThe quantity y
proaches unity when A t approaches zero.
approaches zero when A t
zero.
approaches
Hence
(r
(r
r)=rxi
r'
= x A*
r'
(r
A*
^A A x
n.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
131
Hence
rxf
xi =
But each
Ar
X
At
upon the righthand side is an
Hence the rates of descripinfinitesimal of the second order.
tion of area at P and P differ by an infinitesimal of the
of the three terms
This
second order with respect to the time.
Hence the
is
true for any
must be exactly equal
This proves the theorem.
The motion of a rigid body one point of which is
at any instant a rotation about an instantaneous axis
point of the curve.
rates
at all points.
60.]
fixed
is
passing through the fixed point.
Let i, j, k be three axes fixed in the body but moving in
space. Let the radius vector r be drawn from the fixed point
to any point of the body.
Then
But
= (d r
i) i
Substituting the values of
the second equation
dr
But
Hence
j) j
c?
i,
j,
di+
yi
dj
+ (# j di +
+ (#kdi +
yj
rf
=j
irfj+j <! =
jdk + kdj =
k.di + idk =
Moreover
Hence
= (xi
(d r
()
(d r
d r k obtained from
+ 2i^k)i
+ z j d k) j
ykcj +
=k
or
k) k.
krfk)k.
= 0.
j(H =
or k.dj =
or i dk =
ii=jj = kk = l.
i^i = d = kc?k = 0.
irfj
j.tfk
'k
di.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
132
in the expression for
Substituting these values
= (2
dk
(y k
+
This
dj
is
a vector product.
= (Wj i + idk j +
Let
a
dj
=k
^
Then
(# j
d k)
k)x(>
dk
di=
d j)
k.
yj
z k).
+ l d7 J+
'dl
i) i
r.
axr
This shows that the instantaneous motion of the body is one
the angular velocity a about the line a.
of rotation with
This angular velocity changes from instant to instant. The
proof of this theorem fills the lacuna in the work in Art. 51.
Two
Let
aj
due to
infinitesimal
rotations
and a 2 be two angular
them are
may be added like vectors.
velocities. The displacements
= aj
dz r = aa
dj r
If r be displaced
T
If it
d1
Hence
+dr=r+
d1
ftl
If the infinitesimals
(d
t,
t.
it
a.
xidt.
becomes
+ % x [r + (& X r) d f\ d
+ a a x r d t + a 2 x (a x r)
=T+
then be displaced by a a ,
r
becomes
a, it
by
t.
t)
(d t)\
of order higher than the first be
neglected,
= &1
a2
which proves the theorem.
.
= dr =
If
( &1
a 2)
t,
both sides be divided by d
a1
a a )xr.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
133
the parallelogram law for angular velocities.
was obtained before (Art. 51) in a different way.
This
It
is
In case the direction of
a,
the instantaneous axis,
is
con
stant, the motion reduces to one of steady rotation about a.
=a
The
As
acceleration
r.
r=axr+axr=axr+ax
a does not change
a and hence a x r
On
is
its
direction a
parallel to a
the other
hand
r.
ax
(axr).
must be collinear with
That is, it is perpen
dicular to
r.
Inasmuch
as all points of the rotating
(a
r) is parallel to
r.
body move in con
about a in planes perpendicular to a, it is
unnecessary to consider more than one such plane.
The part of the acceleration of a particle toward the centre
centric circles
of the circle in
This
which
it
moves
is
a x (a
r).
equal in magnitude to the square of the angular
It does not
velocity multiplied by the radius of the circle.
is
depend upon the angular acceleration a
to what is known as centrifugal force.
at all.
On
It corresponds
the other hand
the acceleration normal to the radius of the circle
is
axr.
This
equal in magnitude to the rate of change of angular
velocity multiplied by the radius of the circle. It does not
is
depend in any way upon the angular velocity itself but only
upon its rate of change.
61.] The subject of integration of vector equations in which
the differentials depend upon scalar variables needs but a
word. It is precisely like integration in ordinary calculus.
If
then
d
r
r = d
= s + C,
s,
VECTOR ANALYSIS
134
where C
is
some constant
To accomplish
vector.
the integra
tion in
any particular case may be a matter of some
just as
it is
Example
difficulty
in the case of ordinary integration of scalars.
1: Integrate the equation of motion of
projectile.
The equation
of motion
is
simply
r=
g,
which expresses the fact that the acceleration
to gravity.
tically downward and due
is
a constant of integration.
It is
evidently the
= 0.
velocity at the time t
c is another constant of integration.
of the point at time
always ver
= g + b,
where b
is
= 0.
It is the position vector
The path which
is given by this
That this is so may be seen by
x and y and eliminating t.
last equation is a parabola.
expressing
it
in terms of
Example 2 : The rate of description of areas when a parmoves under a central acceleration is constant.
ticle
Since the acceleration
But
For
(r
x
x
is
= f(r).
parallel to the radius,
f)
Hence
r
0.
(r
(r
j)
C,
cl t
and
which proves the statement.
r).
r.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
135
Example 3
:
Integrate the equation of motion for a particle
with
an
acceleration toward the centre and equal to
moving
a constant multiple of the inverse square of the distance
from the centre.
2
Given
= c
Then
3 r.
r3
Hence
0.
= C.
Multiply the equations together with X.
r
x C
^2
Differentiate.
7F
rx ( rxr )=
Then
=rf
c2
Each
r2
is
'
{r rr
'"}.
r2
side of this equality
7F
121?
Hence
1
:
r.
a perfect differential.
= + e I,
r
Integrate.
Then
where
the vector constant of integration,
c2
e I is
tude and I a unit vector in
tion
by
x C
C
C*
x C
e r
e is its
magniMultiply the equa
But
its direction.
I.
rxr.CCC
VECTOR ANALYSIS
136
p=
Let
and cos u
p=
Then
Or
P
6
axis.
COS
the equation of the ellipse of which e is the eccentriI is drawn in the direction of the major
is
city.
(r, I).
r cos u.
f=
This
= cos
The vector
The length
of this axis is
drr
1
e
It is possible to carry the integration further
So
the time.
far
merely the path has been found.
The Operator
Scalar Functions of Position in Space.
62.]
A function V
(a?,
y, 2)
which takes on a
value for each set of coordinates
#, y, z
definite scalar
in space
Such a
scalar function of position in space.
ample,
and obtain
is
called a
function, for ex
is
(a?,
y, z)
=x 2 +
zz
= r2
This function gives the square of the distance of the point
will be supposed to
(, y, z) from the origin. The function
be in general continuous and single valued. In physics scalar
functions of position are of constant occurrence. In the
theory of heat the temperature T at any point of a body is a
scalar function of the position of that point.
In mechanics
and theories of attraction the potential
function.
This, too,
If a scalar function
is
is the allimportant
a scalar function of position.
be set equal to a constant, the equa
tion
r(x,y,z)=c.
(20)
defines a surface in space such that at
every point of it the
function
V has the
same value
c.
In case
F be
the tempera
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
ture, this is a surface of constant temperature.
In case
isothermal surface.
137
It is called
an
V be the potential, this surface of
constant potential is known as an equipotential surface. As
is a typical scalar function of position in
space,
the potential
and
most important of
as it is perhaps the
owing
all
such functions
to its manifold applications, the surface
V (x, y,z}=c
V equal to
obtained by setting
a constant
is
frequently spoken
an equipotential surface even in the case where V has
no connection with the potential, but is any scalar function
of as
of positions in space.
The
rate at
that
tion
constant
is,
which the function V increases in the
direcwhen x changes to x + A x and y and z remain
is
LIM
(a;
+ A a,
y, g)
 T (x, y, z)
"I
J*
This
the partial derivative of Fwith respect to x. Hence
increases in the directions of the three
is
the rates at which
axes
F,
Z are
respectively
9V
9 x
9V
9V_ '
9 y
'
Q z
Inasmuch as these are rates in a certain direction, they may
Let i, j, k be a system
be written appropriately as vectors.
unit
of
vectors coincident with the rectangular system of
axes X, F, Z. The rates of increase of V are
1
.
The sum
3V .9V
 9V
9x
Ku
of these three vectors
9 z
9 y
would therefore appear
to be
a vector which represents both in magnitude and direction
the resultant or most rapid rate of increase of V. That this
is
actually the case will be
shown
later (Art. 64).
VECTOR ANALYSIS
138
The
63.]
F is
of
vector
denoted
V F represents
sum which is the resultant
a directed rate of change of
For
or vector derivative of V, so to speak.
V; and
will be called the derivative of
VF.
The terms
V F.
It is
a vector
gradient and
customary to regard
VFfrom
slope of
is
now
in
a directed
this reason
VV
F, the primitive of
also used for
F are
V as an operator which obtains
a scalar function
This symbolic operator
Hamilton and
rate of increase
by VF.
Fof
position in space.
was introduced by Sir W. R.
There
employment.
universal
1
seems, however, to be no universally recognized name for it,
although owing to the frequent occurrence of the symbol
some name
is a practical necessity.
It has been found by
that
the
del
is
so short and easy to
experience
monosyllable
occurs
pronounce that even in complicated formulae in which
a number of times no inconvenience to the speaker or hearer
" del F."
arises from the repetition.
is read simply as
has been defined as
Although this operator
VF
d
V = .9
+ h
dx
.
3y
Some
use the term Nabla owing to
its
Qz
fancied resemblance to an Assyrian
A and have consequently
coined the none too euphonious name Atled
by inverting the order of the letters in
the word Delta. Fb'ppl in his
Einfuhrung in die MaxweWsche Theorie der Electricitat avoids
any special designation and refers to the symbol as "die Operation
V." How this is to be read is not
divulged. Indeed, for printing no particular
name is necessary, but for lecturing and purposes of instruction
something is required
something too that does not confuse the speaker or hearer even when
often repeated.
harp.
Others have noted
its
likeness to an inverted
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
so that
139
appears to depend upon the choice of the axes,
it
it
This would be surmised
in reality independent of them.
as the magnitude and direction
from the interpretation of
is
most rapid increase
of the
of V.
pendence take another set of axes,
variables a/, y', z' referred to them.
system
To demonstrate the indei', j', k' and a new set of
Then V referred to this
is
+*
< 22 >'
use of the formulae (47)' and (47)", Art. 53, page
104, for transformation of axes from i, j, k to i', j', k' and by
actually carrying out the differentiations and finally by
By making
taking into account the identities (49) and (50),
actually be transformed into V.
may
= V.
V'
The
details of the proof are omitted here, because another
shorter
method
of demonstration
is
to be given.
Consider two surfaces (Fig. 30)
64. ]
V O,
y,z)=c
V (#, y, z) = c + A
and
c,
upon which Vis constant and which are moreover infinitely
near together. Let #, y, z be a given point upon the surface
V=
Let
c.
dius
vector
denote the ra
drawn
to
point from any fixed
this
origin.
Then any
the
point near by in
neighboring surface
=c+
may
be represented
by the radius vector
The actual
the
is
first
increase of
d r.
Ffrom
FIG. 30.
surface to the second
a fixed quantity dc.
Tlie rate of increase is a variable
VECTOR ANALYSIS
140
dr which is folquantity and depends upon the direction
to
the
other.
The rate
one
surface
from
lowed when passing
of increase will be^the^guptieir^of the actual increase d c and
dr between the surfaces at the point
tnV~fTifitapOft
Vdr
as,
y, 2 in
the direction d
Let n be a unit normal to the
r.
and d n the segment of that normal intercepted
between the surfaces, n d n will then be the least value for
surfaces
dr.
The quotient
yd r
will therefore
equal in
be a
dr
maximum when d r
magnitude of
d n.
is
n and
parallel to
The expression
n
^
an
(23)
which the direction is the direction of
most rapid increase of Fand of which the magnitude is the
is
therefore a vector of
rate of that increase.
the axes X, Y, Z.
is
the increment of
second.
Then
let
This vector
Fin
is
entirely independent of
be replaced by its equal d
which
passing from the first surface to the
Let d
V F"be
defined again as
VV
From
this definition,
is certainly the vector which
the
direction
of
most rapid increase of
and the rate
gives
in that direction.
Moreover VFis independent of the axes.
It remains to
show that
first
To do
given.
this definition is
this multiply
by
d n
equivalent to the one
d r.
.rfr.
(25)
n is a unit normal. Hence n d r is the
projection of d r on
n and must be equal to the
perpendicular distance d n between
the surfaces.
THE DIFFL ENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
VF.
= dV dn = dV.
dr
9V
where
(d #)
(d y)
9V
^dy
ay
(d z) 2
9V
~dz,
az
= dr
dr
takes on successively the values
equation (25)' takes on the values
If
VF
(25)'
dn
dx+
dV=^dx
But
dx
141
d r.
dx,
dy,
bdz the
= 9V
dx
TT
VV.)dy =
dx
9V
r dy

(26)
9V
W*ls.dz = ^dz.
9z
If the factors
d x, d y d z be cancelled these equations state
k of
in the
y
VF
VT
VF
that the components
i,
j,
i, j, k directions respectively are equal to
9V_
9 x*
VF= (VF. i)
Hence by(26)
The second
9V
9V
3y*
9z'
+ (VF j) j + (VF.
VF=i 9 x + j+k
9
y
definition (24) has
and consequently
is
equivalent to
k.
(21)
been reduced to the
first
it.
The equation (25V found above is often taken as a
V F. Accordmg to ordinary calculus the deriv
*65.]
definition of
9z
k)
11
ative ^ satisfies the equation
d x
dy
VECTOR ANALYSIS
142
Moreover
it is
down
the following definition.
of a scalar function of
derivative
possible to lay
Definition:
In a similar manner
dy / dx.
this equation defines
VF
The
position in space shall satisfy the equation
for all values of dr.
This definition
is
certainly the
most natural and important
But for practical purposes
the
before
either of
definitions
given seems to be better.
They are more tangible. The real significance of this last
from theoretical considerations.
definition cannot be appreciated until the subject of linear
vector functions has been treated.
The computation
frequently
See Chapter VII.
V of
of the derivative
a function
on by means of the ordinary
carried
is
most
partial
differentiation.
Example 1 :
Let
V (x, y,z)r = V
.
dr
3r
.dr
i^+J^
r +k^ax
&z
dy
Vr=:i
Vx* +
Vx* +
z2
y'*
z*
Vx* +
Hence
vr =
Vr =
and
y'*
zz
The
This
is
derivative of r
is
a unit vector in the direction of
r.
evidently the direction of most rapid increase of r
and the rate of that increase.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Let
143
_i
(x
x2
f
y
v2
22
z 2 )'
<>2
Hence
V=
r
5
2
(a;
of
r,
The proof
Example 4
'
= Y3
T
(r
is
r)
a vector whose direction
that
equal to the reciprocal of the
is
1*
= 711*
to the reader.
Let
F(#,
y, 2)
= log y x 2 f
drawn from the
V may be
(#, y, 2) of space, the function
= log Vr
ia? + jy = r
F(#,y, 2)
and
V log V # + # =
/
origin to the point
written as
(k r)
k kr.
r
&
2
u
2
+ j y).
(i
If r denote the vector
v3
a;
Hence
is
r.
Vr = nr*
is left
2)
and whose magnitude
Example 3 :
derivative of 1/r
square of the length
2 2) 1
i x  j y + 2 2^ (
^_
The
=2
V r =
and
2
2/
k kr
.
^Krj*
k kr
(rkk.r).(rkk.r)'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
144
There
is
another method of computing
which
is
based
upon the identity
F = Vrr = r.
Example 1 : Let
YT
Vr
= '
^7^=^=
V rr r
Hence
Example 2 :
F= r
Let
where a
a,
a constant vector.
is
dF=rfra = <2r.VF.
VF=a.
Hence
Example 3:
Let
constant vectors.
F= (rxa)
(rxb), where a and b are
F = rr ab >ra rb.
r<<
*T
ab  dra rb  drb ra = r V F.
,
Ar.rtub*
d F = 2 drr
i.*
'
la
<f
VF= 2rab ar.b bra
VF= (ra.bar.b) + (rabbr.a)
Hence
= bx(rxa) +
Which
of these
two methods
x (rxb).
for
computing
shall
be
applied in a particular case depends entirely upon their
The latter method is
relative ease of execution in that case.
independent of the cob'rdinate axes and
preferred.
may
therefore be
It is also shorter in case the function
Fcan
be
cannot be so
expressed easily in terms of r. But when
the
to.
former
be
resorted
method
has
to
expressed
The
in mathegreat importance of the operator
matical physics may be seen from a few illustrations.
Sup*66.]
pose
(#, y, 2)
be the temperature at the point #,
y, 2 of
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
145
That direction in which the temperature
heated body.
de
most rapidly gives the direction of the flow of heat.
as has been seen, gives the direction of most rapid
creases
jP,
Hence the flow
increase of temperature.
f
where
body.
of heat f
is
= k Vr,
a constant depending upon the material of the
Suppose again that V be the gravitational potential
Jc
is
The
due to a fixed body.
y, z) is in
the point (#,
force acting upon a unit mass at
the direction of most rapid increase of
potential and is in magnitude equal to the rate of increase
per unit length in that direction. Let F be the force per unit
Then
mass.
As
= VF.
different writers use different conventions as regards the
sign of the gravitational potential,
that the potential
V referred
the potential energy.
situated at
a mass
W denoted
If
#,
it
/,
2,
might be well
to state
to here has the opposite sign to
the potential energy of
the force acting upon that mass
would be
In case
represent the electric or magnetic potential due
to a definite electric charge or to a definite magnetic pole re
spectively the force F acting
as the case might be is
The
force
is
in
upon a unit charge or unit pole
=  VF.
the direction of most rapid decrease of
In dealing with electricity and magnetism potenpotential.
whereas in
tial and potential energy have the same sign
;
attraction
problems they are generally considered to have
opposite signs. The direction of the force in either case
the direction of most rapid decrease of potential energy.
difference between potential
and potential energy
10
is
is
in
The
this.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
146
Potential in electricity or magnetism is the potential energy
and potential in attraction problems
per unit charge or pole ;
with the
is
energy per unit mass taken, however,
potential
negative sign.
It is
*67.]
often convenient to treat an operator as a
it obeys the same formal laws as that
quantity provided
Consider for example the partial differentiators
quantity.
JL _?__?_.
9x* 9y* 9z
As
far as combinations of these are concerned, the formal
are precisely
what they would be
laws
instead of differentiators
if
three true scalars
a,
were given.
&,
For instance
the commutative law
99
r
ao
9y9x
9x9y
= o a,
the associative law
9/99\/99\9
=
;r
;r ;r~
9z\9y9zJ
and the
distributive
9/9
ir~ TT~
a (6 c)
= /(a w
6)c,
law
99 99
= 5zJ 9x9y 9x9z

9 \

9
9x\dy
\9x9yj9z
hold for the differentiators just as for scalars.
Of course such
formulae as
w
where u
is
^ = ai M
>
a function of x cannot hold on account of the
properties of differentiators.
A scalar
function u cannot be
placed under the influence of the sign of differentiators.
Such a patent error may be avoided by remembering that an
operand must be understood upon which 9/9 #
is
to operate.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
In the same way a great advantage
looking upon
Sf\
V
as a vector.
4
dz
dy
It is not a true vector, for the coefficients
are not true scalars.
a vector differentiator and of
It is
always implied with it As far as formal
concerned it behaves like a vector.
For
course an operand
operations
instance
obtained by
f\
4
9x
may be
147
are
is
V (u 0) = (V u) + u (V 0),
c V u = V (c M),
i)
if
u and v are any two scalar functions of the scalar variables
and if c be a scalar independent of the variables with
#, y, z
regard to which the differentiations are performed.
68.] If A represent any vector the formal combination
A. Vis
=^
^ii;
A = Al i +
provided
4 2
< 2T>
^a4'
+ A 3 k.
V is a scalar differentiator. When
to a scalar function V (x, y, z) it gives a scalar.
V
V
V
+ A, + A 3 .
This operator
^r=A 
e$
Suppose for convenience that
applied
is
a unit vector
a.
+ a3
C/ vC
(28)
(29)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
148
where a v
2,
to the axes
is
are the direction cosines of the line a referred
X, Y, Z.
wellknown
This
Consequently (a V)
derivative of
directional
F appears
as the
in the direction
a.
often written
It expresses the
3x
5s
a
z
3y
magnitude of the rate of increase of
F in
In the particular case where this direction is
the normal n to a surface of constant value of F, this relation
the direction
a.
becomes the normal derivative.
n v n v 3 be the direction cosines of the normal.
The operator a V applied to a scalar function of position
F yields the same result as the direct product of a and the
if
vector
V F.
(a.V)F=a.(VF).
For
this reason either operation
may
(30)
be denoted simply by
a.VF
without parentheses and no ambiguity can result from the
omission. The two different forms (a V) Fand a (V F)
may however be interpreted in an important
(a V) F is the directional derivative of F in the
.
a.
On
the other hand a
the direction
any direction
VFin that
is
(V F) is the component of V F in
The directional derivative of F in
component of the derivative
Fdenote gravitational potential the
equal to the
direction.
theorem becomes
in
Hence
a.
theorem.
direction
The
If
directional derivative of the potential
any direction gives the component of the force per unit
mass in that direction. In case Fbe electric or magnetic
potential a difference of sign must be observed.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
149
Vector Functions of Position in Space
A vector
69.]
&
which
5>M J
v:
function of position in space
*
* ^i^r
"*?
a function
(x
v z\'
v ' yj
with each point
associates
x, y,
space a definite
z in
The function may be broken up
vector.
is
into its three
com
ponents
(x, y, z)
Examples
F!
(x,
y,z)i+
(as,
y, z)
of vector functions are very
VF has
Already the function
space
F2
(x, y, z) k.
numerous in physics.
At
occurred.
V F has in general a definite
+ F3
each point of
vector value.
In mechan
each point of the body is a
vector function of the position of the point. Fluxes of heat,
ics of rigid bodies the velocity of
electricity,
vector functions
fluids, etc., are all
magnetic force,
of position in space.
The
tion
Let
= V
(x, y, z), i
and
a
(a.V)V
(
may
al
V=
04
(aV)
a.V)V
+ F2
Then
and
scalar operator a
be applied to a vector func
to yield another vector function.
(a,
2 j
Qx
i
(a
F3
y,z)j+
a3
9
3y
V)
(as,
y, z)
k.
l~
5
a 3T
o
F2 j +( a .V)F3
9V
(31)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
150
This
may be
written in the f oral
Hence (a V)
function
the directional derivative of the vector
is
in the direction
without parentheses.
when
appliod to
= a VV
For the meaning of the vector symbol
yp.pt.nr fn notion V has not yet been
ft
Hence from the present standpoint the expression
have but the one interpretation given to it by
dctiiu'd.
V) V
(a
It is possible to write
a.
VV can
(a.V)
70.]
V.
Although the operation
V V has
not been defined and
cannot be at present, 1 two formal combinations of the vector
and a vector function V may be treated. These
operator
and the (formal) vector prod
are the (formal) scalar product
uct of
into V.
They are
and
VxV =
V V is read del dot V;
The
differentiators
by the dot and the
+j
and
+
x
500

=lx
That
< 32 >
xV
(33 )
V, del cross V.
cross.
being scalar operators, pass
is
+J x
+k
x.
These may be expressed in terms of the
components
of V.
1
definition of
AV
will
be given
in
Chapter
VTL
(33)'
Vv Vv Vz
T^^ DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Now.
PV_3F
= ^^
9x 9x
3V
_
3F,i
3F2
1i
3F3v
.
,
9x
9x
i
3F9
i
3F2 V
9y
3y
3V
151
i
J 
(34)
9z
K*j
3V_3Fj
Then
c) ZC
Q) tC
3V
Hence
v.v =
^ ^
+
+ ^^
Moreover
3V = i 3F23 k
r.
3V = 3FJ _.
3s
3s
3s
Hence
\
This
may
3a;
3y J
be written in the form of a determinant
Vx V =
9 y
3s
999
i
(33)'"
C*K
VECTOR ANALYSIS
152
be applied to
the
determinant.
expanding
to
It is to be understood that the operators are
Vv Vv Vz when
the functions
forward
standpoints objections may be brought
V
as a symbolic vector and introducing
against treating
and
scalar
vector
the
as
x V respectively
and
symbolic
These objections may be avoided by
into V.
of
products
and
definition that the symbols
simply laying down the
new
as
looked
be
operators
entirely
upon
x, which may
From some
shall be
quite distinct from V,
= ix
But
for practical purposes
seems by
all
+k
+ jx
and
means advisable
9x
for
^
71.]
(33)'
remembering formulae
it
to regard
"
9z
Qy
This symbol obeys the
as a symbolic vector differentiator.
same laws as a vector
x.
just in so far as the differentiators
obey the same laws as ordinary scalar quantities.
That the two functions
V V
and
x V have very
important physical meanings in connection with the vector
function V may be easily recognized.
By the straight
forward proof indicated in Art. 63
operator
V is
it
was seen that the
independent of the choice of axes.
fact the inference is
immediate that
intrinsic properties of
From
this
V V and V x V represent
invariant of choice of axes.
In order
to perceive these
properties it is convenient to attribute to the
function
some
meaning such as flux or
Let therefore the vector V denote
definite physical
flow of a fluid substance.
153
at each point of space the direction
flow of some fluid.
This
may
and the magnitude of the
be a material fluid as water
or gas, or a fictitious one as heat or electricity.
To obtain as
clearness
as
possible let the fluid be material but not
great
necessarily restricted to incompressibility like water.
v.V =
Then
is
dx
called the divergence of
dz
9y
and
is
often written
VV=div V.
The reason
VV gives at each
term is that
volume per unit time
for this
rate per unit
at
which
point the
fluid is leaving
the rate of diminution of density. To prove
that point
this consider a small cube of matter (Fig. 31).
Let the edges
of the cube be dx, dy, and dz respectively.
Let
V O,
y, z)
=V
(x, y, z) i
V^
(x, y, z)
+ Vz (x, y
z) k.
Consider the amount of fluid which passes through those
faces of the cube which are parallel to the F^plane, i. e.
perpendicular to the
axis.
The normal to the
face
whose x coordinate
the lesser, that
mal
is,
is
the nor
to the lefthand face
of the cube
is
i.
The
i
d.y
flux
of substance through this
face
is
i
(x, y, z)
face,
31
the face whose
x coordinate
through
dz.
to the oppo z
The normal
site
dy
greater by the
therefore
is
it is
amount dx,
is
+ i and
the flux
VECTOR ANALYSIS
154
[3V
V(x,y,z)
= i V (x, y, z)
dy dz
#V dx
<y
The
faces
is
total
is
dy
"I
dx\ dydz
dz.
<X/
outward from the cube through these two
sum of these quantities. This
flux
therefore the algebraic
simply
i
dx dy dz
dx
^
ox
dx dy
dz.
In like manner the fluxes through the other pairs of faces of
the cube are
V 7
,
,
3
j 1.3V ,
k = dx dy dz.
i .
dx dy dz and
&Z
&y
The
total flux
out from the cube
3V
/.
i
Tdx
This
is
3V
o~
9y
is
3V
the net quantity of fluid
unit time.
The quotient
therefore
of this
dx d
dz
which leaves the cube per
by the volume dx dy dz of
the cube gives the rate of diminution of density.
V.V=i.
3V
c/a;
3Vdy
3V =
dz
3F,
i
ax
This
is
3F3
3F
+ __2^ + az*.
ay
Because
V thus represents the diminution of density
or the rate at which matter is leaving a point per unit volume
per unit time, it is called the divergence. Maxwell employed
the term convergence to denote the rate at which fluid approaches a point per unit volume per unit time. This is the
negative of the divergence. In case the fluid is incompressible,
as much matter must leave the cube as enters it. The total
change of contents must therefore be
zero.
For
this reason
the characteristic differential equation which
any incompressible fluid
must
satisfy is
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
where
known
as the hydrodynamic equation.
is
This equation
the flux of the fluid.
flow of water, since water
is
is
It is satisfied
155
often
by any
The
practically incompressible.
great importance of the equation for work in electricity is due
to the fact that according to Maxwell's hypothesis electric dis
placement obeys the same laws as an incompressible
then D be the electric displacement,
div
If
= V D = 0.
To
the operator
x Maxwell gave the
This nomenclature has become widely accepted.
72.]
fluid.
name
curl.
V x V = curl V.
The
curl of a vector function
As
of position in space.
the
is itself
name
a vector function
indicates, it is closely
connected with the angular velocity or spin of the flux at
each point. But the interpretation of the curl is neither so
easily obtained nor so simple as that of the divergence.
Consider as before that V represents the flux of a fluid.
Take
an infinitesimal sphere about any
the next instant what has become of the
at a definite instant
At
point (#, y, z).
sphere ? In the first place it may have moved off as a whole
in a certain direction by an amount d r. In other words it
may have a translational velocity of di/dt. In addition to
this it may have undergone such a deformation that it is no
longer a sphere. It may have been subjected to a strain by
virtue of which
Finally
it
may
axis through
it
becomes slightly
have been rotated
an angle dw.
That
jis_
is
in shape.
a whole about some
ellipsoidal
to say, it
may have an
An
angular velocity the magnitude of which is dw/dt.
infinitesimal sphere therefore may have any one of three
distinct types of
motion or
all of
translation with definite velocity.
definite rates of elongation
them combined.
Firsjb,
Second, a strain with three
along the axes of an
ellipsoid.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
156
Th0d, an angular velocity about a definite axis. It is this
which is given by the curl. In fact,
is a vector which has at each point of
third type of motion
the curl of the flux V
space the direction of the instantaneous axis of rotation at
that point and a magnitude equal to twice the instantaneous
angular velocity about that axis.
analytic discussion of the motion of a fluid presents
than it is necessary to introduce in treating
The motion of a rigid body is sufficiently complex
the curl.
The
more
difficulties
was seen (Art.
51) that the velocity of the particles of a rigid body at any
instant is given by the formula
to give
an adequate idea of the operation.
=v +a x
curl v = Vxv = Vxv + Vx
a = a i + a2 j + 3 k
v
Let
product of
x (a x r) formally
V, a, and r. Then
V
is
x v
=V
x v
is
as if it
(axr).
+ (V
r) a
were the vector
 (V
Hence the term
a constant vector.
v
As a
r.
expand
It
=_dx
^
a constant vector
dx
it
of the differential operator,
1
9y
dy
\
may be
a)
x v
triple
r.
vanishes.
dz_
= 6.
dz
placed upon the other side
=a
V.
f\
l^+ 2^+"3^
(r\
Hence
Vxv = 3a
= 2a.
Therefore in the case of the motion of a rigid body the curl
of the linear velocity at
any point is equal to twice the
angular velocity in magnitude and in direction.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
157
V x v = curl v = 2
a =
gVxv = 2 curl v.
a,
=v +
(V x
v) x r
= Vo +
\ (curl
v)
r.
(34)
The expansion of V X (a x r) formally may be avoided by
multiplying a x r out and then applying the operator V X to
the result.
73.]
tion
It frequently happens, as in the case of the applica
just cited, that the operators
V>V*>
V x,
have to be
applied to combinations of scalar functions, vector functions,
or both. The following rules of operation will be found
useful.
Let w, v be scalar functions and u, v vector functions of position in space.
Then
+ v) = Vu + Vv
(35)
=
V.u
V.v
+
V.(u + v)
(36)
=
Vxu
Vxv
+
Vx(u + v)
(37)
=
v
V
u
u
V
v
V (u v)
+
(38)
=
V.(wv) Vwv + wVv
(39)
B
Vx ( v) V * x .?'+ V X ?
(40)
=
v.
Vn + u Vv
V(uv)
(41)
+ v x (V x u) + n x (V x v) 1
(u
'
V(uxv)=v.Vxu u.Vxv
V
X (u x v)
A word
is
= v. Vu
vVu
n.
Vv +
(42)
uV.v. 1
(43)
necessary upon the matter of the interpretation
of such expressions as
Vwv,
The
rule followed in this
to the nearest term only.
1
By
book
That
Art. 69 the expressions v
V) v
'Vu X
Vw.v,
is
v.
that the operator
V applies
is,
an(i
V v are
be interpreted as
VECTOR ANALYSIS
158
V u v (V u~) v
V u v = (V u) v
V u x v = ( V u) x v.
If
it,
to be applied to
is
more than the one term which follows
the terms to which
it is applied are enclosed in a parenside of the above equations.
the
lefthand
upon
the
formulae
of
may be given most naturally
proofs
thesis as
The
by expanding the expressions in terms of three assumed unit
The sign 2 of summation will be found coni, j, k.
vectors
venient.
By means
of it the operators
V*
Ax
take the
form
The summation extends over
To demonstrate
Vx
#, y, z.
wv
2.
Hence
Vx(wv
To demonstrate
(u
v)
=v Vu +
.
u.
Vv + v
x (V x u)
u x
(V x
v).
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
159
'
Pa
9 x)
Now
5u
v*
2v.^
2v ^
*
or
Pu
v
= vx(Vxu) + 2v..
In like manner
^n
^
Bx
x (V x u)
v Vu.
= ux (V xv) + uVv.
V(nv) =
Hence
+
The
=v
>
v x
(V x
+ u x (V x v).
u)
other formulae are demonstrated in a similar manner.
71]
The notation 1
V(n.v) u
(44)
will be used to denote that in applying the operator
product (u
That
is,
v),
is
to be regarded as constant.
carried out only partially upon
In general if
is to be carried out
the operation
the product (u
partially
the quantity
V to the
is
v).
upon any number
of functions
which occur
after
a parenthesis, those functions which are constant for the
differentiations are written after the parenthesis as subscripts.
it in
Let
= MJ +
i
w2j
+ w 3 k,
This idea and notation of a partial
so to speak may be avoided by means
But a certain amount of compactness and simplicity is
u ' v)n ' s surely no more complicated than u
v or
(
thereby. The idea of
of the formula 41.
lost
X (V X
u).
VECTOR ANALYSIS
160
=U
M.V
then
VI
+ u 2 v% + u s v 3
f\
and
(u
v)
0*i v i
+ u* v* +
But
and
<:t
Hence
V(u
= v Vw +
v)
and
Vw +
2
(44)'
y
Hence
v2
Vv 1 + w a Vi? a + M 8 V l
V(u.v) v = Vw + v 2 Vw 2 + v 3 V^ 3
V (u v) = V (u v) n + V (u v) v
V(tt.) m =
But
(45)
This formula corresponds to the following one in the notation of differentials
d (u v)
d (u
or
= d (u
v) = u
v) n
dv
+ d (u v) T
+ d u v.
The formulae (35)(43) given above (Art. 73) may be
written in the following manner, as is obvious from analogy
with the corresponding formulae in differentials
:
V (M +
V
Vx
(u
(n
v)
v)
= V (u + v~) u + V (u +
= V. (u + v) u + V. (u +
+ v) = V
x (u + v) u
+Vx
(u
).
( 35 )'
v) y
(36)'
v) v
(37)'
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
161
V O v) = V (u v\ + V (u v).
(38)'
V.(wv)= V.(wv) + V(wv) v
(39)'
V x (u v) = V x (u v) + V x (w v) v
V (u. v) = V (u. v) u + V (u. v) y
V (u x v) = V (u x v) + V (n x v) v
V x (u x v) = V x (u x v) u + V x (u x v) v
(40)'
tt
(41)'
'
(42)'
(43)'
This notation
scalar product
In almost
formally.
where
it
Take
Vx
(u
it
can be done away without
for instance (43)'.
v) u
= (V
which occur in V.
may
v) u
is
Then
Expand V
(V
(u
v) u
term the
Hence
n.
Vv + uV
v.
There are a number of important relations in which
V (u
v) u figures.
(Vx v) = V(n.v) n uVv,
V (u.v) u = u. Vv + u x (V x v),
u V v = V (u v) u + (V x v) x n.
u x
or
loss of
v,
in the last
be placed before the sign V.
the partial operation
or
u)
constant for the differ
V x (u x v) u =
In like manner V x (n x v) v = v V u
Hence
Vx(uxv)=vVu v V u
75.]
was introduced.
for this reason it
must be understood that n
entiations
factor u
and
other cases
all
simplicity.
particularly useful in the case of the
is
uv
(46)
(46)'
(46)"
The proof of this relation may be given by expanding in
terms of i, j, k.
method of remembering the result easily
is
as follows.
Expand
the product
u x
(V x
11
v)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
162
formally as
if
V,
u,
v were
all real vectors.
ux(Vxv) = uvV
Then
V v.
The second term is capable of interpretation as it stands.
The first term, however, is not. The operator V has nothing
upon which to operate. It therefore must be transposed so
But u being outside
that it shall have u v as an operand.
constant
for the differenis
in
u
x
x
of the parenthesis
(V v)
Hence
tiations.
V = V (n v) n
 u V v.
v) = V (u v) u
u.v
u x
and
If
(V x
u be a unit vector, say
a
a,
V v = V (a
(46)
the formula
v) a
+ (V x
v) x a
(47)
v of a
expresses the fact that the directional derivative a
vector function v in the direction a is equal to the derivative
of the projection of the vector v in that direction plus the
vector product of the curl of v into the direction a.
Consider the values of v at two neighboring points.
and
v (x
dv
= v (x +
Let
But by
=v
= dv
dy,
d y,
z
v (,
+ d v z j + d V B k.
v2
dv
= V (d r
=dr Vv
.
y, z).
v3 k
dv = dr. (V v t i + Vt> 2 j +
dv
d z)
dz)
= drVv
dv z = dr Vfl 2
dv 3 = dr Vv 8
Hence
(46)"
dv 1
(25)'
Hence
d #, y
dx, y
dv
By
(a, y, z)
v) dr
Vv
k).
+ (V x
v) x d r.
(48)
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Or
if
v denote the value of v at the point (#,
y, z)
163
and v the
value at a neighboring point
= v + V (d r
v) at
+ (V x
This expression of v in terms of
its
and the displacement d
r is
the
dels,
v)
dr.
(49)
value v at a given point,
analogous to the expan
sion of a scalar functor of one variable by Taylor's theorem,
/ (a) =/(*o) +/'()<* *The
That
derivative of (r
is
V (r
For
v) v
VV
v
v)
when
if
9x
Vr = v
V 2*
v2 j
T~+
9
y
+
is
r)
equal to v.
v,
V dB 0~
^3 k
9z
= v,
= 0.
v) v = v.
instead of the finite vector
vector d r be substituted, the result
V (d r
By
constant
999
V 1l TT
V (r
In like manner
is
V (r v) v = v.
= v V r  (V
V
Hence
v) v
r,
an infinitesimal
still is
= v.
= v + V(dr.v) dr + (V x v) x rfr
V(drv) = V(rfr.v) d + V^rvV
V (d r v) dr = V (d r v) v.
(47)
>
Hence
Substituting
v=4v + ^V(rfr.v) + !(Vxv)xdr.
(50)
This gives another form of (49) which is sometimes more
convenient It is also slightly more symmetrical.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
164
*
Consider a moving
76.]
Let v
fluid.
(#,
yt
at the point (#, y, z) at the
velocity of the fluid
round a
(z , y^ z ) with a small sphere.
z,
f)
time
t.
be the
Sur
point
dr d
At each
=v +
In the increment of time 8
V v.
the points of this sphere will have
dr
V v) 8
point at the center will have
The
the distance
8t.
distance between the center
interval 8
1.
moved
and the points that were
upon the sphere of radius d r at the
To
is
the distance
(v
The
point of this sphere the velocity
moved
= c2
commencement
has become at the end of that interval 8
find the locus of the extremity of
d r'
it is
of the
necessary to
eliminate d r from the equations
dr'
The
first
equation
= dr + dr Vv
c 2 = d i d r.
may
St,
be solved for d r by the method of
Art. 47, page 90, and the solution substituted into the second.
The
result will
show that the
infinitesimal sphere
has been transformed into an
ellipsoid by the motion of the
fluid during the time 8 1.
A
may
more
account of the change that has taken place
be obtained by
making use of equation (50)
definite
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
165
or of the equation (49)
v
v
= v + V(dr.v) dr +(Vx v)x
dr,
=v +
[V(dr.v) dr +(Vxv)x dr]+(Vx v)xdr.
The
first
term v in these equations expresses the fact that
is moving as a whole with an instan
the infinitesimal sphere
taneous velocity equal to v
This
of the motion.
The last term
.
is
the translational element
(Vxv)xdr = ^ curl v x
shows that the sphere
dr
undergoing a rotation about an
is
instantaneous axis in the direction of curl v and with an angular velocity equal in magnitude to one half the magnitude of
curl
v.
or
The middle term
V(dr.v)
rfr
(Vx v) x dr
expresses the fact that the sphere is undergoing a deformation known as homogeneous strain by virtue of which it
becomes
ellipsoidal.
dx
For
this
term
V v + dy Vv
1
is
2 f
equal to
dz
3,
v v vv vs be respectively the components of v in the directions i, j, k.
It is fairly obvious that at any given point
z
a
of three mutually perpendicular axes i, j, k
set
(#< yi o)
if
may
be chosen such that at that point Vvj,
Vv2 Vv3
,
are re
VECTOR ANALYSIS
166
Then
to them.
spectively parallel
the
expression above
becomes simply
The point whose coordinates
referred to the center of the
infinitesimal sphere are
d x,
dy,
dz
will
endowed with this, velocity.
have moved to a new position
The
totality of the points
is
therefore
In the time 8
it
upon the sphere
2
the ellipsoid of
goes over into the totality of points upon
is
which the equation
~2
/2
The statements made before (Art. 72) concerning the three
types of motion which an infinitesimal sphere of fluid may
possess have therefore
now been
The symbolic operator
demonstrated.
V may be
applied several times
succession.
This will correspond in a general way to
forming derivatives of an order higher than the first. The
77.]
in
will all be independexpressions found by thus repeating
ent of the axes because
itself is.
There are six of these
dels of the second order.
Let
The
(x, y, z)
derivative
be a scalar function of position in space.
is a vector function and hence has a curl
VV
and a divergence.
Therefore
V.VF,
VxVF
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
are the
two derivatives
of the second order
167
which may be
obtained from V.
V.VF=divVF
VxVF=curlVF.
The second expression V x V V vanishes identically.
the derivative of
any
V possesses no
V V in terms of
scalar function
be seen by expanding
x
the terms cancel out. Later (Art. 83)
may
it
will be
if
a vector function
(52)
That
curl.
i, j,
k.
is,
This
All
shown con
W possesses ho curl,
V x W= curl W = then W = VF,
versely that
(51)
i. e. if
0,
is
the derivative of some scalar function F.
The
i, j,
first
Symbolically,
The
V VF
expression
when expanded
in terms of
k becomes
operator
Laplace.
V V=
V V is
C/
C/
Cf
therefore the wellknown operator of
Laplace's Equation
=
c/
ic~
ci
y~
& z
(53)
becomes in the notation here employed
V.VF=0.
(53)'
V V
When applied to a scalar function F the operator
yields
a scalar function which is, moreover, the divergence of the
derivative.
Let
flow f
is
be the temperature in a body. Let c be the conThe
ductivity, p the density, and k the specific heat.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
168
The
rate at
unit time
is
which heat
f.
is
leaving a point per unit volume per
The increment
of temperature is
=.
p K
=,vvr.
pk
dt
This
is
Fourier's equation for the rate of change of tempera
ture.
Let
ponents.
Tv Vv V its three comof
V
V
Laplace may be applied to V.
operator
be a vector function, and
The
(54)
a vector function
Laplace's Equation, each of
its three scalar components does.
Other dels of the second
order may be obtained by considering the divergence and curl
If
V V has a derivative
VV.V = VdivV.
The divergence
of V.
The
curl
(55)
V X V has in turn a divergence and a curl,
VVxV, VxVxV.
V V x V = div curl V
V x V x V = curl curl V.
and
and
Of
satisfies
these expressions
V VxV
vanishes identically.
(56)
(57)
That
is,
the divergence of the curl of any vector is zero. This may be
seen by expanding
x V in terms of i, j, k. Later (Art.
V V
it
will be
shown conversely that
83)
vector function
if
the divergence of a
W vanishes identically,
V W = div W = then .W = V x V = curl V,
i. e. if
0,
is
the curl of
some vector function V.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
If the expression
169
x (V x V) were expanded formally
according to the law of the triple vector product,
Vx(VxV)=VVVV.VV.
The terms
V VV
is
the beginning so that
V be
meaningless until
it
transposed to
operates upon V.
VxVxV = VV.VVVV,
curl curl V = VdivV
or
(58)
V V V.
(58)'
This formula is very important. It expresses the curl of the
curl of a vector in terms of the derivative of the divergence
and the operator of Laplace.
Should the vector function
satisfy Laplace's Equation,
VVV = Oand
V=V
curl curl
Should the divergence of
curl curl
div V.
be zero,
V=
Should the curl of the curl of
V VV.
vanish,
V div V = V V V.
To sum
There are six of the
up.
dels of the
VVF, VxVF,
VVV, VVV, VVxV,
Of
these,
two vanish
second order.
VxVxV.
identically.
VV=
0,
V V
x V
0.
A third may be expressed in terms of two others.
VxVxV = VV.VV.VV.
The
operator
V V is equivalent to the
(58)
operator of Laplace.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
170
*
The geometric
78.]
interpretation of
V Vw is interesting.
upon a geometric interpretation of the second
u of the one scalar variable x.
Let it be required
at
the
u
Let u i be the value of
point x
to find the second derivative of u with respect to x at the
Let x l and x2 be two points equidistant from x
point x
It depends
derivative of a scalar function
That
is,
let
=x
= a.
Then
the ratio of the difference between the average of u at the
points x1 and x2 and the value of u at x to the square of the
is
distance of the points xv x2 from x
dja u
LiM
a==0
That
a*
easily proved by Taylor's theorem.
Let u be a scalar function of position in space. Choose
three mutually orthogonal lines i, j, k and evaluate the
is
expressions
Let
x
and x 1 be two points on the line i at a distance a from
4 and xs two points on j at the same distance a from
xt and #6 two points on k at the same distance a from x
o!
a;
Lai
_ LlM
a=0
_J
',
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
171
Add:
2
LDI r
a=OL
As V and V
are independent of the particular axes chosen,
this expression
then for
still
may
be evaluated for a different set of axes,
a different one,
these results
ii>\
w= a =
Let n become
infinite
and
etc.
By
+ w2 +
at the
adding together
all
n terms
same time
let the different
from x
sets of axes point in every direction issuing
The
fraction
u 1 + u2 +
'
Qn
terms
6n
then approaches the average value of u upon the surface of a
Denote this
sphere of radius a surrounding the point x
.
by
V V u is equal to six times the
of the excess of
u on the
limit approached
by the
ratio
surface of a sphere above the value
at the center to the square of the radius of the sphere.
The
same reasoning held in case u is a vector function.
If u be the temperature of a body
(except for a
constant factor which depends upon the material of the
VVw
VECTOR ANALYSIS
172
body)
is
77).
If
equal to the rate of increase of temperature (Art.
positive the average temperature upon a
VVwis
small sphere is greater than the temperature at the center.
The center of the sphere is growing warmer. In the case
of a steady flow the temperature at the center
constant.
flow
must remain
condition for a steady
the
Evidently therefore
is
V V u = 0.
That
the temperature is a solution of Laplace's Equation.
u whether
Maxwell gave the name concentration to
is,
u be a
scalar or vector function.
V V
Consequently V V u may
be called the dispersion of the function u whether it be scalar
or vector.
The dispersion is proportional to the excess of
the average value of the function on an infinitesimal surface
In case u
above the value at the center.
The
the average is a vector average.
vector additions.
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
If a vector r is a function of a scalar
r with respect to
is
a vector function
additions in
it
are
III
t
the derivative of
a vector quantity whose direction is
that of the tangent to the curve described
by the terminus
of r
is
and whose magnitude
is
equal to the rate of advance of
that terminus along the curve
per unit change of t. The
derivatives of the components of a vector are the
components
of the derivatives.
n
d r2
d^r_d r
TT~~dl** ~Tr J +
l
d n rz
Tr
f
*
combination of vectors or of vectors and scalars
may
be
differentiated just as in
ordinary scalar analysis except that
the differentiations must be
performed in situ.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
d
db
+ .._,
_(..),_.
d
da
d (a
or
b)
=da
(S)
db
b,
(3)'
d(axb) = daxb + axdb,
and so
forth.
The
173
(4)'
differential of a unit vector is perpendicu
lar to that vector.
The
derivative of a vector r with respect to the arc s of
the curve which the terminus of the vector describes
is
the unit tangent to the curves directed toward that part of the
curve along which
s is
supposed to increase.
*
<>
The
derivative of t with respect to the arc a is a vector whose
direction is normal to the curve on the concave side and
whose magnitude
is
equal to the curvature of the curve.
dt
C
d*r
d~s~d^'
The
tortuosity of a curve in space is the derivative of the
unit normal n to the osculating plane with respect to the
arc
s.
^
= ^r =
x
as
d s* v
ds\ds ^_i.
The magnitude
).
C/
(ii)
of the tortuosity is
,
cL
j4
341
cL s
d s
70
/T
ff
(.to
7
/"/
(*
oC
(13)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
174
If r
denote the position of a moving particle,
v the velocity,
the time,
the acceleration,
'*
< 15>
==*
< 16>
dv
d2
be broken up into two components of
which one is parallel to the tangent and depends upon the
rate of change of the scalar velocity v of the particle in its
The
acceleration
path,
and
of
may
which the other
is
perpendicular to the tangent
and depends upon the velocity of the particle and the curvature of the path.
A s t + v z C.
(19)
Applications to the hodograph, in particular motion in a
circle, parabola, or under a central acceleration.
Application
to the proof of the theorem that the motion of a rigid body
one point of which is fixed is an instantaneous rotation about
an axis through the fixed point.
Integration with respect to a scalar
of differentiation.
is
merely the inverse
due to
Application to finding the paths
given accelerations.
The operator
applied to a scalar function of position in
space gives a vector whose direction is that of most rapid
increase of that function and whose
magnitude is equal to
the rate of that increase per unit
change of position in that
direction
< 22 >
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
is invariant of the axes
The operator
defined by the equation
i,
j,
k.
may be
(24)
VV.dr = dV.
or
It
175
(25)'
Computation of the derivative V V by two methods depending upon equations (21) and (25)'. Illustration of the occurrence of
may
V in mathematical physics.
be looked upon as a fictitious vector, a vector
It obeys the formal laws of vectors just in
differentiator.
so far as the scalar differentiators of 9/ 9
9 / 5 y, 9[ dz obey
#,
the formal laws of scalar quantities
If a
be a unit vector a
VV
is
the directional derivative of
in the direction a.
If
a.VF=(aV) F= a (VF).
V a vector function a V V is the directional
is
(30)
derivative
of that vector function in the direction a.
d x
=ix
+ J.
d X
+ *.
9 y
+ jx
(32)'
9 z
kx,
d
Z
(33)'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
176
Proof that
V V is
of V.
the divergence of
V x V, the curl
and
V V = div V,
V x V = curl V.
V (w 4 v) = V u + V0,
(35)
V (u + v) = V. u + V v,
V x (u + v) = V x u + V x v,
v V u + w V v,
V (u
V (w v) = V w v + u V v,
Vx(wv) = Vwxv + wVxv,
(36)
(37)
(38)
v~)
(39)
(40)
V(u.v)=vVu + iiVv + vx (Vxu)
+ ux (Vxv),
 u.Vxv,
V un Vv + uV
V(uxv)=vVxn
Vx (u x v)=vVu
Introduction of the partial
ferentiations are
del,
V (u
v) n
in
(41)
(42)
v.
(43)
which the
dif
performed upon the hypothesis that u
is
constant.
nx (Vxv)=V(u
If a
nVv.
(46)
be a unit vector the directional derivative
a
The expansion
of a point
or
v) u
(a;,,,
Vv=V
(a
v) a
+ (V x
v)
a.
(47)
any vector function v in the neighborhood
y# ) at which it takes on the value of v is
of
=v +V
v)
= v + V(^r.v)+^(Vxv)
(d r
v) dr
+ (V x
rfr,
(49)
dt.
(50)
Application to hydrodynamics.
The dels of the second order are six in number.
THE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
VxVF=curlVF=0,
T 2 F"
V V
is
The
place's Equation.
operator
VV
V=
3 2 F"
l^
(51)
V^VF=0, V satisfies
If
Laplace's operator.
(52)
)2V
V.vrdivVFf^+f^
may be
V div V,
(55)
(7,
interpretation of
La
applied to a vector.
V V x V = div curl V =
V x V x V = curl curl V = VV.VV.VV.
The geometric
177
V V as giving
(56)
(58)
the disper
sion of a function.
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER III
1.
Given a
particle
moving
in a plane curve.
Let the
plane be the ijplane. Obtain the formulae for the components of the velocity parallel and perpendicular to the radius
vector r. These are
r,
6 k
r,
where 6 is the angle the radius vector
is the normal to the plane.
makes with
i,
and k
Obtain the accelerations of the particle parallel and
perpendicular to the radius vector. These are
2.
(r_r0 2),
r
(r
0+
2r 0) k Xr
Express these formulae in the usual manner in terms of x
and
y.
12
VECTOR ANALYSIS
178
Obtain the accelerations of a moving particle parallel
and perpendicular to the tangent to the path and reduce the
3.
results to the usual form.
If r, <, 6 be a
4.
where r
system of polar coordinates in space,
the distance of a point from the origin, <f> the
is
meridianal angle, and 6 the polar angle ; obtain the expressions
for the components of the velocity and acceleration along the
radius vector, a meridian, and a parallel of latitude. Reduce
these expressions to the ordinary
5.
Show
By
is
V of a triple product
a function of
a =
where
7.
8.
d,
*e,
a;,
(r
f are
#, z in
case
r) r,
in Art. 63 that the
(r
for
computing
find
[a b c] each term of which
a)
e,
=r
t,
constant vectors.
Compute
V V Fwhen
Compute
equal to r and
z.
axes.
method given
the second
the derivative
in terms of #, y,
method suggested
the direct
operator V is independent of the
6.
form
VV
VV,
when
V is
Fis r 2
.
V,
and
r,
,
or
r2
V x V x V when V
is
and show that in these
equal to ?
r3
cases the formula (58) holds.
VF
and V V x
Expand V x
show that they vanish (Art. 77).
9.
10.
Show by expanding
in terms of
in terms of
i, j,
i, j,
k that
Vx VxV=VV.VV. VV.
11.
Prove
A.V(VW) = VA. VW+WA VV,
and
(VxV)
W = Vx
(Vx W) w
k and
CHAPTER IV
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
79.]
Let
space.
Let
C be any
(z, y, z)
be a vector function of position in
curve in space, and r the radius vector
drawn from some fixed
origin to the points of the curve.
Divide the curve into infinitesimal elements dr. From the
sum
of the scalar product of these elements
of the function
at
thus
The
in
limit of this
d r and the value
some point of the element
sum when
d r.
the elements dr become infinite
number, each approaching zero, is called the
and is written
along the curve

line integral of
dr.
If
and
dr=
fw
c
J
The
C
Jo
(1)
definition of the line integral therefore coincides
with
the definition usually given.
It is however necessary to
in
which
radius
direction
the
vector r is supposed to
specify
describe the curve during the integration.
d r have opposite signs when the curve
is
For the elements
described in oppo
VECTOR ANALYSIS
180
C and
one method of description be denoted by
If
site directions.
the other by
(7,
/W 'dr =
JI o
o
W*
dr.
In case the curve C is a closed curve bounding a portion of
surface the curve will always be regarded as described in
such a direction that the enclosed area appears positive
(Art. 25).
denote the force which
If f
may
point to point along the curve
when
r
its
point of application
of the curve
C to
work done by the force
moved from the initial point
(7,
is
be supposed to vary from
the
point r
its final
is
Cf.dr = Ff.
Jr
JO
Theorem
The
scalar function
line integral of
F(z,
y,
the line integral
dr.
the derivative
z)
r to the point r is
equal to the difference
of the function
That
V"(#,
y, z) at
F(r)
r*
dV= F(r) 
F(r.)
y,
V
yw
O
V F= d V
F(a,y,)
The
of the
line integral
F(* ,y
,<).
derivative
single valued scalar function of position
closed curve vanishes.
(2)
V F of
taken around a
The
is
r
o
Theorem,
ifi^
between the values
the point r and at the point r
 F(r ) = F(*
dr.
definition
is,
=
By
V V of
along any curve from the point
fact that the
integral is taken around a closed curve
denoted by writing a circle at the foot of the
integral sign.
To show
r
= 0.
(3)
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
The
initial
point r and the final point r coincide.
F(r)
= F(r ).
Jo
if
Conversely
closed curve vanishes,
function
Hence
Hence by (2)
Theorem :
181
F (x, y, z)
the line integral of
about every
is the derivative of some scalar
of position in space.
Given
*/
= 0.
dr
W = V F.
To show
be any fixed point in space and r a variable point.
Let
The
line integral
f Wrfr
o
independent of the path of integration
paths G and G' be drawn between r and
is
consists of the path
G from
to r is a closed curve.
to r
For
G.
r.
let
any two
The curve which
and the path
G' from r
Hence by hypothesis
/F
v
G'
*J c'
G'
Hence
iw*dr = fwdr.
c'
Hence the value of the integral is independent of the path
of integration and depends only upon the final point r.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
182
The value of the integral
the position of the point r
is
dr
f.
therefore a scalar function of
whose coordinates are
a:,
y,
z.
= V O, y, 2).
Let the integral be taken between two points infinitely near
together.
But by
V V* d r = d V.
definition
Hence
The theorem
80.]
Let
is
therefore demonstrated.
be the force which acts upon a unit mass near
under the influence of gravity.
the surface of the earth
a system of axes
k be chosen so that k
i, j,
The work done by
the force
moves from the position
fdr =
its
Let
Then
point of application
r to the position r is
Jf r
w =  g (z
Hence
when
vertical.
is
gkdr =
z )
= g (ZQ
f g dz.
/ r
z).
The force f is said to be derivable from a forcefunction V
when there exists a scalar function of position V such that
the force
Evidently
is
equal at each
F is one
to V any
if
point of the derivative VF".
may be obtained
forcefunction, another
by adding
arbitrary constant.
the
forcefunction
is
ample
V=w=g(z
Or more simply
The force is
V
f
e).
z.
= VF= 
k.
In the above ex
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
The necessary and
V (x, y, z) exist, is
point of application
sufficient condition that a forcefunction
work done by the force when
moves around a closed circuit be zero.
that the
The work done by
the force
w=
If this
f'di.
if
the integral vanishes. The forcefunction and the
differ only by a constant.
V= w +
In case there
is
work done by
closed circuit
friction
friction
is
closed
= VF==VM;
f = VV
conversely
its
is
when taken around every
integral vanishes
contour
And
183
const.
no forcefunction can
when a
work done
particle is
exist.
For the
moved around
in a
never zero.
upon
by a fixed mass
a unit mass is directed toward the fixed mass and is proportional to the inverse square of the distance between the
The
force of attraction exerted
masses.
f
=  c Ms
r.
This
is
the law of universal gravitation as stated by Newton.
It is easy to see that this force is derivable
function V.
from a force
Choose the origin of coordinates at the center
mass M. Then the work done is
of the attracting
w=
Jro
But
cM C
Jr
dr
M Tdr.
c r
rs
=r
r,
cM
VECTOR ANALYSIS
184
a proper choice of units the constant c may be made
The forcefunction
may therefore be
equal to unity.
By
chosen as
If there had been several attracting bodies
the forcefunction would have been
M v Mv
y __
are the distances of the attracted unit
where r v r 2 r 3
mass from the attracting masses
s
v z
,
M M M
The law of the conservation of mechanical energy requires
work done by the forces when a point is moved
that the
This is on the assumpnone of the mechanical energy has been converted
The law of
into other forms of energy during the motion.
around a closed curve shall be zero.
tion that
conservation of energy therefore requires the forces to be
derivable from a forcefunction.
Conversely if a forcefunction exists the work done by the forces when a point is
carried around a closed curve is zero and consequently there
no loss of energy.
mechanical system for which a forcefunction exists is called a conservative system.
From the
is
example just cited above it is clear that bodies moving under
the law of universal gravitation form a conservative
system
at least so
long as they
81.]
Let
space.
Let
finitesimal
do not
collide.
W (x,
S
y, 2) be any vector function of position in
be any surface. Divide this surface into in
These elements may be regarded as
and
be
plane
may
represented by infinitesimal vectors of
which the direction is at each
the direction of the
elements.
point
normal
to the surface at that
point
tude
equal to the
is
magnitude
and of which the magni
of the area of the infinitesimal
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Let
element.
this infinitesimal vector
185
which represents the
element of surface in magnitude and direction be denoted by
d a.
Form
which
is
sum
the
the
sum
of the scalar products of the value of
each element of surface and the
at
surface.
The
sum when
limit of this
face approach zero
the surface S, and
""
of the integral
W= W
or
(d a
da,
i) i
and d& be excomponents parallel to i, j, k
If
scalar.
is
pressed in terms of their three
da
W over
written
is
//
The value
(vector) element of
the elements of sur
called the surface integral of
is
z j
(d a
j)
z k,
(d a
k)
k,
= dy dz i + dzdx + dxdy k,
j
(5)
The
surface integral therefore has been defined as
is
cus
tomary in ordinary analysis. It is however necessary to
determine with the greatest care which normal to the surface
da
is.
integral
That
is
is,
which
taken over.
side of the surface (so to
speak) the
For the normals upon the two sides
are the negatives of each other.
Hence the
surface integrals
taken over the two sides will differ in sign. In case the
upon as bounding a portion of space d a
considered
to be the exterior normal.
always
If f denote the flux of any substance the surface integral
surface be looked
is
fi
8
VECTOR ANALYSIS
186
which is passing through
gives the amount of that substance
the surface per unit time. It was seen before (Art. 71) that
the rate at which matter was leaving a point per unit
volume per unit time was V f. The total amount of matwhich leaves a closed space bounded by a surface
per
ter
unit time
is
the ordinary triple integral
V*tdv.
Hence the very important
(6)
relation connecting a surface in
tegral of a flux taken over a closed surface
and the volume
integral of the divergence of the flux taken over the space
enclosed by the surface
= fff
(7)
Written out in the notation of the ordinary calculus this
becomes
\f[Xdydz + Tdzdx + Zdxdy]
where X, F, Z are the three components of the flux f
The
theorem is perhaps still more familiar when each of the three
.
components
is
treated separately.
ff X dx d y =
This
is
known
fff *^ dxdy dz.
as Gauss's Theorem.
(8)'
It states that the surface
integral (taken over a closed surface) of the product of a
function
and the cosine of the angle which the exterior
normal to that surface makes with the Xaxis
the
volume integral
is
equal to
of the partial derivative of that function
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
187
with respect to x taken throughout the volume enclosed by
that surface.
If the surface
be the surface bounding an infinitesimal
sphere or cube
CC f.d& = V.f dv
where d v
is
the volume of that sphere or cube.
dv J J
This equation
may be taken
The divergence
f.
(9)
as a definition of the divergence
of a vector function f
equal to the
taken over a suris
by the surface integral of f
an
infinitesimal body divided by that volume
bounding
limit approached
face
Hence
when
the volume approaches zero as
From
this definition
which
its limit.
That
is
evidently independent of the
the properties of the divergence may be deduced. In
order to make use of this definition it is necessary to develop
at least the elements of the integral calculus of vectors before
axes
is
all
the differentiating operators can be treated.
of
is
consequently
than from a practical standpoint.
Theorem
82.]
function
is
The
This definition
interesting more from a
theoretical
surface integral of the curl of a vector
equal to the line integral of that vector function
taken around the closed curve bounding that surface.
Wrfa=
f/Vx
g
/ /
This
is
Cwdr.
*J
(11)
the celebrated theorem of Stokes.
On
account of
its
great importance in all branches of mathematical physics a
number of different proofs will be given.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
188
First Proof
(Fig. 32).
Then by
Consider a small triangle 1 23 upon the surface
at the vertex 1 be
Let the value of
at
(50), Chap. III., the value
W = \\ W
+ V (W
B r)
any neighboring point
+ (V x W) x
8 r
is
where the symbol S r has been introduced for the sake of distinguishing it from d r which is to be used as the element of
integration.
The
integral of
W taken
around the triangle
FIG. 32.
Cwdi=l
t/A
fw
A
f (V x W) x Srdr.
A
*J
Thefirstterm
Cw
\ /
A
.dr
f dr
t/
vanishes because the
integral of d r around a closed figure, in
this case a small
The second term
triangle, is zero.
vanishes by virtue of
(3) page 180.
Hence
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
l
189
f
JA
Interchange the dot and the cross in this triple product
Jfwdr=4
A
When d r
is
/VxW'Srxdr.
/ A
equal to the side 1 2 of the triangle, B r
is
also
Hence the product
equal to this side.
BT x di
vanishes because 8 r and d r are collinear.
when di
is
In like manner
is the same side.7#, but taken
Hence the vector product vanishes.
side 23, S r is a line drawn from the vertex
to this side 23.
Hence the product 8 r x d r
the side 31, Sr
in the opposite direction.
When d r
is
1 at which
W= W
the
twice the area of the triangle.
Hence
positive area 123.
is
2$r x di
This area, moreover,
is
the
= d a,
where d a denotes the positive area of the triangular element
For the infinitesimal triangle therefore the
of surface.
relation
/
I
W*dr = V
JA
d*
holds.
Let the surface
For convenience
S be
let
divided into
elementary triangles.
the curve which bounds the surface
be made up of the sides of these triangles.
Perform the
integration
around each of these triangles and add the results together.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
190
The second member
2^x^
da
8
is
the surface integral of the curl of
W.
In adding together the line integrals which occur in the
first
necessary to notice that all the sides of the elementary triangles except those which lie along the bounding
curve of the surface are traced twice in opposite directions.
member
Hence
it is
all
the terms in the
sum
from those sides of the triangles lying within the
cancel out, leaving in the sum only the terms
which arise from those sides which make up the bounding
which
arise
surface
Hence the sum reduces to the line
along the curve which bounds the surface S.
curve of the surface.
tegral of
Hence
in
= 1 W.dT.
=/w
t/o
Second Proof
Let
C be any closed
contour drawn upon the surface
It will be assumed that
(Fig. 33).
is
continuous and does not cut
S
C
itself.
Let C' be another such contour near
to C.
Consider the variation S which
FIG. 33.
takes place in the line integral of
in passing from the contour C to the
contour
C".
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
c
J C'
/r
W
dr
Hence
dr=
The expression d
The value of the
c
Jc
(W cr)= J
and
dr
c
I oW
J
S r) is
dr.
= d S r.
/WdSr=/d(W8r)
(W
191
by
form a perfect
its
dW *ST.
differential.
integral of that expression will therefore be
d r at the end and at
the difference between the values of
the beginning of the path of integration. In this case the
Hence
integral is taken around the closed contour C.
f*
//
Jc
and
But
dr
r
I
W*di= r SW dr
I
iw di=
d
C\
SWdr
I^W8r,
dW*Sil.
9W d
9W d
dx+
W = 9W
y +
dx
=
z
=
ay
or
r,
W = 9W
dx
=
dr
9W
^
dy
dr
^
<y
^
k d r,
z
^
9 W^
and
9 W^
2,
<y
VECTOR ANALYSIS
192
Substituting these values
/r
iSrWdr=t \^dr
ax
J 3x
+
similar terms in y
and
z.
But by (25) page 111
3
(3
i
W\
x d
dxJ
r)
= 3= W
/C
or
In Fig. 33
3r
3x
and
similar terms in y
it
will be seen that
5r
^
r.
Srxdr
W'di=J jix^
+
dr
3x
the element of arc
is
and S r is the distance from the curve C to
along the curve
the curve C".
Hence S r x d r is equal to the area of an elementary parallelogram included between
That is
C and
C' upon the
surface S.
Br X di
S
= d&,
Cw*dr= TV
Wda.
# starting at a point in $ expand until
coincides with the contour bounding S.
The line integral
Let the curve
fW'di
will vary
from the value o
at the point
IWdr
Jo
to the value
it
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
193
taken around the contour which bounds the surface S.
This
sum
of the
total variation of the integral will
be equal to the
variations 8
Or
Stokes's theorem that the surface integral of the curl
of a vector function is equal to the line integral of the func83.]
tion taken along the closed curve
The converse
has been proved.
integral of a vector function
U is
which bounds the surface
is also true.
equal
If
to the line
integral
function W taken around the curve bounding the
the curl
f fu.rfa = Cw'di, thenTJ=Vx W.
(12)
for
Form
x W.
W)da = f Wdr 
ff
or
of
The
f Wrfr = 0,
the integration
is
performed be
V
W)
da
= 0.
equation holds for any element of surface d
factor vanishes.
Hence
UVx
The converse
W=
0.
U = V x W.
Hence
is
and
integral reduces to merely a single term
(U
this
TT
(UVx W)da = 0.
S over which
Let the surface
infinitesimal.
first
in space, then
the surface integral of the difference between
f C (TJVx
As
all surfaces
That is
if
of the
surface and if
U is
this relation holds
W.
the surface
therefore demonstrated.
13
a,
the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
194
VxW
which
independent of the axes
be obtained by applying Stokes's theorem to an ini, j, k may
Consider a point P. Pass a plane
finitesimal plane area.
definition of
through
area d
P and
draw
in
it,
is
concentric with P, a small circle of
a.
Vx Wda =Jo
f Wdr.
When d a
has the same direction as
line integral will be a
between
maximum,
(13)
W the
value of the
for the cosine of the angle
and d a will be equal
to unity.
For
this
value of da,
r
Jo
Hence the
curl
VxW
of a vector function
W has
at each
point of space the direction of the normal to that plane in
which the line integral of
taken about a small circle conThe magcentric with the point in question is a maximum.
nitude of the curl at the point
is
equal to the magnitude of
that line integral of maximum value divided by the area of
the circle about which it is taken.
This definition like the
one given in Art. 81 for the divergence is interesting more
from theoretical than from practical considerations.
Stokes's theorem or rather its converse
may
be used to de
duce Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field in a
simple manner. Let E be the electric force, B the magnetic
induction, H the magnetic force, and C the flux of electricity
per unit area per unit time (i. e. the current density).
It is a fact learned from experiment that the total electromotive force around a closed circuit is equal to the negative
of the rate of
the circuit.
change of
The
total
magnetic induction through
total electromotive force is the line integral
of the electric force taken
around the
circuit.
That
is
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
The
195
magnetic induction through the circuit is the surB taken over a surface
total
face integral of the magnetic induction
bounded by the
That
circuit.
is
Experiment therefore shows that
/d
E.rfr
or
E*dr=
Jo
Hence by the converse
x E
C C
J J a B.rfa,
I
at
B d a.
JJ a
of Stokes's theorem
curl
B,
B.
experiment that the work done in carrya
unit
positive
ing
magnetic pole around a closed circuit is
to
4?r
total electric flux through the circuit.
times
the
equal
It is also a fact of
The work done
in carrying a unit pole
the line integral of
The
electricity
total
flux
of
around the
around a circuit
circuit.
through the
surface integral of C taken over a surface
circuit.
That
That
circuit
Experiment therefore teaches that
= 4?r
IJ
is
the
bounded by the
is
rH.rfr
is
is
(NcZa.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
196
By
the converse of Stokes's theorem
V
With a proper
H = 4 TT C.
interpretation of the current C, as the dis
placement current in addition to the conduction current,
an interpretation depending upon one of Maxwell's primary
hypotheses, this relation and the preceding one are the fundamental equations of Maxwell's theory, in the form used by
Heaviside and Hertz.
The theorems
of Stokes
and Gauss may be used
to
demon
strate the identities.
V V
.
W=
div curl
0,
VxVF=0,
W=
0.
curlVF=0.
According to Gauss's theorem
fff V.Vx W<20 = ffvxW.da.
J s
JJJ
According to Stokes's theorem
CCC V
Hence
Apply
this to
the sphere
point
is
Wtd * = f Wdr.
V x W d? = Cw*dr.
an infinitesimal sphere.
closed.
Hence
its
and the integral around
V.VxWdv=
The
surface bounding
bounding curve reduces to a
it,
to zero.
fw.<fr = 0,
Jo
VV x W =
0.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Again according
theorem
to Stokes's
ffvxVF.
da=
3
JJ
to
Apply this
bounding
Hence the
this surface is closed.
The curve
line integral of
VF" vanishes.
V
As
fvFdr.
J
any infinitesimal portion of surface.
the derivative
197
this equation holds for
any d a,
it
follows that
Vx VF=0.
In
similar
demonstrated.
is
If the
everywhere
If the curl
is
84.]
U=
V x U of
By making
x W.
a vector function
the derivative of
between the
dels, viz.
U of a vector function
divergence
then U is the curl of some vector
zero,
W.
function
then
manner the converse theorems may be
some
is
everywhere zero,
scalar function
F",
use of the three fundamental relations
line, surface,
and volume
integrals,
and the
f VF.rfr = F(r)F(r ),
(2)
''o
ffvxWrfa =
it is
possible to obtain a large
transformation of integrals.
fw.rfr,
number
(11)
of formulae for the
These formulae correspond to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
198
"
"
in ordinary
those connected with
integration by parts
both
sides of the
are
obtained
calculus.
by integrating
They
formulse, page 161, for differentiating.
First
Jc
i?)
= u V v + v V u.
I
wVvdr= J c vVu'dr.
V(uv)'di = Jo
I
Hence
The
(u
J/ uVvdr=[uv'] r
[u
expression
v~\
lvVudi.
"
(14)
ro
represents the difference between the value of (u v~) at r, the
end of the path, and the value at r , the beginning of the path.
If the path be closed
f wV vdi =
J
Second
ff V
Vx
(wv)
C vV udr.
Jo
(14)'
= %Vxv + Vwxv.
(uv)d*= C C
wVxvcU+
C C Vwxvrfa.
Hence
f uvdr
rfvwxv^a=
a
JQ
J J
JfJ
uV xvda,
(15)
or
rfwVxvda=
Third
But
Hence
fwvc?r
fTVwxv.^a,
Vx(>Vfl)^ttVxVv + VwxVtf.
VxVv =
v x (u V v) = V u x V
v,
(15)'
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
199
(wvv)^a= cr^ux^v'dB..
Hence
V M x Vv
JI J s
da.= i
Jo
Fourth
liiv
(u v)
(uv)dv
uV v
=uV
dr =
v
+V
C vV u* dr,
Jo
u
rrruvvdv +
(16)
v.
r r
v^
<z
v.
Hence
u
III
V*vdv=[
uv da,
C i i ^U'vdv,
(17)
or
v^v dv=
In
f f \?
all
surface
u x v
wv^a
vVwxv
Fifth
Hence
rrTwVv^v,
= VXV^*v
da,
(17)'
Vwvxv.
C i C ^ u*\7 x
v dv.
(18)
these formulae which contain a triple integral the
is the closed surface bounding the body throughout
which the integration is performed.
Examples of integration by parts
like those
above can be
Only one more will be
given here. It is known as Green's Theorem and is perhaps
the most important of all. If u and v are any two scalar
multiplied almost without
functions of position,
limit.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
200
= /J
IV(V*)rf
/V^*V^i?=/
(v
V w) ^ v
u^'Vvdv,
TV
V V w,
V V w d 0.
Hence
/V^Vv^v =
w V?> d a
= r A>vwda
By
I
V Vvd
r f fvvvwdv.
(i9>
subtracting these equalities the formula
(wVVv v^7^u)dv=
P,
(20)
(u^7 v
V w)
cZ
a.
obtained. By expanding the expression in terms of i, j, k
the ordinary form of Green's theorem may be obtained.
further generalization due to Thomson (Lord Kelvin) is the
is
following
/
lV*V*<fr=i
=
where
The
vwVU'd*
uw^7V'da>
[w
u^7[w^7v\dv,
V w]
c?
v,
(21)
a third scalar function of position.
element of volume dv has nothing to do with the scalar
t0 is
function v in these equations or in those that go before. The
use of v in these two different senses can hardly give rise to
any misunderstanding.
*
In the preceding articles the scalar and vector funcwhich have been subject to treatment have been sup
85.]
tions
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
201
posed to be continuous, singlevalued, possessing derivatives
of the first two orders at every point of space under consideration.
When the functions are discontinuous or multiplevalued, or fail to possess derivatives of the first two orders
in certain regions of space, some caution must be exercised in
applying the results obtained.
Suppose for instance
VK =
The
ar
x*
line integral
Introducing polar coordinates
=*
***
xdy
*
Form
(1,
the line integral from the point (+1,0) to the point
Let one path be a semi0) along two different paths.
circle lying
above the Xaxis
lying below that
first
path
axis.
and the
The value
other, a semicircle
of the integral along the
is
along the second path,
From
i r~"
I
d6
fj
ir.
not depend merely
upon the limits of integration, but upon the path chosen,
this it appears that the integral does
'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
2Q2
the negative of the value
the value along one path being
The integral around the circle which is a
along the other.
2 TT.
but is equal to
closed curve does not vanish,
were false
Art.
79
of
results
the
therefore
seem
It might
which
and that consequently the entire bottom of the work
This however is not so. The difficulty is
follows fell out.
that the function
F=tan
i y

not singlevalued. At the point (!,!)
function V takes on not only the value
is
F= tan
f r instance,
the
=^
4
but a whole series of values
where k
is
any positive or negative integer. Furthermore at
was included between the two semicircular
the origin, which
becomes wholly indepaths of integration, the function
terminate and fails to possess a derivative. It will be seen
therefore that the origin is a peculiar or singular point of the
function V.
If the
two paths of integration from
(1,0) had not included
would not have
(4 1, 0)
to
the origin the values of the integral
In other words the value of the
differed.
integral around a closed curve
which
does not include the
origin vanishes as it should.
Inasmuch
as
the
origin
appears to be the point which
be considered as marked
vitiates the results obtained, let it
by an impassable
barrier.
Any
closed curve
C which
does
not contain the origin may be shrunk up or expanded at will ;
but a closed curve C which surrounds the origin cannot be
so distorted as no
longer to enclose that point without breaking its continuity. The curve C not surrounding the origin
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
may
but
203
shrink up to nothing without a break in its continuity ;
can only shrink down and fit closer and closer about
the origin.
It cannot be
shrunk down to nothing.
It
must
always remain encircling the origin. The curve C is said to
be reducible ; C, irreducible. In case of the function F", then,
it is
true that the integral taken around any reducible circuit
but the integral around any irreducible circuit G
;
C vanishes
does not vanish.
Suppose next that
the points at which
tinuous
first
V is
V fails
any function whatsoever. Let all
to be continuous or to have con
Then any circuit C
may be shrunk up
barriers.
be marked as impassable
which contains within it no
partial derivatives
to nothing and is said to be
but
a
which
circuit
contains one or more such
reducible;
points cannot be so shrunk up without breaking its continuity
and it is said to be irreducible. The theorem may then be
such point
stated: The line integral of the derivative
vanishes around any reducible circuit 0.
vanish around an irreducible circuit
circuit
C may be
irreducible
W
It
of any function
not
may or may
In case one irreducible
distorted so as to coincide with another
circuit
of
without passing through any of the
and without breaking its continuity,
singular points
the two circuits are said to be reconcilable and the values of
VV
the line integral of
about them are the same.
that
such
any closed curve C within
region
shrunk up
point of
it
may
be
without passing through any singular
and without breaking its continuity, that is, a
to nothing
region every closed curve in which is reducible, is said to be
All other regions are cyclic.
acyclic.
By means of a simple device any cyclic region may be renConsider, for instance, the region (Fig. 34) enclosed between the surface of a cylinder and the surface of a
cube which contains the cylinder and whose bases coincide
dered acyclic.
with those of the cylinder.
Such a region
is
realized in a
room
VECTOR ANALYSIS
204
in
is
which a column reaches from the
evident that this region
around the column
x
A circuit which
irreducible.
It
passes
cannot be contracted to
It
nothing without breaking its continuity. If
now a diaphragm be inserted reaching from
v
is
floor to the ceiling.
is cyclic.
"^^
the surface of the cylinder or column to the
surface of the cube the region thus formed
bounded by the surface of the cylinder, the
surface of the cube, and the two sides of the
diaphragm
FIG. 84.
is
to
draw a
circuit
which
shall
Owing
acyclic.
to the inser
no longer possible
pass completely around the cyl
tion of the diaphragm
it is
Hence every closed cirthe diaphragm prevents it.
cuit which may be drawn in the region is reducible and the
inder
region
is acyclic.
In like manner any region
may be
rendered acyclic by
The bounding
inserting a sufficient number of diaphragms.
surfaces of the new region consist of the bounding surfaces of
the given cyclic region and the two faces of each diaphragm.
In acyclic regions or regions rendered acyclic by the foregoing device all the results contained in Arts. 79 et seq.
hold true.
true.
To
For cyclic regions they may or may not hold
enter further into these questions at this point is
unnecessary.
Indeed, even as
much
discussion as has been
given them already may be superfluous. For they are questions which do not concern vector methods any more than the
corresponding Cartesian ones.
They belong properly
to the
subject of integration itself, rather than to the particular
notation which may be employed in connection with it and
which is the primary object of exposition here. In this
respect these questions are similar to questions of rigor.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
205
The Potential
The Integrating Operators.
Hitherto there have been considered line, surface,
86.]
and volume integrals of functions both scalar and vector.
There exist, however, certain special volume integrals which,
owing
operators V,
V,
occurrence and
consideration.
is
with the differentiating
to
their
Vx,
especially frequent
great importance in physics, merit especial
to their intimate connection
and owing
Suppose that
a scalar function of the position in space of the point
For the sake of defmiteness
may
density of matter at the point (x 2 , yv 22 ).
body
V is
In those portions of space in which no
identically zero. In nonhomogeneous dis
constant.
V is
matter exists
tributions of matter
each point
The
be regarded as the
In a homogeneous
varies
from point to point; but at
has a definite value.
it
vector
drawn from any assumed
the point (# 2 yv z 2 ). Let
origin,
may
be used to designate
On Vi> *i)
be any other fixed point of space, represented by the vector
T1
drawn from the same
ra
is
Vv
origin.
y1
z1
Then
~ r = Oa  *i) + Oa  yi) J + Oa  *i)
i
the vector
0&2>
=x
i?
a)
<
drawn from the point (x v yv j) to the point
this vector occurs a large number of times
As
in the sections immediately following,
12
it
will be denoted
by
VECTOR ANALYSIS
206
The length
of r 12 is then r 12
and
will
be assumed to be
positive.
12
=Vr
r 12
ia
= V
O 2
Consider the triple integral
The
xv
integration
y?fl
zi
tt*3
performed with respect to the variables
k* with respect to the body of which V
is
represents the density (Fig. 35). During
the integration the point (x v y v z^) re
mains
,
j,^
FIG. 35.
fixed.
The
integral
/ has
a definite
value at each definite point (x v y v Zj).
It is a function of that point.
The interpretation of this integral
is easy, if
V be regarded as the density of matter in space.
mass dm at (x v yv 2 ) is
dm = V (x v yv z 2 ) dx z dy^ dz% = Vdv.
the function
The element
of
The integral / is therefore the sum of the elements of mass
in a body, each divided by its distance from a fixed point
VII
3 19 ^1 J *
r dm
m
J r*
This
what
termed the potential at the point (x v y v
due to the body whose density is
is
The
in
is
limits of integration in the
integral
of two ways.
In the first
I may be looked
at
either
place they may be
regarded as coincident with the limits of the body of which
V is the density. This indeed might seem the most natural
set of limits.
On
the other
hand the
integral
/ may
be
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
207
regarded as taken over all space. The value of the integral
is the same in both cases.
For when the limits are infinite
the function
vanishes identically at every point (# 2 , yv z 2 )
situated outside of the body and hence does not augment
the value of the integral at all.
It is found most convenient
to consider the limits as infinite
and the integral as extended
This saves the trouble of writing in special
limits for each particular case.
The function Fof itself then
over
all space.
practically determines the limits
tically at all points unoccupied
owing to its vanishing idenby matter.
The
operation of finding the potential is of such
that a special symbol, Pot, is used for it.
occurrence
frequent
87.]
Pot
V= ill
JJJ
d&z
f la
^y*i
d%y
(22)
The potential,
is read "the potential of V"
a function not of the variables x v yv z 2 with
The symbol
Pot V,
is
performed but of the point
fixed during the integration.
These
regard to which the integration
(*!
y\) 2 i)
is
The function
enter in the expression for r 12
therefore have different sets of variables.
variables
and Pot
which
is
It may be necessary to note that although V has hitherto
been regarded as the density of matter in space, such an
interpretation for
Whenever
of
it
V is
becomes
entirely too restricted for convenience.
necessary to form the integral
any scalar function V, no matter what
integral
is
V represents,
that
The reason for calling
even in cases in which it has
called the potential of V.
such an integral the potential
no connection with physical potential
according to the
same formal law
is
that
it
is
formed
as the true potential
and
VECTOR ANALYSIS
208
by virtue of that formation has certain simple rules
tion which other types of integrals do not possess.
of opera
this idea the potential of a vector function
Pursuant to
a,
\
Wfrf.
\*"S> yy *27
*,
may
be written down.
/W (Xn,
2/o,
Za)
dx% dyz dz v
(23)
In this case the integral is the sum of vector quantities
and is consequently itself a vector. Thus the potential of a
vector function
tion in space.
If
a vector function, just as the potential
of a scalar function F'was seen to be a scalar function of posi
W (z
2,
yv
is
W be resolved into three components
yv ) + Y (xv yv )
) = X (#
its
2,
Pot
W=
PotX + j
Pot
The
potential of a vector function
sum
of the potentials of its three
The
(#i y\t *i>)
taken
over
for instance,
all
z 2)
Y+ k Pot Z.
is
(24)
equal to the vector
7
components X, I Z.
",
potential of a scalar function
when and only when
k Z <> 2 yv
exists
a point
at
the integral
If,
space converges to a definite value.
were everywhere constant in space the in
would become greater and greater without limit as
the limits of integration were extended farther and farther
tegral
out into space.
Evidently therefore
if
the potential
is
to exist
must approach zero as its limit as the point (#2 yv za)
recedes indefinitely. A few important sufficient conditions
for the
convergence of the potential may be obtained by
transforming to polar cob'rdinates. Let
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
x
= r sin 6
r sin
z
dv
cos <,
sin
= r cos
= r 2 sin
rf
<f>,
0,
is
fixed for the integration
T*
aw0
Let the point (a^, y v 2j) which
be chosen at the origin. Then
r i2
209
d <.
=r
and the integral becomes
dV * =
fff
the
remains
d0
dfr (22)
d<j>.
V decrease so rapidly that the product
function
finite as r increases indefinitely, then the integral con
verges as
For
dr
PotF= CCfVrsmO dr dO
or simply
If
fff
far as
distant regions of space are concerned.
the
let
= GO
= 00
me
8m0 dr d0
dr d0
rR
=R
r
Hence the
triple integral
sphere of radius
tity) is less
= oo
than 4
as regions distant
(where
TT
taken over
is
all
space outside of a
supposed to be a large quan
K /R, and consequently converges as far
from the origin are concerned.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
210
remain
If the function
weakly that the product
finite or if it become infinite so
Vr
remains finite when r approaches zero, then the integral converges
as far as regions near to the origin are concerned. For let
Vr<K
r=R
r=R
III ^ r s n & dr
d<f>
<
=Q
Kd r
dd
d<j>.
r=0
r
=R
C C C Kdr dO
Hence the
triple integral
dd>
taken over
all
space inside a sphere
R (where E is now supposed to be a small quantity)
than 4 TT K E and consequently converges as far as
of radius
is less
regions near to the origin which
concerned.
If at any point (x 2 , y2 ,
i.
e.
the point
is
the point (x v y v zj are
z 2 ) not coincident
z x ), the
with the origin,
becomes infinite so
(x v y x ,
function
weakly that the product of the value 0/V at a point near
(x 2 , y2
(x 2 , y2
z2)
z 2)
by the square
remains
of
the distance
Jinite as that distance
the integral converges as far as regions
are concerned.
The
near
of that point
approaches
to the
to
from
zero, then
point (x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )
proof of this statement is like those given
These three conditions for the convergence of the
integral Pot V are sufficient.
They are by no means necesThe integral may converge when they do not hold.
sary.
before.
however indispensable to know whether or not an integral
Unless the tests given above
show the convergence, more stringent ones must be resorted
It is
under discussion converges.
to.
Such, however, will not be discussed here.
They belong
to the theory of integration in general rather than to the
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
211
theory of the integrating operator Pot. The discussion of
rethe convergence of the potential of a vector function
duces at once to that of its three components which are scalar
functions and
88.]
The
may
be treated as above.
potential
is
a function of the variables x v y^ z1
to the integration.
Let the
which are constant with respect
value of the potential at the point (x v y v zj be denoted by
The
is
first partial
derivative of the potential with respect to x 1
therefore
The value
of this limit
may be determined by
a simple
Consider
device
(Fig. 36).
the potential at the point
due to a certain body T. This
is the same as the potential at
the point
due to the same body T displaced in the negative direction by
the amount A x r For in finding the potential at a point P
due to a body T the absolute positions in space of the body
T and the
point
P are
immaterial.
It is
only their positions
which determines the value of the potenboth body and point be translated by the same
relative to each other
tial.
If
amount
same direction the value of the potential is unBut
now if T be displaced in the negative direction
changed.
by the amount A #, the value of V at each point of space is
in the
changed from
to
where
A xz = A x r
VECTOR ANALYSIS
212
Hence
[Pot
FOa,^,^)]^ + A*, ,M * = [Pot
LlM
Hence
[Pot
FO
H****.*.*
[Pot
It will be
integration.
body
body
found convenient to introduce the limits of
Let the portion of space originally filled by the
; and let the portion filled by the
be denoted by
after its translation in the negative direction
the distance
x l be denoted by M'.
The
regions
Let the region common to both be
remainder of
be m; the remainder of M' m
overlap.
//*/* V
Av
* fr
_ err
wtffj
4
r
.
through
M and M'
and
let the
Then
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
f
(
LlM
<
(*(*(*( VT
l^
f*
f* T^V/n
y^v y
_ rrr
A f2 ,y2 ,z92 \;
+Ag
JJJfi
f*
II
I
Tja
Az =
Aa;2 =o(
213
ni
JJJ M
ru
a
la
or,
12
A
A
a;
CCC
LIM
A*=0t/
+Ag
rrr
LIM
XQjJJx
*>  ^c^a^ y^
>
when A
Xj approaches zero as its limit the regions mand
which are at no point thicker than A a, approach zero ;
as a limit.
and
both approach
'
TO',
There are cases in which
this reversal of the order in
which the two limits
are taken gives incorrect results. This is a question of double limits and leads to
the mazes of modern mathematical rigor.
}
If the derivative of
Fis
to exist at the surface
bounding
T the values of the
V must
diminish continuously to zero upon the surface. If Fchanged
suddenly from a finite value within the surface to a zero value outside the derivative 5 VI 3 *i would not exist and the triple integral would be meaningless.
function
For the same reason
within the region T.
V is
supposed to be
finite
and continuous at every point
VECTOR ANALYSIS
214
be assumed that the region Tis finite and that
vanishes upon the surface bounding T
Then
if it
111
LlM
5.//L
v^fl
*"a
#2'
~ay
=v
12
'
Consequently the expression for the derivative of the potential
reduces to merely
(26)
5%e partial derivative of the potential of a scalar function
The derivative
of
the derivative
V of the potential of^fis equal to the potential
V V.
VPotF=PotVr:
(27)
This statement follows immediately from the former.
the
upon the lefthand
ables x v
V upon
yv
2j,
it
may
side applies to the
be written
the righthand side
tion to the fact that
Then
it
Vj
To demonstrate
Vr
may be
set of vari
written
sc
to call atten
v yv
PotF= Pot V2 F!
V may be expanded
.SPotF
*L J
L.
t
V
As
In like manner the
applies to the variables
this identity
.3PotF
V.
is equal to the potential of the partial derivative of
zz of V.
(27)'
in terms of
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
As
i,
j,
k are constant vectors they may be placed under
the sign of integration and the terms
by means
may
Then
be collected.
of (26)
The curl
function
215
VX
and
divergence
are equal respectively
of the potential of a vector
to the
potential of the curl
and
divergence of that function.
W = Pot V x W,
curl Pot W = Pot curl W
Vj Pot W = Pot V W,
div Pot W = Pot div W.
Vj x Pot
or
and
or
These relations may be proved in a manner analogous to the
above. It is even possible to go further and form the dels
of higher order
V V Pot F= Pot V VF,
V V Pot W = Pot V V W,
VV Pot W = Pot V V W,
VxV x Pot W= Pot Vx VxW.
(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)
The dels upon the left might have a subscript 1 attached to
show that the differentiations are performed with respect to
the variables x v y, z v and for a similar reason the dels upon
the right might have been written with a subscript 2. The
results of this article
may
be
summed up
Theorem: The differentiating operator
operator Pot are commutative.
as follows
V and the integrating
In the foregoing work it has been assumed that the
was
finite and that the function Fwas everywhere
region
finite and continuous inside of the
region T and moreover
*89.]
decreased so as to approach zero continuously at the surface
bounding that region. These restrictions are inconvenient
VECTOR ANALYSIS
216
and may be removed by making use of a surface integral.
The derivative of the potential was obtained (page 213) in
form
essentially the
PPotF
otF
9 xl
sv
M
CCC
= 111
J J J
r 12 *>x z
Lra
LIM
9
Let d a be a directed element of the surface
region M. The element of volume
therefore equal to
Hence
_L f f f
A* J J J
in the region
^('
the
r
m>
dv z
S bounding
12
= r r v<jx*
J J
The element
of
T 12
volume d v z in the region
///
ill
rlenco
'
7
A a;, J J J m
xz
TT'f'v
m is equal to
a.
&v
v ti
<*
is j
A Vn
r 12
Consequently
1
9V
r
r lz dx^
r r
dvi+l
J J
a r 12
i.rfa.
(34)
is
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
217
The volume
with
integral is taken throughout the region
the understanding that the value of the derivative of
at
the surface
derivative
of
M.
shall be equal to the limit of the value of that
when
the surface
approached from the interior
is
This convention avoids the difficulty that arises in
connection with the existence of the derivative at the surface
S where V
becomes discontinuous.
The
surface integral
is
taken over the surface S which bounds the region.
becomes infinite. By virtue of
Suppose that the region
the conditions imposed
V to
upon
insure the convergence of
the potential
<
K.
Let the bounding surface S be a sphere of radius
tity which is large.
i
d& <
r2
dO
B,
a quan
d<f>.
The surface integral becomes smaller and smaller and
proaches
zero as its limits
when
the region
M becomes
ap
infinite.
Moreover the volume integral
rev wn
tn
remains
V is
finite as
M becomes
\s IP
infinite.
such a function that Pot
dv,
Consequently provided
V exists as
far as the infinite
regions of space are concerned, then the equation
SPotF =
^
Pot
9V
holds as far as those regions of space are concerned.
ceases to be continuous or becomes infinite
Suppose that
at a single point (xv y v Zj) within the region T.
Surround
VECTOR ANALYSIS
218
this point
with a small sphere of radius
surface of this
within the sphere.
 =
3PotF
~
9*i
By
sphere and
all
Let
JR.
the region
S denote
T not
the
included
Then
r r r 1 5F dv + C If
2
/ /
J Js
J J J*ru9xs
I
the conditions imposed
upon
i.
r 12
Vr<K
f f
i.rfa
ff K dd
<
Consequently when the sphere of radius
becomes smaller
and smaller the surface integral may or may not become
Moreover the volume integral
f* f* f*
J J JM
may
or
may not approach
and smaller.
PF
r !2
5x Z
when
a limit
zero.
becomes smaller
Hence the equation
PPotF
_
l*f\+
^
dx
l
J.
5F
_
\Jv
dx%
has not always a definite meaning at a point of the region
T at which becomes infinite in such a manner that the
product
If,
Fr
remains
however,
finite.
F remains
that the product
Fr
the point in question so
is zero
approaches zero, the constant
finite at
and the surface integral becomes smaller and smaller
approaches zero. Moreover the volume integral
///.
as
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
approaches a definite limit as
becomes
infinitesimal.
219
Con
sequently the equation
5PotFPot5T
holds in the neighborhood of all isolated points at which
remains finite even though it be discontinuous.
becomes infinite at some single point
Suppose that
z
coincident
with (a^, y, Zj). According to the
( 2 y 2 2 ) not
,
conditions laid upon
<
VI*
where
near to
is
it.
K,
the distance of the point (xv yv
Then the surface integral
2)
from a point
r !2
need not become zero and consequently the equation
PPotF
^
= Pot =5V
O #j
C'S'a
need not hold for any point (x^ yv z^) of the region.
z in such a manner that
if V becomes infinite at #
2 yv 2
But
VI
<K,
then the surface integral will approach zero as
the equation will hold.
Finally suppose the function
surface
In
S bounding
the region
V remains
jP,
its
finite
limit
and
upon the
but does not vanish there.
this case there exists a surface of discontinuities of V.
Within
this
surface
V is
finite
without,
surface integral
i
da
it is
zero.
The
VECTOR ANALYSIS
220
Hence the equation
does not vanish in general.
9V
PPotF =
Pot 5
jr
d xl
dx%
cannot hold.
may be
Similar reasoning
applied to each of the three
with respect to x v
partial derivatives
the results it is seen that in general
Vj
ff
PotF= Pot V2 F +
By combining
yv z r
J
d&.
(35)
V be any function in
F exists. Surround
space, and let it be granted that
each point of space at which
Let the surface of the
ceases to be finite by a small sphere.
sphere be denoted by S. Draw in space all those surfaces
Let
Pot
which are surfaces of discontinuity of V. Let these surThen the formula (35) holds
faces also be denoted by 8.
where the surface integral is taken over all the surfaces
which have been designated by S.
If the integral taken
over
all
these surfaces vanishes
when
the radii of the spheres
above mentioned become infinitesimal, then
V PotF=PotV F
(27)'
This formula
V PotF=PotV
will surely hold at
F.
a point (x 1? y x z x ) if
remains always
at a point (x^ y2 z 3 ) so that the
,
finite or becomes infinite
product
remains
discontinuity
and
finite,
and
if
possesses no surfaces of
if furthermore the product
as r becomes infinite.
Vr
remains finite
In other cases special tests must be
applied to ascertain whether the formula (27) can be used
or the more complicated one
(35) must be resorted to.
'
For extensions and modifications of
this theorem, see exercises.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
221
The
relation (27) is so simple and so amenable to transformation that
will in general be assumed to be such a
function that (27) holds. In cases in which
possesses a
S of
frequently found convenient
replaced by another function V which has
in general the same values as F'but which instead of possessing a discontinuity at S merely changes very rapidly from
surface
to consider
one value
discontinuity
it is
V as
(#2 y v 2 2 ) passes from one
Such a device renders the potential
of V simpler to treat analytically and probably conforms to
actual physical states more closely than the more exact
side of
to another as the point
to the other.
conception of a surface of discontinuity. This device practically amounts to including the surface integral in the
symbol Pot V V.
In fact from the standpoint of pure mathematics it is
better to state that where there exist surfaces at which the
function
V becomes
discontinuous, the full value of Pot
VV
should always be understood as including the surface integral
'
in addition to the
12
volume integral
VF
fff
In like manner Pot
W,
Pot
12
VX
W, New
V W and other
similar expressions to be met in the future must be regarded
as consisting not only of a volume integral but of a surface
possesses
integral in addition, whenever the vector function
a surface of discontinuities.
convention in the interpretation of
formulse which permits such simple formulae as (27) to hold
in general, and which gives to the treatment of the integratIt is
precisely this
ing operators an elegance of treatment otherwise unobtainable.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
222
The
irregularities
which may
thrown into the
arise are
inter
pretation, not into the analytic appearance of the formulae.
This is the essence of Professor Gibbs's method of treatment.
90.]
The
first
partial derivatives of the potential
may
also
be obtained by differentiating under the sign of integration. 1
"
V)
gotr
* *2
In
like
manner
for a vector function
W
'
c>Potr
\jr
&X 1
= III
and
^
g
V Pot F=
But
1
If
i (a?
a
ajj)
dv v
(38)'
12
+j
^^H
(y a
yj) + k
^ +k
 Zj ) = r 12
an attempt were made to obtain the second
partial derivatives in the same
it would be seen that the volume
integrals no longer converged.
manner,
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
V Pot F= fff Tjf~ * *r
Hence
223
( 39)
In like manner
VxPotW= III
dv v
"^"3
V.PotW= JfJfJf ^f
r 12
and
(40)
dv *
(41 )
These three integrals obtained from the potential by the
differentiating operators are of great importance in mathe
Each has
matical physics.
its
own
interpretation.
Conse
quently although obtained so simply from the potential each
is given a separate name.
Moreover inasmuch as these
integrals
may
exist even
when
the potential
is
divergent,
they must be considered independent of it.
They are to
be looked upon as three new integrating operators defined
each upon its own merits as the potential was defined.
Let, therefore,
(42)
'
r 12
12
W (#
"
2>
'
AO
r 12
y 2> z 2 ) Cv
^ 30n
'
r 3 12
If
the potential exists,
n Cv %n
m Cv *r/ m
m
dx z dy z dz z = Ma,x.Vf.
first is
written
(44)
then
V Pot F= New F
V X Pot W = Lap W
V Pot W = Max W.
The
New F and
(45)
read " The Newtonian of F."
VECTOR ANALYSIS
224
reason for calling this integral the Newtonian is that if
represent the density of a body the integral gives the force
The
of attraction at the point (x v y v z^) due to the body. This
The second is written Lap
and
will be proved later.
"
This integral was used to a
the Laplacian of W."
read
considerable extent by Laplace. It is of frequent occurrence
and magnetism. If
represent the current
C in space the Laplacian of C gives the magnetic force at the
point (x v y v zj due to the current. The third is written
in electricity
Max
W and read " the Maxwellian of W."
used by Maxwell.
and magnetism.
It,
This integral was
too, occurs frequently in electricity
For instance
if
represent the intensity
the
Maxwellian
of
I gives the magnetic
I,
potential at the point (xv yv z^) due to the magnetization.
To show that the Newtonian gives the force of attraction
of magnetization
according to the law of the inverse square of the distance.
Let dmz be any element of mass situated at the point
(#2*
yK>
zz)'
The
force at (xv yv
z^)
due to
dm is equal to
d mn
12
in
magnitude and has the direction of the vector r12 from the
point (x v y v zj to the point (xv yv 2 2 ).
Hence the
force
is
12
Integrating over the entire body, or over all space according
to the convention here adopted, the total force is
where
V denotes the
density of matter.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
The
integral
may
be expanded in terms of
i,
j,
225
k,
12
The
three components
may be
expressed in terms of the po
tential (if it exists) as
(42)'
It is in this
form that the Newtonian
is
generally found in
books.
To show that the Laplacian gives the magnetic force per
unit positive pole at the point (x v y v 2j) due to a distribution
z
of electric flux.
The magnetic force at (xv yv z x )
( 2 2/ 2 , 2 )
due to an element of current d C 2
is
equal in magnitude to
the magnitude d O z of that element of current divided by the
square of the distance r 12 ; that is
The
element of current
The
perpendicular both to the vector
and to the line r 12 joining the points.
direction of the force
dC 2
is
direction of the force
vector product of r 12
is
and dG z
therefore the direction of the
The
12
15
force
is
therefore
VECTOR ANALYSIS
226
Integrating over
the point (x v y v
all space,
zj
the total magnetic force acting at
upon a unit positive pole
is
.3
12
may be expanded
This integral
WO
'12
The
i,
j,
za)
2 , 2/ 2 ,
!>
k components
Xfyv
of
(2/2
Lap
in terms of
+ J Y (x v
*a)
2/2
/i)
i, j,
k.
2/2'
Let
^2)
+ (a  *
W are respectively
(43)'
(200
k Lap
W=
In terms of the potential
Lap
(if
W=
one exists) this
Pot
9x l
To show
that
if
be writt
9z l
= 5PotF
^
point (x v
9 Pot
may
dy l
I be the intensity of magnetization at the
^2, z 2 ), that
is, if
equal to the magnetic
I be a vector
moment
whose magnitude
is
per unit volume and whose
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
227
the direction of magnetization of the element d v2
from south pole to north pole, then the Maxwellian of I is the
direction
is
magnetic potential due to the distribution of magnetization.
The magnetic moment of the element of volume d v% is I d vz
.
The potential at (% v y v Zj) due to this element is equal to its
magnetic moment divided by the square of the distance r 12
and multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the direction of magnetization I
and the vector
r la
The
potential
is
therefore
r 12
Integrating, the total magnetic potential
'i 2
'
1
>?,,,
is
= Max
seen to be
I.
*>
12
This integral
may
also be written out in terms of x, y,
z.
Let
JA +
If instead of
xv
oil
Vy
22
xv yv
z1
tne variables
(2/2
the variables x, y, z; and instead of
l
the expression takes
f, ?/, ^ be used
the form given by Maxwell.
Max
/// {<a<f) + i(ff)+ C(Sz)
^dv.
According to the notation employed for the Laplacian
Max
W  f f f (X
~ y } Y+ fa ~ ''
(44)'
Maxwell
Electricity
and Magnetism, Vol.
II. p. 9.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
228
The Maxwellian
It
may
of a vector function
is
a scalar quantity.
be written in terms of the potential
Max
W=
 + c>Potr
5 +

This form of expression is
upon mathematical physics.
much used
(if it exists) as

(44)"
in ordinary treatises
The Newtonian, Laplacian, and Maxwellian, however, should
not be associated indissolubly with the particular physical
They should be looked
interpretations given to them above.
which may be applied, as the
of
functions
position in space. The Newany
and yields a vector
scalar
function
to
a
applied
as integrating operators
upon
potential
tonian
is
is,
to
The Laplacian
is applied to a vector function
a
of
the
same sort. The Maxwellian
function
yields
and yields a scalar function.
a
function
to
vector
applied
function.
and
is
Moreover, these integrals should not be looked upon as the
derivatives of the potential.
If
the potential exists they
exist when the
But they frequently
are its derivatives.
potential fails to converge.
be such functions that their potentials
Let V and
and have in general definite values. Then by (27) and
9L]
exist
(29)
VVPotF=V.PotVF=Pot V.VF.
But by (45)
V Pot V = New F,
and
V.Pot VF=Max W.
Hence
V. V PotF = V NewF = Max VF
= Pot V.VF
By (27) and (29)
But by
(45)
and by
(45)
(46)
VV .Pot W = VPot V. W = Pot V V. W.
W = Max W,
V Pot V W = New V W.
V
Pot
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
W = V Max W = New V W
= Pot VV W
V x V x Pot W = V x Pot V x W
VV
Hence
By
(28)
But by (45)
and
Hence
By
(56),
229
(47)
= Pot V x V x W.
V x Pot W = Lap W,
V x Pot V x W = Lap V x W.
V x Pot W = V x Lap W = Lap V x W
= Pot V x V x W.
(48)
V V x Pot W = 0,
V Pot V x W =
V Lap W = Max V x W = 0.
(49)
Chap. III. V x V PotF= 0,
VxPotVF=0.
V x New V = Lap V V = 0.
(50)
Chap. III. V x V x W = VV W V VW,
Chap.
or
Pot
III.
0.
Hence
And
by (52),
or
Hence
And by
Hence
or
(58),
V.VW = VV.WVxVxW.
V V W = New V W  Lap V x W,
V V W = V Max W V x Lap W.
(51)
These formulae may be written out in terms of curl and
div
if
desired.
Thus
div
New V = Max
V F,
V Max W = New div W
curl Lap W = Lap curl W
div Lap W = Max curl W =
curl New V = Lap V V =
V V W = New div W  Lap curl W.
(46)'
(47)'
(48)'
(49)'
(50)'
(51)'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
230
Poisson's
Let
92.]
Equation
any function in space such that
"be
the potential
PotF
has in general a
Then
definite value.
V.VPotF=47rF,
c>
PotF
or
P2
dx{
This equation
PotF
02
dyf
22
(52)
PotF
02 = 47rF.
9 9f
known
as Poisson's Equation.
has
been defined as the potential
integral which
The
is
solution of Poisson's Equation.
Pot F= Vj
The
proof
is
is
as follows.
New F= Max V2 ^=
12
The
and # have been attached to designate
what are variables with respect to which the differen
subscripts 1
clearly
tiations are performed.
= Vj NewF= C C
But
and
F V2
=  V2
Vj
C^7 l 
=V
1
V F+ F V V
2
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Hence
V
1
or
Vt1
V2 F = T V
v2 K
'12
Integrate
V
22
i  V /F V
1
I
231
12
V V
But
That
is
Hence
to say
satisfies
V V
x
Pot
= 0.
*H
Laplace's Equation.
F= T
T TVj  V2
= f f F YI
J Jj
And by (8)
T< v 2
(53)
<*.
r 12
The
surface integral is taken over the surface which bounds
This is
region of integration of the volume integral.
taken " over all space." Hence the surface integral must be
taken over a sphere of radius R, a large quantity, and
must
the
be allowed to increase without limit.
At
the point (x v y^z^),
however, the integrand of the surface integral becomes
finite owing to the presence of the term
12
in
VECTOR ANALYSIS
232
S must
include not only the surface of the
of a sphere of radius
sphere of radius R> but also the surface
the point (x v y v z^) and
jK', a small quantity, surrounding
Hence
the surface
must be allowed
As
to
approach zero as
'
its limit.
has been assumed that the potential of F" exists, it is
assumed that the conditions given (Art. 87) for the existence
it
That
of the potential hold.
F"r 3
<
is
K, when r
Vr < K, when
is
is
large
small.
polar coordinates with the origin at the point
y v Zj). Then r 12 becomes simply r
Introduce
(xv
and
Then
= V
for the large sphere of radius
V,
r 12
r8
.da =
Hence the surface
as its limit.
For
Hence when
Hence the
sin0d0 d&.
jrr
infinite the surface integral
large sphere approaches zero as
For the small sphere
da
r la
integral over that sphere approaches zero
^ becomes
V,
its
limit.
= r3 r 2 sin 6
r
integral over that sphere
becomes
Fsin0 de
d<f>.
dA.
over the
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
V be
Let
(#!,
yv
2X )
233
supposed to be finite and continuous at the point
which has been selected as origin. Then for the
surface integral
is
practically constant
and equal to
its
value
(ajj,
y lt
!>
at the point in question.
f fssin 6 de
 f /Vsi
sin Q
Hence
when
<
=4
TT.
the radius R' of the sphere of integration approaches
zero as
its limit.
Hence
V VPotF=47rF.
and
In
like
manner
if
is
(52)
a vector function which has in
Poisgeneral a definite potential, then that potential satisfies
son's Equation.
V V Pot W =  4
TT
W.
(52)'
W into
The proof
of this consists in resolving
ponents.
For each component the equation
its
three com
holds.
V VPot^r=47r X,
V VPotF=47r F,
V V Pot Z  4 Z.
TT
Consequently
V VPot(JTi+
Fj + ^k)
= 47r(Xi+
Fj
Let
VECTOR ANALYSIS
234
Theorem
IfVandW are
such functions of position in space
that their potentials exist in general, then for all points at which
and
are finite and continuous those potentials
satisfy
Poisson's Equation,
V. VPot F=47rF,
V V Pot W =  4 TT W.
The
modifications in this theorem
points at
V and W become
which
(52)
(52)'
which are
to be
made
at
discontinuous will not be
taken up here.
It
93.]
was seen
(46) Art. 91 that
V VPotF=V.NewF=Max VF.
V New V =  4 V
MaxVF= 4?rF.
Hence
TT
or
In a similar manner
Hence
or
it
(53)
was seen (51) Art. 91 that
V V Pot W = V Max W  V x Lap W
= New V W Lap V x W.
V Max W V x Lap W = 4 W,
New V W Lap V x W = 4 W.
TT
By
?r
virtue of this equality
W=
r
47T
and
is
LapVxW
1
r
4?r
W =2
Lap
New V
4?T
NewV.W.
(55)
2,
1
W = 4?r
Lap curl W
.
W=
(54)'
divided into two parts.
W = Wj + W
Let
where
(54)
New
div
W.
(56)
(57)
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
235
Equation (55) states that any vector function
multiplied
4
TT is equal to the difference of the
by
Laplacian of its curl
and the Newtonian of
W,
its
V.LapV
4?r
Furthermore
divergence.
W = rVVxLapW,.
4?r
But the divergence
of the curl of a vector function is zero.
Hence
V.W = divW =
x Wo
But
r
4?r
(58)
V x New V
r
VxV Max W
4n
the curl of the derivative of a scalar function
Hence
2.
is zero.
= curl W 2 = 0.
(59)
which has a potential
Consequently any vector function
divided
into
two
which
one has no divergence
be
of
parts
may
and
of
which the other has no
two such parts
W into
This division of
curl.
is
unique.
In case a vector function has no potential but both
and divergence possess potentials, the vector function
its
curl
may be
divided into three parts of which the first has no divergence
the second, no curl; the third, neither divergence nor curl.
As
LapVxW^NewVW + W
W=
Let
(55)'
before
4?r
V
1
and
47T
Lap V x
V V
Vx
W=
V Pot V
W=
x Pot
47T
V x New V W = ^4?r V
The divergence
part of
W=
of the first part
W are therefore zero.
0.
and the curl of the second
VECTOR ANALYSIS
236
=
VxVxPotVxW
JLvxLapVxW
47T
47T
 VV Pot V x
T V V
x W.
VV
Pot
47T
V X W = 47T V Pot V V X
W=
:
Hence
4?r
Hence
47T
curl of
VPot
is
equal to the curl of the
which
V x W = V X W.
V x Lap VxW = VxW = VxWr
into
0,
V V x W = 0.
for
The
Pot
4?r
4?r
is
7T
divided.
Lap
Hence
as the second part has no
Moreover
V New VW = VW = VW
Thus the divergence of
the second part

4"7T
which
part
VxW
curl, the third part can have none.
4?r
first
is
New
equal to the divergence of
W.
is divided.
Hence as the first part has no
the
third
can
have
none. Consequently the third
divergence
has
neither
curl nor divergence.
This proves the
part
8
statement.
into
By means of Art. 96 it may be seen that any function 3
which possesses neither curl nor divergence, must either
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
237
vanish throughout all space or must not become zero at
In physics functions generally vanish at infinity.
infinity.
Hence functions which represent actual phenomena may be
divided into two parts, of which one has no divergence and
the other no curl.
A vector function the
divergence of which
vanishes at every point of space is said to be solenoidal.
vector function the curl of which vanishes at every point of
space is said to be irrotational.
94.]
Definition
In general a vector function is neither solenoidal nor irrotaBut it has been shown that any vector function which
possesses a potential may be divided in one and only one
tional.
W W
way into two parts
the other irrotational.
ls
of
which one
solenoidal
is
The following theorems may be
and
stated.
been proved in the foregoing sections.
With respect to a solenoidal function Wj, the operators
They have
all
That
are inverse operators.
4?r
Lap
Applied
tors
to
gives zero.
is
irrotational function
That
respect to
an
_ JL New V
New
either
(60)
of
these opera
= 0.
irrotational function
are inverse operators.
= Wr
is
and
47T
4 7T
or curl
Lap
With
Wj = V x ?4?r Lap
Vx
an
Lap and
4?r
That
or
2,
the operators
div
is
=V
~ New W
4:
7T
= W2
(62)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
238
With
respect to
V
and
V the operators
a scalar function
div and
or
 New,
4?T
also
Max and
~r
47T
That
are inverse operators.
is
=F
(63)
47T
JMaxVT=F.
and
4?r
JFtYA respect to a solenoidal function
Pot
awo*
Wj
tf^e
operators
or curl curl
4?r
That
are inverse operators.
Pot
47T
fF^A
x Wj
respect to
an
=V
is
Pot
That
are inverse operators.
 Pot
With
respect
VV W
.
to
Pot
7T
irrotational function
aw(i
4"7T
the operators
is
=  VV
Pot
= W2
any scalar or vector function V,
Pot and
4?r
mwrse
operators.
That
(64)
VV
operators
are
Wi = W r
is
V V
(65)
the
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
_ Pot V VF= V. V
4?r
and
Pot
V VW=V V
respect to
PotF=F
Pot
47T
With
4?r
47T
a solenoidal function
239
Wj
W = W. (66)
the differentiating
operators of the second order
V V
 V V Wj = V
and
are equivalent
With
respect to
an
Wr
irrotational function W
V
(67)
2 the differentiat
ing operators of the second order
V V
That
are equivalent.
VV
is
VVW
By
and
= VV
(68)
2.
integrating the equations
47rF= V.NewF
4 TT W = V x Lap W
V Max W
and
by means
4
TT
of the potential integral Pot
Pot
F=  Pot V
New F=  Max New
W = Pot V x Lap W
Pot W = Lap Lap W
47T Pot
TT
(69)
 Pot V Max W
New Max W.
(70)
Hence for scalar functions and irrotational vector functions
New Max
4?r
is
an operator which
is
functions the operator
equivalent to Pot.
..
7T
Lap Lap
For solenoidal
vector
VECTOR ANALYSIS
240
For any
gives the potential.
the
the potential
vector function the first operator
irrotational
of
potential of the solenoidal part.
*95.] There are a number of double
gives
the second, the
part;
volume integrals which
are of such frequent occurrence in mathematical physics as
to merit a passing mention, although the theory of them will
not be developed to any considerable extent. These double
They are not scalar funcintegrals are all scalar quantities.
tions of position in space.
The
They have but a
integrations in the expressions
convenience as extended over
may
all space.
single value.
be considered for
The
functions by
vanishing identically outside of certain finite limits determine for all practical purposes the limits of integration in
case they are finite.
Given two
scalar functions
of position in space.
?7,
or potential product, as it may be called,
of the two functions is the sextuple integral
The mutual potential
Pot
One
(71)
of the integrations
Pot
( U,
F)
may be performed
=fff PX*!,
(* 2 ,
yv
yi, *i)
*2)
Pot
Pot
Vd Vl
Udv2
(72)
In a similar manner the mutual potential or
potential product
of two vector functions
is
W, W"
(71)'
This
is
ried out
also a scalar quantity.
One
integration
may
be car
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Pot (W, W")
The mutual Laplacian
vector functions W',
W"
'0*i' 2/i' *i)
or
'
Laplacian
Pot
"
dv i
of
product
of position in space
is
241
two
the sextuple
integral
Lap(W',W")
=ffffffw
'
(*i ?!
i)^
w" (*
y* 2 2)
rfi ^^2(73)
One
integration
may
Lap (W, W")
be performed.
=f f fw" (x v yv
Lap
,)
Wd
vz
(74)
=fffw
'
The Newtonian product
function
fa* y
^i)
LaP
"
of a scalar function
W of position in space
is
dv
F",
and a vector
the sextuple integral
(75)
By
performing one integration
vz
(76)
In like manner the Maxwellian product of a vector function
and a
scalar function
of position in
space
is
the
integral
Max (W,F) =
(77)
16
VECTOR ANALYSIS
242
One
integration yields
Max(W, r)
=
(78)
By
(53) Art. 93.
U PotF=  (V New *7) PotF.
V [NewZ7PotF] =(V New U) Pot F + (New Z7) V Pot F.
 (V New U) PotF=  V [New Z7PotF]+ New U> New V.
4 TT
Integrate
47r
f f CuPotYdv=: f f fv [Ne
+ f f fNewZ7 NewF
47T
Pot
(Z7,
v.
F) = T r fNewZ

The surface
ci
integral
is
f f Pot F New CT d a.
.
(79)
to be taken over the entire surface
bounding the region of integration of the volume integral.
As this region of integration is " all space," the surface S may
be looked upon as the surface of a large sphere of radius E.
If the functions
U and V vanish identically for all points
side of certain finite limits, the surface integral
must
out
vanish.
Hence
4
By
TT
Pot
U,
F)
= f f fNew U New Vdv.
(54) Art. 93,
47r
W". PotW
= V x Lap W" Pot W
 V Max W" Pot W'.
(79)'
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
243
W] = Pot W V x Lap W"
 Lap W" V x Pot W',
and V [Max W" Pot W] = Pot W V Max W"
+ Max W" V Pot W.
Hence V x Lap W" Pot W = V [Lap W" x Pot W]
But
[Lap
W" x
Pot
+ Lap W"
V Max W"
and
Hence
4
TT
Pot W'
Lap
W,
=V
[Max W" Pot
Max W" Max W.
W]
substituting:
W"
Pot
W = Lap W
+V
[Lap
V
Lap
W + Max W Max W"
W" X
[Max W"
Pot
Pot
W]
W].
Integrating:
TT
Pot (W, W")
= f f fLap W'. Lap W'dv
+ f f fMaxW'MaxW"rfv
(80)
 f f PotW' x Lap W" da f f Max W" Pot WW a.
If
now W' and
W"
exist only in finite space these surface
integrals taken over a large sphere of radius
R must
vanish
and then
4
TT
Pot (W', W")
=ff /Lap W'
Lap W" d v
+ f f *Max W' Max W" d v.
*
96.]
(80)'
There are a number of useful theorems of a function
theoretic nature
which may perhaps be mentioned here owing
VECTOR ANALYSIS
244
the integral calculus of
to their intimate connection with
of them will in some instances be given
The
vectors.
proofs
and in some
The theorems
not.
are often useful in practical
of vector analysis to physics as well as in purely
applications
mathematical work.
Theorem : If
V (x,
y, z)
be a scalar function of position
VV
in space which possesses in general a definite derivative
and if in any portion of space, finite or infinite but necessarily
continuous, that derivative vanishes, then the function
constant throughout that portion of space.
is
VF=0.
Given
F= const.
To show
By
Choose a fixed point (xv y v zj in the region.
180
xt
*u
**
V V* d r = Ffa
y, *)
 F fa,
yv
(2) page
*,)
Vi, *i
But
Hence
F(#,
Theorem
If
y, z)
= F (xv yv Zj) = const.
(#, y, 2)
be a scalar function of position
VV
'
in space
which possesses
in general a definite derivative
the divergence of that derivative exists and is zero throughout any region of space, 1 finite or infinite but necessarily
if
continuous
and
at every point of
if
furthermore the derivative
any
finite
volume or
surface in that region or bounding
vanishes throughout all that region
of
it,
V F vanishes
portion of
then the derivative
any
finite
and the function
F re
duces to a constant by the preceding theorem.
The term throughout any region of space
boundaries of the region as well as the region
1
must be regarded as including the
itself.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
V VF"=
Given
VF=
and
F= const.
VF vanishes for the portion of surface S,
constant in S.
upon one side of
Fis certainly
S and in the
Suppose
were not constant.
The derivative V V upon
side of S has in the main the direction of the normal to
region T,
this
for a region T,
for a finite portion of surface S.
To show
Since
245
that,
Consider a sphere which lies for the most
outer
side of S but which projects a little
the
part upon
the
surface
The surface integral of VF" over
S.
through
the surface S.
the small portion of the sphere which projects through the
surface S cannot be zero. For, as
is in the main normal
VV
to $, it
must be nearly
of spherical surface
parallel to the
normal to the portion
under consideration.
VF.
Hence the terms
rfa
in the surface integral all have the same sign and cannot
cancel each other out. The surface integral of
over
VF
that portion of S which
face vanishes because
intercepted by the spherical surConsequently the surface
is
V F is zero.
integral of
V F taken over the entire surface
segment which projects through
But
S is
of the spherical
not zero.
f f VF.<a = f f fv VFd0 =
Hence
f fvF'da =
0.
0.
is not
appears that the supposition that
constant upon one side of S leads to results which contradict
It therefore
V VF=
the given relation
The supposition must there0.
fore have been incorrect and
must be constant not only in
S but in all portions of space near to $ in the region T. By
VECTOR ANALYSIS
246
an extension of the reasoning
is
seen to be constant
throughout the entire region T.
Theorem : If
(x, y, z) be a scalar function of position in
and if throughspace possessing in general a derivative
VV
out a certain region 1
T of
space, finite or infinite,
or discontinuous, the divergence
exists
and
is
zero,
and
a constant value
and V(x,
if
V VV
continuous
of that derivative
V possesses
furthermore the function
in all the surfaces
bounding the region
when
the point (x, y, z)
approaches
recedes to infinity, then throughout the entire region T the
function V has the same constant value c and the derivative
c
y, z)
as a limit
VF vanishes.
The proof does not
in the case of the last theorem.
eralized as follows
Tlieorem
from the one given
The theorem may be gen
differ essentially
If V(x, y, z) be
any scalar function of position
in space possessing in general a derivative
V V;
if
U (#, y, z)
be any other scalar function of position which is either positive or negative throughout and upon the boundaries of a
region T, finite or infinite, continuous or discontinuous;
the divergence
and
[
F] of the product of
exists
and
to
and
upon
is
all
if
VF
and upon the boundaries of T
furthermore V be constant and equal
zero throughout
is
at infinity
function
UV
and
if
the boundaries of
and
at infinity
then the
constant throughout the entire region
is
equal to c.
Theorem : If
F (x,
y, z)
be any scalar function of position
in space possessing in
general a derivative
out any region
T and
V F;
if
through
of space, finite or infinite, continuous or
V VF
of this derivative exists
discontinuous, the divergence
and is zero ; and if in all the bounding surfaces of the region
the normal
component of the derivative
at infinite distances in
1
The region
(if
V F vanishes
and
such there be) the product
includes
its
boundaries.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
rz 9
V/ 9
247
where r denotes the distance measured
r vanishes,
from any fixed origin
then throughout the entire region T
and in each continuous portion
VF vanishes
the derivative
T V is
constant, although for different continuous portions
this constant may not be the same.
of
This theorem may be generalized as the preceding one
was by the substitution of the relation V ( U V F) = for
VVF=Oand Ur 9V/9r =
z
As
for r 2 9V/9r
= 0.
the foregoing theorems the following
be made. The language is not so precise
corollaries of
statements
may
as in the theorems themselves,
when they
stood
V U = V F,
If
but will perhaps be under
are borne in mind.
then
and
differ
most by a
at
constant.
VV?7=V.VF
If
differs
If
V only by a
from
constant at most.
VVZ7= V.VF and
surfaces of the region
and
thereto), then at all points
If
equal and
zero, then
if
(if
in all the
if
from
Fare equal
F only by a
and
"
the bounding
bounding surfaces
V U and V F are
normal components of
and
all
the region extend
and Fare equal.
at infinite distances r z (9
27
U differs
U= V in
if
at infinity
7"
V V 7 = V V F and
of the region the
and
if
VZ7 = VFin any finite
V U = V V at all points and V
and
surface $, then
portion of
U /9 r
V/9 r)
is
at all points of the region
constant.
two vector functions of position
in space which in general possess curls and divergences ; if
Theorem
If
'
are
for any region T, finite or infinite but necessarily continuous,
and the divergence
the curl of W' is equal to the curl of
of W' is equal to the divergence of W"; and if moreover
W"
two functions W' and W"
every point of any finite volume
the
in
T or
bounding
of the region T.
it;
then
W'
is
are equal to each other at
in
T or of
equal to
any
finite
W" at
surface
every point
VECTOR ANALYSIS
248
Since
W = V x W", V x (W  W") =
whose curl vanishes
tor function
is
0.
vec
equal to the derivative
VF=W'
W".
Then V V V
owing to the equality of the divergences.
The theorem therefore becomes a corollary of a preceding one.
of a scalar function
Let
(page 197).
W' and W"
two vector functions of position which in general possess definite curls and divergences
2
if
region T, finite but not
throughout any aperiphractic
Theorem
If
are
necessarily continuous, the curl of
W'
equal to the curl of
W" and the divergence of W' is equal to the divergence of
W"; and if furthermore in all the bounding surfaces of the
is
W"
are equal;
region T the tangential components W' and
then W' is equal to W" throughout the aperiphractic region T.
Theorem,: If W' and
are two vector functions of posi
W"
which in general possess
tion in space
definite
curls
and
if
;
throughout any acyclic region T, finite but not
the curl of W' is equal to the curl
continuous,
necessarily
W" and the divergence of W' is equal to the divergence of
divergences
if in all the
bounding surfaces of the region T the
normal components of W' and W" are equal then the functions W' and W" are equal throughout the region acyclic T.
The proofs of these two theorems are carried out by means
W"; and
of the device suggested before.
W' and W"
Theorem: If
that
V V

W'
and
V V W"
are
two vector functions such
have in general
definite values
in a certain region T, finite or infinite, continuous or discon
tinuous
and
in all the bounding surfaces of the region
the
functions W' and
are equal ; then W'
infinity
equal to
throughout the entire region T.
The proof is given by treating separately the three com;
if
W"
and at
is
W"
ponents of
tic.
W' and W".
T
The
region
may hare to be made acyclic by the insertion of diaphragms.
region which encloses within itself another region is said to be periphrac
If
it
encloses no region
it is
aperiphractic.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
249
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER IV
The
line integral of a vector function
W along a curve C
is
defined as
C
J
The
w<Zr=f
[Widx + Wtdy + Wtdz].
/ C
line integral of the derivative
V V of
(1)
a scalar function
along a curve C from r to r is equal to the difference
at the points r and r and hence the
between the values of
line integral
taken around a closed curve
is
zero
and con
the line integral of a vector function
taken
versely
around any closed curve vanishes, then
is the derivative
if
V V of some scalar function
V.
= F(r)F(r )
(2)
fvF.rfr
.rfr =
Jo
and
f W dr = 0,
if
Jo
Illustration of the
The
is
then
(3)
W = VF.
theorem by application to mechanics.
surface integral of a vector function
W over a surface
denned as
f f
d&= C C [W
Gauss's Theorem
tion taken over a
The
dy dz + W^dz dx +
dx
dy].
surface integral of a vector funcis equal to the volume
closed surface
integral of the divergence of that function taken throughout
the volume enclosed by that surface
ff
=
JV W dv C C W
da,
(7)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
250
'
'
* ~
dz
[X dy
'
3y
+ Y dz dx + Z dx
dy~],
(8)
^ be
the three components of the vector function W.
Stokes's Theorem: The surface integral of the curl of a
vector function taken over any surface is equal to the line
if
X,
integral of the function taken around the line bounding the
surface.
And conversely if the surface integral of a vector
function
taken over any surface is equal to the line integral
taken around the boundary, then U is the
TJ
of a function
curl of
W.
ff V x
JJ a
and
if
da
JJ JJ
f Wrfr,
Wda=Jo
=J
dr, then
(11)
U = V X W.
(12)
Application of the theorem of Stokes to deducing the
equations of the electromagnetic field from two experimental
facts due to Faraday.
Application of the theorems of Stokes
and Gauss to the proof that the divergence of the curl of
a vector function
a scalar function
is
zero and the curl of the derivative of
is zero.
Formulae analogous to integration by parts
x v
Vv
'
d&
dT
[u v"fr
Tv^U'dr,
(14)
=fo uv ff*Jj^VXYrfl,(M)
'
dr,
(16)
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
I
fw V
v dv
wv
d&
251
I^U'vdv,
(17)
f f VM x vrfa =  f f TV** V x vdv.
(18)
Green's Theorem:
IV
Vv
dv
= If uVvd&
= CCv Vw da
C C C(uV'Vv
iu V
V v dv
f Cv V Vudv,
vV^Vw) dv=
MwVv
(19)
Vw)^a. (20)
Kelvin's generalization:
wVu*Vvdv=
uw*7vd&
= I fvw Vu*da,
Cv V
The integrating operator known
u* V[wVv]
[w VM] dv.
as the potential
is
c?v
(21)
defined
by the equation
Pot
Pot
V =f f f
J J J
W
V(X* Vv
Zz)
a;2y2
dx z dy, dz v
(22)
<**2 ^2/2 ^^2
VPotF=PotVF;
V x Pot W = Pot V x W,
V Pot W = Pot V W,
.
V V Pot V= Pot V
Vr,
(23)
(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
252
V V Pot W = Pot V V W,
VV Pot W = Pot
W,
V x V x Pot W = Pot V x V x W.
The
(31)
(32)
(33)
integrating operator Pot and the differentiating operator
V are
commutative.
The
three additional integrating operators
Newtonian, the Laplacian, and the Maxwellian.
r i2
New F=
T
W=
<**2
VT
TIT
Lap
*2)
i/2'
dy, dz2
2x j
a
known
^12
as the
(42)
^^2 * i r
/Af>\
( 43 )
MaxW =
If the potential exists these integrals are related to it as fol
lows:
V Pot F= New F,
V x Pot W = Lap W;
V Pot W = Max W.
The interpretation of the physical meaning
(45)
of the
Newtonian
on the assumption that F is the density of an attracting
is electric
body, of the Laplacian on the assumption that
of
the
Maxwellian
on
the
that
is the
flux,
assumption
intensity of magnetization. The expression of these integrals
or their components in terms of #, y, z ; formulae (42)', (43)',
(44)'
and
(42)", (43)", (44)".
V New F= Max V F,
V Max W = New V W,
V x Lap W = Lap V x W,
(46)
(47)
(48)
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
Lap
W = Max V x W =
x New
0,
(49)
V = Lap V V 0,
(50)
V V W = New V W Lap V x W
= V Max W V x Lap W.
The
potential
and
(51)
That
a solution of Poisson's Equation.
is
(52)
V V Pot F=  4
(52)'
TT
W.
(53)
IT
Lap
.
47T
Hence
divided
is
is,
V VPotF = 47rF,
F=^V.NewF,
4
W=
253
into
and the other
New V W.
.
(55)
7T
two parts of which one
is
provided the potential
In case the potential does not exist a third term
exists.
3
must be added of which both the divergence and the curl
solenoidal
irrotational,
A list
vanish.
which follow immediately from
(55) and which state that certain
of theorems
equations (52), (52)', (53),
integrating operators are inverse to certain differentiating
Let
be a scalar function, W, a solenoidal vector
operators.
function, and
Lap
an irrotational vector function.
New
47T
Lap
= Vx
= 0, V
=V
LapWj =
4 7T
Then
Wr
(60)
New W2 = W2
(61)
(62)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
254
V.
^NewF= V
(63)
Max
47T

Pot
47T
VF =
Wi = V x V
F.
x Pot Wj
_Lp
t VV.W =  V.VPotW = W
47T
4
2
(64)
(65)
7T
_i Pot V
4Tr
47T
_ Pot V V W =  V V 1
4?r
1
Pot
4?r
V.VW = VxVxW
V V W = VV W
1
4
4
TT
Pot
TT
Pot
W = W.
(67)
(68)
V =  Max New V
W = Lap Lap W
(66)
(69)
New Max W.
(70)
Mutual potentials Newtonians, Laplacians, and Maxwellians
may be formed. They are sextuple integrals. The integrations cannot all be performed immediately ; but the first three
may be. Formulae (71) to (80) inclusive deal with these integrals.
The chapter
of theorems of
closes with the enunciation of a
a functiontheoretic nature.
these theorems certain facts
number
By means of
concerning functions
may
be
inferred from the conditions that satisfy Laplace's equation
and have certain boundary conditions.
Among
tion.
the exercises
The work done in
number 6
the text
is
worthy of especial atten
has for the most part assumed
But many of the formulae connecting
Newtonians, Laplacians, and Maxwellians hold when the potential does not exist. These are taken
up in Exercise 6 referred to.
that the potential exists.
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
255
EXEKCISES ON CHAPTER IV
I.
If F" is a scalar function of position in space the line
integral
/><"
is
Show
a vector quantity.
r
Jo
That
c c
/
is
that
c r
J tjs
i/ 5
the line integral of a scalar function around a
is equal to the skew surface integral of the deriv
closed curve
ative of the function taken over
the contour of the curve.
Show
any surface spanned into
further that
if
V is
constant
the integral around any closed curve is zero and conversely
if the integral around any closed curve is zero the function V
is
constant.
Hint
it
Instead of treating the integral as it stands multiply
by an arbitrary constant unit vector and thus
(with a dot)
reduce
2.
it
If
to the line integral of a vector function.
is
a vector function the line integral
~JccW
a vector quantity. It
If c
of the function W.
is
X di
be called the skew line integral
any constant vector, show that if
may
is
the integral be taken around a closed curve
The
first
four exercises are taken from Foppl'a Einfiihrung in die
where they are worked out.
well'sche Theorie der Electricitat
Max
VECTOR ANALYSIS
256
and
=o
J j s V
W d a  J j V (W
a)
is taken over a plane curve and the
the portion of plane included by the curve
In case the integral
surface
is
=
Show
when
ff
V
that the integral taken over a plane curve vanishes
is constant and conversely if the integral over any
must be constant.
vanishes
curve
plane
is
3. The surface integral of a scalar function
=
This
is
a vector quantity.
Show
that the surface integral
taken over any closed surface is equal to the volume
integral of VF" taken throughout the volume bounded by
of
that surface.
That
is
Hence conclude that the surface integral over a closed surif V be constant and
conversely if the surface
over
closed
surface
vanishes the function V must
integral
any
face vanishes
be constant.
4.
If
W be a vector function, the surface integral
=
may
I da.
be called the skew surface integral.
quantity.
Show
that the
skew
It
is
a vector
surface integral of a vector
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
function taken over a closed surface
integral of the vector function
bounded by the
That
surface.
C C d&x
is
257
equal to the volume
taken throughout the volume
is
W=
x Wdv.
Hence conclude that the skew surface integral taken over
is an
any surface in space vanishes when and only when
That is, when and only when the line
irrotational function.
5.
for every closed circuit vanishes.
Obtain some formulae for these integrals which are
integral of
analogous to integrating by parts.
6. The work in the text assumes for the most part that the
potentials of
V and W exist. Many of
the relations, however,
may be demonstrated without that assumption. Assume that
the Newtonian, the Laplacian, the Maxwellian exist.
For
simplicity in writing let
12
r
r 12
Then
New V
=fff ^i Pu ^(aj r y v
*,)
Lap
W =ViPu X W (x v y v
Max
W Vtfu W
(x v
7/2,
d vv
a a)
a)
dv v
dv v
(81)
(82)
(83)
(84)
17
VECTOR ANALYSIS
258
exercise
By
It
<
can be shown that
if
F is
such a function that
New V
exists, then this surface integral taken over a large sphere of
radius R and a small sphere of radius R' approaches zero
when
small.
becomes indefinitely great; and R', indefinitely
Hence
NewF=PotVF.
or
(85)
Prove in a similar manner that
W = Pot V x W,
Max W = Pot V W.
Lap
By means
(86)
(87)
of (85), (86), (87) it is possible to prove that
x Lap
W = Lap V x W,
VNew F=Max VF,
V Max W = New V
W.
Then prove
/*
VxLapW=/
l.p la
t/ *J
t/
VV.W dv  /
VMaxW= f C
and
Hence
Hence
7.
/>
/"
An
x Lap
*
fp n
integral used
c/ t/
dv,v
rPi14 V
If
J J J
W V Max W = 4
by Helmholtz
o
s*
/j
VVW
W V Max W =
x Lap
s+
IT
is
Vdv a
*
W.
VW
rf
(88)
*
*
THE INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF VECTORS
or
if
W be a vector function
z
Show
that the integral converges
that
when
WdVr
if F"
(90)
diminishes so rapidly
K
r becomes indefinitely great.
V H ( F) = H (V F) = New (r F),
V # (W) = # (V W) = Max (r W),
V x # (W) = H (V x W) = Lap (r W),
2
VJ2" (
= JT (V VF)=Max(r 2 VF) = 2 Pot ^
V V # (W) = H(y V W) = 2 Pot W.
F)
H ( F) =JET
(W) = 
Pot Pot
F:
~ Pot
(91)
(92)
(93)
C 94 )
(95)
(96)
7T
Pot W.
VV.
8.
259
(97)
5"
(W).
(98)
Give a proof of Gauss's Theorem which does not depend
upon the physical interpretation of a function as the flux of a
The reasoning is similar to that employed in Art. 51
fluid.
and in the first proof of Stokes's Theorem.
Show that the division of
9.
into two parts, page 235,
is
unique.
10.
Treat, in a
manner analogous
the case in which
to that
upon page
has curves of discontinuities.
220,
CHAPTER V
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
97.]
AFTER
the definitions of products had been laid
down
and applied, two paths of advance were open. One was
the other, higher algebra
differential and integral calculus
;
in the sense of the theory of linear
The treatment
homogeneous substitutions.
of the first of these topics led to
new
ideas
and new symbols
to the derivative, divergence, curl, scalar
and vector potential, that is, to V, V, Vx, and Pot with the
auxiliaries, the
The treatment
Newtonian, the Laplacian, and the Maxwellian.
of the second topic will likewise introduce
the linear vector
novelty both in concept and in notation
function, the dyad, and the dyadic with their appropriate
symbolization.
The
simplest example of a linear vector function
The
product of a scalar constant and a vector.
r'
= cr
is
the
vector r'
(1)
r.
more general linear function
be
obtained
may
by considering the components of r individLet i, j, k be a system of axes. The components of
ually.
is
a linear function of
r are
i
r,
r,
r.
Let each of these be multiplied by a scalar constant which
may be
different for the different
Cji.r,
j.r,
components.
c3
r.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Take these
r'
The
as the
components of a new vector
(CiiTj+j
vector r'
is
(c 2
+k
j.r)
then a linear function of
are always equal to the corresponding
multiplied by a definite scalar constant.
Such a
etry and
linear function has
physics.
r.
r'
r).
Its
components
(2)
components of
each
numerous applications in geomi, j, k be the axes of a
for instance,
If,
and c v
strain
homogeneous
(c 8
261
c 2 , c 3,
the elongations along these
axes, a point
r=ri#+J7/ + kz
becomes
r'
or
'
=ic
i c
f j c 2
+j
<?
+k
c s 2,
c3
2 j
r.
This sort of linear function occurs in the theory of elasticity
and in hydrodynamics. In the theory of electricity and
magnetism, the
electric force
electric displacement
is
a linear function of the
in a dielectric.
For
isotropic bodies
the function becomes merely a constant
But
in case the
body be nonisotropic, the components of the
force along the different axes will be multiplied
constants k v k v k 3
E
The
the
i'D + j& 2 j .D + k&gk.D.
linear vector function
phenomena
different
Thus
= ik
by
is
of electricity,
indispensable in dealing with
magnetism, and optics in non
isotropic bodies.
98.]
It
is
possible to define a linear vector function, as has
been done above, by means of the components of a vector.
The most general definition would be
VECTOR ANALYSIS
262
Definition
vector r'
tion of another vector r
is
said to be a linear vector func
when
the components of r' along
three noncoplanar vectors are expressible linearly with scalar
coefficients in terms of the components of r along those same
vectors.
= #a + yb + zc, where [abc]
r' = x' & + y'b + z'c,
x' = a x + by + c^z*
If
and
and
if
0,
(3)
then
etc.,
allel
(The constants a 15
have no connection with the components of a, b,
to i, j, k.)
Another definition however is found
a linear function of
r' is
more convenient and from
Definition
r.
c par
to be
the foregoing may be deduced.
continuous vector function of a vector is
when
the function of the
any two vectors is the sum of the functions
vectors.
That is, the function /is linear if
of
of those
(4)
Theorem
it
said to be a linear vector function
sum
Jj,
a be any positive or negative scalar and if /
be a linear function, then the function of a times r is a times
:
If
the function of
r.
/(ar)
= a/(r).
(5)
And hence
/Oi*i + 2 r 2 + a 3 r 3 +
)
= i/(*i) + 2 /(r 2 )+ 8 /(r 8 ) +
The proof
obvious
is
of this theorem
trifle
long.
use of relation (4).
(5)'
which appears more or
It depends
less
upon making repeated
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Hence
/(2r)
In like manner
/ (nr~)
where n
is
any positive
= 2/(r).
= w/(r)
integer.
Let
263
be any other positive integer.
just obtained
Then by
the relation
and
Hence
That
is
is,
equation (5) has been proved in case the constant a
a rational positive number.
To show
the relation for negative numbers note that
/(0)=/(0 + 0)=2/(0).
Hence
But
/(O)
0.
/(O) =/(rr) =/(r +(r)) =/(r) +/(r).
Hence
To
/(r)=/(r).
prove (5) for incommensurable values of the constant
becomes necessary to make use of the continuity of the
function /. That is
a, it
LIM
 x
x= a
'
_
~~
Let x approach the incommensurable number a by passing
through a suite of commensurable values. Then
Hence
LlM
CC
_.
CL
(x
r)
= a f (r)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
264
Lm
i fm
/>>
&
Hence
(ar)=ar.
^
*
tt
= a/(r)
/(ar)
which proves the theorem.
Theorem :
mined when
linear vector function
its
value for three noncoplanar vectors
/ (r)
is
entirely detera, b, c
are
known.
Let
l=/(a),
m=/(b),
*=/()
Since r
is
any vector whatsoever,
Hence
(r)
it
may be
expressed as
= x 1 + y m + z~ft
In Art. 97 a particular case of a linear function was
99.]
expressed as
r'
Cj
c2 j
c3
r.
For the sake of brevity and to save repeating the vector r
which occurs in each of these terms in the same way this
may be
written in the symbolic form
r
= (ic
In like manner
b3
jc 2
+ kc 3
k).r.
if a
be any given vectors, and b r b 2
p a 2 a3
another set equal in number, the expression
r'
is
= aj bj
a 2 b 2 r
a linear vector function of r
for
a3 b3
owing
to the distributive
(6)
character of the scalar product this function of r satisfies
relation (4).
For the sake of brevity r' may be written symin
the
form
bolically
r'
(a x bj
aa b 2
a3 ba
)' r.
(6)'
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
265
No
particular physical or geometrical significance
attributed at present to the expression
(a 1 b 1
It should be regarded as
verts
the vector
r into
affords a convenient
aa ba
+ a,b a +
is
to be
(7)
...).
an operator or symbol which conthe vector r' and which merely
and quick way
of writing the relation
(6).
An expression a b formed by the juxtaposition
:
two vectors without the intervention of a dot or a cross is
Definition
of
The symbolic sum of two dyads is called a
of three, a dyadic trinomial ; of any numbinomial
dyadic
a
ber,
dyadic polynomial. For the sake of brevity dyadic
called a dyad.
binomials, trinomials, and polynomials will be called simply
The first vector in a dyad is called the antecedent ;
dyadics.
and the second
vector, the consequent.
The antecedents
of a
dyadic are the vectors which are the antecedents of the
individual dyads of which the dyadic is composed. In like
manner the consequents of a dyadic are the consequents of
are
the individual dyads. Thus in the dyadic (7) ap a2 a3
the antecedents and b x , b 2 , b 3
the consequents.
Dyadics will be represented symbolically by the capital
Greek letters. When only one dyadic is present the letter
,
will generally be used.
In case several are under consideration other Greek capitals will be employed also. With
this notation (7)
becomes
=a
and
(6)'
may now
b1
aa ba
By
a8 b8
+...,
(7)'
be written briefly in the form
r'
definition
=&
bx
r.
r f a 2
(8)
b2
a3 b 3
The symbol <Pr is read
dot r.
It is called the direct
into r because the consequents b x , b 2 , b 3
are
product of
VECTOR ANALYSIS
266
The
multiplied into r by direct or scalar multiplication.
The direct
and r is important.
order of the factors
product of r into
r.
is
= r(si
+ a2 b + a b +
)
= r.a b + r.a b 2 + ra b + ...
'
<P
l)
Definition
When
Evidently the vectors
:
(9)
r_andjr^_i? are in general different.
the dyadic
is
multiplied into r as
When
r,
is
said to be a prefactor to
0,
said to be a post/actor to r.
used either as a prefactor or as a postfactor
dyadic
r.
r is multiplied in
as
is
to
a linear vector function of
The two linear
vector functions thus obtained are in general different from
one another. They are called conjugate linear vector func
vector r determines
tions.
r.
The two dyadics
= a b + a b + a b8 +
# W = bj ^ + b 2 a 2 + b 3 a 3 +
<P
and
each of which
obtained from the other by inter
may be
changing the antecedents and consequents, are called conjuThe fact that one dyadic is the conjugate of
gate dyadics.
another is denoted by affixing a subscript C to either.
Thus
Theorem:
0=
dyadic used as a postfactor gives the same
result as its conjugate used as a prefactor.
r
100.]
Definition
Any two
That
is
r.
dyadics
(9)
and
are said to
be equal
when
or
when
or
when
r
B
= W r
=r W
r =s
W
for all values of
r,
for all values of
r,
for all values of s
and
(10)
r.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
The
third relation
vectors
vector
scalar
and
like
and
is
equivalent to the
first.
267
For,
the
if
r are equal, the scalar products of
any
them must be equal. And conversely if the
r
product of any and every vector s into the vectors
into
&
! are equal, then those vectors
must be equal. In
shown
that
the
third
relation is equivamay
the second.
Hence all three are equivalent.
manner
lent to
Theorem
be
it
completely determined
is
dyadic
when
the
values
*..,
</>.,
<z>.b,
where
a, b, c are any three noncoplanar vectors, are known.
This follows immediately from the fact that a dyadic defines
a linear vector function.
If
and W are equal provided equaconsequently two dyadics
tions (10) hold for three noncoplanar vectors r and three
noncoplanar vectors s.
Theorem : Any linear vector function /
may
be represented
to be used as a prefactor and by a dyadic
,
by a dyadic
which is the conjugate of 0, to be used as a postfactor.
The linear vector function is completely determined when
its
values for three noncoplanar vectors (say
known (page
Then
264).
i,
j,
k) are
Let
the linear function
is
=a +
givenby
to be used as a postfactor
equivalent to the dyadic
bj
and
to the dyadic
ck,
= ia + jb + kc,
to be used as a prefactor.
/ (r ) =
= r 0^
VECTOR ANALYSIS
268
The study
of linear vector functions therefore
identical
is
with the study of dyadics.
dyad a b is said to be multiplied by a scalar
Definition :
a when the antecedent or the consequent is multiplied by
when a
that scalar, or
a (a b)
any manner between
distributed in
is
the antecedent and the consequent.
(a a) b
a (a b)
If
= a' a"
(a'
a) (a" b).
is said to be multiplied by the scalar a when
dyadic
each of its dyads is multiplied by that scalar. The product
is
written
0a.
or
The dyadic a
applied to a vector r either as a prefactor or
as a postfactor yields a vector equal to a times the vector
obtained by applying
to r
that is
V Theorem
utive.
(a 0)
The combination
That
= a($.r).
of vectors in a
dyad
distrib
is
is
and
a (b
+ c) =
This follows immediately from the definition of equality of
For
dyadics (10).
[(a
b) c]
= (a +
+ c)J
= a(b + c) .r = abr + acr =
b) c
= ac
r f
(a c
b c)
and
[a(b
Hence
it
follows that a
each of which
is
the
dyad which
sum
of a
consists of
number
two
of vectors,
factors,
may
be
multiplied out according to the law of ordinary algebra
except that the order of the factors in the dyads must le
maintained.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
269
...
cl
+ cm + cn+
(11)'
...
The dyad therefore appears as a product of the two vectors of
which it is composed, inasmuch as it obeys the characteristic
law of products
the distributive law.
This
is
justifi
cation for writing a dyad with the antecedent and consequent in juxtaposition as is customary in the case of products
in ordinary algebra.
The Nonion Form of a Dyadic
lOL]
From
the three unit vectors
i, j,
k nine dyads may
be obtained by combining two at a time.
ii,
ij,
ik,
ji>
jj,
jk,
ki,
kj,
If all the antecedents
pressed in terms of
i, j,
These are
(12)
kk.
and consequents in a dyadic
be exand
if
the
k,
resulting expression be
by performing the multiplications according to the
distributive law (11)' and if the terms be collected, the dyadic
simplified
may
be reduced to the
sum
of nine dyads each of
which
is
a scalar multiple of one of the nine fundamental dyads given
above.
a 12
ij
13
ik
+
ki +
a 22
jj
23
ik
a n ii
+
+
This
is
a 31
j i
a 82 kj
(13)
a 33 kk.
called the nonion form of 0.
Theorem
dyadics
a al
d>
The necessary and
and
be equal
sufficient condition that
is that,
when
two
expressed in nonion
VECTOR ANALYSIS
270
form, the scalar coefficients of the corresponding
(?ads
be
equal.
If the coefficients be equal, then obviously
for
and the dyadics by (10) must be
and W are equal, then by
the dyadics
any value of
Conversely,
if
for all values of
i,j,k.
and
=s
Let
r.
and
each take on the vlues
Then
14)
i.
#.i
= i.
gr.i
k.
<P.i
= k.
^.i,
<Z>.j
=i
?F.
i<Z>.k
= k.
r.j,
k.^.k^k.^k.
= i..k
But
these quantities are precisely the nine coefficients in ;he
and W. Hence the corresponding
expansion of the dyadics
coefficients are equal and the theorem is proved. 1
Thu
analytic statement of the equality of two dyadics can sometimes be used to greater advantage than the more fundamental
definition (10) based
upon the conception of the dyadic as
a
linear
vector
function.
defining
Theorem :
dyadic
may be expressed as the sum of nine
dyads of which the antecedents
are
any three given non
coplanar vectors, a, b, c and the consequents any three given
noncoplanar vectors 1, m, n.
Every antecedent may be expressed in terms of a, b, c
and every consequent, in terms of 1, m, n. The dyadic may
then be reduced to the form
;
+
+
21
a 31
+
8l+
bl
a 23
bm +
a 32
cm +
23
bn
(15)
a 33 en.
9^
1
As a
corollary of the theorem it is evident that the nine dyads (12) are inNone of them may be expressed linearly in terms of the others.
dependent.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
271
is more general than that given in
This expression of
It reduces to that expression when each set of vectors
(13).
a, b, c
and
1,
Theorem
m, n coincides with
Any
i, j,
may
dyadic
k.
be reduced to the
sum
of
three dyads of which either the antecedents or the consequents,
but not both, may be arbitrarily chosen provided they be non
coplanar.
Let
of
it
which
be required to express
a, b, c
three noncoplanar vectors.
(15).
(P
sum
as the
of three dyads
m, n be any other
then be expressed as in
Let
are the consequents.
may
1,
Hence
= a (a u +
1
a la
m+
a ls n)
+ b (a 21 1 + 22 m + a 23 n)
+ c (a 31 1 + a 32 m + a 32 n),
= aA + bB +
or
cC.
(16)
be required to express
as the sum of
three dyads of which the three noncoplanar vectors 1, m, n are
the consequents
In like manner
if it
= Ll +
= au a +
M = a l2 a +
a +
N=
L
where
18
Mm + Nn,
+
b +
a zl b
a Z2
23
a 31
(16)'
c,
32 c,
33 c.
are unique. Two equal
expressions (15), (16), (16)' for
dyadics which have the same three noncoplanar ante
The
these
a, b, c, have the same consequents A, B, C
however need not be noncoplanar. And two equal dyadics
which have the same three noncoplanar consequents 1, m, n,
have the same three antecedents.
cedents,
102.] Definition:
position of
or a cross
a and
b.
The symbolic product formed by
two vectors
is
a,
the juxtab without the intervention of a dot
called the indeterminate product of the
two vectors
VECTOR ANALYSIS
272
The reason
for the
term indeterminate
a x b have
products a b and
definite
meanings.
On
certain scalar, the other a certain vector.
the product
ab
is
The two
One is a
is this.
the other
neither vector nor scalar
hand
it is
purely
symbolic and acquires a determinate physical meaning only
when used as an operator. The product a b does not obey
It does however obey the distributive
the commutative law.
law (11) and the associative law as far as scalar multiplication
is concerned (Art 100).
TJieorem : The indeterminate product a b of two vectors is
the most general product in which scalar multiplication
is
associative.
The most general product conceivable ought to have
property that when the product is known the two factors
the
are
known. Certainly no product could be more general.
Inasmuch as scalar multiplication is to be associative, that is
also
a(ab)
it
= (aa) b = a (ab) = (a'a)
(a"b),
will be impossible to completely determine the vectors a
and b when
may
their product a b is given.
Any scalar factor
be transferred from one vector to the other. Apart from
this possible transference of
posing the product are
other words
Theorem
a scalar factor, the vectors com
known when
the product
is
known. In
two indeterminate products a b and a' b'
and a', b and b' must be collinear and
the lengths of a and b (taking into account the
If the
are equal, the vectors a
the product of
positive or negative sign according as a
tively equal or opposite directions to
product of the lengths of
Let
=a
a'
and
and b have respec
a'
and
aa
as
k,
b'.
b') is
equal to the
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
273
'*
Then
ab
=
+
a'V
and
Since
ab
= a'b'
&1
& 1 kj
ii
/&/
kj
a3 6
ij
a/Jg' ik
jj
a 2 & 3 jk
a 3 '6 2 kj
a 3 '6 3 kk.
Z>
2
'
a,'ft a
'V ji+a 2 '& 2
'
a s '& 1 ki
'
'
'
corresponding coefficients are equal.
i
!':/!
i':
which shows that the vectors a and
And
&i:&,:6 8
= &i'
al
b1
are collinear.
a'
W.
which shows that the vectors b and
But
Hence
b' are collinear.
= a^ &/.
This shows that the product of the lengths (including sign)
are equal and the theorem
The proof may be
Since ab is equal to
r.
proved.
carried out geometrically as follows.
a'b'
ab
for all values of
is
= a'b'
Let r be perpendicular
to b.
vanishes and consequently b'r also vanishes.
for any vector r in the plane perpendicular to b.
Then b
This
is
true
Hence b and
same plane and are collinear. In
b
as a postfactor a and a' are seen
like manner by using a
Also
to be parallel.
a'b' b,
ab b
b'
are perpendicular to the
which shows that the products of the lengths are the same.
18
VECTOR ANALYSIS
274
The indeterminate product a b imposes Jive conditions upon
the vectors a and b. The directions of a and b are fixed and
The scalar product
likewise the product of their lengths.
being a scalar quantity, imposes only one condition upon
a and b. The vector product a x b, being a vector quantity,
a
b,
to the plane of a and
imposes three conditions. The normal
the
of
b is fixed and also the area
parallelogram of which they
are the side.
The nine indeterminate products (12) of i, j, k
The nine scalar products
into themselves are independent.
Only two
are not independent.
and
=j
=j
them are
different.
= kj=ki = ik = 0.
The nine vector products
of
are not independent either
for
ixi = jxj = kxk=:0,
and
xj
xk
i,
k x j,
kx
k.
The two products a b and a x b obtained respectively from
the indeterminate product by inserting a dot and a cross between the factors are functions of the indeterminate product.
is to say, when ab is given, a b and a X b are determined.
For these products depend solely upon the directions of a and b
and upon the product of the length of a and b, all of which
That
are
if
known when ab
ab
= a'b',
is
known.
= a'
b'
That
is
and a x b
= a'
b'.
(17)
not hold conversely that if a b and a x b are known
for taken together a b and a X b impose upon the
;
vectors only four conditions, whereas a b
imposes five. Hence
a b appears not only as the most
general product but as the
most fundamental product. The others are merely functions
It does
ab
of
is
it.
fixed
Their functional nature
is
notation of the dot and the cross.
brought out clearly by the
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Definition
scalar
known
275
as the scalar of
be ob
may
tained by inserting a dot between the antecedent and consequent of each dyad in a dyadic. This scalar will be denoted
by a subscript $ attached
=a
=a
S
If
b1
bx
to 0.
+ a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + ...
+ a2 b 2 + a3 b 3 +
.
In like manner a vector
known
. .
(18)
as the vector of
may
be
obtained by inserting a cross between the antecedent and consequent of each dyad in 0. This vector will be denoted by
attaching a subscript cross to 0.
X
=a
x bj + a 2 x b 2
x b3 +
a3
be expanded in nonion form in terms of
If
= a n + a Z2 + a^
 a is) + ( a i2 ~
* +
(si
(19)
i,
j,
k,
(20)
 ^32)
<Px =
23
= i. 0i +j.0.j + k
S
<p x = (j
k k
j) i + (k
3
Or
a 2i) k
0k,
i  i
+ (i.0.jJ0'i)k
( 21 )
(20)'
k)
(21)'
In equations (20) and (21) the scalar and vector of
are
in
terms
of
the
coefficients
of
when
expressed
expanded
and
in the nonion form.
Hence if
are two equal
is equal to the scalar of
dyadics, the scalar of
is equal to the vector of
.
vector of
If
From
this it
appears that
and 0*
3
S
and
and the
x.
are
functions of
(22)
is given.
uniquely determined when
They may sometimes
be obtained more conveniently from (20) and (21) than from
(18)
1
and
and
(19),
and sometimes
not.
A subscript dot might be used for the scalar of *
free
from
liability to misinterpretation.
if it
were sufficiently
distinct
VECTOR ANALYSIS
276
Products of Dyadics
In giving the definitions and proving the theorems
concerning products of dyadics, the dyad is made the under103.]
What
lying principle.
owing
law
the
distributive
obey
Definition:
dyad
is
The
true for the dyad
is
true for the
to the fact that dyads
and dyadics
is
dyadic in general
of multiplication.
written
,,
(a b)
and
is
by
into the
,.
(c d)
definition equal to the
(ab).(cd)
ab
product of the dyad
direct
dyad (b
aA
c)
= a(b.c)d = bc
a4.
(23)
and the consequent of the
That is,
second dyad are taken for the antecedent and consequent
respectively of the product and the whole is multiplied by
the scalar product of the consequent of the first and the
the antecedent of the
first
antecedent of the second.
Thus the two vectors which stand together
(a b)
in the product
(c d)
The
are multiplied as they stand.
other two are left to form
new dyad. The direct product of two dyadics may be
defined as the formal expansion (according to the distributive
law) of the product into a sum of products of dyads. Thus
a
and
<P.
+a
b2
+a
^=(01*1 +c 2
d2
^=(a
W=(^
^l
(cjdj
=a
+
+
+
1
The
b1
1
a 3 b a .c 1 d 1
parentheses
+a
+a
may
2
3
b3
c3
d3
+
+
+a b +a
+c 2 d +c
2
b3
d3
...)
)
a1 b1
b 2 .c 2 d 2
a 2 b 2 .c 3 d 3
b3
a3 b3
d 1 4a 1 b 1 c 2 d 2
a 2 b 2 .c 1 d 1
c2
d2
C3
d3
+ ...
c8 d3 +
he omitted in each of these three expressions.
(23)'
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
.
W=b
+
t>
b3
a x dj
cl
'
+b
+b
ax d2
c2
a2 d l
1>2' C 2
&2 d2
1>2
dx
b3
a3 d2
b3
Cj a 3
c2
c3
277
a 1 d3
'
C 3 *2
d3
c3 a3
d3

'
'
'
(23)"
The product
Theorem
regarded as
of two dyadics
The product
an operator
and
W of
to be
To show
or
?F).r
Let ab be any dyad of
and
(a b
ab
(c d
Hence
The theorem
=
c
equiva
r),
</>.(r.r).
d any dyad of
= b'c (a d
r) = a b c (d
(a b c d) r =
c d)
is
W when
W.
(<Z>.
W.
and
by the operator 0.
Q=
Let
a dyadic
used as a prefactor
W followed
lent to the operator
W is
two dyadics
(24)
.
= (b c) (d r) a,
r) = (b c) (d r) a,
r)
ab
(c d
r).
true for dyads. Consequently by virtue of
the distributive law it holds true for dyadics in general.
If r
is
denote the position vector drawn from an assumed origin
P in space, r' W r will be the position vector of
to a point
another point P\ and r"
$(*)
will be the
position
That is to say, W defines a transvector of a third point P".
formation of space such that the points
go over into the
a
P'.
defines
transformation
of
space such that the
points
Hence
points P' go over into the points P".
The single operation
into P".
carries
into P".
followed by
also carries
Theorem: Direct multiplication of dyadics obeys the
tributive law.
That
is
dis
VECTOR ANALYSIS
278
&(
and
($'
Hence
= <P.
= &'
'}
<P)
+ 0+
'
(25)
in general the product
(0+
<p>
+ 0" +...).
(+
'+
"+..)
be expanded formally according to the distributive law.
Theorem : The product of three dyadics <P,
Q is associa
may
That
tive,
^.^. Q=0
is
.^
(26)
and consequently either product may be written without
parentheses, as
The proof
$.?.&
(26 )'
theorem for
consists in the demonstration of the
three dyads ab, cd, ef taken respectively from the three
Q.
,
dyadics 0,
= (bc) ad* ef = (bc) (d e) af,
= (de) abcf = (de) (bc) af.
(ab.cd) ef
ab.(cd.ef)
The proof may
also be given
as operators
{(<?
V) . Q\
Let
= (0
.r = r'
r
{($)}.* = (&.
Let
by considering
.
W) (Q
).i'=<l>.
r).
(!').
= r",
\(0. W)*Q\ r = 0.i" = T'".
{(?.(?T. )} r =
[(?T. J2) r ].
.
r'
.
Again
Hence
{((^. ?F)
for all values of
r.
j2
<^>.
{#.
Consequently
(?F.
<#,
.r
and
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
279
The theorem may be extended by mathematical induction
any number of dyadics. The direct product
of any number of dyadics is associative.
Parentheses may
to the case of
be inserted or omitted at pleasure without altering the
It was shown above (24) that
(0. T).r
= &.(.T)=
0. W*r.
result.
(24)'
Hence the product of two dyadics and a vector is associative.
The theorem is true in case the vector precedes the dyadics
and also when the number of dyadics is greater than two.
But the theorem is untrue when the vector occurs between
the dyadics. The product of a dyadic, a vector, and another
dyadic
is
not associative.
(0.r).
Let a b be a dyad of
(a b
ab
r)
(r
c d)
and
<P.(r.
= b r (a c d) = (b
= ab d (r c) = b
results of this article
Theorem: The
may
(27)
).
d a dyad of W.
c) d,
r) (a
(r
c)
ab (rcd).
(abr) cd
Hence
The
<P,
W*
be
summed up
direct product of
as follows
any number
of dyadics
or of any number of dyadics with a vector factor at either
end or at both ends obeys the distributive and associative
laws of multiplication
parentheses may be inserted or
omitted at pleasure. But the direct product of any number
of dyadics with a vector factor at some other position than at
either
end
is
not associative
parentheses are necessary to
give the expression a definite meaning.
Later it will be seen that by making use of the conjugate
dyadics a vector factor which occurs between other dyadics
may
made
be placed at the end and hence the product
to assume a form in which it is associative.
may
be
VECTOR ANALYSIS
280
104.]
and
a vector r
respectively
dyad ab into
dyad ab are denned
The skew products
Definition:
a vector r into a
of
of a
by the equations
= a(b
rx(ab) = (r x
(ab) x
r),
a)b.
The skew product of a dyad and a vector at
dyad. The obvious extension to dyadics is
=a
b1 X r
=r
a2 b2
x ajbj +
xr +
x a2 b2
a3 b3
either
end
is
r H
a s bg
...
Theorem: The direct product of any number of dyadics
multiplied at either end or at both ends by a vector whether
the multiplication be performed with a cross or a dot is
But
associative.
in case the vector
position than the end the product
(rx $)
but
occurs at any other
not associative.
= r x (0s) =r
(0 x s) = (r 0) x s = r
(0 x s) = (r x 0) x s = r
.(TX 0) * (?T.r)x
and
can have no other meaning than
s
d>
x <Ps,
x
x
V.
Furthermore the expressions
s
That
is,
= rx(0?r) = rx <!>,
x 0).s
(r
r
?F
is
= s (r x $),
s = (0 x r)
s,
<P
(29)
s,
a,
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
with a cross into a scalar
since the product of a dyadic
is
281
s
Moreover since the dot and the cross may
meaningless.
be interchanged in the scalar triple product of three vectors
it
appears that
x
and
(r
The parentheses
in
d>
(B
r)
(r
= (0
x W)
<P,
(31)
s),
r)
these expressions
cannot be omitted
without incurring ambiguity.
$.(r X
(s
(0
s)
(<Z>.r)
&
r)
r)
x W#
The formal skew product
(ab) x
of
(c d)
0),
(r
(r
s,
(31)'
).
two dyads a b and
=a
(b
In
this expression three vectors a,
by
side with
d would be
c) d.
b x
c,
d are placed side
no sign of multiplication uniting them.
Such
an expression
rst
is
called a triad
The theory
and a sum
(32)
of such expressions, a triadic.
intimately connected with the theory
of linear dyadic functions of a vector, just as the theory of
dyadics is connected with the theory of linear vector functions
of triadics
is
In a similar manner by going a step higher
tetrads and tetradics may be formed, and finally polyads and
of a vector.
But the theory of these higher combinations of
The dyadic
vectors will not be taken up in this book.
polyadics.
furnishes about as great a generality as is ever called for in
practical applications of vector methods.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
282
Degrees of Nullity of Dyadics
105.]
It
was shown
be reduced to a
sum
(Art. 101) that a dyadic could always
of three terms at most, and this reduction
can be accomplished in only one
way when
or the consequents are specified.
In particular cases
the antecedents
it
may
be possible to reduce the dyadic further to a sum of two
terms or to a single term or to zero. Thus let
= al + bm + cn.
If
1,
m, n are coplanar one of the three
two
in terms of the other
may
be expressed
as
= x m + y n.
(P^azm + ayn + bm + cn,
<P = (a x 4 b) m + (a y + c) n.
Then
The dyadic has been reduced to two terms. If 1, m, n were
all collinear the dyadic would reduce to a single term and if
they all vanished the dyadic would vanish.
Theorem :
If a
be expressed as the
dyadic
sum
of three
terms
= al + bm +
d>
of
which the antecedents
a, b, c
are
en
known
to be noncoplanar,
sum of two dyads
when and only when the consequents are coplanar.
The proof of the first part of the theorem has just been
To prove the second part suppose that the dyadic
given.
then the dyadic
may
be reduced to the
could be reduced to a
sum
<P
of
two terms
= dp +
eq
and that the consequents
were noncoplanar.
1,
m, n of
This supposition leads to a contradiction. For let 1', m', n'
be the system reciprocal to 1, m, n. That is,
,
_" mx n
[Imn]'
n x
~jTmn]'
_
=
[Tmn]
g
'
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
283
vectors 1', m', n' exist and are noncoplanar because
m, n have been assumed to be noncoplanar. Any vector r
may be expressed in terms of them as
The
1,
<p.r
But
and
(al
1
m'
= x\' +
+
1'
bin
=m
= 1' m = m
ym'
en)
(x\*
m' = n
n'
= m'
zn,'
= (dp +
This shows that
e q)
= d (p
= 0.
zc.
giving to r a suitable value the vector
equal to any vector in space.
r
1'
By
But
zn').
n' = 1,
= n'
n =n
0r = xa + yb +
Hence
+ ym' +
r)
may
e (q
must be coplanar with d and
be
made
r).
e.
Hence
can take on only those vector values which lie in the
plane of d and e. Thus the assumption that 1, m, n are noncoplanar leads to a contradiction. Hence 1, m, n must be
r
coplanar and the theorem
Theorem : If a dyadic
terms
is
proved.
be expressed as the
= &l + bm +
of
which the antecedents
a, b, c
are
sum
of three
en,
known
to be noncoplanar,
can be reduced to a single dyad when and only
the dyadic
when the consequents 1, m, n are collinear.
The proof of the first part was given above.
the second part suppose
could be expressed as
Let
W0 x
= dp
?F=al xp +
x p
= dO = 0,
bmxp + cnxp.
To prove
VECTOR ANALYSIS
284
From
the second equation
postfactor for any vector
r
where
a', b', c' is
=xa +
;
the
first
y b'
used as a
20',
the reciprocal system to
r. ?r =iclxp
From
evident that
it is
a, b, c
gives
+ 2/inxp + 2nxp.
expression
r
0.
zlxp+ymxp + znxp
Hence
must be zero
Hence
y, 2.
for every value of
lxp = 0,
1, m, and n are
been demonstrated.
Hence
x p
r,
that
= 0,
all parallel to
If the three consequents
1,
is,
for every value of #,
n x p
= 0.
p and the theorem has
m, n had been
known
to be non
coplanar instead of the three antecedents, the statement of
the theorems would have to be altered by interchanging the
words antecedent and consequent throughout. There is a further theorem dealing with the case in which both antecedents
Then
and consequents of
are coplanar.
sum of two dyads.
is
reducible to
the
106.]
the
sum
Definition:
dyadic which cannot be reduced to
is said to be complete.
of fewer than three dyads
dyadic which may be reduced to the sum of two dyads, but
cannot be reduced to a single dyad is said to be planar. In
case the plane of the antecedents and the plane of the consequents coincide
when
the dyadic
is
expressed as the
sum
of
two dyads, the dyadic is said to be uniplanar.
A dyadic
which may be reduced to a single dyad is said to be linear.
In case the antecedent and
consequent of that dyad are col
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
linear, the
285
said to be unilinear.
If a dyadic
may be
terms vanish the dyadic is said to
In this case the nine coefficients of the
dyadic as
dyadic
is
so expressed that all of
be zero.
its
expressed in nonion form must vanish.
The properties of complete, planar, uniplanar, linear, and
unilinear dyadics when regarded as operators are as follows.
Let
and
=r
is complete s and t may be made
If
value by giving r a suitable value.
As
is
complete
reciprocal system
B
In like manner
t
take on
any
desired
m', n'.
1',
+ ym' +
a, b, c
= (xa. +
to
m, n are noncoplanar and hence have a
1,
(xl
0.
za')
= ica + yb +
20.
possess a system of reciprocals
y\>'
zc')
a', b', c'.
= x\ + y m + zn.
complete dyadic
applied to a vector r cannot give zero
unless the vector r itself is zero.
is
If
planar
the vector s
may
take on
any value in
the
plane
of the antecedents and t any value in the plane of the consequents
but no values out of those planes.
The dyadic
when
of
used as a prefactor reduces every vector r in space to a vector
;
In particular any vector r
in the plane of the antecedents.
is reduced
perpendicular to the plane of the consequents of
used as a postfactor reduces every
to zero.
The dyadic
vector r in space to a vector in the plane of the consequents
In particular a vector perpendicular to the plane of
of 0.
In case the dyadic
is reduced to zero.
the antecedents of
uniplanar the same statements hold.
is linear the vector s may take on any value collinear
If
and t any value collinear with the conwith the antecedent of
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
286
<P
sequent of
The dyadic
but no other values.
<P
used as a
r to the line of the antecedent
prefactor reduces any vector
In particular any vectors perpendicular to the conof 0.
The dyadic
are reduced to zero.
sequent of
used as a
vector r to the line of the consequent
postfactor reduces
any
In particular any vectors perpendicular to the anteare thus reduced to zero.
cedent of
of 0.
If
is
zero dyadic the vectors s
matter what the value of r
Definition
nullity.
nullity.
lity
may
A planar dyadic
and
are loth zero no
be.
said to possess one degree of
said to possess two degrees of
is
A linear dyadic is
A zero dyadic is said
to possess three degrees of nul
or complete nullity.
The
two complete dyadics
and
a planar dyadic,
dyadic
complete;
and
a
of
a
linear
planar ;
complete dyadic
dyadic, linear.
107.]
Theorem
direct product of
of a complete
is
Theorem
The product
of
two planar dyadics
is
planar
the plane of the consequent of the first dyadic
in the product is perpendicular to the plane of the antece
except
when
dent of the second dyadic.
In this case the product reduces
and only in
to a linear dyadic
= &'b + ab
Let
Q=
The
and
The
vector
B'
s'
vector
r takes
W.
on
2,
all
values in the plane of
J* (bj oj)
takes on the values
=x
+
B'
this case.
+y
(bj
X 0>2
(bj
c )
:
ax
y (bj
'
C l)
a2
2^
c 2 )} a x
(b 2
{x (b 2
C 2) a t
'
Cl )
C)
a 2>
y (b,
c 2 )}:
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Let
s'
=x
=
y'
where
x'
and
a?
+ y'a a
c^ + # (bj
c ) + y (b a
JT'E!
(b x
(b 2
287
c 2 ),
c 2 ).
These equations may always be solved for x and y when
that is, when s' has
any desired values x' and y' are given
unless the
any desired value in the plane of a^ and a2
determinant
b2
But by
(25),
Chap.
j.
vector bj
x b2
x b,)
a/
c,
merely the product
II., this is
(b!
x.
The
b2
Cj
(c,
\
j.
Co)
&/
0.
perpendicular to the plane of the conand c x X c 2 to the plane of the antecedents of
is
sequents of
Their scalar product vanishes
;
that
vectors are perpendicular
pendicular.
Consequently
a
and
of
a 2 and
plane
x
when and only when the
is, when the planes are per
may
is
take on any value in the
therefore a planar dyadic
unless the planes of b x and b2 , Cj and c 2 are perpendicular.
If however bj and b2 , Cj and c 2 are perpendicular s' can take
on only values in a certain line of the plane of a x and a^, and
hence
(P
The theorem
is
therefore proved.
The product of two linear dyadics is linear
when the consequent of the first factor is perpen
Tlieorem
except
is linear.
dicular to the antecedent of the second.
In this case the
and only in this case.
product is zero
Theorem : The product of a planar dyadic into a linear
linear except
planar dyadic
dyadic.
In
is
when
is
the plane of the consequents of the
perpendicular to the antecedent of the linear
this case the
product
is
zero
and only
in this
case.
Theorem: The product of a linear dyadic into a planar
dyadic
is
linear except
when
the consequent of the linear
VECTOR ANALYSIS
288
perpendicular to the plane of the antecedents of
and
the planar dyadic. In this case the product is zero
dyadic
is
only in this case.
immediately evident that in the cases mentioned the
products do reduce to zero. It is not quite so apparent that
It is
they can reduce to zero in only those cases.
The
similar to the one given above in the case of
They
dyadics.
are
left to
the reader.
theorem stated, page 286,
first
is
proofs are
two planar
The proof
of
the
also left to the reader.
The Idemfactor; 1 Reciprocals and Conjugates of Dyadics
108.] Definition : If a dyadic applied as a prefactor or as
a postfactor to any vector always yields that vector the
dyadic is said to be an idem/ actor. That is
d>
if
or
if
then
is
= r for all values of r,
<P = r for all values of r,
r
The capital I is used as the symThe idemfactor is a complete dyadic.
an idemfactor.
bol for an idemfactor.
For there can be no direction in which
Theorem :
When expressed
in nonion
r vanishes.
form the idemfactor is
(33)
Hence
idemfactors are equal.
that the idemfactor takes the form (33) it is
merely necessary to apply the idemfactor I to the vectors
all
To prove
i, j,
Let
respectively.
= a n ii +
+
a 21 ji
ij
13
ik
22 jj
23
jk
a 12
In the theory of dyadics the idemfactor I plays a role analogous to unity in
The notation is intended to suggest this analogy.
ordinary algebra.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Ii = a n i+
I
If
au
In like manner
=1
may
it
vanish except a n ,
22 ,
21 j
and
21
31
k.
i,
= a 31 = 0.
be shown that
33
all
the coefficients
which are unity.
all of
= ii + jj +
289
kk.
Hence
(33)
Theorem : The direct product of any dyadic and the idemfactor
is
That
that dyadic.
d>
For
(0.1)
is,
T = 0.(lT) =#T,
no matter what the value of r
.
In like manner
Theorem:
If
it
may
a',
b', c'
& = d>.
and I
may
1
be.
Hence, page 266,
= 0.
be shown that I
and
a, b, c
= 0.
be two reciprocal systems
of vectors the expressions
= aa' + bb' + cc',
I = a'a + b'b + c'c
I
(34)
are idemfactors.
For by (30) and (31) Chap.
= raa + rbb' + rcc',
r = ra'a + r*b'b + rc'c.
;
and
II.,
Hence the expressions must be idemfactors by
Theorem : Conversely
4>
is
an idemfactor
1,
if
definition.
the expression
= al +
bin
+ en
m, n must be the reciprocal system of
a, b, c.
19
VECTOR ANALYSIS
290
In the
dyadic.
is the idemfactor, it is a complete
place since
Hence the antecedents a, b, c are noncoplanar and
first
possess a set of reciprocals a', b',
By
hypothesis
Then
a;
a'
Let
c'.
+ yV +
c'.
= r.
= x\ + ym + zn = #a' + yV + zc
r
for all values of r, that
is,
corresponding coefficients
1
for all values of #, y,
must be equal.
m = b',
a',
Hence the
z.
That
is,
c'.
be any two dyadics, and if the product
1
is equal to the idemfactor;
then the product
0,
when the factors are taken in the reversed order, is also
Theorem
If
and
equal to the idemfactor.
= !.
= I.
Let
To show
r(<P.
(0
all
=f
all
0)
values of
If the
product of two dyadics
be taken in either order.
r.
*0,
(?)
As
Hence by
desired values.
.
may
=r.I = r,
r(0. F)
= (r
?T)
This relation holds for
must take on
=r
is
#.
complete r
definition
= I.
is
an idemfactor, that product
When two dyadics are so related that
equal to the idemfactor, they are said to be
109.] Definition:
their product is
1
of
This necessitates both the
dyadics
two incomplete dyadics
idemfactor.
is
* and V to be complete. For the product
incomplete and hence could not be equal to the
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
The notation used
reciprocals^
algebra
is
291
for reciprocals in
ordinary
to denote reciprocal
dyadics.
employed
That
=0i =
Theorem:
is,
(35)
Reciprocals of the same or equal dyadics are
equal.
and
Let
be two given equal dyadics,
their reciprocals as defined above.
0=
~i
and
hypothesis
= I.
= ~i.
0.0^ = 1= W.
To show
0i
0=
As
01
W,
~\
=01.0.
~\
01
I.0i
Hence
~i.
0.0i= 0.
01.0
The
By
0~l and W~l
= 1,
= 0i = I. ~i =
0~i =
~\
~i.
the dyadic whose antecedents are the
and whose consereciprocal system to the consequents of
are
the
antecedents
to
the
of 0.
reciprocal system
quents
reciprocal of
is
be written in the form
If a complete dyadic
<P
its
reciprocal
For
(al
0~i
+ bm + cn)
Theorem
into
is
= al + bm + en,
= !'&' + m' b' + n'
(l'a'
+ n'V +
c'.
n'c')
(36)
=aa' + bV +
cc'.
If the direct products of a complete dyadic
two dyadics
1
and
An incomplete
are equal as dyadics then
dyadic has no
(finite) reciprocal.
and
VECTOR ANALYSIS
292
are equal.
If the
into
product of a dyadic
two vectors
r and s (whether the multiplication be performed with a dot
or a cross) are equal, then the vectors r and s are equal.
That
is,
=
then r =
then r =
= 0*8,
& r=
x
x r=
O.
if
and
and
if
s,
if
This
then
(37)
s,
s.
s,
may be
Q,
seen by multiplying each of the equations
through by the reciprocal of 0,
i .
To
= r = &~
r = I x r = 0"
.
<P
=
s = I
s,
reduce the last equation proceed as follows.
any vector,
Hence
t is
any
s.
Let
be
tIxr = tIxs,
t
As
vector, r
is
=
r = t x
I
equal to
Equations (37) give what
is
t.
s.
s.
equivalent to the law of can
dyadics. Complete dyadics may be
canceled from either end of an expression just as if they
were scalar quantities. The cancelation of an incomplete
dyadic is not admissible. It corresponds to the cancelation
celation for complete
of a zero factor in ordinary algebra.
Theorem: The reciprocal of the product of any
of dyadics is equal to the product of the reciprocals
taken in the opposite order.
110.]
number
It will be sufficient to give the proof for the case in which
the product consists of two dyadics. To show
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
(0.
W W~
0
ST)i
Hence
(0
2T)
Hence
W and
5F"1
3Fi. 0i,
~l
ST"1
0i
(
(
293
0 1 )
0"1 must
01
= I.
I.
be reciprocals.
That
sri. 0i.
(0. ?T)i=
The proof for any number of dyadics may be given
same manner or obtained by mathematical induction.
Definition
of times,
The products
by
and so
taken any number
and are denoted in
powers of
the customary manner.
in the
of a dyadic 0,
itself are called
is,
02,
02
03^
forth.
TJieorem : The reciprocal of a power of
the reciprocal of 0.
(0)i
= (0i) =
is
0.
the power of
(37)
The
proof follows immediately as a corollary of the precedtheorem.
The symbol 0~" may be interpreted as the
ing
nth power of the reciprocal of
or as the reciprocal of
the nth power of 0.
If
be interpreted as an operator determining a transformation of space, the positive powers of
correspond to
The negative powers of
The idemfactor
transformations.
repetitions of the transformation.
correspond to the inverse
that is, no transcorresponds to the identical transformation
formation at all. The fractional and irrational powers of
will not be denned.
singlevalued.
square roots
infinite
They
are seldom used
For instance the idemfactor
I.
But
in addition to these
system of square roots of the
= ii +
form
kk.
I
it
and are not
has the two
has a doubly
VECTOR ANALYSIS
294
Geometrically the transformation
r'=
<Pr
a reflection of space in the j kplane. This transformation
replaces each figure by a symmetrical figure, symmetrically
The transsituated upon the opposite side of the j kplane.
is
formation
is
sometimes called perversion.
The idemfactor
has also a doubly infinite system of square roots of the form
Geometrically the transformation
r'
is
= W
This transformation replaces each
a reflection in theiaxis.
figure by its equal rotated about the iaxis through an angle
of 180.
The idemfactor thus possesses not only two square
roots
roots
means
but in addition two doubly infinite systems of square
and it will be seen (Art. 129) that these are by no
all.
The conjugate of a dyadic has been defined (Art. 99)
111.]
as the dyadic obtained by interchanging the antecedents and
consequents of a given dyadic and the notation of a subscript
G has been employed. The equation
r
has been demonstrated.
(9)
The following theorems concerning
conjugates are useful.
Theorem
dyadics
is
Theorem
to the
:
The conjugate of the sum or difference of two
equal to the sum or difference of the conjugates,
The conjugate
of a product of dyadics is equal
product of the conjugates taken in the opposite order.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
295
It will be sufficient to demonstrate the theorem in case
To show
the product contains two factors.
(0.T)C =VC .0 C
8%.r = r(0. W) = (r.Q).
(40)
(0.
Hence
(0
Theorem
power
)c
The conjugate
4>c>
of the
power
of a dyadic is the
of the conjugate of the dyadic.
(*%=
This
= Wc
V,
is
= **
(41)
a corollary of the foregoing theorem.
may
be interpreted in either of
Theorem
The conjugate
The
expression
two equal ways.
of the reciprocal of a dyadic
is
equal to the reciprocal of the conjugate of the dyadic.
=(0
(0% *<P C = (0
(0i) c
For
The idemfactor
its
is
own
)i
= 0^.
(42)
conjugate as
may
be seen from
the nonion form.
I
=ii+
j j
kk
(0 c)i.0 c =
4> c =
0~^
((P^"
=
((^c)(0%
I.
Hence
Hence
~
The expression & c l may
therefore be interpreted in either
two equivalent ways
as the reciprocal of the conjugate
of
or as the conjugate of the reciprocal.
If a dyadic is equal to
Definition:
to be selfconjugate.
If
it is
its
conjugate,
it is
said
equal to the negative of its con
VECTOR ANALYSIS
296
it is
jugate,
For se/conjugate
said to be antiselfconjugate.
dyadics.
r
r,
C.
For antiselfconjugate dyadics
r
Theorem
way
into
Any
0.
dyadic
two parts
may
r,
00.
be divided in one and only one
is selfconjugate and the
which one
of
other antiselfconjugate.
0=(0+0 C
For
But
(0 + 0c) c =
and
(0 
C)
+ (00 C\
=
 CC =
C=
C
C
Hence the part (0 + ^c) ^s
C), antiselfconjugate.
(0
0.
0,
selfconjugate
Thus the
and the part
division has been
Let
accomplished in one way.
(0 +
CC
(43)
<2>c)
= 0' +
*'
0".
in another
Suppose it were possible to decompose
into a selfconjugate and an antiselfconjugate part.
way
Let
then
Where
Hence
(0'
if
(0'
 (0"
Hence
if
conjugate.
,12)
Q)=
(0"
(0'
J2) c
= 0' c + Q c = 0' +
is selfcon
jugate,
(0"
) is
)c
0" c
is
selfconjugate.
J2 e
= _ 0" 
antiselfconjugate
J2
is
antiself
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Any
gate
dyadic which
is
both selfconjugate and antiselfconju
is
negative and consequently vanishes.
zero and the division of
into two parts is
to
equal
Hence
297
is
its
unique.
The Vector Product
Antiselfconjugate Dyadics.
In case
112.]
is
any dyadic the expression
should be engives the antiselfconjugate part of 0. If
is
to
0".
Let
therefore 0"
equal
tirely antiselfconjugate
be any antiselfconjugate dyadic,
0"
= al + bm +
Suppose
= &1
C
<?"
= 1(00^.
= al
+ bm
larfbmr
But
mb +
la
lar =
al* r
cn
nc,
mbr + cnr
(a
bmr mbr
cn,
1)
ncr.
r,
(bxm)xr,
ncr =
0"
Hence
But by
cnr
(cxn)xr.
r =
^(axl + bxm + cxn)xr.
definition
<P x
0"
Hence
r
The
0"
= 0" c
results
Theorem
=:axlbxm +
r
=\
=  0"
0* X
= \0 K
r,
may be stated in a theorem as
The direct product of any
dyadic and the vector r
minus one half the vector
cxii.
= \ r
X.
follows.
antiselfconjugate
equal to the vector product of
of that dyadic and the vector r.
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
298
Theorem
Any
" = 3
(00*)
<2>xX
antiselfconjugate dyadic
It
degree of nullity.
$" possesses one
a uniplanar dyadic the plane of
is
whose consequents and antecedents
is
perpendicular to
<P X ",
the vector of 0.
This theorem follows as a corollary from equations (44).
Theorem : Any dyadic
may be broken up into two parts
to
selfconjugate and the other equivalent
minus one half the vector of <P used in cross multiplication.
which one
of
is
d>
or symbolically
Any
113.]
it
0'
<P
r,
X.
(45)
vector c used in vector multiplication defines a
For
linear vector function.
Hence
0'
must be
possible to represent the operator c
as a
This dyadic will be uniplanar with plane of
dyadic.
antecedents and
consequents perpendicular to
c,
so that
be found as follows
(31)
(I
Hence
and
This
r =
=I
o)
may
( c
(I
o)
(c
I)
(I
c = r
I)
1}
.
c)
(I
be stated in words.
(I
r=
c)
{I
it
The dyadic may
will reduce all vectors parallel to c to zero.
By
its
I,
(o
= (c x I) r.
r = (c x I)
= r (c X I).
c)
I)}
r,
(46)
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Theorem : The vector
299
used in vector multiplication with
x c or c x I used in direct
a vector r is equal to the dyadic I
multiplication with
used as prefactors
I
and
If c precedes r the dyadics are to be
r.
follows
if c
r,
The dyadics
as postfactors.
I are antiselfconjugate.
In case the vector
c is a unit vector the application of the
vector
r in a plane perpendicular to c is
operator
any
to
r
equivalent
turning through a positive right angle about
the axis c. The dyadic c X I or I x c where c is a unit vector
c
to
therefore turns any vector r perpendicular to c through a
If r were a vector
right angle about the line c as an axis.
lying out of a plane perpendicular to c the effect of the dyadic
I X c or c x I would be to annihilate that component of r which
is
and turn that component
parallel to c
of r
which
is
perpen
dicular to c through a right angle about c as axis.
If the dyadic be applied twice the vectors perpendicular to
r are rotated
through two right angles.
They
are reversed in
If it be applied three times they are turned through
three right angles.
Applying the operator I x c or c x I four
times brings a vector perpendicular to c back to its original
direction.
position.
The powers
(I
(I
c)
c)
of the dyadic are therefore
(c
I)
4
(I x c)
(I
c)
I)
=I
(c
(c
(c
x
5
I)
its
 c c),
(I
=c X
4
 c c,
I) = I
x
=I
It thus appears that the dyadic I
law as far as
=
=c
or c
I,
(47)
I.
I obeys the
same
powers are concerned as the scalar imaginary
1 in algebra.
The dyadic Ixc
or
cxlisa
vectors perpendicular to
as an annihilator.
To
c.
quadrantal versor only for
For vectors
avoid this
effect
parallel to c it acts
and obtain a true
VECTOR ANALYSIS
300
vectors r in space it is merely necessary to add the dyad c c to the dyadic I x c or c X I.
quadrantal versor for
all
If
(48)
The dyadic
idemfactor.
imaginary V
plete
and
conjugate
appears as a fourth root of the
The quadrantal versor
is analogous to the
1 of a scalar algebra.
The dyadic
is comtherefore
two parts
consists of
;
If
114.]
and
i,
j,
of
which
c is antiself
are three perpendicular unit vectors
I
I
may
c c, self conjugate.
Ixi = ixl = kj
as
jk,
xj=j x I = ikki,
x k = k x I = j i i j,
(49)
be seen by multiplying the idemfactor
I
= ii + jj + kk
and k successively.
These expressions represent
quadrantal versors about the axis i, j, k respectively combined
with annihilators along those axes.
They are equivalent,
into
i, j,
when used in direct multiplication, to i
x, jx,
k x
respectively,
(IXk)=(kxI) = (ii+jj),
The expression
j,
(I
k)
is
an idemfactor for the plane of i and
In a similar mank.
but an annihilator for the direction
ner the dyad k k
is
an idemfactor for the direction
k,
but an
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
301
annihilator for the plane perpendicular to k.
These partial
idemfactors are frequently useful.
If a, b, c are any three vectors and a', V, c' the reciprocal
system,
aa'
bb'
used as a prefactor is an idemfactor for all vectors in the
plane of a and b, but an annihilator for vectors in the direction
Used
c.
as a postfactor it
in the plane of
direction
c'.
a'
and
b',
is
an idemfactor for
all vectors,
but an annihilator for vectors in the
In like manner the expression
cc'
used as a prefactor is an idemfactor for vectors in the direction
c, but for vectors in the plane of a and b it is an annihilator.
Used
as a postfactor it is
direction
and
b',
If a
c',
that
an idemfactor for vectors
in the
but an annihilator for vectors in the plane of a
is,
for vectors perpendicular of c.
and b are any two vectors
(a x b) x I
=I
x I}r =
x b) x
(a
x b)
= b a  ab.
(50)
For
{(a
b)
(a
= bar abT = (ba
ab)r.
The vector a X b in cross multiplication is therefore equal to
the dyadic (b a
a b) in direct multiplication. If the vector
is used as a prefactor the dyadic must be so used.
(a xb)
r
(a
= (b a a b)
 ab).
b) = r (b a
r
r,
(51)
This is a symmetrical and easy form in which to remember
the formula for expanding a triple vector product.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
302
Reduction of Dyadics
be any complete dyadic and let r be a unit
the vector r'
Let
115.]
Then
vector.
Normal Form
to
r'= 0r
a linear function of
is
r.
When
on
r takes
all
values consis
that is, when the terminus
being a unit vector
the vector r'
of r describes the surface of a unit sphere,
varies continuously and its terminus describes a surface. This
tent with
its
surface
closed.
is
Theorem
to a
sum
It is fact
an
ellipsoid.
always possible to reduce a complete dyadic
of three terms of which the antecedents among
It is
themselves and the consequents among themselves are mutuThis is called the normal form of 0.
ally perpendicular.
<P
To
= ai'i +
Jj'j
ck'k.
demonstrate the theorem consider the surface described
by
r'=0r.
As
this is a closed surface there
which makes
must be some
direction of r
maximum
or at any rate gives r' as great
a value as it is possible for r' to take on. Let this direction
of r be called i, and let the corresponding direction of r'
r'
the direction in which r' takes on a value at least as great as
be called a. Consider next all the values of r which
any
lie in
a plane perpendicular to i. The corresponding values
r is a linear vector
owing to a fact that
of r' lie in a plane
1
This
may
be proved as follows
= *L r'srUei.
Hence
rr=l= r'. (* c ~ 1 '* ~ l)'i' = r' Vr'.
By expressing V in nonion form, the equation r' V r' = is seen to be of the second
* = *>*
degree.
is
Hence
the ellipsoid.
r'
describes a quadric surface.
The
only closed quadric surface
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
303
Of these values of r' one must be at least as
great
any other. Call this b and let the corresponding direction
r be called j.
Finally choose k perpendicular to i and j
function.
as
of
upon the
value of
changes
and j. Let c be the
which corresponds to r = k. Since the
dyadic
j, k into a, b, c it may be expressed in the form
positive side of plane of
r'
i,
= &i +
<P
show
It remains to
bj
ck.
that the vectors
a, b, c
as determined
above are mutually perpendicular.
= (ai +
dr' = (ai
r'
f
r'. dr'
When
r'
r is parallel to
If
dr
dr
further
r.
is
parallel to
i,
r is parallel to
'
r'
bj
dr
dr.
hence must be
a unit vector
is
Hence when
dr
is
always
r is parallel to i
perpendicular to
r'b
ck
r'
maximum and
Since r
perpendicular to k,
is
r' is
i,
perpendicular to dr'.
perpendicular to
bj
dr +
ai
+ck)r,
+ ck) .dr,
bj
j,
r'c
vanishes,
and
Hence when
vanishes.
if
r is
But when
perpendicular to both b and c.
r' is parallel to a.
Hence a is perpendicular
is
i,
Consider next the plane of j and k and the
plane of b and c. Let r be any vector in the plane of j and k.
to b
and
c.
= (bj + ck)r,
dr' = (bj + ck) dr,
dr + r' c
'dr' = r'''b
r'
When
r takes the value
hence
is
j,
r' is
perpendicular to dr'.
maximum
Since r
is
dr.
in this plane
a unit vector
and
it is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
304
Hence when
and
perpendicular to dr.
is
perpendicular to
Hence
value
c is zero.
r'
But when
Consequently b
b.
It has therefore
c,
j,
and that b
is
antecedents of
denoted by
i',
is
a,
J, c
is
parallel
r is parallel to
perpendicular to
been shown that a
perpendicular to
j', k'.
Then
r'
j,
dr
takes the
perpendicular to b and
Consequently the three
is
c.
They may be
takes the form
the dyadic
+6j'j
j,
to
c.
are mutually perpendicular.
= ai'i
where
ck'k,
(52)
are scalar constants positive or negative.
Theorem: The complete dyadic
may always be
116.]
reduced to a sum of three dyads whose antecedents and
whose consequents form a righthanded rectangular system
of unit vectors and whose scalar coefficients are either all
positive or all negative.
&=
(ai'i
&j'j
ck'k).
(53)
The proof of the theorem depends upon the statements
made on page 20 that if one or three vectors of a righthanded
system be reversed the resulting system is lefthanded, but
if two be reversed the
system remains righthanded. If then
one of the coefficients in (52) is negative, the directions of the
other two axes may be reversed. Then all the coefficients
are negative. If two of the coefficients in
(52) are negative,
the directions of the two vectors to which
they belong may
be reversed and then the coefficients in
Hence
are all positive.
in
any case the reduction to the form in which all
the coefficients are positive or all are
negative has been
performed.
As a limiting case between that in which the coefficients
are all positive
and that in which they are
all
negative comes
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
the case in which one of them
takes the form
and
= ai'i
The
The dyadic then
zero.
is
305
f Jj'j
(54)
a and
J may always be taken
a proof similar to the one given above it is
possible to show that any planar dyadic may be reduced to
this form.
The vectors i'andj'are perpendicular, and the
is
planar.
positive.
vectors
coefficients
By
and j
are likewise perpendicular.
might be added that in case the three coefficients a, 6, c
in the reduction (53) are all different the reduction can be
It
performed in only one way. If two of the coefficients (say
a and &) are equal the reduction may be accomplished in an
number
ways in which the third vector k' is always
the same, but the two vectors i', j' to which the equal coefficients belong may be any two vectors in the plane perinfinite
of
In
pendicular to k.
all
these reductions the three scalar
have the same values as in any one of them.
If the three coefficients a, &, c are all equal when
is reduced
coefficients will
to the normal
form
may be accomplished
The three vectors
ways.
(53), the reduction
in a doubly infinite
number
of
space.
may be any righthanded rectangular system in
In all of these reductions the three scalar coefficients
are the
same
i',
j',
k'
as in
any one of them.
These statements will
not be proved. They correspond to the fact that the ellipsoid
which is the locus of the terminus of r' may have three
different principal axes or it
maybe an
ellipsoid of revolution,
or finally a sphere.
Theorem :
Any
selfconjugate
the form
where
Let
a, &,
=
and
ii
dyadic
&jj
may
be expressed in
+ c kk
(55)
are scalars, positive or negative.
<P
= ai'i +
fcj'j
6jj'
20
+ck'k,
ckk',
(52)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
306
= a*i'i' + & 2 j7 + c 2 k'k',
*0 = a ii + 6 2 jj + c kk.
<P =
m
4>.<P
<P
Since
<t>
+kk = i'i' +j'j + k'k',
= (6 2 a j'j' + (e 2 a 2)k'k',
j
a 2 1
a2 I) would annihilate
were not parallel (<P 2
two vectors i and i' and hence every vector in their plane.
If
and
i'
2
a 2 I) would therefore possess two degrees of nullity
(0
and be linear. But it is apparent that if a, J, c are different
this dyadic is
not linear.
be parallel.
In like manner
k and
k' are parallel.
is
Hence i and i' must
may be shown that j and j
planar.
it
The dyadic
0=
where
It
aii
a, Z, c are positive or
Jjj
',
therefore takes the form
+ ckk
negative scalar constants.
Double Multiplication^
117.]
Definition
The
double dot product of
two dyads
is
the scalar quantity obtained by multiplying the scalar product
of the antecedents by the scalar product of the consequents.
The product
is
denoted by inserting two dots between the
ab:cd
= ac bd.
(56)
This product evidently obeys the commutative law
ab:cd
1
The
= cd:ab,
researches of Professor Gibbs upon Double Multiplication are here
first time.
printed for the
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
307
and the
distributive law both with regard to the dyads and
with regard to the vectors in the dyads. The double dot
product of two dyadics is obtained by multiplying the product out formally according to the distributive law into the
sum of a number of double dot products of dyads.
If
<P
and
=a
=a
=c
b 1 :c 1 d 1
b1
^.
a2 b2
a3 b 3
c2
d2
c 3 d3
...
+ ajb^Oadg +
a 1 b 1 :o 8 d s
a 2 b 2 :c 1 d 1
a 2 b 2 :c 2 d 2
a 2 b 2 :c 3 d 3
...
agbgZCjdj
a 3 b 3 :c 2 d 2
a 3 b 3 :c 3 d 3
...............
Definition:
The
double cross product of
two dyads
(56)'
(56)"
is
the
dyad of which the antecedent is the vector product of the
antecedents of the two dyads and of which the consequent is
the vector product of the consequent of the two dyads. The
product
dyads
is
denoted by inserting two crosses between the
ab^cd^axc bxd.
(57)
This product also evidently obeys the commutative law
VECTOR ANALYSIS
308
and the distributive law both with regard to the dyads and
with regard to the vectors of which the dyads are composed.
The double cross product of two dyadics is therefore defined
as the formal expansion
distributive
of the product according to the
law into a sum of double cross products of
dyads.
a3 b3
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Theorem
The double dot product
of
two fundamental
unity or to zero according as the two
to
is
309
dyads
equal
dyads are equal or
different.
ij:ki
= ik
= 0.
Theorem: The double cross product of two fundamental
dyads (12)
is
equal to zero
either the antecedents or the
if
But
consequents are equal.
if
sequents are equal the product
mental dyads
That
neither antecedents nor con
equal to one of the fundataken with a positive or a negative sign.
is
is
ij
=i
x k
ij*ki=ixk jxi = + jk.
There exists a scalar
product of three dyads in
which the multiplications are double. Let <P, W, Q be any
three dyadics.
triple
The expression
*
is
WiQ
a scalar quantity. The multiplication with the double
must be performed first. This product is entirely in
cross
dependent of the order in which the factors are arranged or
Let ab, cd, and ef be
the position of the dot and crosses.
three dyads,
ab
cd:ef = [ace] [bdf].
(59)
the product of three dyads united by a double cross
and a double dot is equal to the product of the scalar triple
product of the three antecedents by the scalar triple product
That
is,
From this the statement made
of the three consequents.
above follows. For if the dots and crosses be interchanged
the order of the factors be permuted cyclicly the two
If the cyclic order of
scalar triple products are not altered.
or
if
VECTOR ANALYSIS
310
is reversed each scalar triple product changes
Their
product therefore is not altered.
sign.
may be multiplied by itself with double
dyadic
118.]
the factors
Let
cross.
$<P
= &l + bm +
= (al + bm + en) * (al + bm + en)
= a x a Ixl+axb Ixm+axc Ixn
+ bxa mxl + bxb m x m + b x c mxn
+ cxa nxl + cxb nxm + cxc nxn.
The products
equal in
en
The
main diagonal vanish.
Hence
in the
pairs.
= 2 (bxc mxn + cxa nxl + axb
<P*0
and
If a, b, c
1,
m, n are noncoplanar this
0*0=__A
[a be]
The product
is
+b'm' +
a species of power of 0.
The
notation
Ixm).
(60)
be written
[Imn]
garded as a square of
to represent this
.(a'l'
v
may
others are
c'n'>
It
will be
(60)'
may be
re
employed
product after the scalar factor 2 has been
stricken out.
0%
= 0*0
% = (b x c mxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm) (61)
3S
The
product of a dyadic
expressed as the
three dyads with itself twice repeated is
triple
(b
sum
of
0$0:0 = 3 0^:0
mxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm)
:
(al
+ bm +
en).
In expanding this product
every term in which a letter is
repeated vanishes. For a scalar triple product of three vec
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
two of which are equal
tors
is
311
Hence the product
zero.
reduces to three terms only
2
:<P=[bca] [mnl] + [cab] [nlm] + [abc] [Imn]
or
<P
<P*0:<Z>
The
3 [abc]
product of a dyadic by
triple
[Imn]
6 [abc] [Imn].
itself
twice repeated
is
equal to six times the scalar triple product of its antecedents
multiplied by the scalar triple product of its consequents.
The product is a species of cube. It will be denoted by 3
after the scalar factor 6 has been stricken out.
d>
00 =
= 
0.
119.]
If
(62)
[abc] [Imn].
be called the second of
and
3,
the third of
0, the following theorems may be stated concerning the
seconds and thirds of conjugates, reciprocals, and products.
Theorem
The second
of the conjugate of a dyadic
to the conjugate of the second of that dyadic.
the conjugate
is
The
is
equal
third of
equal to the third of the dyadic.
<*><=
4>,
(63)
= (*<),
Theorem: The second and third of the reciprocal of a
dyadic are equal respectively to the reciprocals of the second
and
third.
<*'),
1
(<^ ) 3
Let
=
=
(*,)'=*,*
= al
>i = V
+
a.'
= <V
m'b'+n'c'
pi
[abc]
(36)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
812
(0a )i
[abc] [Imn] (la
la
j
+ mb +
nc)
+ mb + nc
;2
~[a'b'c'] [1'm'n']'
=1
(0,)' =
But
[a'Vc'] [abc]
Hence
and
(0"
[1'm'n']
1
).
[Imn]
= 1.
= ^
[abc] [Imn]
(0i) 3 =[a'b'c'] [1'm'n'].
Hence
Theorem: The second and third of a product are equal
respectively to the product of the seconds and the product of
the thirds.
(0^2
=<V^2
(*.*),*.*,.
of
Choose any three noncoplanar vectors 1, m, n as consequents
and let 1', m',n' be the antecedents of W.
= al +
(0.?P) 2
m+
cn,
=bxc exf + cxa fxd + axb
dxe,
= bxcmxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm,
f x d +
x m' dxe.
^2 = m' x n' e x f + n' x
Hence ^2 ?T2 = bxc exf + cxa fxd + axb dxe.
Hence
(0 V)^ = ^ Vz
((P. F) 3 = [abc] [def]
cP
1'
1'
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
3
=[abc] [Imn],
r3 =[l'm'n']
Hence
<P
Hence
(0
Theorem
[defj.
[a b c] [d e
r) 3
The second and
f].
rs
third of a
of a dyadic are
power
equal respectively to the powers of the second
the dyadic.
Theorem
The
W=0
(0") 2
(*")
= (*)*=*."
The second
313
n
2
of the idemfactor
third of the idemfactor
is
and third of
is
the idemfactor.
unity.
=I
1 8 = 1.
I2
(67)
Theorem: The product of the second and conjugate of
a dyadic is equal
idemfactor.
the product of
to
Z
<Z>
=b
[l
be noncoplanar.
(b
=0
and the
( 68 >
S I,
mxnfcxa nxl + axb Ixm,
= la + mb + nc,
The antecedents
.4> C
the third
m n]
a, b, c
(b
x a b
of the dyadic
may
x b
c).
be assumed to
Then
X a b+
x b
c)
[abc]
[ab
c] (a'a
+Vb+
c'
c)
I.
Hence
120.]
sum
of
Let a dyadic
three dyads of
noncoplanar.
be given.
Let
it
be reduced to the
which the three antecedents are
VECTOR ANALYSIS
314
= al +
=b
<P
m+
cn,
mxn + cxa nxl + axb
3
x m,
[abc] [Imn].
Theorem: The necessary and sufficient condition that a
be different from
be complete is that the third of
dyadic
zero.
For
it
was shown (Art. 106) that both the antecedents and
consequents of
the
Hence the two
a complete
are
dyadic
scalar triple products
noncoplanar.
which occur in
cannot vanish.
Theorem: The necessary and sufficient condition that a
shall vanish but the
be planar is that the third of
dyadic
second of
shall not vanish.
was shown (Art. 106) that if a dyadic
be planar its conn
and
must
be
1,
m,
sequents
planar
conversely if the conseIt
quents be coplanar the dyadic
dyadic
must vanish.
But
is
planar.
<P
Hence
for a planar
cannot vanish.
Since
a,
have been assumed noncoplanar, the vectors b x c, c x a,
a x b are noncoplanar.
Hence if 0% vanishes each of the
b, c
vectors
mxn, nxl, Ixm
linear.
But
and not
linear.
vanishes
that
is, 1,
this is impossible since the dyadic
m, n are colis
planar
Theorem: The necessary and sufficient condition that a
nonvanishing dyadic be linear is that the second of 0, and
consequently the third of 0, vanishes.
For if
be linear the consequents
1,
m,
n,
are collinear.
Hence
Z
their vector products vanish and the consequents of
vanish.
If conversely
vanishes, each of its consequents
Z
must be zero and hence these consequents of
are collinear.
The vanishing of the third, unaccompanied by the vanishing of the second of a dyadic, implies one degree of nullity.
The vanishing of the second implies two degrees of nullity.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
The vanishing
results
may
of the dyadic itself
is
315
The
complete nullity.
be put in tabular form.
3
<P
3
= 0,
= 0,
3
</>
is
0,
2
complete.
is
0,
= 0,
2
<P
planar.
(69)
is linear.
0,
It follows immediately that the third of
any antiselfconjugate
For any such
dyadic vanishes; but the second does not.
dyadic is planar but cannot be linear.
Nonion Form.
be expressed in nonion form
If
121.]
Invariants of a Dyadic
Determinants}
<P
= OII ii +
+
+
The conjugate
of
a 21
ij
12
ji+a 22 jj +
+ a 32 kj +
a 31 ki
i3
ik
23
jk
(13)
a 33 k k.
has the same scalar coefficients as 0, but
they are arranged symmetrically with respect to the
diagonal.
main
Thus
+
+
+
ki +
13
i
12 j
22 j j
2 3J
+
+
(70)
32 j k,
kk
33
<P may be computed.
Take, for instance, one
be required to find the coefficient of ij in <P2
What terms in can yield a double cross product equal to
must be i and
ij? The vector product of the antecedents
Hence the
must
be
the
of
j.
the vector product
consequents
k
the
and
and
antecedents must be j
consequents, k and i.
The second of
term.
Let
it
These terms are
x
33
kk = 
aai a 33
iJ
the third order.
1 The results hold
only for determinants of
determinants of higher orders is through Multiple Algebra.
The extension
to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
316
Hence the term
in ij in
(
This
is
the
first
<P
is
a 3l a 23 ~~ a21 a 8s)iJ'
minor of a lz in the determinant
"13
'11
23
"88
This minor
is
coefficient of
taken with the negative sign. That is, the
in <P2 is what is termed the cofactor of the
ij
The cof actor is merely
minor taken with the positive or negative sign
according as the sum of the subscripts of the term whose
coefficient of ij in the determinant.
the
first
first
minor
is
under consideration
is
even or odd.
The
co
any dyad in <P2 is easily seen to be the cofactor of
the corresponding term in 0.
The cofactors are denoted
efficient of
generally by large letters.
An =
*M
is
the cofactor of a 11(
is
the cofactor of a 12
is
the cofactor of
*33
6
a21
With
this notation the
12
aX 223
second of
<P
a,.
32'
becomes
(71)
+ A sl
ki
The value of the third of
as the sum of three
dyads
= (a n i+a 21 +
j
^32 k j
may
a 31 k)i
^33 kk.
be obtained by writing
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
[Oil 1
21J
*81
j
This
is
k)
( a 2li
easily seen to be equal to the determinant
this reason
is
32
33
frequently called the determinant of
written
3
The
(72)
'22
(
is
22J
a 33 k)] [ijk]
'21
For
and
317
idea of the
determinant
(72)'
is
very natural when
is
regarded as expressed in nonion form. On the other hand
unless
be expressed in that form the conception of <P3 ,
the third of 0,
is
more natural.
The
most
reciprocal of a dyadic in nonion form
easily by making use of the identity
0^0o=^
s l
may
be found
(68)
or
or
Hence 0~l
=n
(73)
31
VECTOR ANALYSIS
318
If the
If
determinant be denoted by
is
a second dyadic given in nonion form as
ki
6 31
& 32
kj
6 33
kk,
two dyadics may readily be found
the
multiplication
by actually performing
of the
the product
a !3
a21 & 11
+
a 31
32
a 23
& 11
a 22
&21
& 32) J J
+ a 33 ^82) k J +
13
a 23
J 3l)
( a 21
+ a 32 J 21 +
a !2
ll
J 13
33 & 3l)
C a 31 & 12
J i
a 22
ki
a !3
23
a 21
J 23
(
& 12
tt
23
a 31 & 12
a 32 &28
33
a 83
a2
& 3s
a3
& 3s)
31
Since the third or determinant of a product is equal to the
product of the determinants, the law of multiplication of
determinants follows from (65) and (74).
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
319
"12
22
31
'32
21
31
The
rule
33
+
+
+
"u
21
'23
+
+
+
a 12
a 22
a 32
may
#]
^22
31
+
+
+
13
23
& 31
a 33
^31
'13
a2
as
23
(76)
32
To
be stated in words.
multiply two deter
minants form the determinant of which the element in the
with
row and nth column
is
the
sum
elements in the with row of the
column
of the products of the
first
determinant and nth
of the second.
If
<P
= al + bm + cn,
= bxc mxn + cxa nxl + axb Ixm.
Then
= (02 ) 3 =
[b
cxa axb]
xc
[mxn nxl Ixm]
Hence
Hence
12
21
L
31
The determinant
the third order
122.]
is
22
32
is
13
an
a iz
23
a 21
*22
a<
33
a 31
a3
a 33
(7T)
of the cofactors of a given determinant of
equal to the square of the given determinant.
dyadic
has three scalar invariants
which are independent
expressed. These are
three scalar quantities
which
of the
the scalar of 0, the scalar of the second of 0,
or determinant of 0.
quantities are
If
that
is
form in
and the third
be expressed in nonion form these
VECTOR ANALYSIS
320
(78)
'31
No
22
''32
matter in terms of what righthanded rectangular system
may be expressed these quantities are
of these unit vectors
the same.
in the
sum
The
scalar of
The
main diagonal.
of the first
is
sum
the
of the three coefficients
scalar of the second of
is
the
minors or cofactors of the terms in the
main diagonal The third of
is the determinant of the
These three invariants are by far the most
coefficients.
important that a dyadic
Theorem : Any dyadic
the three invariants
By
S,
ZS,
xl\
(68)
possesses.
a cubic equation of which
are the coefficients.
satisfies
(0
 xT) c =
*
(0
(0xl) s =
II
22
a;
Hence
as
may
 xl\
This equation
scalar x.
That
2S
x*
be seen by actually performing the expansion.
(0
dyadic
x I) 3
(0
is
(0
x I) c
23
an identity holding for
It therefore holds,
if
xz
all
xs
values of the
in place of the scalar
a?,
the
which depends upon nine scalars be substituted.
is
But the terms upon the
0*
left are identically zero.
8 0*
2S
& I
= 0.
Hence
(79)
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
321
This equation may be called the HamiltonCayley equation.
Hamilton showed that a quaternion satisfied an equation
analogous to this one and Cayley gave the generalization to
matrices.
matrix of the
equation of the nth degree.
of dyadics
and the theory
Tith
order satisfies an algebraic
the theory
The analogy between
In
of matrices is very close.
fact,
be regarded as a matrix of the third order and
a
matrix
of the third order may be looked upon as
conversely
a dyadic. The addition and multiplication of matrices and
a dyadic
may
dyadics are then performed according to the same laws.
generalization of the idea of a dyadic to spaces of higher
dimensions than the third leads to Multiple Algebra and the
theory of matrices of orders higher than the third.
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
A
when
vector r'
said to be a linear function of a vector r
is
the components of r' are linear homogeneous functions
components of r. Or a function of r is said to be a
of the
linear vector function of r
two vectors
is
sum
the
f (ri
when
the function of the
sum
of
of the functions of those vectors.
r 2)
= f (ri ) + f (r 2
(4)
).
These two ideas of a linear vector function are equivalent.
sum of a number of symbolic products of two vectors,
which are obtained by placing the vectors in juxtaposition
without intervention of a dot or cross and which are called
a Greek
dyads, is called a dyadic and is represented by
function of
dyadic determines a linear vector
vector
that
with
a vector by direct multiplication
capital.
= aj
r
=a
b1
!>!
a2 b 2
a2 b2
21
+
r
a3 b 3
CO
f
a3 b3
(8)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
322
Two
upon
is,
dyadics are equal when they are equal as operators
vectors or upon three noncoplanar vectors. That
all
when
r
= W
r for all values or for three
coplanar values of
or
= r W for all values
g0r = s?
or
(10)
r,
or for three non
coplanar values of
r
non
r,
r for all values or for three non
coplanar values of r and
s.
may be represented by a dyadic.
the
law of multiplication with
distributive
Dyads obey
to
the
two
vectors
composing the dyad
regard
Any
linear vector function
H )
= al + am + an +
+
bl
+ bm + bn +
cm + en +
f cl +
(11)'
Multiplication by a scalar is associative. In virtue of these
two laws a dyadic may be expanded into a sum of nine terms
by means of the fundamental dyads,
ii,
ij,
ik,
ji,
Jj,
jk,
ki,
kj,
kk,
(12)
= a n ii + a 12 ij + a 13 ik,
= 2 i + 22 j j + 2 k
= a 31 ki+ 32 kj + a 33 kk.
as
i J
If
3 J
>
( 13 )
two dyadics are equal the corresponding coefficients in
form are equal and conversely.
their expansions into nonion
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Any
dyadic
which the
323
may be expressed as the sum of three dyads of
antecedents or the consequents are any three
This expression of the dyadic
given noncoplanar vectors.
is
unique.
The symbolic product ab known
as a
dyad
is
the most
general product of two vectors in which multiplication by a
It is called the indeterminate product.
scalar is associative.
The product imposes
b.
five conditions
upon the vectors a and
Their directions and the product of their lengths are
The
determined by the product.
and vector products
A scalar and
scalar
are functions of the indeterminate product.
may be obtained from any dyadic by inserting a dot
and a cross between the vectors in each dyad. This scalar
and vector are functions of the dyadic.
a vector
= a bj + a b 2 + a
<P X =
aj x b + a x b + a
0j = i.0.i + j.0.j +
=a
a
a
a
~^~
<>23
32 )
(i.
i
'
b3
(18)
x b3 +
(19)
k.0k
(20)
'
0.jj 0.i)k
.
<>31
 a 13> +
J
(21)
Ol2
2l)
The direct product of two dyads is the dyad whose antecedent and consequent are respectively the antecedent of the
first dyad and the consequent of the second multiplied by
the scalar product of the consequent of the
the antecedent of the second.
(ab)
(cd)
(b.c)ay.
first
dyad and
(23)
direct product of two dyadics is the formal expansion,
of the product into the
according to the distributive law,
The
VECTOR ANALYSIS
324
sum
Direct multiplication of dyadics
or of dyadics and a vector at either end or at both ends obeys
the distributive and associative laws of multiplication. Conof products of dyads.
sequently such expressions as
0.V.T,
&.<P.,
Q.W.Q
s.tf.r.r,
(24X26)
be written without parentheses; for parentheses may
be inserted at pleasure without altering the value of the
may
product. In case the vector occurs at other positions than
at the end the product is no longer associative.
The skew product of a dyad and a vector may be defined
by the equation
(ab) x
x (ab)
= a b x r,
= r x a b.
(28)
of a dyadic and a vector is equal to the
formal expansion of that product into a sum of products of
dyads and that vector. The statement made concerning the
The skew product
law for direct products holds when the vector is
connected with the dyadics in skew multiplication. The
associative
expressions
r
<P
4>.xr,
?F,
may be
<P
$ x
s,
s,
written without parentheses and parentheses
(29)
may
be
inserted at pleasure without altering the value of the product.
Moreover
s
(r
<P)
= (s
.
(r
r)
5T)
0,
(<P
d>
r)
r)
But the parentheses cannot be omitted.
The necessary and sufficient condition
be reduced to the
sum of two dyads or
when expressed as
to zero
is
dyads of
which the antecedents
that,
(r
s),
(31)'
that a dyadic
the
sum
may
dyad or
to a single
of
(or consequents) are
three
known
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
325
to be noncoplanar, the consequents (or
antecedents) shall
be respectively coplanar or collinear or zero.
complete
dyadic is one which cannot be reduced to a sum of fewer
than three dyads.
planar dyadic is one which can be
reduced to a sum of just two dyads. A linear dyadic
which can be reduced to a single dyad.
A complete
dyadic possesses no degree of
no direction in space for which it is an
is
is
one
There
nullity.
annihilator.
planar dyadic possesses one degree of nullity. There is one
direction in space for which it is an annihilator when used as
a prefactor and one
when used
as a postfactor.
dyadic possesses two degrees of
nullity.
linear
There are two
independent directions in space for which it is an annihilator
when used as a prefactor and two directions when used as a
postfactor.
A zero dyadic
possesses three degrees of nullity
It annihilates every vector in space.
or complete nullity.
The products of a complete dyadic and a complete, planar,
or linear dyadic are respectively complete, planar, or linear.
The products of a planar dyadic with a planar or linear dyadic
are respectively planar or linear, except in certain cases where
between the consequents of the
relations of perpendicularity
dyadic and the antecedents of the second introduce one
The product of a
of nullity into the product.
linear dyadic by a linear dyadic is in general linear but in
first
more degree
case the consequent of the first
is
perpendicular to the ante
cedent of the second the product vanishes.
any dyadic by a zero dyadic
The product
of
is zero.
dyadic which when applied to any vector in space reproduces that vector is called an idemfactor. All idemfactors
are equal
and reducible to the form
= ii +
I = aa' +
I
Or
The product
of
+ kk.
bb' + cc'.
(33)
jj
any dyadic and an idemfactor
(34)
is
that dyadic.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
326
If the
product of two complete dyadics
is
equal to the idem
commutative and either
are
factor the
is
called
dyadics
the reciprocal of the other.
complete dyadic may be
of
a
from
either
end
canceled
product of dyadics and vectors
as in ordinary algebra ; for the cancelation is equivalent to
multiplication by the reciprocal of that dyadic.
dyadics possess no reciprocals.
They correspond
Incomplete
to zero in
ordinary algebra. The reciprocal of a product is equal to the
product of the reciprocals taken in inverse order.
(0.
The conjugate
gr)i
of a dyadic
=
is
sri. 0i.
(38)
the dyadic obtained by inter
changing the order of the antecedents and consequents. The
conjugate of a product is equal to the product of the conjugates taken in the opposite order.
(0.
)=
4> c .
(40)
The conjugate of the reciprocal is equal to the reciprocal of
the conjugate.
dyadic may be divided in one and only
one way into the sum of two parts of which one is selfconjugate and the other antiselfconjugate.
= ^(0+
0c)
+ 2L (00c)
(43)
Any antiselfconjugate dyadic or the antiselfconjugate
part of any dyadic, used in direct multiplication, is equivalent
to minus onehalf the vector of that
dyadic used in skew
multiplication.
]r.(00 )=lrx0 x
ff
A dyadic of the
(44)
form c X I or I x c is antiselfconjugate and
used in direct multiplication is
equivalent to the vector c
used in skew multiplication.
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Also
The dyadic
= (I x o)
4> = (I x
c)
I or I
c,
r == (o
where
c is
(c
I)
327
(46)
r,
I)
0.
a unit vector
rantal versor for vectors perpendicular to c
a quadand an annihilator
is
Ixc
The dyadic
+ cc is a true
parallel to c.
for
all
versor
vectors.
The
of
these dyadics
powers
quadrantal
behave like the powers of the imaginary unit
1, as may
for vectors
be seen from the geometric interpretation.
unit vectors
i, j,
Applied to the
k
I
= kj
k, etc.
The vector a x b in skew multiplication
(a X b) x I in direct multiplication.
=1
(a x b) x I
(a
r
b)
x (ax
=ba
x (a x b)
(b a
is
a b)
(49)
equivalent to
ab
(50)
b)=r (baab).
(51)
of three
complete dyadic may be reduced to a sum
and the
themselves
dyads of which the antecedents among
a righthanded
consequents among themselves each form
vectors and of which the
rectangular system of three unit
all negative.
or
scalar coefficients are all positive
0=
This
is
(ai'i
&j'j
called the normal form of the dyadic.
plete dyadic
may
(53)
ck'k).
An
incom
be reduced to this form but one or more of
is unique in case
case
In
they are not
the constants a, 6, c are different.
more than
different the reduction may be accomplished in
one way. Any selfconjugate dyadic may be reduced to
the normal form
& = aii + 6jj + ckk,
(55)
the coefficients are zero.
in
which the constants
The reduction
a, &, c
are not necessarily positive.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
328
The double dot and double
is
cross multiplication of dyads
defined by the equations
= a c b.d,
abcd = axc bxd.
ab
(56)
(57)
The double dot and double
cross multiplication of dyadics
obtained by expanding the product formally, according to
The
the distributive law, into a sum of products of dyads.
double dot and double cross multiplication of dyadics is comis
mutative but not associative.
is
Onehalf the double cross product of a dyadic
If
called the second of 0.
by
= al + bm + cn,
= 10x0 = bxc mxn+cxa nxl + axb Ixm.
2
itself
<P
(61)
Onethird of the double dot product of the second of
and
and is equal to the product of the
called the third of
is
scalar triple product of the antecedents of
triple
and the
scalar
product of the consequent of 0.
Z
The second
The third of
= \0* 0: 0=[abc]
of the conjugate
the conjugate
is
is
[1m n].
(62)
the conjugate of the second.
equal to the third of the
The second and
third of the reciprocal are
the reciprocals of the second and third of the second and
third of a dyadic.
The second and third of a product are the
original dyadic.
products of the seconds and thirds.
(0.3r),=
(*
.JTa
).!>>,
(65)
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
The product of
to the
the second
product of the third
329
and conjugate of a dyadic
and the idemfactor.
is
0^'0 C =03 I
(68)
The
conditions for the various degrees of
nullity
expressed in terms of the second and third of 0.
=
3
is
0,
0,
= 0,
3
is
may
be
complete
0,
= 0,
2
equal
planar
(69)
is linear.
0,
The
closing sections of the chapter contain the expressions
(70)(78) of a number of the results in nonion form and the
deduction therefrom of a number of theorems concerning
determinants. They also contain the cubic equation which is
satisfied
by a dyadic 0.
s
This
is
cients
0q
= 0.
(79)
The coefficalled the HamiltonCayley equation.
are the three fundamental scalar inS , <P2/S , and
3
variants of 0.
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER
Show
1.
that the
two
given in Art. 98 for
definitions
a linear vector function are equivalent
Show
that the reduction of a dyadic as in (15) can be
accomplished in only one way if a, b, c, 1, m, n, are given.
2.
3.
Show
4.
from
5.
r,
that
if
and
0xr =
a x
xr
SF
for
&&
any value of
unless both
r different
and
the line of their consequents is parallel to
Show
then
&) c
must equal
zero, then
linear
of
(0 X
Show
that
= 0.
if
for
W are
r.
any three noncoplanar values
VECTOR ANALYSIS
330
6.
Prove the statements made in Art. 106 and the con
verse of the statements.
7.
<P
Show
and
that
if
is
complete and
Definition
then
Give the proof by means of theory
are equal.
developed prior to Art. 109.
8.
Q=
if <P
Two
&=
dyadics such that
that
are said to be
two dyadics that are commutative
if
Show
that
number
of
dyadics are homogehomologous.
any
neous to one another, any other dyadics which may be obtained
from them by addition, subtraction, and direct multiplication
is
to say,
are homologous to each other and to the given dyadics. Show
also that the reciprocals of homologous dyadics are homolo
l
l
or
0,
Justify the statement that if
which are equal, be called the quotient of
then
the
3F,
by
rules governing addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division of homologous dyadics are identical with the rules
gous.
it being
governing these operations in ordinary algebra
understood that incomplete dyadics are analogous to zero,
and the idemfactor, to unity.
Hence the algebra and higher
analysis of homologous dyadics is practically identical with
that of scalar quantities.
=cx
9.
Show
that (I
10.
Show
that whether or not
c)
abxc+bcxa+c
a, b, c
x b
(c
I)
<P
=c x
0.
be coplanar
[a b c] I
bxca+cxab+axbc=[abc]I.
and
11.
and
If a, b, c are
coplanar use the above relation to prove
the law of sines for the triangle and to obtain the relation
with scalar coefficients which exists between three coplanar
vectors.
This
may
be done by multiplying the equation by a
unit normal to the plane of a, b,
12.
What
is
and
the condition which
coefficients in the
c.
must
subsist
between the
expansion of a dyadic into nonion form
if
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
the dyadic be selfconjugate?
What,
if
331
the dyadic be anti
self conjugate ?
13.
Prove the statements made
number
of
ways
in
in Art. 116 concerning the
which a dyadic may be reduced
to
its
normal form.
14.
The necessary and
sufficient condition that
be zero
selfconjugate dyadic
an
anti
that the vector of the
is
dyadic shall be zero.
15.
Show
that
be any dyadic the product
if
<P C is
selfconjugate.
16.
Show how
to
make
use of the relation
<P X
demonstrate that the antecedents and consequents
conjugate dyadic are the same (Art. 116).
17.
Show
that
and
18.
4> $
z
(<P
Show
that
+ W\ =
if
Z
<P
=
2
4>*
Show
that
20.
Show
21.
Show
changed by
that
= 4>3 +
(0 + ) 3 = 3 +
e f) 3
of a self
V + Wy
the double dot product
(0 +
to
<P
by itself vanishes, the dyadic vanishes.
condition for a linear dyadic in the form
19.
e
2
of a dyadic
Hence obtain the
<P
<P
2
:
<P
<P
= 0.
f.
V+
Vz +
that the scalar of a product of dyadics is unThat is
cyclic permutation of the dyadics.
CHAPTER VI
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
123.]
IN the foregoing chapter the analytical theory of
been dealt with and brought to a state of
dyadics has
completeness which
is
nearly final for practical purposes.
There are, however, a number of new questions which present
themselves and some old questions which present themselves
under a new form when the dyadic is applied to physics
or geometry. Moreover it was for the sake of the applica
them was developed. It is
then the object of the present chapter to supply an extended
tions of dyadics that the theory of
application of dyadics to the theory of rotations
and
to develop, as far as
may
and
strains
appear necessary, the further
analytical theory of dyadics.
That the dyadic
$ may
of space has already
be used to denote a transformation
been mentioned.
knowledge
of the
precise nature of this transformation, however, was not needed
at the time.
Consider r as drawn from a fixed origin, and r'
as
drawn from the same
Let now
origin.
r'
= 0r.
This equation therefore may be regarded as defining a transformation of the points P of space situated at the terminus of
r into the point P', situated at the terminus of r'. The origin
remains fixed.
Points in the
the finite regions of space.
becomes a point
regions of space remain in
point upon a line
finite
Any
r = b
r' =
4
x a
b
f
a.
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
Hence
straight lines go over into
parallel to the same line a go over
same
333
straight lines
and
lines
by the transformation into
In like manner planes
and
the
into
of
over
planes
parallelism is invariant.
quality
go
Such a transformation is known as a homogeneous strain.
lines parallel to the
line
a.
strain is of frequent occurrence in physics. For
of the infinitesimal sphere in a fluid
the
deformation
instance,
(Art. 76) is a homogeneous strain. In geometry the homo
Homogeneous
geneous strain is generally known by different names.
Or
called an affine collineation with the origin fixed.
known
as a linear
It is
it
is
The equa
homogeneous transformation.
tions of such a transformation are
= an
y' =
z' = a si x + a^y +
Theorem
124.]
of the points of
<P ,
2
is
is
gives the transformation
If the dyadic
space which
due
to a
homogeneous
strain,
gives the transformation of plane areas
due to that strain and all volumes are magnified by
the second of
which
33
<P,
that strain in the ratio of
$3
the third or determinant of
to unity.
Let
The
<p
vectors
1',
= al + bm +
m', n' are changed by
en
into
and
the planes determined by m' and n', n'
transformed into the plane determined by b and
The dyadic which accomplishes
a and b.
(ft,
i
Hence
due to
=b
if s
Hence
and m' are
a, b, c.
1', 1'
c, c
and
a,
this result is
mxn + cxa nxl + axb
Ixm.
denote any plane area in space, the transformation
s by the area s' such that
replaces
s'
s.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
334
It is important to notice that the vector
area
be
is
if it
denoting a plane
not transformed into the same vector
denoted a
the latter case
upon
This
line.
acts
on
is
s'
as it
would
evident from the fact that in
whereas in the former case
acts
s.
To show
that volumes are magnified in the ratio of <# 3 to
choose
any three vectors d, e, f which determine the
unity
a
volume of
with the vecparallelepiped [d e f]. Express
tors
which form the reciprocal system
The dyadic
from the
to d,
e,
f as consequents.
changes d, e, f into a, b, c (which are different
above unless d, e, f are equal to 1', m', n').
a, b, c
Hence the volume [d
e f ] is
changed into the volume
[a
c].
[d'e'f]
Hence
The
But
[a
be]
[def]
3>
volume [a b cj to [d e f] is as 3 is to unity.
d, e, f were any three vectors which determine a parallelepiped. Hence all volumes are changed by
ratio of the
the vectors
the action of
in the
same
ratio
and
this ratio is as
dotations about a Fixed Point.
$3
is
to 1.
Versors
Theorem : The necessary and sufficient condition that
125.]
a dyadic represent a rotation about some axis is that it be
reducible to the form
= i'i+j'j +
where
i', j',
k'
and
i, j,
are
k'k
two righthanded rectangular
systems of unit vectors.
Let
(1)
= a>i +
+ 2k
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
Hence
335
reducible to the given form the vectors i, j,
are changed into the vectors i', j', k' and any vector r
if
is
changed from
its
position relative to
change of shape
body
carries
suffers
effected.
is
i, j,
The
vectors
is
posi
Conversely suppose the
into i',j', k'.
no change of shape
to a rotation.
k into the same
Hence by the transformation no
The strain reduces to a rotation
tion relative to i',j',k'.
which
i, j,
i,
that
suppose
is,
it
subjected
k must be carried into another
j,
righthanded rectangular system of unit vectors. Let these
be i', j', k'. The dyadic
may therefore be reduced to the
form
=
Definition
A dyadic
i'
+ j' j + k' k.
which
i'i
is
reducible to the form
+ j'j +
k'k
and which consequently represents a rotation
is
called a
versor.
Theorem: The conjugate and reciprocal of a versor are
equal,
and conversely
if
the conjugate
and
reciprocal of a
dyadic are equal the dyadic reduces to a versor or a versor
multiplied by the negative sign.
Let
<P
= i'i+j'j +
k'k,
0c = ii'+jj' +
0.
c = i'i' +
j'j'
0*=
Hence the
second part
If
Hence
first
kk',
k'k'
0c.
part of the theorem
is
proved.
let
= ai + b j + ck,
<P c = ia + j b + kc,
00 c
aa + bb + cc = I.
fl^00
=I
To
prove the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
336
Hence (Art. 108) the antecedents a, b, c and the consequents
Hence (page 87) they
a, b, c must be reciprocal systems.
must be either a righthanded or a lefthanded rectangular
system of unit vectors. The lefthanded system may be
changed
to a righthanded
one by prefixing the negative
Then
sign to each vector.
= i'i +
or
The
+ k'k,
j + k'k).
j' j
= (i'i +
j'
third or determinant of a versor
is
evidently equal to
unity; that of the versor with a negative sign, to minus one.
Hence the criterion for a versor may be stated in the form
0.0 C = I,
Or inasmuch
if
0.
=I0I=1.
plus or minus one
only necessary to state that if
as the determinant of
C =I, it
is
(2)
0.0 C =I,
is
is
=I0I>0,
(2)'
a versor.
There are two geometric interpretations of the transformadue to a dyadic
such that
tion
=I
= (i'i +
The transformation due
reflection in the origin.
rotation about a definite
to
is
j' j
=1
(3)
k'k).
one of rotation combined with
The dyadic i'i+j'j + k'k causes a
The negative
axis
it is a versor.
sign then reverses the direction of every vector in space and
replaces each figure by a figure symmetrical to it with respect
to the origin.
By
k'
reversing the directions of
still
i'
and
= i'i+j'j
or
(i'i'
j'
the
remains righthanded and rectangular,
system
but the dyadic takes the form
i', j',
+ j'j'k'k')
k'k,
(i'i+j'
k'k).
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
Hence
the transformation due to
337
a rotation due to
is
i'i+j j + k'k followed by a reflection in the plane of i' and
For the dyadic i'i' + j'j' k'k' causes such a transfor'
j'.
mation of space that each point goes over into a point symmetrically situated to it with respect to the plane of i' and j'.
Each
figure
Definition
is
:
therefore replaced by a symmetrical figure.
transformation that replaces each figure
by
a symmetrical figure is called a perversion and the dyadic
which gives the transformation is called a perversor.
The
criterion for a perversor
is
that the conjugate of a
and that the determi
dyadic shall be equal to its reciprocal
nant of the dyadic shall be equal to minus one.
0.0 C =I,
Or inasmuch
as if
<P C
(3)
= I,
or minus one the criterion
.
I0I=1.
the determinant must be plus
may take the form
= I,
\<
(3)'
0,
a perversor.
is
from geometrical considerations that the product of two versors is a versor of two perversors, a versor
It is evident
but of a versor and a perversor taken in either order, a
perversor.
126.]
If the axis of rotation
be the iaxis and
measured positive
of rotation be the angle q
if
the angle
in the positive
trigonometric direction, then by the rotation the vectors
that
i,j, k are changed into the vectors i',j', k' such
i'
j'
k'
The dyadic
tion
i'
cos q
j
= i'i+j'j +
+k
sin q
sin q,
+k
cos
q.
k'k which accomplishes
is
22
this rota
VECTOR ANALYSIS
338
<P
i i
cos q
(j j
jk
kj
i i
sin q (k
k).
(4)
+ kk = Iii,
jj
Hence
k k)
=I
cos q (I
i.
i)
sin q I
i.
(5)
more generally in place of the iaxis any axis denoted
unit vector a be taken as the axis of rotation and if as
the
by
before the angle of rotation about that axis be denoted by <?,
If
which accomplishes the rotation
the dyadic
<P
To show
=aa +
that this
rotation apply
it
a a)
cos q (I
is
sin q I
a.
(6)
dyadic actually does accomplish the
r.
The dyad a a is an idemfactor
to a vector
for all vectors parallel to a; but an annihilator for vectors
a a is an idemfactor
perpendicular to a. The dyadic I
in
all
vectors
the
for
plane perpendicular to a; but an
The dyadic I x a
annihilator for all vectors parallel to a.
is
a quadrantal versor (Art. 113) for vectors perpendicular
an annihilator for vectors parallel to a. If then
to a; but
r be parallel to a
<^r =
aar =
Hence
leaves unchanged
which
are parallel to
vectors)
d>
all
a.
vectors (or components of
If r is perpendicular to a
= cos q r +
r.
sin q a
r.
Hence the vector r has been rotated in its plane through the
angle q. If r were any vector in space its component parallel
to a suffers no change ; but its component perpendicular to a
is rotated about a
through an angle of q degrees. The whole
vector
is therefore rotated about a
through that angle.
Let a be given in terms of i, j, k as
aa=
=a
2
ii
a2
aa
ij
k,
ik
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
+ 2a
+ az a
J*
ki
JJ+
a 3 a 2 kj
= ii+jj +
a = 0ii
3 ij
339
a 3 J*
2
kk,
kk,
ik,
3J +
JJiJk,
 2 ki + ^kj + Okk.
Hence
= {a^ (1
cos j)
cos
> ii
+ {a 2 (1 cos q)
sin g} i j
3
+ {a 1 a 3 (1 cos #) + 2 sin * k
+ {2 a (1 cos 2) + a 3 sing} ji
+ (a22 (1 cos q) + cos q} j j
1
3.1
+ {#2 a s (1 ~ cos #) ~~ a si n ?} j k
+ {agffj (1 cos ^) a 2 sin q} ki
+ (a s a 2 (1 cos ^) + a sin q} kj
+ (a 32 (1 cos q) + cos q} k k.
i
f
(7)
be written as in equation (4) the vector of
and the scalar of
may be found.
If
127.]
+ cos q Q x j +
=
X
Qs = i
The
cos q
axis of rotation
k x k)
f
2 sin q
sin q (k
i is
x k)
+ kk) + sin
a = 1 + 2 cos q.
(j
q (k
k),
seen to have the direction of
<P X ,
the negative of the vector of 0. This is true in general.
The direction of the axis of rotation of any versor is the
negative of the vector of 0. The proof of this statement
depends on the invariant property of <# x
Any versor
may be reduced to the form (4) by taking the direction of i
.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
340
coincident with the direction of the axis of rotation.
this reduction has
been made the direction of the axis
to be the negative of
But
<P X .
<P y
is
After
is
seen
not altered by the
nor is the axis of
any particular form
Hence the direction of
rotation altered by such a reduction.
<P X the directhe axis of rotation is always coincident with
to
reduction of
tion of the negative of the vector of
The tangent
<#.
of onehalf the angle of version q
sm
+ cos q
is
+ 0s
..
The tangent of onehalf the angle of version is therefore
determined when the values of X and @ s are known. The
vector
and the scalar
which are invariants
4> s,
mine completely the versor
Let
0.
ft
Q,
be a vector drawn
Let the magnitude
in the direction of the axis of rotation.
of
of $, deter
be equal to the tangent of onehalf the angle q of
version.
The vector
determines the versor
ft
completely.
ft
will
be
called the vector semitangent of version.
was expressed in terms of a unit vector
(6) a versor
to
the
axis
of
rotation.
parallel
By
= aa +
Hence
if ft
a a)
sin q I
a.
be the vector semitangent of version
cos
There
cos q (I
'
sin
a more compact expression for a versor
of the vector semitangent of version.
Let c be
is
in terms
any vector in
space.
The version represented by
c
ft
c into c
ft
carries
ft
c.
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
show
It will be sufficient to
ft.
For
this in case c is perpendicular to
component of it) were parallel to ft the
multiplying by ft x would be zero and the statement
if c
result of
would be
(or any
that c
carried into
is
In the
c.
nitudes of the two vectors are equal.
(c
ft
Since
ft
and
c are
ft
first
place the
ftxc'ftxc
(1
c vanishes.
+
c
(1+
tan 2 i q)
Hence the
ft
(1
c)
ft
ftC.
tan
2
\ q}
tan 2
(1
q)
(1
(c
q)
2
is
In the
equal to
q.
ftxcftxc
+
(1
= COS
tan 2
\
q)
tan 2 i q)
40
+ ft x c)
tan 2 1
equality.
ftxc)_cc
'
(c
by hypothesis perpendicular
ftxc).(c +
2
ftC
second place the angle between the two vectors
(c
mag
For
= CC + ft.ft CC
ftxc.ftxc =
cc +
The term
cc +
ftxc)
(c
c)
+ ftXCftXC
C'C
341
tan 1 q
2 c x
_
c
(1
= sin
(ft
tan
c)
I q)
q.
Hence the cosine and sine of the angle between c ft x c
and c + ft x c are equal respectively to the cosine and sine of
the angle q and consequently the angle between the vectors
:
must equal the angle
q.
Now
VECTOR ANALYSIS
342
c
and
(i
(c
x a),
ft
= (I I x ft)
c) = (I + I x ft)
+Qx
1
(i
x a) 1
(i
ixft)=i+ixft.
(c
a
(I
I
Multiply by c
(i
+ ixft)(iix
a)
c)
=c+
ft
c.
Hence the dyadic
<P
(I
carries the vector c
what the value
of
ft
c.
ft)
(10)'
ft)
x c into the vector c + ft x c no matter
Hence the dyadic <P determines the
version due to the vector semitangent of version
The dyadic I + 1 x ft carries the vector c
(I
(I
ft.
ft
into
+ ftft)c.
+ Ixft)(c
(I
=c+
ftxc)
x ft).(cft +
ftxc
c)=c +
ftxc
ftftc
ftx(ftxc)
(l
ftft)c.
Hence the dyadic
carries the vector c
dicular to
ft
ft
c into
the vector
as has been supposed.
(I
produces a rotation of
c, if c
Consequently the dyadic
+ Ixft) 2
1 + ftft
all vectors in the
plane perpendicular
be applied to a vector x
however,
the result is not equal to # ft.
to
ft.
(I
it
If,
ft)
(I
1+ftft
ft)
be perpen
xQ,
= x (I +
ft
ft)
1+ftft
parallel to
ft
ft
xQ,
1+ft.ft
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
To
obviate this difficulty the dyad
for all vectors perpendicular to
The
merator.
versor
may
aa +
^=
1
(i
(i
Hence
x
x
ft)
ft)
(i
(i
substituting
x a)
ft)
may
Q,
may
ft,
(i
is
an annihilator
be added to the nu
ixtt)*
ftft
2 1
(i
which
then be written
=i+
ft)
x
ft
ft
=i
(i
ft ft
ft). (i
 ft
ft
x Q)
i.
This
Q,
343
ft.ft
be expanded in nonion form.
Let
(11)
=
128. ]
form
If a is a unit vector a dyadic of the
= 2aaI
(12)
a Mquadrantal versor. That is, the dyadic
turns the
a
of
about
the
axis
two
points
space
right angles.
through
is
This may be seen by setting q equal to
expression for a versor
=
or
it
may be
The dyadic
aa
cos q (I
a a)
sin
TT
in the general
a,
seen directly from geometrical considerations.
leaves a vector parallel to a unchanged but re
verses every vector perpendicular to a in direction.
Theorem : The product of two biquadrantal versors
versor the axis of which
is
is
perpendicular to the axes of the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
344
biquadrantal versors and
the angle of which is twice the
angle from the axis of the second to the axis of the first.
Let a and b be the axes of two biquadrantal versors. The
product
=(2bbI).(2aaI)
is
is
certainly a versor;
for the product of
Consider the
a versor.
common
any two versors
perpendicular to a and
b.
The biquadrantal versor 2 a a I reverses this perpendicular
in direction. (2bb I) again reverses it in direction and consequently brings it back to its original position. Hence the
product
changed.
The
a
leaves the
is
common
perpendicular to a and b un
therefore a rotation about this line as axis.
2 (b
cosine of the angle from a to
2 b
Hence the angle
from a to
a b
of the versor
is
is
a)
 1 = cos
(b, a).
equal to twice the angle
b.
Theorem : Conversely any given versor may be expressed
as the product of two biquadrantal versors, of which the axes
lie in
the plane perpendicular to the axis of the given versor
and include between them an angle equal to one half the
angle of the given versor.
For let Q be the given versor.
perpendicular to the axis
J? x
Let a and b be unit vectors
of this versor.
Furthermore
angle from a to b be equal to one half the angle of
this versor.
Then by the foregoing theorem
let the
Q = (2bb The
I)
(2
aa
 I).
(14)
two biquadand simple method for
rotations about a fixed point
Let
resolution of versors into the product of
rantal versors affords an immediate
compounding two finite
and W be two given versors.
Let b be a unit vector per
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
345
and
Let a be a unit vector
pendicular to the axes of
and
axis
of
such
that the angle from
to
the
perpendicular
half
the
of
to
one
Let c be a unit
a to b is equal
0.
angle
.
vector perpendicular to the axis of W and such that the angle
from b to c is equal to one half the angle of W. Then
<P
?F.
But
(2
bb
I)
the fact that
it
(2
= (2bbI).(2aaI)
 I)
c c
(2 b b
I)
(2 a a
 I).
equal to the idemfactor, as may be seen from
represents a rotation through four right angles
is
or from the expansion
(2 b b
 I) = 4 b b bb4bb + I = I.
= (2 cc  I) .(2 aa  I).
 I)
(2 b b
Hence
The product
of
perpendicular to a
into
and
is
one half the angle from a to
If
and
tangents of
a versor the axis of which
and the angle
is
is
equal to
c.
two versors of which the vector semiversion are respectively ft t and Q.J, the vector
Q3
of the product
q1 + a2
and
which
are
semitangent of version
Let
of
+Q xa
2
<P
15
ici^a,
 I)
d> = (2 bb
(2 aa
I)
V= (2 cc  I) (2 bb  I).
.
= (2ccI)
(2aaI).
*
ba
=4
2 aa
a
b b x
2 b b
a,
is
I,
VECTOR ANALYSIS
346
= 4(a.b) 2 l,
F=4
=4c
?F X
?F
<P
2bb 2cc +
b cb
=4
a ca
axb
HfillCfi
QJ
~^r 
(b
O A
y Hi
Q
Ho
Hence
Hence
c)
a)
I,
a,
1.
axe
bxc Q
(a
2 aa
fa b c] b
b)
D b
ft
But
~~
Q.
b,
2 cc
4 (c
0)^
=4c
$) x
(?F
I,
a b b
= bxc ar + cxa br + axb cr,
[abc]b = bxc ab + cxabb + axbc.b.
[a be] r
ft 2
ft,
bxc
axb
ft 2
axe
a
Q,,
b b
c ft Q
~
bb
a.e
a
b b>
_(axb)(bxc)_abb.c
a
Hence
b b
Q! x g 2
ft 2
b b
ft,
b b
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
347
This formula gives the composition of two
finite rotations.
If the rotations be infinitesimal
ftj
and
Q, 2
are both infinitesi
Neglecting infinitesimals of the second order the formula reduces to
mal.
Q, 3
The
= Q,j +
Q, 2 .
combine according to the law of
This demonstrates the parallelogram law for
infinitesimal rotations
vector addition.
The
angular velocities.
60.
Eight Tensors, Tonics, and Cyclotonics
Cyclics,
129.] If the
subject was treated from different
and
standpoints in Arts. 51
dyadic
be a versor
<P
it
may be
written in the
form (4)
i i
cos q
The
axis of rotation
axis
is q.
Let
(j j
sin q (k j
k).
and the angle of rotation about that
another versor with the same axis and
an angle of rotation equal to
Multiplying
is i
W be
W=ii +
k k)
cos q'
(j j
q'.
k k)
sin q' (k j
cos (2
?') (j j
k).
W= W
i i
+ kk)
kjjk).
(16)
This
is the result which was to be
the product of
expected
two versors of which the axes are coincident is a versor with
the same axis and with an angle equal to the sum of the
angles of the two given versors.
If a versor be multiplied by itself, geometric and analytic
considerations alike make it evident that
2
and
= ii +
cos
2q
= ii +
cos
nq
(j j
(jj
+ kk) +
+ kk) +
sin 2 q (kj
sin
nq
(kj
jk),
j
k).
VECTOR ANALYSIS
348
On
the other hand let
kjjk.
4>*
The product of
i i.
Hence
(i i
= ii +
The dyadic
The dyadic
of $!
cos n
</>
<?
raised to
or
(cos q
$!*
cos q &!
ii into either
Q n = ii +
equal jj
+ kk; and
equal
Then
<P
<P
sin q
w cos"" 1
is
$ 2)n
zero and into itself
sin q
is
n
2)
sin ^ (Pj" 1
*?
any power reproduces
raised to the second
itself.
+
0^
<P
r
power gives the negative
raised to the third power, the negative of <PZ ; raised
raised to the fifth power, <P2 and so
1 ;
to the fourth power,
on (Art. 114).
2
The dyadic
$2
multiplied by
is
equal to
Hence
n
= ii +
cos n q
 n(n~L)
0"
Equating
=i +
i
coefficients of
cos
nq
and
for <P n
cos
nq
= cos*
n cos n ~ 1 q sin
sm 2 $2 +
cos" 2 q
2!
But
n (n

^^.
tf>
1)

AI
sin
71
in these
cos"" 2 q
<P
Z
<$
two expressions
sm 2
Thus the ordinary expansions for cos nq and sinnq are
obtained in a manner very similar to the manner in which
they are generally obtained.
The expression for a versor
may be generalized as follows.
be any three noncoplanar vectors ; and
a', V, c', the
Consider
the
reciprocal system.
dyadic
Let
a, b, c
cc')
sin q
(cb'bc') (IT)
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
349
This dyadic leaves vectors parallel to a unchanged. Vectors
in the plane of b and c suffer a change similar to rotation.
Let
r
r'
= cos p b +
= cos
This transformation
(j?
sin
q) b
sin (p
may be given
interpretation as follows.
c,
q)
c.
a definite geometrical
The vector
r,
when p
is
regarded
as a variable scalar parameter, describes an ellipse of which
b and c are two conjugate semidiameters (page 117). Let
this ellipse
be regarded as the parallel projection of the
unit circle
f
That
is,
the ellipse
= cos p +
i
and the
sin q
j.
circle are cut
The two semidiameters
from the same
and j of the circle procylinder.
ject into the conjugate semidiameters a and b of the ellipse.
The
radius vector r in the ellipse projects into the radius vector
The radius vector r' in the ellipse which
f in the unit circle.
equal to
such that
is
<#
r,
f'
projects into a radius vector
= cos (p + q) +
i
sin
(jp
r'
in the circle
+ q) j.
Thus
the vector r in the ellipse is so changed by the application of
as a prefactor that its projection f in the unit circle
is rotated through an
angle q.
This statement
be given a neater form by making use
of the fact that in parallel projection areas are changed in a
may
definite constant ratio.
The vector
f in the unit circle
may
be regarded as describing a sector of which the area is to the
area of the whole circle as q is to 2 TT. The radius vector f
then describes a sector of the ellipse. The area of this sector
whole ellipse as q is to 2 TT. Hence the
as
a
dyadic
applied
prefactor to a radius vector r in an ellipse
of which b and c are two conjugate semidiameters advances
is
to the area of the
that vector through
sector the
area of which
is to the
area of
VECTOR ANALYSIS
350
the whole ellipse as q is to
radius vector r
sector q from
it is
of the
be called an
elliptic rotation through a
an ordinary rotation of which
similarity to
its
Such a displacement
the projection.
Definition
= a a' +
is
may
2Tr.
of the form
dyadic
cos q (b
4 c c')
The
called a cyclic dyadic.
sin q (c
versor
is
c')
(17)
a special case of a
cyclic dyadic.
It is evident from geometric or analytic considerations that
the powers of a cyclic dyadic are formed, as the powers of a
versor were formed, by multiplying the scalar q by the power
to
which the dyadic
n
a'
cos
If the scalar q is
to be raised.
is
nq
(b
V+
c c')
sin
(c b'
nq
an integral submultiple of 2
2?r
TT,
that
c').
is, if
= m,
9.
possible to raise the dyadic
it is
namely, the
may then
power
and even
may
if
to such a
to raise
it
to
such an integral power,
becomes the idemfactor
be regarded as the rath root of the idemfactor.
In like manner
factor
m, that
if
and 2 TT are commensurable
power
and 2 TT
possible
it
be found which differs by as
the idemfactor.
it is
becomes equal to the idemare incommensurable a power of
that
little as
one pleases from
Hence any cyclic dyadic may be regarded as
a root of the idemfactor.
1
in
It is evident that
fixing
an
the result of the application of
ellipse practically fixes
vector in that plane may be
the ellipse.
4>
to all radii vectors
For any
for all vectors in the plane of b and c.
regarded as a scalar multiple of a radius vector of
it
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
where
The
Definition:
130.]
d? adic
transformation represented by the
= aii + Jjj+ kk
C
a,
are positive scalars
&, c
351
is
(18)
called a pure strain.
The
a right tensor.
dyadic
right tensor may be factored into three factors
itself is called
0= (aii+jj
The order
in
kk>((ii
&j
+ kk) +(ii+jj + ckk).
which these factors occur
transformation
(ii
and
p'
is
such that the
+ jj + ckk)
immaterial.
The
components of a vector remain un
altered but the kcomponent
The transformation may
is
is
altered in the ratio of c to 1.
therefore be described as a stretch or
elongation along the direction k. If the constant c is greater
than unity the elongation is a true elongation : but if c is less
than unity the elongation is really a compression, for the ratio
of elongation is less than unity.
Between these two cases
is unity.
The lengths
comes the case in which the constant
of the kcomponents are then not altered.
The transformation due
to the dyadic
may be regarded
or simultaneous elongation of the components of r parallel to i, j, and k respectively in the ratios
a to 1, b to 1, c to 1. If one or more of the constants a, &, c
as
the successive
than unity the elongation in that or those directions
becomes a compression. If one or more of the constants is
is less
unity,
The
components parallel to that direction are not altered.
directions
k are
called the principal axes of the strain.
Their directions are not altered by the strain whereas, if the
constants a,
The
i,
&, c
scalars a,
j,
be different, every other direction is altered.
&, c are known as the principal ratios of
elongation.
In Art. 115
it
was seen that any complete dyadic was
reducible to the normal form
0=
(ai'i
Jj'j
ck'k)'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
352
where
a,
Z>,
are positive constants.
This expression
may
be
factored into the product of two dyadics.
i/i/
(a
0=
or
The
& j'j'
(i'i
+j'j
+ k'k)
(i'i+j'j
(a ii
i'i+j'j
factor
k'k')
6jj
k'k),
+ ckk).
k'k
the same in either method of factoring
It turns the vectors i, j, k into the vectors i ', j
which
versor
is
be represented by
may
(19)
its
is
',
a versor.
k'.
This
vector semitangent of
version as
i/j
The other
v/
TT
+ J x ^ + k x k/
"l + i.i'+j.j' + k.k''
_i
*'
factor
i'i'
or
i i
6 j'j'
ck'k',
a right tensor and represents a pure strain. In the first
case the strain has the lines i', j', k' for principal axes: in
is
the second,
i, j,
k.
In both cases the ratios of elongation are
a to 1, & to 1, c to 1. If the negative sign occurs
the product the version and pure strain must have
associated with them a reversal of directions of all vectors in
the same,
before
a perversion. Hence
Any dyadic is reducible to the product of a
versor and a right tensor taken in either order and a positive
space
that
Theorem
is,
or negative sign. Hence the most general transformation
representable by a dyadic consists of the product of a rotation or version about a definite axis through a definite angle
accompanied by a pure strain either with or without perverThe rotation and strain may be performed in either
order.
In the two cases the rotation and the ratios of elongasion.
tion of the strain are the
same
strain differ according as it is
but the principal axes of the
performed before or after the
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
353
system of axes being derivable from the other
rotation, either
by the application of the versor as a prefactor or postfactor
respectively.
be given the product of
and its conjugate
a right tensor the ratios of elongation of which are the
and the axes of which
squares of the ratios of elongation of
If a dyadic
is
are respectively the antecedents or consequents of
in the product.
C follows or precedes
ing as
d>=
C
0.
tf
(ai'i
(aii'
a ai'i'
6 j'j
ck'k),
J jj'
ckk'),
+
+
&
= a*ii +
The general problem
j'j'
2
Z>
jj
+
+
k'k',
accord
(20)
kk.
of finding the principal ratios of elonga
the antecedents, and consequents of a dyadic in its
normal form, therefore reduces to the simpler problem of findtion,
ing the principal ratios of elongation and the principal axes
of a pure strain.
The
131.]
natural and immediate generalization of the
right tensor
ckk,
is
=a
the dyadic
aa'
4 &
b'
c c c'
(21)
where a, 6, c are positive or negative scalars and where a, b, c
and a', b', c' are two reciprocal systems of vectors. Neces
and
sarily a, b, c
Definition
a', b', c'
are each three noncoplanar.
dyadic that
may
be reduced to the form
ccc'
is
(21)
called a tonic.
The
effect of a tonic is to leave
coplanar directions
into
its
a, b, c in space.
components parallel to
23
unchanged three nonIf a vector be resolved
a, b, c
respectively these
VECTOR ANALYSIS
354
components are stretched in the ratios a to 1, & to 1, c to 1.
If one or more of the constants a, 6, c are negative the components parallel to the corresponding vector a, b, c are reversed in direction as well as changed in magnitude. The
may be
tonic
stretches the
factored into three
components parallel
factors
which each
of
one of the vectors
to
a, b, c
but leaves unchanged the components parallel to the other
two.
The value
of a tonic
is
not altered
if
in place of a, b, c
any three vectors respectively collinear with them be substituted,
provided of course that the corresponding changes
which are necessary be made in the reciprocal system
But with the exception
of this change, a dyadic
expressible in the form of a tonic
one
way
if
the constants a,
Z>,
a', b', c'.
which
is
so expressible in only
If two of the
are different.
is
constants say 5 and c are equal, any two vectors coplanar
with the corresponding vectors b and c may be substituted
and c. If all the constants are equal the tonic
reduces to a constant multiple of the idemfactor. Any three
noncoplanar vectors may be taken for a, b, c.
in place of b
The product
same
is
of
two
which the axes
tonics of
commutative and
is
a, b, c
are the
a tonic with these axes and
with scalar coefficients equal respectively to the products of
the corresponding coefficients of the two dyadics.
V=
&2
b'
c 2 c c'
ejCaCc'.
(22)
generalization of the cyclic dyadic
a
is
= V.0 = ai a z a&' + J^bb' +
0.
The
a z a a'
a'
cos q (b
V+
c c')
= aaa' + KbV +
cc')
sin q (c b'
 b c')
(cb'W),
(23)
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
where
355
which a
are three noncoplanar vectors of
a, b, c
b ',
',
'
the reciprocal system and where the quantities a, J, c, are
This dyadic may be changed
positive or negative scalars.
into a more convenient form by determining the positive
is
p and
the positive or negative scalar q (which
between the limits
be
chosen
TT) so that
always
scalar
and
=p
may
cos q
c=psinq.
That
(24)
p=+
is,
and
2=.
tan
(24)'
Then
(P
= a a a' + p cos
This
may
q (b
V+
The
sin q (c
b c').
(25)
be factored into the product of three dyadics
0= (aaa' + bb' + cc')
{a a'
+p
c c')
cos q (b b'
order of these factors
c c')
is
+p bb' +pcc')
+ sin q (c V b c')}.
(aa'
immaterial.
The
first is
a tonic
which leaves unchanged vectors
parallel to b and c but
stretches those parallel to a in the ratio of a to 1.
If a is
negative the stretching must be accompanied by reversal
in direction. The second factor is also a tonic. It leaves
unchanged vectors
parallel to a
but stretches
the plane of b and c in the ratio
to 1.
all
The
vectors in
third
is
Vectors parallel to a remain unchanged but
which b and c are conjugate
semidiameters are rotated through a vector such that the
cyclic factor.
radii vectors in the ellipse of
area of the vector
TT.
is
to the area of the whole ellipse as q to
Other vectors in the plane of b and
may
be regarded
as scalar multiples of the radii vectors of the ellipse.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
356
Definition
<P
A dyadic which
= a a a' + p cos
V+
q (b
c c')
reducible to the form
+p
sin q (c
b c'),
(25)
combines the properties of the
to the fact that it
owing
is
and the tonic is called a cyclotonic.
of two cyclotonics which have the same three
b, c as antecedents and the reciprocal system
cyclic dyadic
The product
vectors,
a', b',
a,
c' for
consequents
is
a third cyclotonic and
is
com
mutative.
= a a a' + p cos ^ (b V + c c') + p sin q
= a a a' + p cos q (b V + c + p2 sin q
W=
d> = a a aa' +
p^p cos (q + q
+ Pi PZ sin (ft + 2a (c b'  b o
l
c')
b'
z (c
z)
132.]
to
(bb'
c')
b c')
c c')
Reduction of Dyadics
(c b'
(26)
)
Canonical Forms
may be reduced
The dyadics for which
Theorem : In general any dyadic
either to a tonic or to a cyclotonic.
the reduction
is
impossible
may
be regarded as limiting cases
which may be represented
to any desired degree of approximation by tonics or cyclotonics.
From this theorem the importance of the tonic and cyclo
which have been treated as natural generalizations of
the right tensor and the cyclic dyadic may be seen.
The
of
all
the
the
discussion
of
a
theorem, including
proof
tonic
special cases that
The method
patent.
left
may
arise, is
long and somewhat tedious.
of proving the theorem in general
If three directions a, b, c
may
unchanged by the application of
however
is
be found which are
then
must be a
If only one such direction can be found, there exists
a plane in which the vectors suffer a
change such as that due
to the cyclotonic and the
dyadic indeed proves to be such.
tonic.
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
The question
is
which are unchanged
to find the directions
of the dyadic 0.
by the application
If the direction a
is
unchanged, then
d>
or
(0
The dyadic
357
aI
is
=aa
al).a = 0.
a
(27)
therefore planar since
it
reduces vectors
In special cases, which are set
may be linear or zero. In
in the direction a to zero.
aside for the present, the dyadic
any case
if
the dyadic
0al
reduces vectors collinear with a to zero
it
possesses at least
one degree of nullity and the third or determinant of
<P
vanishes.
(0aI) 8 =
Now
(page 331)
Hence
(4>
(3>
 al) 3 =
I,
)3
<P
<P
3
 a &2
0.
(28)
<P
2
a2
W+
:
12
d>
a3 1 8
= I and I3 = 1.
But
ffi
Hence the equation becomes
a3
The value
of a
 a2
ffi
which
satisfies
a
is
zS 4>z
4>
= 0.
(29)
the condition that
= aa
a solution of a cubic equation.
Let x replace
a.
The
cubic equation becomes
(29)'
VECTOR ANALYSIS
358
Any
value of x which satisfies this equation will be such
that
That
(0sI) 8 = 0.
is
to say, the dyadic
(28)'
I is planar.
vector per
pendicular to its consequents is reduced to zero. Hence
The further discussion
leaves such a direction unchanged.
of the reduction of a dyadic to the form of a tonic or a cycle
upon whether the cubic equation
tonic depends merely
in x
has one or three real roots.
133. J
Theorem
xs
If the cubic equation
 x*
&Z3 0 S
has three real roots the dyadic
to a tonic.
For
let
= a,
The dyadics
be the three roots of the equation.
I,
<P
=c
&,
(29)'
in general be reduced
may
=0
bl,
cl
are in general planar.
Let a, b, c be respectively three
vectors drawn perpendicular to the planes of the
consequents
of these dyadics.
= 0,
(0cI).c = 0.
$ a = a a,
0.b = Jb,
C = C C.
b
Then
If the roots a,
coplanar.
(30)
Z>,
are distinct the vectors
For suppose
c
= ma +
Ttb
(30)'
a,
b, c
are non
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
mca + n
0.a = a,
(P
a,
But
w (a
m (a
m=
Hence
and
Hence
Consequently
if
c)
= 0,
or a = c,
the vectors
a, b, c
?i
})
= 0.
<P.b=&b.
(&
c)
w (b
c)
= 0,
c) = 0.
or b
c.
are coplanar, the roots are
the roots are distinct, the
a, b, c
not distinct; and therefore
vectors
ft
<P
359
if
In case the roots
are necessarily noncoplanar.
it is still always possible to choose three
noncoplanar vectors a, b, c in such a manner that the equaThis being so, there exists a system a', b', c'
tions (30) hold.
are not distinct
reciprocal to
a a,
a, b, c
and the dyadic which
carries a, b, c into
b b, c c is the tonic
ccc.
Theorem :
If the cubic
xs
 x2
equation
tf>
has one real root the dyadic
a cyclotonic.
The cubic equation has one
tive or negative according as
<P
2S
may
<P
(29)'
in general be reduced to
This must be posiLet
positive or negative.
real root.
<P
is
8
the root be a.
Determine a perpendicular
the consequents of
a I.
to the plane of
(0aI).a = 0,
Determine
and
a' also
so that
l.
lengths of a and a' be so adjusted that a' a
This cannot be accomplished in the special case in which a
let the
VECTOR ANALYSIS
360
and
a' are
Let b be any vector in
mutually perpendicular.
the plane perpendicular to a'.
a'
Hence (0
al)b
perpendicular to
0" 1
2
b, CP"
= 0.
perpendicular to
is
Hence
a'.
$2
In a similar manner
a'.
b, etc., will all
The
one plane.
 a I)
(<P
vectors
<P
0b
<0 3
b,
b,
is
and
be perpendicular to a' and lie in
b and b cannot be parallel or
would have the direction b as well as a unchanged and
thus the cubic would have more than one real root.
The dyadic
changes a,
The
volume
of
spectively.
[<P
The
a a
vectors
<0
b,
tf>
b,
Inasmuch
as a
x (0b)
and
<P
=p
~l
and
b3
b_ 1
=^ ^2
or
The
Then
b3
b1
+ b_
b2
b2
= 2?ib 2
= 2wb
b1
b.
(31)'
(31)"
b,
b,
etc.
etc.
Let
2 n br
(33)
= 0.
b and b x are parallel.
b.
let
$*
=^ 0~
b) x bj
bj^bj x
b)
(31)
(32)
=p~*
b2 x
b2
b].
b^
+
0bxb.
b
(b 2
vectors b 2
4>
re
same plane. Their
and to each other. Hence
= ai08
*
Let also
(<P
have the same sign,
in the
all lie
vector products are parallel to a'
b)
b, <P
the parallelepiped
b]
b)
(<P
Z
a, <P
4>
= <P8 [a
a = a a.
b) = 3 a
But
Hence
b into
b,
b2
(34)
27ib 3
+ b_r=2wb_
etc.,
(35)
etc.
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
Lay
off
from a common origin the vectors
b,
Since
361
is
bp b2
etc.,
not a tonic, that
b_2
b_j,
is,
etc.
since there
no
is
direction in
the plane perpendicular to a' which is left unchanged by
these vectors b m pass round and round the origin as ra takes
all positive and negative values.
The value of
Let
therefore lie between plus one and minus one.
on
= cos
+ b = 2 cos
n
Then
b_j
Determine
(36)
q.
n must
q b.
from the equation
= cos q b + sin q c.
sin q c.
b_j = cos q b
bj
Then
Let
be the reciprocal system of
sible since a' was so determined that
a', b', c'
W=
W
Then
Hence
cos q (bb'
(aaa'
(a aa'
The dyadic a
the vectors
a.a!
The dyadic
is
cc')
sin q (c
+p
+ .p
+p
+p
a,
=a
=p
b^ = b.
=
b =
b_j =p b = <P
&
"b
a,
b,
b_ r
changes the vectors
b,
pos
and since
V  be').
3P
SF.b^bj,
= (a a a' + p
root
0,
(a a,*'
=1
a'
is
Let
are noncoplanar.
a, b, c
This
a, b, c.
and
W)
=a
a,
b and b_j into
b_g respectively.
a
a'
+ p cos
+ p sin q
Hence
V + c c')
b c').
(c V
(b
in case the cubic equation has
only one real
in
cases
to
a cyclotonic.
except
special
reducible
The theorem
that a dyadic in general is reducible to a tonic
or cyclotonic has therefore been demonstrated.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
362
There remain two cases 1 in which the reduction
134.]
In
impossible, as can be seen by looking over the proof.
if
n
in
the
constant
the
used
reduction to cyclothe first place
is
tonic form be
place
if
In the second
1 the reduction falls through.
the plane of the antecedents of
0al
and the plane of the consequents are perpendicular the
and a' used in the reduction to cyclotonic form are
vectors a
perpendicular and it
a a' shall be unity.
If
impossible to determine a' such that
The reduction falls through.
is
1,
Let
b_i
Choose
Hence
bj
c^bj
=a
Consider the dyadic
a a'
+p
The transformation due
bx
b.
= 2 b.
=b
=p G =p'b
a a a'
b_j
b_r
+p
J9
(b b'
(b
b'
c c')
c c')
to this dyadic
+p
f
c b'
C.
cb r
may be
(37)
seen best by
factoring it into three factors which are independent of the
order or arrangement
(a a a'
b'
c c')
{a a/
(a
a'
+ p (b b' +
+
bb'
c c')}
cc'
cb').
In these cases it will be seen that the cubic
equation has three real roots.
In one case two of them are equal and in the other case three of them. Thus
these dyadics may be regarded as
limiting cases lying between the cyclotonic in
which two of the roots are
imaginary and the tonic in which all the roots are real
and distinct. The limit may be
regarded as taking place either by the pure
imaginary part of the two imaginary roots of the cyclotonic becoming zero or by
two of the roots of the tonic
approaching each other.
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
The
first
363
factor represents an elongation in the direction a in a
1.
The plane of b and c is undisturbed. The
ratio a to
second factor represents a stretching of the plane of b and
the ratio
to 1.
The
last factor takes the
(I
(I
+ c V)
c b')
(I
in
cb'.
x&
xb
+ c V)
form
= #a,
= x b + x c,
x c = x c.
A dyadic of the form I + cb' leaves vectors parallel to a and c
unaltered. A vector x b parallel to b
increased by the vecis
by the ratio of the vector x b to b. In other
words the transformation of points in space is such that the
tor c multiplied
plane of a and
remains fixed point for point but the points
in planes parallel to that plane are shifted in the direction c
by an amount proportional to the distance of the plane in
which they lie from the plane of a and c.
Definition : A dyadic reducible to the form
I
cb'
called a shearing dyadic or shearer and the geometrical
transformation which it causes is called a shear. The more
is
general dyadic
cc')
+ oV
(37)
The transwill also be called a shearing dyadic or shearer.
formation to which it gives rise is a shear combined with
elongations in the direction of a and is in the plane of b and c.
If n
1 instead of n
+1, the result is much the same.
The dyadic then becomes
cc')cV
(a aa'
+ bV +
cc')
{aa'
p
(bV +
cc')}
(37)'
(I
cV).
VECTOR ANALYSIS
364
The
factors are the
same except the second which now repre
sents a stretching of the plane of b and c combined with a
reversal of all the vectors in that plane. The shearing dyadic
then represents an elongation in the direction a, an elonga
combined with a reversal of direction in the plane of
c, and a shear.
tion
b and
Suppose that the plane of the antecedents and the plane of
the consequents of the dyadic <# al are perpendicular.
Let
these planes be taken respectively as the plane of j and k
the plane of i and j k. The dyadic then takes the form
The
is
coefficient
B must vanish.
and
For otherwise the dyadic
planar and the scalar a + B is a root of the cubic equation.
this root the reduction to the form of a tonic may be
With
carried on as before.
new
This
case occurs.
Nothing new
Let
may be reduced
as follows to the
ab'
where
Square
V=a
arises.
But
be'
= b e' =
and b
W* = A D ki = ac'.
e'
= A D k,
B vanishes
form
Hence a must be chosen parallel to k and
The dyadic
may then be transformed into
Then
if
b'
= Ci+Di
AD
O =
b'
c',
= 1.
parallel to
i.
With
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
365
reduces to the
this choice of a, b, V,
c'
the dyadic
desired form ab'+ be' and hence the dyadic
= al +
= aaa' + abb'+
or
ab'
ace'
reduced to
is
bc'
(38)
+ aV +
be'.
factored into the product of two dyadics the
order of which is immaterial.
This
The
may be
factor al represents a stretching of space in all
The second factor
first
directions in the ratio a to 1.
represents
r'=
If r
is
what may be
IT +
ab'.r
parallel to a
it
is
r is parallel to b it is
which
is
if
bc'^r
+ ab'.r +
r.
unaltered by the dyadic Q. If
changed by the addition of a term
magnitude
and
in
of the vector
magnitude proporIn like manner
r.
changed by the addition of a term
equal to b and which in magnitude is
r is parallel to c it is
which in direction
is
proportional to the magnitude of the vector
= (I + ab' f bc') #b =
a;c = (I + ab' + bc')#c =
.zb
Definition
dyadic which
= al +
is
bc'
left
in direction equal to a
tional to the
For
called a complex shear.
may
ab'
r.
#b + x&
xc
#b.
be reduced to the form
+ bc'
(38)
called a complex shearer.
The complex
shearer as well as the simple shearer mentioned before are limiting cases of the cyclotonic and tonic
dyadics.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
366
more systematic treatment of the various kinds
of dyadics which may arise may be given by means of the
HamiltonCayley equation
135.]
03
0z
zs
0_
(39)
= 0.
(29)'
and the cubic equation in x
x3
<P
z
a x
23 x
<P
are the roots of this cubic the HamiltonCayley
equation may be written as
If a,
&, c
(0aI).(0&I).(0cI) =0.
If,
(40)
however, the cubic has only one root the HamiltonCayley
equation takes the form
a I).
(0 2^?
cos
<P+p*I) =0.
(41)
In general the HamiltonCayley equation which is an equation of the third degree in
is the equation of lowest
degree
which
by (P. In general therefore one of the above
and
the
equations
corresponding reductions to the tonic or
cyclotonic form hold. In special cases, however, the dyadic
is satisfied
may
satisfy
an equation of lower degree. That equation
which may be satisfied by a dyadic is called
of lowest degree
its characteristic
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
equation.
The following
possibilities occur.
(<PaI
(0 a I).(<P& I) 2 = 0.
(0 a !)(</> 61)
3
(<PaI) = 0.
(0aI) 2 = 0.
0aI = 0.
=0.
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
In the
to the
first
case the dyadic
form
a tonic and
is
= aaa' +
Jbb'
In the second case the dyadic
reduced to the form
= aaa' + p
cos q (bb'
In the third case the dyadic
reduced to the form
<P
= aaa' +
is
cc')
367
may
be reduced
ccc'.
a cyclotonic and
may
+p
be').
sin q
(cV
a simple shearer and
is
(bb'
cc')
may
be
be
cb'.
In the fourth case the dyadic is again a tonic. Two of the
The following reduction
ratios of elongation are the same.
may
be accomplished in an infinite number of ways.
<P
In the
fifth
= aaa' +
case the dyadic
so expressed that
0=
al
&
(bb'
cc').
is
a complex shearer
ab'
In the sixth case the dyadic
may be reduced to the form
is
= al + cb'=a(aa'
and may be
bc'.
again a simple shearer which
4bb'
+cc') + cV.
In the seventh case the dyadic is again a tonic which may be
reduced in a doubly infinite number of ways to the form
<p
al
a (a a'
bb'
cc').
These seven are the only essentially different forms which a
dyadic may take. There are then only seven really different
three tonics in which the ratios of elongation are all different, two alike, or all equal, and the cyclo
kinds of dyadics
tonic together with three limiting cases, the
the one complex shearer.
two simple and
VECTOR ANALYSIS
368
Summary
of Chapter
VI
The transformation due to a dyadic is a linear homogeneou
The dyadic itself gives the transformation of the
strain.
The second of the dyadic gives the transin
space.
points
of
formation
plane areas. The third of the dyadic gives the
ratio in
which volumes are changed.
s'=02
r'=0r,
The necessary and
v'=0 a
s,
sufficient condition that a dyadic repre
sent a rotation about a definite axis
the form
4>
or that
d>
that
is
be reducible to
it
= i'i + j'j + k'k
=I
=+1
C
<P C = I
<P
3 >
<P
or that
The necessary and
v.
<P
(1)
(2)
sufficient condition that a dyadic repre
sent a rotation combined with a transformation of reflection
by which each
figure is replaced
by one symmetrical
to
it is
that
= (i'i +
<p.<p c = I,
<P
<P C = I,
or that
or that
dyadic of the form (1)
is
k'k)
(1)'
= 1
3
<P < 0.
3
(3)
j' j
d>
called a versor
one of the form
(1)', a perversor.
If the axis of rotation of a versor
be chosen or the iaxis
the versor reduces to
== ii
or
If
cos q (j
i i
any unit vector a
+ kk) +
cos q (I
is
= aa +
The
i i)
 j k)
sin q (kj
sin q I
(4)
i.
(5)
directed along the axis of rotation
cos q (I
a a)
sin q I
x a
axis of the versor coincides in direction with
(6)
<P V .
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
If a vector be
'ie
drawn along the
and
axis
if
369
the magnitude of
vector be taken equal to the tangent of onehalf the angle
rotation, the vector determines the rotation completely.
vector
f his
is
called the vector semitangent of version.
= tan 2 ^2
ft. ft
In terms of
ft
the versor
(9)
be expressed in a number of
may
ways.
&=ftft
ftft
ftft \

r
cos a (I
or
sin q
<J<v
(I
x a)
(I
I
=
Vaa
ft)
(10)
(10)'
(ioy
ftft
.
1
ftft
If a is a unit vector a dyadic of the
=2
aa
form
(11)
a biquadrantal versor.
Any versor may be resolved into
the product of two biquadrantal versors and by means of
is
such
resolutions
another.
of version
The law
any two versors may be combined into
of composition for the vector semitangents
is
ft
ft
ft
ft
dyadic reducible to the form
= aa' + cos
is
(bV +
called a cyclic dyadic.
simple rotation
an
cc')
It
sin q (cb'
be')
(17)
produces a generalization of
elliptic rotation, so to speak.
24
The
pro
VECTOR ANALYSIS
370
duct of two cyclic dyadics which have the same antecedents
a, b, c and consequents a' b' c' is obtained by adding their
angles q.
idemfactor.
cyclic dyadic
may
= aii +
where
be regarded as a root of the
dyadic reducible to the form
&jj
+ ckk
(18)
a right tensor. It
a
the
principal axis i, j, k in the
stretching along
represents
1
are
a
to
c
to
which
called the principal ratios
to 1, b
ratio
1,
This transformation is a pure strain.
of elongation.
a, &, c are positive scalars is called
Any
dyadic
a right tensor,
(ai'i'
0=
or
may
be expressed as the product of a versor,
and a positive
(i'i
Jj'j'
or.
negative sign.
k'k') (i'i
+ j'j + k'k).(aii+Jjj +
j'j
k'k)
ckk).
(19)
Consequently any linear homogeneous strain may be regarded
combination of a rotation and a pure strain accompanied
as a
or unaccompanied by a perversion.
The immediate
generalizations of the right tensor
and the
cyclic dyadic is to the tonic
(21)
and cyclotonic
cc')
or
<P
= aaa' + .p cos
where
Any
(21),
=+
# (bb'
*/ 52
C2
+ c(cb'bc)
(23)
+ cc')+^sin # (eb'bc')
and tan I
=
p +
(25)
(24)'
dyadic in general may be reduced either to the form
is therefore a tonic, or to the form
(25), and is
and
therefore a cyclotonic.
The condition that a dyadic be a
tonic is that the cubic equation
(29)'
ROTATIONS AND STRAINS
have three
shall
real
371
Special cases in which the
roots.
may be accomplished in more ways than one arise
the equation has equal roots. The condition that a
reduction
when
dyadic be a cyclotonic is that this cubic equation shall have
only one real root. There occur two limiting cases in which
the dyadic cannot be reduced to cyclotonic form.
cases it may be written as
=aaa' +p
and
is
a simple shearer, or
it
(bb'
is
a complex shearer.
cc')
cb'
(37)
takes the form
= al +
and
In these
ab'
Dyadics
bc'
may
(38)
be classified accord
ing to their characteristic equations
=0
tonic
a I) (<P 2
2 p cos q <P + p 2 1) =
cyclotonic
2 =
a !)($
& I)
simple shearer
(<P
(0 al). (<P b I) =
special tonic
3
(0 a I) =
complex shearer
(0 a I) =
special simple shearer
a I) =
special tonic.
(<P
(<P
(0
aI).(<P
61).
(<Z>
cl)
CHAPTER
YII
MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
Quadric Surfaces
If
136.]
be any constant dyadic the equation
r
0.i =
const.
(1)
The constant, in case it be not zero, may
quadratic in r.
and hence the equation takes
be divided into the dyadic
is
the form
r
or
The dyadic
= 1,
r = 0.
is
may
(2)
an antiselfconjugate dyadic, the product
is left
dyadic
is
as an exercise.
The
r.
By
r is
Art. 116 any selfconjugate
reducible to the form
1
If
r .,.
Hence the equation
a2
<>
bz
"
(3)
\.
/
2)
= ici + yj + zk,
r=
r
#2
_
7/2
i
zz
(4)
=1
represents a quadric surface real or imaginary.
The different cases which arise are four in number.
signs are all positive, the quadric
is
if
proof of this state
*=y"
sign
For
be assumed to be selfconjugate.
identically zero for all values of
ment
(1)'
negative
it is
is
a real ellipsoid.
an hyperboloid of one sheet;
if
If the
If
one
two are
QUADRIC SURFACES
373
If the three signs are
negative, a hyperboloid of two sheets.
In like manner the
all negative the quadric is imaginary.
equation
r.0.r =
seen to represent a cone which may be either real or
imaginary according as the signs are different or all alike.
is
Thus
the equation
r
= const.
The
represents a central quadric surface.
a cone in case the constant is zero.
quadric surface
may
Conversely any central
be represented by a suitably chosen self
form
in the
conjugate dyadic
This
is
surfaces
surface reduces to
= const.
evident from the equations of the central quadric
when reduced to the normal form. They axe
x2
a2
zz
The corresponding dyadic
= const.
i i
is
j j
a2
kk
%c2
The most general
scalar expression which is quadratic in
the vector r and which consequently when set equal to a constant represents a quadric surface, contains terms like
r
where
a, b, c, d, e
a) (b
(r
r,
c,
are constant vectors.
are of the second order in r
the
)r,
The
the third, of the
c,
first
first
two terms
and
order
independent of r. Moreover, it is evident that these
four sorts of terms are the only ones which can occur in a
last,
scalar expression
which
But
and
r
(r
quadratic in
is
a) (b
=r I
=r
r)
r.
r,
ab
r.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
374
Hence the most general quadratic expression may be reduced
to
r.0.r + r.A +
where
a constant dyadic,
is
conjugate if desired.
To be rid of the linear term r
(r'
 t)
r'
Since
equal.
r'
(r'
 t) +
t
now $
r'
is
+2
r'
(
<P
r'
In case
is
A
complete the vector
is
and third terms are
incomplete
is self conjugate.
as the case
soluble for t
If
may
or
4>
t)
may
= l 0
C'
= 0.
be chosen so that
1 
A.
reducible to the central form
r'
sible.
 t) A + C =
Hence
Hence the quadric
is
(r'
selfconjugate the second
is
self
a change of origin
+
fr'.At.A+C'^O.
r'
^A=
of
make
A,
as
t.
r'
r'
If
a constant vector, and
The dyadic may be regarded
a constant scalar.
by replacing r by
(7:=0,
r'
it is
lies
= const.
wm'planar or wmlinear because
in the plane of
or in the line
be the equation
and the reduction to central form
But unless
is
so situated the reduction
is still
is
pos
impossible.
The quadric surface is not a central surface.
The discussion and classification of the various noncentral
quadrics
here.
is
an interesting exercise.
The present
object
is
It will not
to develop so
much
be taken up
of the theory
QUADRIC SURFACES
375
of quadric surfaces as will be useful in applications to mathe
matical physics with especial reference to nonisotropic media.
Hereafter therefore the central quadrics and in particular the
ellipsoid will be discussed.
137.]
The tangent plane may be found by
r
dr
Since
is
= 1.
dr
selfconjugate these
= 0.
two terms are equal and
T=
dT'0
differentiation.
0.
(5)
r.
Hence
perpendicular to
normal to the surface at the extremity of the vector
The increment d r
this
is
normal be denoted by
and
N=
n
d>
let the unit
n.
(6)
.
($
Let
r.
normal be
r)
r is
<P
r)
Let p be the vector drawn from the origin perpendicular to
The perpendicular
the tangent plane, p is parallel to n.
distance from the origin to the tangent plane is the square
root of p p. It is also equal to the square root of r p.
r
Hence
= r cos
r
p.p
p)
=p
LH = r
Or
as
p and
0.
2
.
p.
._Z_
p.p
= l.
r.0r = r.H =
But
Hence inasmuch
(r,
l.
are parallel, they are equal.
= N=
p.p
(7)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
376
On
page 108
it
was seen that the vector which has the direcand which is in magnitude equal
tion of the normal to a plane
from the origin to the plane
as
vector
coordinate
of that plane.
the
taken
be
Hence
may
r is not merely normal to
the above equation shows that
to the reciprocal of the distance
the tangent plane, but
That is, the length of
is
also the coordinate of the plane.
r is the reciprocal of the distance
from the origin to the plane tangent to the ellipsoid at
the extremity of the vector r.
The equation of the ellipsoid in plane coordinates
found by eliminating r from the two equations.
(
Hence
may be
= 1,
d>
Hence the desired equation
is
H.^ H = I.
I
~ ^ jj
^ U
*
Tf
kk

4.
"I
Let
N = ui +
and
where
= a?i +
w, v,
are
the
yj
(8)
vj +
kk.
zk,
k,
reciprocals of the intercepts of the
plane N upon the axes i, j, k. Then the ellipsoid may be
written in either of the two forms familiar in Cartesian
geometry.
/y
or
N. Qi. N = a 2
u*
77
bz vz
wz =
l.
(10)
QUADRIC SURFACES
The
377
middle points of a system of
This plane is
parallel chords in an ellipsoid is a plane.
called the diametral plane conjugate with the system of
138.]
locus of the
the plane drawn tangent to the
ellipsoid at the extremity of that one of the chords which
passes through the center.
chords.
It
is
to
parallel
any radius vector in the ellipsoid. Let s be the
vector drawn to the middle point of a chord parallel to a.
Let
r be
Let
=s+
x a.
If r is a radius vector of the ellipsoid
Hence
= (s +
a)
(s
+ 0.sj2S.0.a +
#2
x a)
= 1.
a.0.a =
l.
Inasmuch as the vector s bisects the chord parallel to a the
two solutions of x given by this equation are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. Hence the coefficient of the
linear term x vanishes.
Consequently the vector
s is
A
= 0.
perpendicular to
a.
The
therefore a plane passed through
the center of the ellipsoid, perpendicular to
a, and parallel
to the tangent plane at the extremity of a.
locus of the terminus of
If
with
is
s is
any radius vector in the diametral plane conjugate
a,
= 0.
The symmetry of this equation shows that a is a radius
vector in the plane conjugate with b. Let c be a third radius
vector in the ellipsoid and let it be chosen as the line of
intersection
with a and
of the diametral
b.
Then
a
planes conjugate respectively
= 0,
c = 0,
a = 0.
(11)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
378
The
vectors
the dyadic
The
vectors
= <P
b'
a,
=a
= 1,
and
=c
ab/ = a0b = 0,
a'
The dyadic
may
= <P
c.
4>
= 1,
=b
a = 0.
a, b, c.
= 1,
c'
a'
=b
b'
=c
c'
= 0,
be therefore expressed in the forms
= a' a' + b'V + c'c',
0" = a a + bb + cc.
(12)
and
If for
c'
b,
form the system reciprocal to
a', b', c'
For
0a,0*b,<P*eby
Let
<P.
a'
are changed into
a, b, c
convenience the three directions
a, b, c,
be called a
system of three conjugate radii vectors, and if in a similar
manner the three tangent planes at their extremities be called
a system of three conjugate tangent planes, a number of
geometric theorems may be obtained from interpreting the
invariants of 0.
system of three conjugate radii vectors
be obtained in a doubly infinite number of ways.
The volume of a parallelepiped of which three concurrent
may
edges constitute a system of three conjugate radii vectors is
constant and equal in magnitude to the rectangular parallelepiped constructed upon the three semiaxes of the ellipsoid.
For let a, b, c be any system of three conjugate axes.
0The determinant
pendent of the
= aa +
or third of
bb +
0~ l
form in which
is
is
i=[abc]
cc.
an invariant and indeexpressed.
2
.
QUADRIC SURFACES
But
0 1
if
a 2 ii
2
Z>
jj
=a b c
= ale.
[a b c]
i
Hence
^V"
3,
The sum
and
1
,
kk,
In like manner by inter
This demonstrates the theorem.
<P
preting
379
possible to
it is
show that:
drawn to an
of the squares of the radii vectors
ellipsoid in a
system of three conjugate directions
is
constant
and equal to the sum of the squares of the semiaxes.
The volume of the parallelepiped, whose three concurrent
edges are in the directions of the perpendiculars upon a system
of three conjugate tangent planes and in magnitude equal to
the reciprocals of the distances of those planes from the
center of the ellipsoid, is constant and equal to the reciprocal
upon the semiaxes
of the parallelepiped constructed
of the
ellipsoid.
The sum
of the squares of the reciprocals of the three perpendiculars dropped from the origin upon a system of three
conjugate tangent planes is constant and equal to the sum of
the squares of the reciprocals of the semiaxes.
If i, j, k be three mutually perpendicular unit vectors
a
i
4> a
Let
a,
b, c
= i.
<p
0i
+j
+j
0i
j
.
+k
j
k,
01
k.
be three radii vectors in the ellipsoid drawn
respectively parallel to
Hence
ffi
=b
.
i, j,
<P
But
k.
$
j
\ ,
b
.
=c
.
0
j

= 1.
.
the three terms in this expression are the squares of the
reciprocals of the radii vectors drawn respectively in the i, j,
directions.
Hence
VECTOR ANALYSIS
380
The sum
of the squares of the reciprocals of three mutually
And
radii vectors in an ellipsoid is constant.
perpendicular
in a similar manner: the
sum
of the squares of the perpen
diculars dropped from the origin upon three mutually perpendicular tangent planes is constant.
The equation
139.]
mined by the vector a
of the polar plane of the point deter
is
= 1.
(13)
let s be the vector of a point in the polar plane.
The
vector of any point upon the line which joins the terminus of
s and the terminus of a is
For
+ sa
x + y
ys
If this point lies
upon the surface
i/
O + y)
g.0.
If the terminus of
_J
/v
i/
xy
O+
s lies
a _I_
>>
=1
.0.i +
2/)
X
,
O+
a.0.a = l.
2/)
in the polar plane of a the
two values
y determined by this equation must be equal
in magnitude and opposite in
Hence the term inxy
sign.
of the ratio x
vanishes.
Hence
<P
=1
is
the desired equation of the polar plane of the terminus
of
a.
Let a be replaced by
or
z a.
It is evidently immaterial
The polar plane becomes
d>
whether the central quadric determined by * be
real or imaginary, ellipsoid or
hyperboloid.
QUADRIC SURFACES
When
381
the polar plane of the terminus of z a
the
In the limit when z becomes infinite
approaches
origin.
the polar plane becomes
z increases
0.
Hence the polar plane of the point at infinity in the
a is the same as the diametral plane conjugate with
direction
a.
This
frequently taken as the definition of the diameIn case the vector a is a radius
tral plane conjugate with a.
vector of the surface the polar plane becomes identical with
statement
is
the tangent plane at the terminus of
s
or
The equation
a.
N=1
therefore represents the tangent plane.
The
which
polar plane
is
important.
be obtained from another standpoint
Q and a plane are given,
may
P= r
and
the equation
If a quadric
(r
 C = 0,
1)
k (r
C)
represents a quadric surface which passes through the curve
and is tangent to Q along that
of intersection of Q and
curve.
In like manner
the equation
(r
if
two quadrics Q and
1)
(r
0'
Q' are given,
1)
represents a quadric surface which passes through the curves
of intersection of Q and Q' and which cuts Q and Q' at no
other points.
In case this equation
is
factorable into
two
equations which are linear in r, and which consequently represent two planes, the curves of intersection of Q and Q'
become plane and lie into those two planes.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
382
A is any point outside of the quadric and if all the tangent
are drawn, these planes envelop
planes which pass through A
If
This cone touches the quadric along a plane curve
the plane of the curve being the polar plane of the point A.
a cone.
For
of
let
any
a be the vector
drawn
to the point
A.
The equation
tangent plane to the quadric is
.
= 1.
If this plane contains A, its equation is satisfied by a. Hence
the conditions which must be satisfied by r if its tangent
are
plane passes through
= 1,
r = 1.
r
The points r therefore lie in a plane r (0 a) = 1 which
on comparison with (13) is seen to be the polar plane of A.
The quadric which passes through the curve of intersection
of this polar plane with the given quadric and which touches
the quadric along that curve
r
(r
Hence
By
d>
4>
(r
Jfe
(a
 I) 2 = 0.
through the point A,
If this passes
(a
 1) +
is
 1) +
 1)
k (a
a
(a
ffi
1)
 I) 2 = 0.
 (a
r  I) 2 =
transforming the origin to the point
whose vertex is at that point.
0.
this is easily seen
to be a cone
140.]
Let
sible in the
be any selfconjugate dyadic.
It is expres
form
=A
where A> B,
more let
ii
+ ^jj +
tfkk
are positive or negative scalars.
A <B
 Bl =
((7
J5)
<
kk  (B  Ay
ii.
Further
QUADRIC SURFACES
VC B
Let
Then
Let
=c
and
= ccaa=^
c
=p
(c
The dyadic
= a.
+ a)(ca)+(ca)(c+a)
and
= Bl +
Then
VB
383
(p q
j.
= q.
qp).
(14)
has been expressed as the sum of a constant
and one half the sum
multiple of the idemfactor
pq +
The reduction has assumed
are different
qp.
tacitly that the constants 4, B,
from each other and from
This expression for
zero.
closely related to the circular
is
sections of the quadric surface
r
Substituting the value of
Br
Let
r
r
<P,
+
r
This
= 1 becomes
r = 1.
r
p q
be any plane perpendicular to
= 1.
=n
p.
n q
By
substitution
0.
a sphere because the terms of the second order all
have the same coefficient B. If the equation of this sphere
is
be subtracted from that of the given quadric, the resulting
equation is that of a quadric which passes through the inter
and the given quadric.
section of the sphere
r (r
w)
Hence the sphere and the quadric
r
and
difference
= 0.
intersect in
curves lying in the planes
The
= n.
two plane
VECTOR ANALYSIS
384
Inasmuch
as these curves lie
upon a sphere they
are circles.
Hence planes perpendicular to p cut the quadric in circles.
it may be shown that planes perpendicular to
In like manner
q cut the quadric hi
follows
The proof may be conducted
circles.
.Z?
p q
= 1.
If r is a radius vector in the plane passed
of the quadric perpendicular to p or q, the
Hence the vector
ishes.
as
through the center
term r p q r van
r in this plane satisfies the equation
B rr = l
and
is
of constant length.
The section is therefore a circular
The radius of the section is equal hi length to the
section.
mean
semiaxis of the quadric.
For convenience
stants
may
A, B,
let the
The
con
reciprocal dyadic
0~l
quadric be an ellipsoid.
The
are then positive.
be reduced hi a similar manner.
01
Let
Then
i i
k k
ti
01
= ff 
dd
Jo
= *\\
(f
d) (f
 d)
(.
+ (fd)(f +
+
Let
Then
0i
=u
and
=iI +
(u
d)j
 d = v.
v u).
(15)
QUADRIC SURFACES
385
The vectors u and v are connected intimately with the circular cylinders which envelop the ellipsoid
r
=1
or
N N+N
For
If
N=
<P~l
N=
uv
1.
1.
now N
be perpendicular to u or v the second term, namely,
N, vanishes and hence the equation becomes
uv
N N=
.
That
is,
the vector
is
B.
of constant length.
But
the equation
the equation of a cylinder of which the elements and tangent planes are parallel to n. If then N BT is constant the
is
The
cylinder is a circular cylinder enveloping the ellipsoid.
radius of the cylinder is equal in length to the mean semiaxis
of the ellipsoid.
There are consequently two planes passing through the
origin and cutting out circles from the ellipsoid. The normals
to these planes are p
extremities of the
two
and
mean
q.
The
through the
There are also
circles pass
axis of the ellipsoid.
circular cylinders enveloping the ellipsoid.
of the axes of these cylinders are
u and
v.
The
Two
these cylinders pass through the extremities of the
of the ellipsoid.
These
direction
elements of
mean
axis
can be seen geometrically as follows. Pass
a plane through the mean axis and rotate it about that
The section is an
axis from the major to the minor axis.
ellipse.
ellipsoid.
results
One
axis of this
ellipse
is
the
mean
axis of
This remains constant during the rotation.
the
The
other axis of the ellipse varies in length from the major to the
minor axis of the ellipsoid and hence at some stage must pass
At this stage of
through a length equal to the mean axis.
25
VECTOR ANALYSIS
386
the rotation the section
is
In like manner consider
circle.
the projection or shadow of the ellipsoid cast upon a plane
a point at an infinite distance
parallel to the mean axis by
from that plane and in a direction perpendicular to it. As the
ellipsoid is rotated about its mean axis, from the position in
which the major axis is perpendicular to the plane of projection to the position hi
to that plane, the
which the minor axis
is
perpendicular
shadow and the projecting cylinder have the
axis of the ellipsoid as one axis. The other axis changes
from the minor axis of the ellipsoid to the major and hence at
some stage of the rotation it passes through a value equal to
mean
the
mean
axis.
At
the shadow and projecting
this stage
cylinder are circular.
The
necessary and sufficient condition that r be the major
1
ellipsoid r d> r
or minor semiaxis of the section of the
by a plane passing through the center and perpendicular to a
that a, r, and
r be coplanar.
is
Let
and
dr
dr
if
r is to be a
maximum
dr
Furthermore
= 0.
r = 0,
a = 0.
r = 0,
Differentiate
=1
major or minor axis of the section for r is a
mininum and hence is perpendicular to dr.
;
or a
These three equations show that a, r, and
r are all orthogonal to the same vector dr. Hence they are coplanar.
[a r
Conversely
if
dr may be chosen
Then
d>
r]
[a r
r]
= 0.
= 0,
perpendicular to their
0.
(16)
common
plane.
QUADRIC SURFACES
Hence
maximum
r is a
or a
mininum and
387
is
one of the prin
cipal semiaxes of the section perpendicular to a.
141.]
form
r
instead of
This
may
an advantage to write the equation
It is frequently
of an ellipsoid in the
be done
because
= 1,
r = 1.
r
(17)
if
i
kk
j j
h
H2
2
2
i
'
a dyadic such that W* is equal to 0.
a square root of
and written as $*.
is
membered that
there
example,
i i
__
For
Ha
'
this reason it is necessary to bear in
meant by
been denoted by
is
for
_ kk
__
j *
j
*
i
root which
be regarded as
But it must be re
other square roots of
are
and
W may
mind that the square
that particular one which has
<P* is
The equation
of the ellipsoid
r
or
Let
(?T.r).
r'
may
be written in the form
= 1,
(?F.r) = l.
W
be the radius vector of a unit sphere.
the sphere
is
r'
r'
= 1.
The equation of
VECTOR ANALYSIS
388
evident that an ellipsoid may be
transformed into a unit sphere by applying the operator
If r''=
^'rit becomes
r, and vice versa, the unit sphere may
be transformed into an ellipsoid by applying the inverse operFurthermore if a, b, c are
ator W~ l to each radius vector r'.
to each radius vector
a system of three conjugate radii vectors in an ellipsoid
2
=b
2P 2
Wz
=b
a.
a
If for the
moment
a'
a'
Hence the three
which
5F2
denote respectively
a', b', c'
r.c,
=c
c = c
=V
b' = V
=
=
b'
a'
c'
radii vectors
a,
b,
= 1,
a' = 0.
c'
c'
c'
of the unit sphere into
c'
a', b',
three conjugate radii vectors in the ellipsoid are trans
l
are mutually orthogonal.
formed by the operator
They
form a righthanded or lefthanded system of three mutually
perpendicular unit vectors.
Theorem
ellipsoid
Any
by means
ellipsoid
of a
be transformed into any other
may
homogeneous
strain.
Let the equations of the ellipsoids be
r
and
By means
ellipsoid are
of the strain
= 1,
W r = 1.
r
0* the
changed into the
radii vectors r' of
r'T'
r'=0*T,
By means
of the strain
radii vectors r of the first
a unit sphere
= l.
W~* the radii vectors r' of this unit
manner into the radii vectors f
Hence by the product r is changed
sphere are transformed in like
of the second ellipsoid.
into r.
f
V*
0i
r.
(19)
QUADRIC SURFACES
389
The transformation may be accomplished in more ways
The radii vectors r' of the unit sphere may be
transformed among themselves by means of a rotation with or
than one.
without a perversion.
three mutually orthogonal unit
Any
vectors in the sphere may be changed into any three others.
Hence the semiaxes of the first ellipsoid may be carried over
by a
suitable strain into the semiaxes of the second.
strain is then completely determined
The
and the transformation
can be performed in only one way.
142.] The equation of a family of confocal quadric surfaces
is
az
If r
2
b'
1 and r
c'
1 are two surfaces of the
family,
i i
i i
nr
*
^tt
Hence
j *
*
j
L_
>
a2
j:
T2/
kk
j j
&
1 1 ~f"
0  yi=
Cb
k k
62
7i
72.
&
1 1
c2
"^~
n*&
(C
 n^ (ii + j j +
= (%  wi) T
(w a

71
K.
kk)
The necessary and
sufficient condition that the
=1
r = 1
and
be confocal,
r
is
two quadrics
that the reciprocals of
and
differ
by a
multiple of the idemfactor
0i
yi
= a .i.
(21)
VECTOR ANALYSIS
390
If
two confocal quadrics
Let the quadrics be
and
Let
Then
the quadrics
1 .
r,
s'.
be written in terms of
may
and
= 1,
W r = 1.
= W
r and
s and r = W~
r
*'
= 0
do so at right angles.
intersect, they
s'.
and
s'
as
= l,
?Ti.s' = l,
0 1
.s
where by the confocal property,
0i
If the
is
yri
=xi
quadrics intersect at r the condition for perpendicularity
r and W r be perpendicular.
That is,
that the normals
But
= 0= ~
s
y
1
s'
s'
s'
s'
= 0.
y~ +
s =
l
1 .
s'
5P1 .
I)
8,
s'= 1
s
SF1
s'.
In like manner
r
 CM
a?
Add
Hence
 (0  I)
= W*
= s 008
= s (0~
s
)
=
s
0,
a;
s'
s'
aj
JP"
= 00s = 8
s
s =
1
s'
'
s'
a; s'.
1.
a;
s'.
s'
and the theorem
If the
s'
s'
is
proved.
parameter n be allowed to vary from
oo to
+ oo
the
resulting confocal quadrics will consist of three families of
which one
and the
another, hyperboloids of one sheet ;
third, hyperboloids of two sheets.
By the foregoing
is ellipsoids
QUADRIC SURFACES
391
theorem each surface of any one family cuts every surface
The surfaces form a triply
of the other two orthogonally.
orthogonal system. The lines of intersection of two families
(say the family of onesheeted and the family of twosheeted
hyperboloids) cut orthogonally the other family
the family
The points in which two ellipsoids are cut by
of ellipsoids.
these lines are called corresponding points upon the two ellipsoids.
It
may
be shown that the ratios of the components of
the radius vector of a point to the axes of the ellipsoid
through that point are the same for any two corresponding
points.
For
let
any
ellipsoid be given
The neighboring
by the dyadic
ellipsoid in the family is represented
dyadic
U
ndn
W=
and
,
*^
dn
bz
JFi= 01
Inasmuch as
kk
JJ
*^
a?
dn
dn.
homologous (see Ex.
are
by the
8, p.
330)
dyadics they may be treated as ordinary scalars in algebra.
Therefore if terms of order higher than the first in dn be
V=* + Idn.
omitted,
The two neighboring
ellipsoids are then
r
and
By
(19)
d>
dn)
(0 +
dn)~*
(I
dn)
= 1.
0*
r,
4>
dn)
(I
= 1,
(0 +
_i
* .
r,
= r  d~n
r.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
392
vectors f and r differ by a multiple of
The
<P
which
is
(P.
Hence the termini of f and
perpendicular to the ellipsoid
for
r are corresponding points,
they lie upon one of the lines
which cut the family of ellipsoids orthogonally. The com= x and
ponents of r and f in the direction i are r i
r
= _a = r
dn x
'x ^
 dn i.
.
Of
The
ratio of these
The axes
(7
=!
x
is
of the ellipsoids in the direction
Their ratio
a.
components
TL

2 a2
are
Va2
dn and
is
Va 2
dn
V& 2
,
In v
like manner
dn
s
2
i
j
dn
by
2 a2
dn = y j Vc 2
and
x
x
dn = z
.
Hence the ratios of the components of the vectors r and r
drawn to corresponding points upon two neighboring ellipsoids only differ at most by terms of the second order in d n
from the
the axes of those ellipsoids. It follows
immediately that the ratios of the components of the vectors
drawn to corresponding points upon any two ellipsoids, separatios of
rated by a finite variation in the parameter n, only differ at
most by terms of the first order in dn from the ratios of the
axes of the ellipsoids and hence must be identical with them.
Thio completes the demonstration.
The Propagation of Light in Crystals 1
143.]
The
electromagnetic equations of the ether or of any
infinite isotropic
netic
1
To
medium which
is
transparent to electromag
waves may be written in the form
The
following discussion must be regarded as mathematical not physical.
from the standpoint of physics would be out of place here.
treat the subject
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS
/72n
V.D = O
+ UD + vFo,
Pot
393
(i)
ct t
where D
is
the electric displacement satisfying the hydrodya constant of the dielectric meas0,
namic equation V D =
ured in electromagnetic
due
to the function V.
units,
and
VV
the electrostatic force
In case the medium
is
E becomes a linear vector function
constant
not isotropic the
This function
(P.
selfconjugate as is evident from physical considerations.
For convenience it will be taken as 4 IT 0. The equations
is
then become
VD=0.
VF=0,
Operate by
x.
d2
x Pot n
Ct/
The
last
(2)
+47rVxVx0D =
r
/
6
0.
(3)
term disappears owing to the fact that the curl of
the derivative
VF" vanishes (page
167).
The equation may
also be written as
Pot
d2 D
ry
+47rVxVx0.D = 0.
VxVx=VV
But
Remembering
d D
that
D and
vanish and that Pot
(3)'
V.
consequently
and
Ct v
V V
is
equal to
TT
the
Ct t
equation reduces at once to
? = V.V<P.DVV.0.D,
= 0.
(4)
Ct t
Suppose that the vibration D is harmonic. Let r be the
vector drawn from a fixed origin to any point of space.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
394
Then
where
and
= A cos
That
the direction A.
vance
the
is,
in the direction
the quotient of
is
and n a constant
are constant vectors
represents a train of waves.
wave advances
n )
(m
scalar
The vibrations take place in
wave is plane polarized. The
m. The velocity v of that ad
n by m,
the magnitude of the vector
wave is an electromagnetic wave in the medium
considered it must satisfy the two equations of that medium.
m.
If this
Substitute the value of
The
value of
in those equations.
V V
D,
VV
and
D,
D may
be
obtained most easily by assuming the direction i to be coincident with m.
r then reduces to
i
r which is equal to
m x.
The
and
variables y
no longer occur in D.
= A cos
= i 5D =
=
VV
V
m2
m2 i
m A
V V
(m x
dX
V V
Hence
t)
A m
sin
(m x
cos
(m x
n f)
sin
Hence
cos
(m
m m
(mx
<P
nf).
t~)
VV.<P.D = mm.<P.D.
Moreover
Hence
if
t*
n z D.
the harmonic vibration
tions (4) of the
is
to satisfy the equa
medium
w2 D
and
d2
= m m <P D m m
m A = 0.
.
<P
(5)
(6)
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS
The
395
once that the vibrations must
latter equation states at
m of propagation of the waves.
be put in the form
be transverse to the direction
The former equation may
0.D.
Introduce
The vector s
is
in the direction of advance m.
the quotient of
velocity of the wave.
of
=
s is
(5)'
by
This
n.
The
vector
The magnitude
the reciprocal of the
may therefore be called
is
the waveslowness.
D=
This
may
D.
s s
also be written as
=
(s
D)
=s
x (0
n
Dividing by the scalar factor cos (m x
A = sx(0.A)xs =
It
evident that the
is
ss
wave slowness
D) x
s.
),
88.0.
s
A.
(7)
depends not at
all
upon the phrase of the vibration but only upon its direction.
The motion of a wave not plane polarized may be discussed by
decomposing the wave into waves which are plane polarized.
Let a be a vector drawn in the direction A of the
144.]
displacement and
let
the magnitude of a be so determined
that
The equation
a
1.
(8)
(7) then becomes reduced to the form
= sx(0a)xs =
s.s
0.a = ss.0a
a = 1.
(9)
(8)
These are the equations by which the discussion of the velocity
or rather the slowness of propagation of a wave in different
directions in a nonisotropic
=s
medium may be
a
=s
carried on.
s.
(10}
VECTOR ANALYSIS
396
Hence the wave slowness
direction a
equal in
is
drawn
radius vector
due to a displacement in the
magnitude (but not in direction)
ellipsoid a
in the
to the
1 in that
direction.
axa = = ss
a x
= s.s(ax0a)'0a = axs.<Pa
But the
first
a twice and vanishes.
term contains
a x
The waveslowness
[a
a]
0.
a.
Hence
(11)
therefore lies in a plane with the
direction a of displacement
a drawn to the
and the normal
1 at the terminus of a. Since s is perpena
ellipsoid a
dicular to a and equal in magnitude to a it is evidently completely determined except as regards sign when the direction
is
known.
Given the direction
of displacement the line of
advance of the wave compatible with the displacement is completely determined, the velocity of the advance is likewise
known.
The wave however may advance
in either direction
along that line. By reference to page 386, equation (11) is seen
to be the condition that a shall be one of the principal axes of
the ellipsoid formed by passing a plane through the ellipsoid
perpendicular to
there are
two
s.
Hence
for
principal axes of the ellipse cut
by a plane passed through
line of advance.
minateness of
any given direction of advance
These are the
possible lines of displacement.
from the
ellipsoid a
=1
the center perpendicular to the
To these statements concerning the deterwhen a is given and of a when s is given just
such exceptions occur as are obvious geometrically. If a and
<P a are parallel s may have any direction perpendicular to a.
This happens when a
axes of the ellipsoid.
is
directed along one of the principal
one of the
If s is perpendicular to
circular sections of the ellipsoid a
plane of the section.
may have any direction in the
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS
When
slowness
397
the direction of displacement is allowed to vary the
To obtain the locus of the terminus of s, a
a varies.
must be eliminated from the equation
=s
s
(I
a
or
The dyadic
&
ss
s s
<P)
<P
a
a
= 0.
(12)
in the parenthesis is planar because
vectors parallel to
The
a.
it
annihilates
This
third or determinant is zero.
gives immediately
s.s<P
(I
or
(tfis.
This
is
= 0,
+ ss) 3 = 0.
ss.<P) 3
I
a scalar equation in the vector
(13)
It is the locus of
s.
the extremity of s when a is given all possible directions.
number of transformations may be made. By Ex. 19, p. 331,
(
e f) 3
0^
f <P3 .
Hence
common
Dividing out the
factor
and remembering that
selfconjugate.
s.
1.8
88
(0
&
si)
S.
Hence
\
Let
18.
=
= 0.
= 0.
(14)
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
398
i.
?/
Let
Then
ic
yj
& 2/
and
\c
= x2 +
z 2.
the equation of the surface in Cartesian coordinates
T
,
T
,
"
~~cf
(14)'
lfl
The equation
directly
(01
The determinant
a2
By means
_8
obtained
ss) 3 :=0.
of this dyadic is
xz
x y
2
x y
may be
in Cartesian coordinates
from
is
Z>
of the relation s 2
= xz +
0.
(13)'
+
z 2 this
assumes the
forms
x2
a2
95
s'
ic
2
Z>
a*
y
*
2
c2 z
9 T
o'
_i
I
I
9
z
95
s'
==
**i
c^
This equation appears to be of the sixth degree. It is however of only the fourth. The terms of the sixth order cancel
out.
The
vector
represents the waveslowness.
Suppose that a
plane wave polarized in the direction a passes the origin at a
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS
At
certain instant of time with this slowness.
unit of time
it
will
have travelled in the direction
equal to the reciprocal of the
magnitude
be in this position represented
If
of
= ui +
s.
by the vector
vj
399
the end of a
s,
a distance
The plane
will
(page 108).
wls.
the plane at the expiration of the unit tune cuts off intercepts
upon the axes equal to the reciprocals of u, v, w. These
quantities are therefore the plane coordinates of the plane.
They
are connected with the coordinates of the points in the
plane by the relation
If different plane waves polarized in all possible different
directions a be supposed to pass through the origin at the
same instant they will envelop a surface at the end of a unit
This surface is known as the wavesurface. The
of time.
perpendicular upon a tangent plane of the wavesurface is the
reciprocal of the slowness and gives the velocity with which
the wave travels in that direction.
The equation
of the wave
surface in plane coordinates u, v, w is identical with the equation for the locus of the terminus of the slowness vector B.
The equation
is
uz
v2
w^
^o^o^o =
P
9
a4
where
= u2 +
vz
~T""*>
o*
w*.
forms given previously.
This
The
may
\/
72
(15)
be written in any of the
is known as FresneVs
surface
WaveSurface. The equations in vector form are given on
page 397 if the variable vector s be regarded as determining a
plane instead of a point.
145.]
In an isotropic medium the direction of a ray of
light is perpendicular to the wavefront.
the direction of the wave's advance.
The
It is the
same as
velocity of the ray
VECTOR ANALYSIS
400
In a nonisotropic
equal to the velocity of the wave.
The ray does not travel perthis is no longer true.
that is, in the direction of the
wavefront
pendicular to the
wave's advance. And the velocity with which the ray travels
is
medium
of the wave. In fact, whereas the
greater than the velocity
off
wavefront travels
always tangent to the wavesurface, the
is
ray travels along the radius vector drawn to the point of tangency of the waveplane. The waveplanes envelop the
wavesurface; the termini of the rays are situated upon it.
Thus in the wavesurface the radius vector represents in magnitude and direction the velocity of a ray and the perpendicular
direction the velocity of the wave.
surface the surface which
wave
magnitude and
instead of the wavein
upon the tangent plane represents
If
the locus of the extremity of the
slowness be considered it is seen that the radius vector
is
wave; and the perpendicular
of the ray.
the
slowness
the
upon
tangent plane,
Let v' be the velocity of the ray. Then s v'
1 because
represents the slowness of the
the extremity of v' lies in the plane denoted by s. Moreover
the condition that v' be the point of tangency gives d v' perpendicular to
In like manner
s.
if s'
ray and v the velocity of the wave,
of tangency gives
and
v'
d v' = 0,
may be
v'
=1
s'
and
2a
=g
ds
<p
a_ s
da
v
d
v'
0,
= 1 and the condition
= 1,
= 0,
dv
d>
da
</>
da..
Multiply by a and take account of the relations a
.
. d a =
and a a = s s. Then
= 0,
a,
ads +
s s
s'
as follows.
_ ss
a
(16)
and
a, s,
<P
Hence
to v.
s'
expressed in terms of
a
d&
d &' perpendicular
be the slowness of the
s'
and
THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN CRYSTALS
ds
or
But
ds
since v'
ds
a.
(s
0, v'
v'
= x (s
and
a)
= 0,
<P
401
= 0.
a have the same
direction.
v' = # (s
Hence
v'
=s
a)
.
a;
s.
a
(17)
v'
a),
CP
a
s
$as0a =
0.
Hence the ray velocity
v' is perpendicular to
a, that is, the
the
to
the
tangent plane
ray velocity
ellipsoid at the
extremity of the radius vector a drawn in the direction of the
displacement. Equation (17) shows that v' is coplanar with
lies in
a and
plane.
The
The
s.
vectors
In that plane
angle from
Making use
(16) (17),
it is
a,
s is
to v'
is
a,
s,
and
v'
therefore He in one
perpendicular to a ; and v', to
equal to the angle from a to
of the relations already found (8) (9) (11)
easy to show that the two systems of vectors
a
and
(0
a)
a be replaced
If
are reciprocal systems.
tions take on the symmetrical form
by
a,
v',
v'
a,
s,
X
a'
the equa
=a a
a a' = 1,
s
v' = 1,
v'v' = a'.a'
v'.a' =
a = s x a' x s
a' = v' x a x v'
s = a x v' x a
v' = a' x s x a'
1
a
a = 1
a' = 1.
a'
s
a.
a.
(18)
Thus
a dual relation exists between the direction of displace
ment, the ray velocity, and the ellipsoid
26
on the one hand
VECTOR ANALYSIS
402
and the normal to the
~l
on the
ellipsoid
It
146.]
ellipsoid, the
waveslowness, and the
other.
was seen that
if s
was normal
to
one of the
cir
the displacement a could take place in any
For all directions in
direction in the plane of that section.
cular sections of
this plane the
waveslowness had the same direction and the
Hence the wavesurface has a singular
same magnitude.
plane perpendicular to s. This plane is tangent to the surface
along a curve instead of at a single point. Hence if a wave
travels in the direction s the ray travels along the elements of
the cone drawn from the center of the wavesurface to this
curve in which the singular plane touches the surface. The
two directions s which are normal to the circular sections of
are called the
wave
primary
velocities
In like manner
[<P
The
These are the axes of equal
optic axes.
but unequal ray
velocities.
v'
being coplanar with a and
v'
a]
[a' v'
0~l
a']
a
0.
equation states that if a plane be passed through
the center of the ellipsoid @~l perpendicular to v', then a'
last
which
a will be directed along one of the prinis equal to
Hence if a ray is to take a definite
axes
of
the
section.
cipal
It is more condirection a' may have one of two directions.
venient however to regard
The
first
v'
as a vector determining a plane.
equation
[0
v' a] ==
states that a is the radius vector
drawn
in the ellipsoid
to
the point of tangency of one of the principal elements of the
cylinder circumscribed about
parallel to v' if by a principal
element is meant an element passing through the extremities
:
of the
major or minor axes of orthogonal plane
of that cylinder.
Hence given the
direction
v'
sections
of the ray, the
two possible directions of displacement are those
radii vectors
VARIABLE DYADICS
of the ellipsoid
which
lie in
403
the principal planes of the cylin
der circumscribed about the ellipsoid parallel to v'.
If the cylinder is one of the two circular cylinders which
the direction of displacement
may be circumscribed about
may
be any direction in the plane passed through the center
and containing the common curve of tangency
of the ellipsoid
The rayvelocity for all
of the cylinder with the ellipsoid.
these directions of displacement has the same direction and
It is therefore a line drawn to one
the same magnitude.
At this singukr
of the singular points of the wavesurface.
point there are an infinite number of tangent planes enveloping a cone. The wavevelocity may be equal in magnitude
and direction to the perpendicular drawn from the origin to
any of these planes.
The
directions of the axes of the
circular cylinders circumscriptible about the ellipsoid
two
are
the directions of equal rayvelocity but unequal wavevelocity.
They are the radii drawn to the singular points of the wavesurface
and are
called
the secondary optic axes.
travels along one of the secondary optic axes the
If a ray
wave planes
travel along the elements of a cone.
Variable Dyadics.
147.]
The
The Differential and Integral Calculus
Hitherto the dyadics considered have been constant.
make up and the scalar
vectors which entered into their
which occurred in the expansion in nonion form
have been constants. For the elements of the theory and for
coefficients
elementary applications these constant dyadics suffice. The
introduction of variable dyadics, however, leads to a simplification
and unification of the
differential
and integral calculus of
vectors, and furthermore variable dyadics become a necessity
for instance, in the theory
in the more advanced applications
of the curvature of surfaces and in the dynamics of a rigid
body one point of which 4s fixed.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
404
Let
W be
Let
a vector function of position in space.
be
the vector drawn from a fixed origin to any point in space.
dr = dxi + dy j + dz
d
9W
W = d x 9W
+ a y h
^
v
ax
,
k,
9W
d z 7
Hence
W=dr
\i
9W
dx
The expression enclosed
i
spect of #,
and
9W
h k 9W)
>
dz
dy
The antecedents
first partial
The expression
2/, z.
analogous to del
in the braces is a dyadic.
It thus
is a linear function of d r, the
appears that the diif erential
differential change of position.
and the consequents the
<y
is
derivatives of
found
in a
will in fact be denoted
are
k,
i, j,
W with
re
manner precisely
V W.
by
(1)
Then
<2W
This equation
is
= dr.VW.
(2)
like the one for the differential of a scalar
function F.
dV=dr VF.
It
may be regarded
nonion form
as defining
VW.
expanded into
If
VW becomes
dx
Qx
Qx
9Y
3y
+
if
9Y
9Z
Toz+kj^+kk^
arz
dz
W
i
,
VARIABLE DYADICS
405
and
The operators
x which were applied to a vector
function now become superfluous from a purely analytic
For they are nothing more nor less than the
standpoint.
V W.
and the vector of the dyadic
scalar
W = (VW)^
curl W = V x W = (V W)
divW = V.
The
(4)
(5)
analytic advantages of the introduction of the variable
VW
In the first place the operapplied to a vector function just as to a scalar
In the second place the two operators
and
function.
x
are reduced to positions as functions of the dyadic
W. On
dyadic
ator
are therefore these.
V may be
the other hand from the standpoint of physics nothing is to
be gained and indeed much may be lost if the important inas the divergence and curl
and
x
terpretations of
be forgotten and their places taken by the analytic idea
of the scalar and vector of VW.
of
If
the vector function
be the derivative of a scalar
function V,
=dT' VVT,
Qzy
Qzy
y
+ ij = ^ +
VVF= ii 32
^r
dx
d x*
where
ik 7:=,
d x dz
dy
result of applying
v
^J
V twice
This dyadic
be a dyadic.
is zero its scalar
dy
fcj o
dz 3x
The
dy*
~f~
J J
dy 3x
n
dz
n
o
z*
'
to a scalar function is seen to
is self conjugate.
V V V is evidently
= 52 Y
V.V V= (VV V) a
V
*
'
+
=j
z
5x
92
Its vector
.sj
d 2
52
+ ^Tz
VX VV
VECTOR ANALYSIS
406
If
an attempt were made to apply the operator
V three
cally to a scalar function
sum
symbolitimes, the result would be a
of twentyseven terms like
9s
1 1 1
93
i j
r,
d x*
k*
T
etc.
^ ,
a x d y dz
Three vectors are placed in juxtaposition
without any sign of multiplication. Such expressions will
not be discussed here. In a similar manner if the operator V
This
is
a triadic.
be applied twice to a vector function, or once to a dyadic function of position in space, the result will be a triadic and hence
outside the limits set to the discussion here.
x and
may however be applied
respectively a dyadic and a vector.
The
to a dyadic
operators
to yield
90
90
 + kx90
+
Vx0 = lx5r
ax jx 3
dy
3
,
and
Or
90
+
^3x
90
r
dy
(7)
90
.
r.
3z
(8)
V = ui + vj + wk,
If
where
n, v,
w are vector
functions of position in space,
Vx
=V
x u
<P
=V
if
Vxvj
+V
u
v
v
Vx
+V w
+k
wk,
(7)'
k.
(8)'
w,
9y
and
V.0 = ^ + ^
+ ^.
d
dx
dz
(8)"
In a similar manner the scalar operators (a V) and (V V)
may be applied to 0. The result is in each case a dyadic,
IE DYADIC S
VECTOR ANALYSIS
408
The
bolically as a vector.
must be
to which
it is
x (vw)
(v
X w)
[V
(v
Hence
It
which the
implies
factor of a product
[V x (vw)] v + [V x (vw)]^
(v w)] v
Hence
[V
it
=V
w)] w
(v
x v w,
V w] v = v x V w.
Vx (vw) = Vxvw vxVw.
[V x
which
Thus
applied.
[V x
148.]
upon each
carried out in turn
Again
differentiations
[v
[V
(v
x w)] v + [V
(v
x w)] w
=Vv
(v
x w)]^
x w,
v (w x v)] = V w x
V(vxw) = Vvxw v^xv.
x w)] v
was seen
(Art. 79) that
and the
if
v.
denote a curve of
point
point is r the line integral of the derivative of a scalar function taken along the
curve is equal to the difference between the values of that
is r
initial
function at r and r
final
fZr.VF=F(r)F(r ).
*> c
In like manner
and
idr.VW
Jc
id r
W (r
W(r)
VW =
),
0.
/o
It
may
be well to note that the integrals
fdr.VW
and
fvw
VW
dr
is a dyadic.
The
by no means the same thing.
vector d r cannot be placed arbitrarily upon either side of it.
are
VARIABLE DYADICS
Owing
409
to the fundamental equation (2) the differential
dr
VW.
The differentials must be written
necessarily precedes
before the integrands in most cases. For the sake of uniformity they always will be so placed.
Passing to surface integrals, the following formulae, some
of which have been given before and some of which are new,
may be mentioned.
f f dax
VF=
t dr
Cfd&x VW=Cdi W
ffdaVxW =
if
d&
<P
idi'W
/
dr
0.
The
line integrals are taken over the complete bounding curve
of the surface over which the surface integrals are taken.
In
like
manner the following
relations exist
between volume and
surface integrals.
fffd, V.W
f f fdv V X
///
W=
Cda, X
*//
f f f^V VX 0=:CCdSLX
$.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
410
surface integrals are taken over the complete bounding
surface of the region throughout which the volume integrals
The
are taken.
Numerous formulae
of integration
by parts
like those
upon
The reader will find no difficulty in
himself.
The integrating operators may
page 250 might be added.
obtaining them for
also be extended to other cases.
To
the potentials of scalar
and vector functions the potential, Pot <P, of a dyadic may be
added. The Newtonian of a vector function and the Laplacian and Maxwellian of dyadics
Pot
fff
'"
w <>"
fff
*
The
be denned.
'///
New W =
Lap *
may
12
analytic theory of these integrals may be developed as
The most natural way in which the demonstrations
before.
may
sum
be given
is
by considering the vector function
W as
the
of its components,
Yj + Zk
and the dyadic
as expressed with the constant consequents
k and variable antecedents n, v, w, or vice versa,
i, j,
These matters will be
tering
upon them
at all
left at this point.
was
The
object of en
to indicate the natural extensions
which occur when variable dyadics are considered. These extensions differ so slightly from the simple cases which have
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
411
gone before that it is far better to leave the details to be worked
out or assumed from analogy whenever they may be needed
rather than to attempt to develop them in advance. It is sufficient merely to
may
mention what the extensions are and
how they
be treated.
The Curvature of Surfaces 1
There are two different methods of treating the curvature of surfaces. In one the surface is expressed in para149. ]
metic form by three equations
=fi <X
*0
or
y =/a O' *0
r
=f
(u,
=/8 ( w
>
v)
t>).
analogous to the method followed (Art. 57) in dealing
with curvature and torsion of curves and it is the method
This
is
employed by Fehr in the book to which reference was made.
In the second method the surface is expressed by a single
equation connecting the variables x,y,z
,
The
latter
method
z)
thus
0.
of treatments affords a simple application of
the differential calculus of variable dyadics.
Moreover, the
results
to
the
most
lead
connected
naturally
important
dyadics
with the elementary theory of surfaces.
Let r be a radius vector drawn from an arbitrary fixed
The increment d r
origin to a variable point of the surface.
the surface or in the tangent plane
at the terminus of r.
lies in
drawn
to the surface
dF=dr* VF=Q.
Hence the
surface.
derivative
V.Fis
collinear with the
Moreover, inasmuch
as
normal to the
F and the negative of F when
1 Much of what follows is
practically free from the use of dyadics.
especially true of the treatment of geodetics, Arts. 155157.
This
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
412
equated to zero give the same geometric surface,
considered as the normal
V F may be
either side of the surface.
upon
case the surface belongs to the family defined
In
by
F (#, y, z) = const.
V F lies upon that side upon which the constant
Let V F be represented by N the magnitude of
the normal
increases.
which may be denoted by N, and
in the direction of N.
let
n be a unit normal drawn
Then
(1)
If & is the vector
the terminus of
r, s
drawn to any point in the tangent plane at
r and n are perpendicular. Consequently
the equation of the tangent plane is
(sr).
and in
like
V^=0.
manner the equation
of the normal line is
V^=0,
s = r + kV F
(sr) X
or
where k
a variable parameter. These equations may be
translated into Cartesian form and give the familiar results.
The variation dn of the unit normal to a surface
150.]
is
plays an important part in the theory of curvature,
perpendicular to n because n is a unit vector.
VF
dn. is
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
413
/v
The dyadic
dicular to
nn
an idemf actor for
is
all
vectors perpen
n and an annihilator for vectors
parallel
to
n.
Hence
dn
and
= d n,
V^.(Inn)=0,
dn =
Hence
N d r VV F* (I
= di
dr
But
Hence
n n)
(I
tfi
nn).
(I
VV.F. (Inn)
dn = dr<(Inn)
Let
nn).
= (Inn).'.
Then
= dr
dn
0.
In the vicinity of any point upon a surface the variation d n of
the unit normal is a linear function of the variation of the
radius vector
r.
The dyadic
N
Evidently (I
is
selfconjugate.
= (I  n n),
 n n) c =
is selfconjugate.
a vector parallel to
(I
Hence
For
VV F) c
 n n)
(I
and by (6) Art. 147
C is equal to 0.
n, the dyadic
 n n)
produces
When applied
zero.
lie
to
It is there
fore planar and in fact uniplanar because selfconjugate.
antecedents and the consequents
VVF
The
in the tangent plane to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
414
(Art. 116) to reduce
It is possible
the surface.
form
=a
i'i'
to the
b j'j'
(5)
and j' are two perpendicular unit vectors lying in the
tangent plane and a and b are positive or negative scalars.
where
i'
dn = dr
The
vectors
and the
i', j'
151.]
The
conic r
is
=1
a and
is, if
the point
but
if
j'j').
have the same
the conic
is
from point to point
variable.
is
surface at the point in question.
that
scalars a, b vary
The dyadic
of the surface.
i'i'
(a
called the indicatrix of the
If this conic is
an
sign, the surface is
an hyperbola, that
ellipse,
convex at
is, if
a and b
have opposite signs the surface is concavoconvex. The curve
. r
1 may be regarded as approximately equal to the
r .
intersection of the surface with a plane drawn parallel to the
tangent plane and near to it. If r
the result is a pair of straight lines.
totes of the conic.
if
imaginary, an
r be set equal to zero
These are the asympan hyperbola
If they are real the conic is
ellipse.
Two
directions
on the surface which
are parallel to conjugate diameters of the conic are called con
jugate directions. The directions on the surface which coincide with the directions of the principal axes i', j' of the
indicatrix are
known
as the principal directions.
They are a
The directions upon the
special case of conjugate directions.
surface which coincide with the directions of the asymptotes
of the indicatrix are known as asymptotic directions.
In case
the surface
is
convex, the indicatrix
is
an
ellipse
and the
asymptotic directions are imaginary.
In special cases the dyadic
cients a and b are equal.
may be such that the coeffimay then be reduced to the
form
a(i'i'+j'j')
(5)'
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
in an infinite
number
The
of ways.
any two perpendicular
directions.
415
and j' may be
The indicatrix becomes a
directions
i'
perpendicular diameters of this circle
Such a point is
give principal directions upon the surface.
The surface in the neighborhood of an
called an umbilic.
circle.
Any
pair of
umbilic is convex. The asymptotic directions are imaginary.
becomes linear and reduIn another special case the dyadic
cible to the
The
to
i'.
The
form
&=
(5)"
i'i'.
indicatrix consists of a pair of parallel lines perpendicular
Such a point is called a parabolic point of the surface.
further discussion of these
and other
special cases will be
omitted.
The quadric surfaces afford examples of the various kinds
The ellipsoid and the hyperboloid of two sheets
The indicatrix of points upon them is an ellipse.
are convex.
The hyperboloid of one sheet is concavoconvex. The inThe indicatrix
dicatrix of points upon it is an hyperbola.
The points are all
of any point upon a sphere is a circle.
umbilics. The indicatrix of any point upon a cone or cylinder
The points are parabolic. A suris a pair of parallel lines.
of points.
face in general may have upon it points of all types
elliptic,
hyperbolic, parabolic, and umbilical.
line of principal curvature upon a surface is a
152.]
curve which has
at each point the direction of
cipal axes of the indicatrix.
The
one of the prin
direction of the curve at a
point is always one of the principal directions on the surface at
that point. Through any given point upon a surface two perpendicular lines of principal curvature pass. Thus the lines
of curvature divide the surface into a system of infinitesi
mal rectangles. An asymptotic line upon a surface is a curve
which has at each point the direction of the asymptotes of the
indicatrix.
The
direction of the curve at a point is always
one of the asymptotic directions upon the surface.
Through
VECTOR ANALYSIS
416
any given point of a surface two asymptotic
lines are
the surface
if
is
lines pass.
These
Even when real
The angle
angles.
convex.
imaginary
they do not in general intersect at right
between the two asymptotic lines at any point is bisected by
the lines of curvature which pass through that point.
The necessary and
curve upon a
that as one advances
sufficient condition that a
surface be a line of principal curvature
is
along that curve, the increment of d n, the unit normal to the
surface
is parallel to
dn=
the line of advance.
= (a
+I
dr = x
+ yj'.
& dr
i'i'
For
j'j')
dr
i'
Then evidently d n and d r are parallel when and only when
dt is parallel to i' or j 7 The statement is therefore proved.
.
It is frequently
The
taken as the definition of lines of curvature.
differential equation of a line of curvature is
dnxdr = Q.
Another method of statement
is
(6)
that the normal to the surface,
the increment d n of the normal, and the element d r of the
surface
is
lie
in one plane
an element of a
when and only when
line of principal curvature.
the element d r
The
differential
equation then becomes
dn dr]=0.
[n
(7)
The necessary and sufficient condition that a curve upon a
surface be an asymptotic line, is that as one advances along
that curve the increment of the unit normal to the surface
perpendicular to the line of advance.
= dr
dn dt = dr
is
For
dn
If then
dn
r is zero
asymptotic direction.
dr.
r is zero.
The statement
is
Hence d r
is
therefore proved.
an
It
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
is
417
The
frequently taken as the definition of asymptotic lines.
differential equation of
an asymptotic
line is
dvdr = Q.
153.]
Let
(8)
be a given point upon a surface and n the
Pass a plane p through n. This
normal to the surface at P.
plane p is normal to the surface and cuts out a plane section.
Consider the curvature of this plane section at the point P.
Let n' be normal to the plane section in the plane of the
section,
But
with n at the point P.
n' coincides
unless the
p cuts the surface everywhere orthogonally, the normal
the plane section and the normal n to the surface will not
d n and d n' will also be different. The curvature
coincide,
plane
n' to
of the plane section lying in
is
ds
As
(Art. 57).
far as numerical value is concerned the increment of the
and the increment of the unit normal n' are
Moreover, the quotient of d r by d s is a unit vector
unit tangent
equal.
in the direction of
Consequently the scalar value of C
d n'.
dr _dn' dr
ds 2
ds
dn'
ds
By
hypothesis
= n' at P
and
dr
= n'
dr
d(ndr~)=dn'dr + n'd z r =
d (V d r) = d n' d r + n' d 2 r = 0.
(),
Hence
dn
Since n and
n'
dr
d2
= d n'
n'
d 2 r.
are equal at P,
dn dr =
Hence
dr
dn
 dr
dr
4>
dn'
dr
^527
dr.
dr
<P
dr
rfr .rf r
0.;
is
VECTOR ANALYSIS
418
(J
=. n
d
dr
f
dr
dr
dr
Hence
C=
a cos 2
(i',
d r)
& cos 2
(j',
or
C=
a cos 2
(i',
dr)
J sin 2
(i',
d r),
df).
(10)
The
interpretation of this formula for the curvature of a
normal section is as follows : When the plane p turns about
the normal to the surface from
plane section varies
i'
to
j',
the curvature
of the
from the value a when the plane passes
through the principal direction
i',
to
the value &
when
it
The values
passes through the other principal direction j '.
of the curvature have algebraically a maximum and
njinimum
in the directions of the principal lines of curvature.
6
have unlike
signs, that
at P, there exist
two
directions for
normal section vanishes.
154.]
The sum
the surface
is, if
is
If a
and
concavoconvex
which the curvature of a
These are the asymptotic directions.
two normal sections
of the curvatures in
at right angles to one another
is
constant and independent of
For the curvature in
the actual position of those sections.
one section
is
and
=a
cos 2
(i',
c?r)
5 sin 2
(i',
dr),
in the section at right angles to this
Cz =
Hence
a sin 2
C1
dr)
(i',
& cos 2
(i',
+C = a + b=0 s
dr).
(11)
which proves the statement.
It is easy to
show
that the invariant
duct of the curvatures a and
2S
is
equal to the pro
b of the lines of principal curv
ature.
<P
Hence the equation
xz
zs
4> s
=ab
x
+ &zs =
(12)
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
419
the quadratic equation which determines the principal curvatures a and b at any point of the surface.
By means of this
is
equation the scalar quantities a and b
may
be found in terms
oiF(x,y,z).
(Inn) VVJF. (Inn)
VV^2_
(nn
VV F
Hence
nn) 5
a
N
nn
(nn
VV^ ) 5 =
T
(nn
VV^) 5 = nn: VV^=n. VVJ?
(nn
Hence
= V.V.P
^
V..

n.
(13)
These expressions may be written out in Cartesian coordinates,
but they are extremely long. The Cartesian expressions for
ZS are even longer.
<P
The
vector expression
may
be obtained
as follows:
(Inn) 2 .(VVJQ 2 .(Inn) 2
(I
nn) 2
= nn.
Hence
Given any curve upon a surface. Let t be a unit
tangent to the curve, n a unit normal to the surface and m a
155.]
VECTOR ANALYSIS
420
X t. The three vectors n, t, m constitute
The vector t is parallel to the element d r.
vector defined as n
i, j, k system.
Hence the condition
an
for a line of curvature
Hence
d (m
n)
x d n
becomes
= 0.
(15)
m d n=
= = m dn +
Hence
dm
= 0.
Moreover
dm
= 0.
Hence
x dm
= 0,
dm.
(16)
dmxdn = Q.
or
The increments
of
m and of n
(16)'
and of r are
a line of principal curvature.
geodetic line upon a surface
is
all parallel in
case of
a curve whose osculating
That the
plane at each point is perpendicular to the surface.
is the shortest line which can be drawn between
two points upon a surface may be seen from the following
Let the surface be smooth and
considerations of mechanics.
geodetic line
a smooth elastic string which is constrained to lie in the
surface be stretched between any two points of it. The string
let
acting under
its
own
tensions will take a position of equili
brium along the shortest curve which can be drawn upon the
surface between the two given points.
Inasmuch as the
string is at rest
surface
must
lie
upon the surface the normal
reactions of the
in the osculating plane of the curve.
Hence
that plane is normal to the surface at every point of the curve
and the curve itself is a geodetic line.
The
vectors t and
mine that plane.
dt
lie
in the osculating plane
In case the curve
is
normal
n.
Hence
deter
a geodetic, the normal
to the osculating plane lies in the surface
perpendicular to the
and
and consequently
is
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
n
n X
or
The
= 0,
d t=
t = 0.
X d
421
(17)
differential equation of a geodetic line is therefore
[n d r d* r]
= 0.
(18)
Unlike the differential equations of the lines of curvature
line, this equation is of the second order.
and the asymptotic
The
surface
is
therefore covered over with a doubly infinite
Through any two
system of geodetics.
points of the surface
one geodetic may be drawn.
As one advances along any curve upon a surface there is
necessarily some turning up and down, that is, around the
axis m, due to the fact that the surface is curved.
There may
to the right or left. If one advances
a
such
is no turning to the right or
curve
that
there
along
the
unavoidable
but
left,
only
turning up and down, it is to be
or
may not be any turning
expected that the advance
is along the shortest possible route
a
Such is in fact the case. The
along
geodetic.
Since n,
total amount of deviation from a straight line is d t.
that
t,
is,
m form
an
i, j,
k system
I
dt
Hence
= tt + nn + mm.
= ttdt + nndt + mmdt.
first term vanishes.
The second
and
of
amount
term represents the
down; the
turning up
Hence m d t is
third term, the amount to the right or left.
Since
t is
a unit vector the
the proper measure of this part of the deviation from a
In case the curve is a geodetic this term
straightest line.
vanishes as was expected.
curve or surface
156.]
may
be
mapped upon a unit
fixed origin is
sphere by the method of parallel normals.
of a
assumed, from which the unit normal n at the point
VECTOR ANALYSIS
422
given surface
upon
The terminus P'
is laid off.
If the
the surface of a sphere.
of this
normal
lies
normals to a surface at all
of a curve are thus constructed from the same origin,
points
the points P' will trace a curve upon the surface of a unit
This curve is called the spherical image of the given
sphere.
curve.
In like manner a whole region
T of
the surface
may
mapped upon a region T' the sphere. The region T' upon
the sphere has been called the hodogram of the region T upon
be
the surface.
If
d r be an element
of arc
upon the surface the
corresponding element upon the unit sphere
dn
is
dr.
be an element of area upon the surface, the corresponding element upon the sphere is da! where (Art. 124).
If da.
da!
=a
2
= ab
Hence
The
its
ratio of
hodogram
curvature at
i'
da!
(Pi* da..
i'i'
j'
= ab
J j'j'
i'xj'
nn
= ab
nn.
da..
an element of surface at a point
is
(19)
P to
the area of
equal to the product of the principal radii of
the reciprocal of the product of the prin
P or to
cipal curvatures at P.
It
is
total
was seen that the measure
of turning to the right or left
d t. If then C is any curve drawn upon a surface the
amount of turning in advancing along the curve is the
integral.
(20)
For any closed curve this integral may be evaluated in a
manner analogous to that employed (page 190) in the proof
of Stokes's theorem.
Consider two curves
and
C' near
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
The
together.
which the integral undergoes when
integration is changed from C to C' is
the curve of
variation
Cm>dt= Cs
d (m
B
d t.
dt+ Cm.Bdt
(m. dt~)= C Sm
St)
= dm*
St
+m
Cm dt= C Bm*dt C dm
d Bt
Bt
+ C d (m
The integral of the perfect differential c (m
when taken around a closed curve. Hence
B
m^t=
The idemfactor
d t and
for t
423
is
Sm
dt
5t).
8 t) vanishes
dm
Sk
I^tt + nn
m m vanish. A similar transformation may
m St. Then
be effected upon the term d
8
By
m dt= /(Smn
differentiating the relations
dm
dt
n8t).
and n
it is
seen that
Smn=:
dm n =
Hence
m Bn
Bt
8nt
m dn
dt
dn
\m*dt=\ (mSn t>dn
Cm dt=
(mxtSnxdn)=
t.
m dn tSn)
I
Bnx
dn.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
424
The
the
differential
8n x dn
hodogram upon
/
represents the element of area in
the unit sphere. The integral
n x dn
da!
the total area of the hodogram of the strip of
and C'. Let the
surface which lies between the curves
represents
curve
C start at
a point
surface and spread out to
upon the
The total amount of turning which is reany desired size.
quired in making an infinitesimal circuit about the point is
2 TT. The total variation hi the integral is
I
But
if
m dt=
dt
TT.
H denote the total area of the hodogram.
Hence
dt
H= 2
TT
or
?r
 Cm
H+ Cm
or
dt
dt,
(22)
= 2ir.
The area of the hodogram of the region enclosed by any
closed curve plus the total amount of turning along that curve
is equal to 2 ?r.
If the surface in question is convex the area
will appear positive when the curve upon the
so described that the enclosed area appears positive.
upon the sphere
surface
If,
is
however, the surface
is
concavoconvex the area upon the
This matter of the sign of the
sphere will appear negative.
hodogram must be taken into account in the statement made
above.
THE CURVATURE OF SURFACES
157.]
If the
closed curve
geodetic lines the
The
amount
is
425
a polygon whose sides are
of turning along each side is zero.
total turning is therefore equal to the
sum
of the exterior
The statement becomes : the sum of
angles of the polygon.
the exterior angles of a geodetic polygon and of the area of
the hodogram of that polygon (taking account of sign) is
equal to 2 TT. Suppose that the polygon reduces to a triangle.
If the surface is convex the area of the hodogram is positive
and the sum of the exterior angles of the triangle
2 TT.
TT.
is less
than
The sum of the interior angles is therefore greater than
The sphere or ellipsoid is an example of such a surface.
If the surface is
negative.
concavoconvex the area of the hodogram
The sum
this case less
than
of the ulterior angles of a triangle
TT.
Such a surface
sheet or the pseudosphere.
There
is
is
is
is
in
the hyperboloid of one
an intermediate case in
which the hodogram of any geodetic triangle is traced twice in
opposite directions and hence the total area is zero. The sum
of the interior angles of a triangle upon such a surface is equal
to TT.
Examples of this surface are afforded by the cylinder,
cone, and plane.
surface is said to be developed
lines
upon the surface
when
it is
retain their length.
so deformed that
Geodetics remain
One surface is said to be developable or applicable
geodetics.
when it can be so deformed as to coincide with
another
upon
Geodetics
the other without altering the lengths of lines.
the
other.
into
are
surface
one
upon
geodetics
changed
upon
The sum
of the angles of
any geodetic triangle remain un
changed by the process of developing.
that the total
of the
amount
hodogram
of
of turning along
any
From
this it follows
any curve or the area
portion of a surface are also invariant
of the process of developing.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
426
Harmonic Vibrations and
The
158.]
motion
Bivectors
equation of rectilinear harmonic
differential
is
dt*
The
may be reduced by
integral of this equation
a suitable
choice of the constants to the form
=A
sin
t.
This represents a vibration back and forth along the JTaxis
about the point x = 0. Let the displacement be denoted by
D in place of x. The equation may be written
D
Consider
=i A
=i A
sin
sin
cos
t.
m x.
a displacement not merely near the point x
2 k TT
but along the entire axis of x. At points x
where
,
This
is
is a positive or negative integer, the displacement is at all
times equal to zero. The equation represents a stationary
Te
wave with nodes at these points. At points midway between
If the
these the wave has points of maximum vibration.
equation be regarded as in three variables
sents a plane
wave the plane
of
which
is
#, y, z it
repre
perpendicular to
the axis of the variable x.
The displacement given by
Dj
=i A
the equation
cos
(m x
f)
(1)
likewise a plane wave perpendicular to the axis of x but
not stationary. The vibration is harmonic and advances
along the direction i with a velocity equal to the quotient of
is
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS
n by m.
If v
be the velocity;
the period; and
length,
n
= ,
m
2?r
= 2 TT
m
the
427
wave
= .
p
(2)
The displacement
A z cos(mx
D 2 =j
differs
nt)
from DJ in the particular that the displacement takes
place in the direction j, not in the direction i. The wave as
before proceeds in the direction of x with the same velocity.
This vibration is transverse instead of longitudinal. By a
simple extension it is seen that
= A cos
(m x
f)
a displacement in the direction A. The wave advances
along the direction of x. Hence the vibration is oblique to
is
the wavefront.
A still
by substituting m
r for
more general form may be obtained
m x.
= A cos
Then
r
(m
(3)
t).
This is a displacement in the direction A. The maximum
amount of that displacement is the magnitude of A. The
wave advances in the direction m oblique to the displacement; the velocity, period, and wavelength are as before.
So much for
rectilinear
harmonic motion.
monic motion may be defined by the equation
o
Elliptic har(p. 117).
wr.
dt*
The general
integral
r
The
is
obtained as
= A cos n + B sin n
t
t.
discussion of waves
viously.
may be carried through as preThe general wave of elliptic harmonic motion
advancing in the direction
is
seen to be
VECTOR ANALYSIS
428
= A cos
dV =
7i
dt
(m
sin
(m
f)
t)
sin
(m
+B
sin
(m
(4)
t).
f)
(5)
the velocity of the displaced point at any moment in the
This is of course entirely differellipse in which it vibrates.
is
ent from the velocity of the wave.
An interesting result is obtained by subtracting the displacement from the velocity multiplied by the imaginary
unit
and divided by
n.
D+V
The
A sin (m
t)
+B
expression here obtained, as far as
its
sin
(m
form
is
t~)
}.
concerned,
an imaginary vector. It is the sum of two real vectors of
1which one has been multiplied by the imaginary scalar
Such a vector is called a bivector or imaginary vector. The
is
ordinary imaginary scalars may be called liscalars. The use
of bivectors is found very convenient in the discussion of
harmonic motion. Indeed any undamped elliptic harmonic plane wave may be represented as above by the product of a bivector and an exponential factor.
The real part
of the product gives the displacement of any point and the
elliptic
imaginary part gives the velocity of
reversed in sign and divided by n.
pure
displacement
analytic theory of bivectors differs from that of
very much as the analytic theory of biscalars
differs from that of real scalars.
It is unnecessary to have
159.]
The
real vectors
any distinguishing character
for bivectors just as it is need
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS
have a distinguishing notation for
less to
biscalars.
429
The
bi
be regarded as a natural and inevitable extension
It is the formal sum of two real vectors
of the real vector.
vector
of
may
which one has been multiplied by the imaginary unit
The usual symbol i will be maintained for V 1. There is
not much likelihood of confusion with the vector i for the
reason that the two could hardly be used in the same place
and for the further reason that the Italic i and the Clarendon
i
Whenever
differ considerably in appearance.
it
becomes
especially convenient to have a separate alphabet for bivectors the small
bivector
Greek or German
may
letters
may be
be expressed in terms of
called upon.
i, j,
k with com
plex coefficients.
If
and
= Oi +
rl
=x
r2
= # 2 * + 2/2 J + *
2)
or
Two
= TJ + * r a
i f
(Vi
yl
* yi)
= #i + yj +
bivectors are equal
when
z^
2
>
+ Oi +
*a)
>
2k.
their real
and
their imaginary
is the
Two bivectors are parallel
parts are equal.
product of the other by a scalar (real or imaginary). If
a bivector is parallel to a real vector it is said to have a real
when one
direction.
In other cases
it
has a complex or imaginary
The value of the sum, difference, direct, skew,
and indeterminate products of two bivectors is obvious without special definition. These statements may be put into
analytic form as follows.
direction.
Let
Then
if
r
if
= TJ +
r =
s,
rs
= s2 + i sa
r =
and r 2 = s 2
r = a;s = (x + i x^)
and
r2
B,
VECTOR ANALYSIS
430
r
(r x
(T!
= (r
r
r
rs
Two
B!
(r 2
(rj BJ
r 2 Ba)
s )
2
s ),
a
a)
r2
(TJ
+i
<>!
(T I
s2
r2
gj),
r2
and
when
their pure imaginary parts
The conjugate
differ only in sign.
equal to the scalar or vector
of a real scalar or vector
The conjugate
itself.
and
sort of product of bivectors
Sj)
r 2 BJ).
bivectors or biscalars are said to be conjugate
their real parts are equal
is
 ra
BJ)
biscalars
is
of
any
equal to the pro
duct of the conjugates taken in the same order.
similar
statement may be made concerning sums and differences.
Oi +
(TJ
Oi +
i r )
a
r2> ( r i
 i ra ) = TJ
<>!
i ra )
(r x
~*r)=
or cyclic factor as
= TJ +
ra
 i r ) = 2 i r2
rx
(ri ri
If the bivector r
i r
a
ra r2 )
rx ,
ri
r
r2>
be multiplied by a root of unity
frequently called, that
it is
ra
is,
by an imagi
nary scalar of the form
cos q
where
the conjugate
i
2
= a + i J,
+ & 2 = 1,
sin q
multiplied by a
is
i J,
(7)
and hence the four
products
ri
'
ri
*2
are unaltered
Thus
r2>
*2
X *H
T l r2
r2 r l
T2 r2
by multiplying the bivector
r i'
= r/ +
'
'i'
i r
a
rz
'
'
'a'
(a
= TJ
5) (r x
rj
ra
by such a
if
r'
~T
i r a ),
ra , etc.
f2
factor.
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS
160.]
431
closer examination of the effect of
multiplying a
bivector by a cyclic factor yields interesting and important
Let
geometric results.
r/
i r
2
Then
'
r/
ra'
By
real
=r
cos 1
it
sin q) (TJ
r x cos q
reference to Art. 129
duced in the
(cos q
will be seen that the
is
b and
by
same as
cyclic dyadic
sin q (c
c c')
change pro
of a bivector
precisely the
would be produced upon those vectors by a
cos q (bb'
(8)
r i si*1 ?
and imaginary vector parts
used as a prefactor.
r2 ).
r2 sin #,
multiplication with a cyclic factor,
= a a' +
be')
supposed to be two vectors
and r2 a is any vector not in
c are
collinear respectively with r x
Consider the ellipse of which r x and r2 are a
of
pair
conjugate semidiameters. It then appears that r^
and r2 are also a pair of conjugate semidiameters of that
their plane.
'
ellipse.
are rotated in the ellipse from T I toward r2 by
is to the area of the whole ellipse
They
a sector of which the area
TT.
Such a change of position has been called an
rotation
elliptic
through the sector q.
The ellipse of which T I and r2 are a pair of conjugate semi
as q
is
to 2
diameters
is
called the
directional
ellipse
of the bivector
r.
When
the bivector has a real direction the directional ellipse
reduces to a right line in that direction. When the bivector
has a complex direction the ellipse
is
a true ellipse.
The
angular direction from the real part T I to the complex part r2
is considered as the
positive direction in the directional
ellipse,
and must always be known.
If the real
and imagi
nary parts of a bivector turn in the positive direction in the
ellipse they are said to be advanced ; if in the negative direction they are said to be retarded.
Hence
multiplication of a
VECTOR ANALYSIS
432
bivector by
cyclic
factor retards
sector equal to the angle
directional ellipse by
its
always possible to multiply a bivector by such a cyclic
It is
factor that the real
with the axes of the
r
To
in
it
of the cyclic factor.
and imaginary parts become coincident
ellipse and are perpendicular.
= (cos q + i sin
q) (a
b) where a
accomplish the reduction proceed as follows
r
If a
(cos 2 q
Form
(a
b)
i b).
= 0,
r
(cos 2 q
Let
and
With
sin 2 q) (a
= 0.
sin 2 q) (a
=a+
tan 2 q
b).
i b,
.
this value of q the axes of the directional ellipse are
given by the equation
a
(cos q
sin q)
r.
In case the real and imaginary parts a and b of a bivector
magnitude and perpendicular in direction both a
are equal in
and b in the expression for r
q
is
The
indeterminate.
r vanish.
bivector whose directional ellipse
lar bivector.
The necessary and
is
If
r
The condition
is
= x2 +
0,
is
is
a circle.
called a circu
is
r circular.
0,
i
a circle
sufficient condition that
nonvanishing bivector r be circular
r
Hence the angle
directional ellipse
2/j
+
+
which for
2k,
z2
= 0.
real vectors implies r
not sufficient to ensure the vanishing of a bivector.
= 0,
The
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS
bivector
a bivector vanish
The
not necessarily zero.
is circular,
condition that
that the direct product of
is
433
it
its
by
con
jugate vanishes.
Ol +
r2>
'
then
0*1
TI
 * r2> = r
= r2
rl
'
and
conjugate and
161.]
their product
The condition
f2
>
becomes equal
it
becomes equal
two
that
'
= 0.
In case the bivector has a real direction
its
r2
to r
to
r.
bivectors be parallel
is
that
the product of the other by a scalar factor. Any biscalar factor may be expressed as the product of a cyclic
factor and a positive scalar, the modulus of the biscalar.
If
one
is
two bivectors
by only a cyclic factor their directional
Hence two parallel vectors have their
similar and similarly placed
the ratio of
differ
ellipses are the same.
directional ellipse
similitude being the modulus of the biscalar.
It is evident
that any two circular bivectors whose planes coincide are
parallel.
circular vector
and a noncircular vector cannot
be parallel.
The condition that two bivectors be perpendicular
r
is
or
Consider
coincide.
first
s2
=r
0,
s2
r2
BJ
= 0.
the case in which the planes of the bivectors
Let
r
The
r2
sx
TJ
scalars a
and
dicular to r2 , and
condition r
(T!
i r2 ),
=b
(s 1
i s ).
2
r 1 may be chosen perpenbe taken in the direction of ra
The
I are biscalars.
BI
s =
r2
may
then gives
s2
and
TJ
28
s2
+. r2
BJ
= 0.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
434
The
equation shows that r2 and
first
are perpendicular and
s2
B I and s 2 are perpendicular.
Moreover, the second
shows that the angular directions from i^ to r2 and from s l to
s 2 are the same, and that the axes of the directional ellipses
hence
and s are proportional.
Hence the conditions for perpendicularity of two bivectors
whose planes coincide are that their directional ellipses are
similar, the angular direction in both is the same, and the
of r
1
If both vectors
major axes of the ellipses are perpendicular.
have real directions the conditions degenerate into the per
pendicularity of those directions. The conditions therefore
hold for real as well as for imaginary vectors.
be two perpendicular bivectors the planes of
which do not coincide. Resolve r x and r2 each into two com
Let
and
ponents respectively parallel and perpendicular to the plane
The components perpendicular to that plane contribute
nothing to the value of r s. Hence the components of r x
of
s.
and
r2 parallel to the plane of s
perpendicular to
s.
form a bivector
To this bivector and
The directional ellipse
r'
which
is
the conditions
of the bivector r'
stated above apply.
is evidently the projection of the directional ellipse of r upon
the plane of
two bivectors are perpendicular the directional
of either bivector and the directional ellipse of the
Hence,
ellipse
s.
if
other projected upon the plane of that one are similar, have
the same angular direction, and have their major axes perpendicular.
162.]
Consider a bivector of the type
D
where
A and m
= Ae, i(m
are bivectors
'
 n()
and n
position vector of a point in space.
'
(9)
is
a biscalar.
r is the
It is therefore to be con
1 It should be noted
that the condition of perpendicularity of major axes is not
the same as the condition of perpendicularity of real parts and imaginary parts.
HARMONIC VIBRATIONS AND BIVECTORS
sidered as real,
be considered as
is
real.
the scalar variable time and
Let
is
435
also to
VECTOR ANALYSIS
430
same period and wavelength
as the individual waves.
vibrations, however, take place in a different ellipse.
The
If the
waves are
the resultant
is
A+
B)
(m
'
~"
trains of waves which advance in opposite
which
are in other respects equal a system of
directions but
stationary waves is obtained.
By combining two
Ae m* r
e
<n '
<mi
(e
The theory of
+ e ' mi
bivectors
The
carried further.
and
= 2Acos
mt
(n^
the reader
how
nt)
r)
__
e~^' T e~ int
their applications will not be
object in entering at all
short and condensed discussion of bivectors
to the
upon this very
was first to show
the simple idea of a direction has to give way
less useful idea of a directional
more complicated but no
when
the generalization from real to imaginary vectors
made, and second to set forth the manner in which a single
ellipse
is
bivector
D may
waves of
elliptic
vectors
be employed to represent a train of plane
harmonic vibrations. This application of bi
may be used to give
the
Theory
of Light a wonderfully
1
simple and elegant treatment.
"
1
Such use of bivectors is made by Professor Gibbs in his course of lectures on
The Electromagnetic Theory of Light," delivered biannually at Yale University.
Bivectors were not used in the second part of this chapter, hecause in the opinion
of the present author they possess no essential advantage over real vectors until
the
more advanced parts
magnets and
of the theory, rotation of the plane of polarization
crystals, total
and metallic
reflection, etc., are reached,
by
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