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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT

TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC


EVALUATION OF DISTRICT COOLING
WITH ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS
IN GVLE (SWEDEN)
Elixabet Sarasketa Zabala
June 2009

Masters Thesis in Energy Systems

uuir
Master Programme in Energy Systems
Examiner: Ulf Larsson
Supervisor: ke Bjrnwall

Preface
This investigation, as final Thesis Project of Master in Energy Systems
(University of Gvle), was started to carry out in February, in collaboration with
the company Gvle Energi AB. Many people have been involved answering my
questions, providing me with information and so forth; some of those are
mentioned below.

First of all, I would like to thank ke Bjrnwall, my supervisor at Gvle


Energi AB, very much for his attention, help and support. His knowledge,
comments, guidance and advices have been essential for the development of my
work. Needless to say that I have learnt a lot from him.

Secondly, I would like to thank the rest of workers at Gvle Energi AB,
who have done everything they can to help me, in addition to make pleasant my
stay in the company.

I would also like to thank Ulf Larsson at the University of Gvle for his
help. Furthermore, I am very grateful for all information I have received from
other companies.

Finally, I do not forget the invaluable support of my mother, Rosa, during


all my studies.

No one mentioned, no one forgotten.

Gvle, June 2009


Elixabet Sarasketa Zabala

Abstract
Gvle Energi AB is a company which produces electricity as well as heat
that is delivered through a district heating network in the municipality of Gvle.
Apart from that, as cooling demand is large when seen from a global perspective,
at present it is building a district cooling network based on refrigerant compressor
technology with the idea of replacing less efficient individual HVAC systems in
the city center.

High electricity prices lead to reduce its use as far as possible, so it is also
needed to consider absorption systems as cooling technology. This way, the main
aim of this thesis is to analyze possible benefits with the use of heat driven
absorption chillers compared with conventional vapour compressor chillers.

For carrying out this investigation, first of all background and literature
study have been essential. As a result, information about cooling technologies,
district energy and cogeneration plants is gathered in this work.

The research is focused on three areas of the victinity of Gvle: city center,
Kungsbck and Johannesbergsvgen.

In the first area, Gvle Energi AB might take the opportunity of using a
new ORC plant in biomass based cogeneration system that Bionr is planning to
build at LEAF, turning it into a trigeneration plant. So how bigger the installation
should be (according to the expected cooling demand that has been calculated in
the earliest steps) and the profits related to extra electricity production are
estimated in this study, in addition to examine the absorption chillers to be
introduced and their operational conditions.

On the other hand, Mackmyra whisky factory, which is in Valbo


nowadays, is going to build a new plant in Kungsbck. Likewise, it is considering

that extra steam might be produced to fire absorption chillers and fulfil the
cooling demand of the

hospital (Gvle

Sjukhus),

technological park

(Teknikparken) and university (Hgskolan i Gvle), which are located in this area.
Like this, the same methodology as for LEAF has been followed for making
decisions.

Finally, there is Johannesbergsvgen area, where Johannes CHP plant is (a


description of the plant is included in the Appendix) and which is runned by
Gvle Energi AB. This plant is shut down in summer, as the demand for district
heating is low, and hence, electricity production, from which the company makes
a profit, is cut and restricted. A good solution to increase electricity output in
warm periods is to introduce absorption cooling technology, as it is run on steam
or hot water. Thus, Johannes could be the third trigeneration plant in Gvle that
would supply Hemlingby shopping centers (which are located less than two
kilometers far away from the production site) with cooling. Thus, the task has
been also to decide on installations and gauge the profits.

Next Table 0. gathers together costs, amount of heat that would be


demanded to produce and accordingly generated electricity in each of the three
production sites. It has been decided that double-effect chillers sets in the first two
cases and single-effect hot-water fired absorption cooling machines in the last one
might be introduced.

Table 0. Costs of absorption cooling installations, extra heat to be produced for the
absorption chillers and extra electricity output in the three studied sites
PRODUCTION
OPERATIONAL
HEATING
ELECTRICITY
SITE &TOTAL
INVESTMENT
COSTS
DEMAND
PRODUCTION
COOLING
COST [SEK]
[SEK/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
LOAD
LEAF
22 627 000
4 753 485
17 977
4 135
21 385 MWh/year
MACKMYRA
17 700 000
2 504 835
7 819
1 173
9 298 MWh/year
JOHANNES
8 800 000
3 561 396
10 460
3 033
8 496 MWh/year

Furthermore, explanations and calculations regarding distribution systems


are presented, as these are also a component of district cooling systems.
Nevertheless, they are not taken into consideration for final decisions, since
necessary pumps and piping system would be the same in case of using vapour
compressor chillers for cooling production.

Lastly, it has been come to the conclusion that a sustainable energy system
for Gvle for fulfilling the cooling demand can be the erection of district cooling
networks with trigeneration plants by producing cooling in heat driven absorption
cooling machines. Despite larger investment cost of absorption systems compared
to compression ones, total costs after roughly five years are lower. Moreover,
electric coefficient of performance is about 23% higher for the absorption cooling
technology and there is a great electricity output too, which makes possible to
reduce electrical loads, to use the biofuel in an effective way and, last but not
least, to decrease global carbon dioxide emissions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... 1
1.1. BACKGROUND ....................................................................................... 2
1.1.1. COOLING AND ITS PRODUCTION .................................................................... 2
1.1.2. GVLE ENERGI AB AND ITS PLANS FOR THE FUTURE................................ 3

1.2. PURPOSE .................................................................................................. 4


1.3. SCOPE....................................................................................................... 4
1.4. LIMITATIONS .......................................................................................... 5
1.5. METHOD .................................................................................................. 5
1.6. OUTLINE OF THE THESIS...................................................................... 6

CHAPTER 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES ................................ 8


2.1. REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR INSTALLATIONS ................................ 10
2.1.1. COMPRESSOR AND SYSTEM EFFICIENCY..................................................... 12

2.2. ABSORPTION COOLING INSTALLATIONS .......................................... 13


2.2.1. CONSIDERATIONS FOR DIMENSIONING ABSORPTION CIRCUITS............. 17
2.2.2. WORKING FLUID ............................................................................................... 18
2.2.2.1. WATER/ LITHIUM BROMIDE (H2O/ LiBr) .......................................... 19
2.2.2.2. AMMONIA/WATER (NH3/ H2O) ........................................................... 20
2.2.2.3. COMPARISON BETWEEN WATER/ LITHIUM BROMIDE AND
AMMONIA/WATER SOLUTIONS.......................................................... 21
2.2.3. PRIMARY ENERGY ............................................................................................ 25
2.2.4. TYPES OF ABSORPTION CHILLERS ................................................................ 26
2.2.4.1. SINGLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION CHILLERS ....................................... 27
2.2.4.2. DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION CHILLERS ..................................... 28

2.3. REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR TECHNOLOGY VERSUS


ABSORPTION COOLING TECHNOLOGY ............................................ 30

CHAPTER 3. DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM ............................................ 35


3.1. PRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 37
3.1.1. COGENERATION. BENEFITS WITH ABSORPTION COOLING ...................... 37

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.2. COOLING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM....................................................... 39


3.2.1. PIPING NETWORK ............................................................................................. 39
3.2.2. MATERIALS FOR THE PIPES ............................................................................ 40

CHAPTER 4. PROCESS ................................................................................. 41


4.1. GATHERING OF INFORMATION ABOUT EXISTING
INSTALLATIONS AND PRESENT SITUATION ..................................... 42
4.1.1. STEAM BOILERS AT LEAF AND KAPPA ........................................................ 42
4.1.2. BIOFUELED JOHANNES CHP PLANT .............................................................. 44
4.1.3. MACKMYRA ...................................................................................................... 46
4.1.4. REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR COOLING PROJECT .................................. 47

4.2. GATHERING OF DATA: CUSTOMERS. LOAD REQUIRED AND


DISTANCES............................................................................................... 48
4.3. ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION COOLING PLANTS ................................ 51
4.3.1. ABSORPTION CHILLERS .................................................................................. 51
4.3.3.1. STUDY OF THE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS ................................. 52
4.3.2. REST OF THE EQUIPMENTS ............................................................................ 52

CHAPTER 5. RESULTS ................................................................................. 56


5.1. PRODUCTION PLANTS............................................................................ 57
5.1.1. LEAF .................................................................................................................... 57
5.1.1.1. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS ............................................................. 57
5.1.1.2. COSTS.................................................................................................... 58
5.1.1.2.1. INVESTMENT COSTS .......................................................... 58
5.1.1.2.2. OPERATIONAL COSTS ........................................................ 59
5.1.1.2.3. TOTAL COSTS ...................................................................... 59
5.1.2. MACKMYRA ....................................................................................................... 61
5.1.2.1. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS ............................................................. 61
5.1.2.2. COSTS.................................................................................................... 62
5.1.2.2.1. INVESTMENT COSTS .......................................................... 62
5.1.2.2.2. OPERATIONAL COSTS ........................................................ 62
5.1.2.2.3. TOTAL COSTS ...................................................................... 63
5.1.3. JOHANNES .......................................................................................................... 64
5.1.3.1. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS ............................................................. 64
5.1.3.2. COSTS.................................................................................................... 64
5.1.3.2.1. INVESTMENT COSTS .......................................................... 65
5.1.3.2.2. OPERATIONAL COSTS ........................................................ 65
5.1.3.2.3. TOTAL COSTS ...................................................................... 65
5.1.4. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS................................................................................... 67
5.1.4.1. LEAF ...................................................................................................... 67
5.1.3.2. MACKMYRA ......................................................................................... 69

II

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5.1.3.2. JOHANNES ............................................................................................ 71

5.2. COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY VERSUS ABSORPTION


TECHNOLOGY. COMPARISON FOR LEAF PRODUCTION SITE......... 72
5.3. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ......................................................................... 75
5.3.1. INSTALLATION .................................................................................................. 75
5.3.3. COST OF THE MAIN PIPING NETWORKS ....................................................... 75

CHAPTER 6. DISCUSSIONS ......................................................................... 76


6.1. PRODUCTION PLANTS ............................................................................ 77
6.2. MOST PROFITABLE TECHNIQUE FROM ECONOMIC POINT OF
VIEW. SUSTAINABILITY ........................................................................ 80
6.3. COOLING DEMAND VERSUS COSTS AND BENEFITS OF
ABSORPTION COOLING TECHNOLOGY .............................................. 83
6.3.1. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION ...................................... 83
6.3.2. COSTS AND PROFITS. THE BEST OPTIONS .................................................... 84

CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................... 86

REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 88

APPENDICES .................................................................................................. 92
Appendix 1. PLANNED REFRIGERANT COMPRESSION
INSTALLATION ................................................................ 93
A1.1. INSTALLATION ................................................... 93
A1.2. COOLING LOAD ................................................. 99
A1.3. INPUT LOAD AND COSTS ................................ 100
A1.4. TOTAL COSTS ................................................... 102
A1.5. PAY-BACK TIME FOR THE INVESTMENTS... 103
Appendix 2. EXPECTED COOLING DEMAND ................................ 104

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Appendix 3. SPECIFICATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


REGARDING ABSORPTION COOLING
INSTALLATIONS ........................................................... 108
A3.1. ABSORPTION CHILLERS.................................. 108
A3.1.1. MODELS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS ........ 108
A3.1.2. INVESTMENT COSTS ........................................... 118
A3.1.3. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS ............................. 119

A3.2. THE REST OF EQUIPMENTS ............................ 131


Appendix 4. MAPS OF CUSTOMERS AND DISTANCES FROM
THE PRODUCTION SITES ............................................ 133
Appendix 5. CALCULATIONS ABOUT DIMENSIONS OF PIPES,
DISTRIBUTION PUMPS AND THEIR COSTS ............ 140
A5.1. DIMENSIONING................................................. 140
A5.2. COSTS ................................................................. 146
Appendix 6. FALUN COOLING PROJECT: A REFERENCE ......... 150
A6.1. INSTALLATION ................................................. 150
A6.2. TOTAL COSTS.................................................... 152
Appendix 7. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT JOHANNES
POWER PLANT............................................................... 153

IV

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Refrigerant compression cycle ........................................................... 10
Figure 2. Temperature-Entropy (T-s) diagram for a Vapour-Compression
Refrigeration Cycle ........................................................................... 11
Figure 3. Scheme of basic absorption cycle ....................................................... 14
Figure 4. Schematic of the fundamental absorption refrigeration system ........... 17
Figure 5. Ammonia/Water absorption cycle ...................................................... 20
Figure 6. Crystallization temperatures of water/lithium bromide solution
against the mass concentration of lithium bromide ............................. 21
Figure 7. Maximum system pressures against the condenser temperature .......... 22
Figure 8. Minimum system pressures against the evaporator temperature ......... 23
Figure 9. COP of the absorption systems against the condenser temperature
(heat exchanger efficiency 0,6) .......................................................... 24
Figure 10. COP of the absorption systems against the generator temperature
(heat exchanger efficiency 0,6) ........................................................ 24
Figure 11. COP of the absorption systems against the evaporator temperature
(heat exchanger efficiency 0,6) ........................................................ 25
Figure 12. Cooling cycle schematic .................................................................. 27
Figure 13. Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller
Schematic ....................................................................................... 28
Figure 14. Sketch for a double effect absorption heat pump in a log pressuretemperature diagram ........................................................................ 29
Figure 15. Comparison between compression and absorption technologies
using ammonia as refrigerant and cooling water with a temperature
of 25 C ........................................................................................... 31
Figure 16. Components of district cooling systems ........................................... 36
Figure 17. District cooling system (or district heating system) .......................... 36
Figure 18. An schematic of cogeneration process that shows the consumed
and produced power in the whole system ........................................ 37
Figure 19. Illustration of a CHP plant connected to a district heating network ... 38
Figure 20. Energy efficiency of ORC units in cogeneration applications ............ 43
Figure 21. ORC plant in biomass based cogeneration system ............................. 43
Figure 22. Johannes CHP plant before 2003 ...................................................... 44
Figure 23. Production of heat (for District Heating) and electricity at
Johannes .......................................................................................... 45
Figure 24. Existing electric boiler in Mackmyra ................................................ 46
Figure 25. Existing and planned boilers at Mackmyra ........................................ 47
Figure 26. Three cooling production and customer sites and main pipes ............ 49
Figure 27. Cooling power to be produced in different sites during the year ........ 53
Figure 28. Typical piping diagram of an absorption system ............................... 56
Figure 29. Graph that shows the breakdown of total costs for 10 years at
LEAF ............................................................................................... 60

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 30. Graph that shows the breakdown of total costs for 10 years in
Mackmyra production site ................................................................ 63
Figure 31. Graph that shows the breakdown of total costs for 10 years in
Johannes production site .................................................................. 66
Figure 32. Comparison of cooling installations with absorption and
compression machines at LEAF ....................................................... 74
Figure 33. Increased heat load for the three absorption plants and the possible
extra electricity that would be produced ........................................... 79
Figure 34. Increased heat and electricity load in the probable Johannes
trigeneration plant ............................................................................ 79
Figure 35. Required operational conditions of the boiler for the cooling plant at
Johannes .......................................................................................... 80
Figure 36. Comparison of total costs for ten years for the different cooling
production technologies at LEAF ..................................................... 81
Figure 37. Electricity production and consumption according to the cooling
demand in three different scenarios .................................................. 84
Figure 38. Costs and profits (due to electricity production) according to the
cooling demand in three different scenarios ...................................... 84
Figure A1. 1. Draft of the whole compression installation.................................. 90
Figure A1. 2. Draft of the devices of the compression installation...................... 90
Figure A1. 3. Maintenance costs in the course of time ....................................... 99
Figure A3. 1. Water streams (steam and DH) at Johannes CHP plant ............... 111
Figure A3. 2. Cooling demand load curve (2008) divided in periods
according to the power needed to be produced ........................... 116
Figure A4. 1. Map of the city center with the main pipe that leaves LEAF
production site and its length ..................................................... 130
Figure A4. 2. Map with the customers, pipes and distances for Mackmyra
production site ........................................................................... 132
Figure A4. 3. Map with the customers for Johannes production site, pipe and
its length .................................................................................... 134
Figure A4. 4. Map of the shopping centers under construction in Hemlingby ... 135
Figure A4. 5. Map of the future residential area close to Johannes plant .......... 136
Figure A5. 1. SBI monogram showing the parameters of the different pipes .... 140
Figure A5. 2. Differential pressures in a direct return distribution system with
one terminal unit ........................................................................ 141
Figure A5. 3. Piping excavation section ........................................................... 143
Figure A5. 4. Distribution system cost split up in its components and their
contribution to the total cost....................................................... 145
Figure A6. 1. Draft of the whole cooling installation in Falun .......................... 147
Figure A7. 1. Scheme of Johannes CHP plant .................................................. 150
Figure A7. 2. Fuel storage and conveyor belt carrying biofuel to the boiler at
Johannes .................................................................................... 151
Figure A7. 3. Bubble Fluidized Bed (BFB) boiler of Johannes CHP plant ....... 152

VI

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure A7. 4. Illustrative drawing of Olga turbine and components .................. 153
Figure A7. 5. Olga turbine on the left side and heat exchangers on the right
Side. Johannes CHP plant .......................................................... 153
Figure A7. 6. Schematic of the FGC at Johannes ............................................. 154
Figure A7. 7. Detailed scheme of the condensate treatment plant at Johannes .. 154

VII

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Production sites and customers ............................................................ 4
Table 2. Absorption working fluids properties ................................................ 23
Table 3. Comparison of parallel and series flow for double-effect water/lithium
bromide cycles .................................................................................... 29
Table 4. Energy saving with cogeneration for = 0,54 ..................................... 33
Table 5. Summary of characteristics for cooling options .................................. 34
Table 6. Comparison between two 1000kW chillers ......................................... 34
Table 7. Different types of plants using a steam boiler and their
characteristics ..................................................................................... 38
Table 8. Cooling load demand at each site ....................................................... 50
Table 9. Possibilities to fulfill the cooling demand in the city center by using
steam-fired absorption chillers ............................................................ 51
Table 10. Possibilities to fulfill the cooling demand in Kungsbck by using
steam-fired absorption chillers ........................................................... 52
Table 11. Possibilities to fulfill the cooling demand corresponding to Johannes
plant ................................................................................................. 54
Table 12. Cooling that should be produced for different sites during the year .... 55
Table 13. Power and steam demand of different chillers sets for the required
cooling load at LEAF during the year ................................................ 57
Table 14. Biofuel (for producing steam), electricity and water consumption.
LEAF ................................................................................................ 58
Table 15. Investment costs [SEK] for LEAF ..................................................... 58
Table 16. Operational costs at LEAF ................................................................ 59
Table 17. Total costs of LEAF absorption cooling plants for 10 years ............... 59
Table 18. Power and steam demand of different chillers sets for the required
cooling load in Mackmyra production during the year ....................... 61
Table 19. Biofuel (for producing steam), electricity and water consumption.
Mackmyra ......................................................................................... 61
Table 20. Investment costs [SEK] for Mackmyra .............................................. 62
Table 21. Operational costs in Mackmyra production site ................................. 62
Table 22. Total costs of Mackmyra absorption cooling plants for 10 years ........ 63
Table 23. Power and hot water demand of chillers set for the required cooling
load at Johannes during the year ........................................................ 64
Table 24. Biofuel (for producing steam), electricity and water consumption.
Johannes ............................................................................................ 64
Table 25. Investment costs [SEK] for Johannes................................................. 65
Table 26. Operational costs in Johannes production site .................................... 65
Table 27. Total costs of Johannes absorption cooling plant for 10 years ............ 65
Table 28. Operational conditions of different chillers sets at LEAF during
the year when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated
one .................................................................................................... 67

VIII

LIST OF TABLES

Table 29. Total costs of LEAF absorption cooling plants for 10 years when the
cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one ....................... 67
Table 30. Operational conditions of different chillers sets at LEAF during the
year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one .. 68
Table 31. Total costs of LEAF absorption cooling plants for 10 years when the
cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one ........................ 68
Table 32. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Mackmyra
production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10%
higher than the estimated one ............................................................ 69
Table 33. Total costs of Mackmyra absorption cooling plants for 10 years
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one ........ 69
Table 34. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Mackmyra
production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10%
lower than the estimated one.............................................................. 70
Table 35. Total costs of Mackmyra absorption cooling plants for 10 years
when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one ......... 70
Table 36. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Johannes
production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10%
higher than the estimated one ............................................................ 71
Table 37. Total costs of Johannes absorption cooling plants for 10 years when
the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one .................. 71
Table 38. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Johannes
production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10%
lower than the estimated one.............................................................. 71
Table 39. Total costs of Johannes absorption cooling plants for 10 years when
the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one ................... 71
Table 40. Operational conditions of the existing cooling project but with
absorption machines .......................................................................... 73
Table 41. Power and steam demand of chillers set for the required cooling load
in the existing cooling project but with absorption machines ............. 73
Table 42. Operational costs in the existing cooling project but with absorption
machines ........................................................................................... 73
Table 43. Total costs of the existing cooling project but with absorption
machines for 10 years ........................................................................ 73
Table 44. Data about the distribution systems ................................................... 75
Table 45. Cost of the distribution systems ......................................................... 75
Table 46. Operational conditions and costs of distribution pumps ..................... 75
Table 47. Most adequate chillers and costs & profits for the three production
sites ..................................................................................................... 78
Table 48. Annual benefits of absorption cooling technology at LEAF after 10
years .................................................................................................... 81

IX

LIST OF TABLES

Table R. 1. Information about personal contacts ............................................... 88


Table A1. 1. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation I ............ 92
Table A1. 2. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation II ........... 93
Table A1. 3. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation III .......... 93
Table A1. 4. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation IV .......... 93
Table A1. 5. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation V ........... 93
Table A1. 6. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation VI .......... 94
Table A1. 7. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation VII ........ 94
Table A1. 8. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation VIII ....... 94
Table A1. 9. Vapour Compressor chillers specifications I ................................. 94
Table A1. 10. Vapour Compressor chillers specifications II .............................. 95
Table A1. 11. Vapour Compressor chillers specifications III ............................. 95
Table A1. 12. Heat exchanger specifications of compression cooling
installation .................................................................................. 95
Table A1. 13. Operational conditions of VKA1 and VKA2 compressors
(YRWCWCT3550C) in time steps .............................................. 96
Table A1. 14. Operational conditions of VKA4 and VKA5 compressors
(YKKKKLH95CQF) in time steps .............................................. 96
Table A1. 15. Operating time for cooling delivering during the year ................. 96
Table A1. 16. Power needed in the compression cooling installation during the
year ............................................................................................ 97
Table A1. 17. Input load VKA1 and VKA2 compressors (YRWCWCT3550C)
in time steps................................................................................ 98
Table A1. 18. Input load VKA4 and VKA5 compressors (YKKKKLH95CQF)
in time steps................................................................................ 98
Table A1. 19. Total input load and operating costs in the compression cooling
installation .................................................................................. 99
Table A1. 20. Costs of the compressor refrigerant system ................................. 99
Table A1. 21. Pay-back times for the compression installation ......................... 100
Table A1. 22. Total costs for the refrigeration compression system for the first
10 years ..................................................................................... 100
Table A2. 1. Cooling demand of possible future customers in the city center
and additional data ....................................................................... 101
Table A2. 2. Customers and their cooling demand in Kungsbck ..................... 103
Table A2. 3. Cooling demand for Johannes production site .............................. 104
Table A3. 1. Production data and pressure of the first steam stream extracted
from the turbine ........................................................................... 112
Table A3. 2. Price comparison of single- and double-effect units ..................... 115
Table A3. 3. Investment costs for different absorption chiller units .................. 116
Table A3. 4. Average city centers cooling demand in time steps for 2008 ....... 117
Table A3. 5. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers (double- and single- effect) at LEAF during the year ....... 118
Table A3. 6. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers at LEAF during the
year .............................................................................................. 118
X

LIST OF TABLES

Table A3. 7. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different


chillers (double- and single- effect) at LEAF during the year when
the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one ............ 119
Table A3. 8. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers at LEAF during the
year when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated
one ............................................................................................... 119
Table A3. 9. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers (double- and single- effect) at LEAF during the year when
the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one ............. 120
Table A3. 10. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers at LEAF during the
year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated
one ............................................................................................ 120
Table A3. 11. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers (double- and single- effect) in Mackmyra production
site during the year .................................................................... 121
Table A3. 12. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and
necessary cooling towers in Mackmyra production site .............. 121
Table A3. 13. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers (double- and single- effect) in Mackmyra production site
during the year when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the
estimated one ............................................................................. 122
Table A3. 14. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and
necessary cooling towers in Mackmyra production site when the
cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one................ 122
Table A3. 15. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers (double- and single- effect) in Mackmyra production site
during the year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the
estimated one ............................................................................. 123
Table A3. 16. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and
necessary cooling towers in Mackmyra production site when the
cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one ................. 123
Table A3. 17. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers in Johannes production site during the year.................... 124
Table A3. 18. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and
necessary cooling towers in Johannes production site ................ 125
Table A3. 19. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers in Johannes production site when the cooling demand is
10% higher than the estimated one ............................................. 125
Table A3. 20. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers in Johannes
production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10%
higher than the estimated one ..................................................... 126
Table A3. 21. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different
chillers in Johannes production site when the cooling demand is
10% lower than the estimated one .............................................. 126
XI

LIST OF TABLES

Table A3. 22. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers in Johannes


production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10%
lower than the estimated one ...................................................... 127
Table A3. 23. Required cooling towers and heat exchangers technical data..... 128
Table A5. 1. Dimensioning of pipes and pressure drop (part I) ......................... 137
Table A5. 2. Dimensioning of pipes and pressure drop (part II) ....................... 138
Table A5. 3. PE Pressure Pipes for water supply: EN 12201, ISO 4427 ........... 142
Table A5. 4. Data of the pipes needed .............................................................. 143
Table A5. 5. Values of parameters C and B for the required dn ....................... 144
Table A5. 6. Total cost of the pipes .................................................................. 144
Table A5. 7. Calculation of the pipes costs ..................................................... 145
Table A5. 8. Needed distribution pumps and their cost .................................... 146
Table A6. 1. Reference specifications about absorption chiller in Falun .......... 148
Table A6. 2. Investment costs for different installations in Falun ..................... 149
Table A6. 3. Input electric power in Falun installations .................................... 149
Table A7. 1. Characteristics of the obtained outputs at Johannes ...................... 153

XII

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
This chapter is a definition of the thesis, which describes the issues to be
studied and the reasons for their investigation, as well as the main purpose, scope,
limitations and so forth.

In general terms, the task can be summed up as the evaluation of


technological and economic possibilities regarding district cooling with
absorption cooling technology at three specific sites in the victinity of Gvle.

1.1. BACKGROUND
1.1.1. COOLING AND ITS PRODUCTION
It is a fact that cooling demand is as high as or even higher than heating
demand, since it is needed for both thermal comfort and many industrial processes
and, in addition, it is required more energy for producing cooling than heating.
Hence, production of cold could be very profitable for energy companies when it
is a part of the existing energy system.

District cooling system (DCS) offers massive and collective cooling


energy production, which is higher in efficiency than the conventional plants at
individual premises, and allows users to utilise building space more effectively
[1]. Generally, the chilled water for pipeline distribution is produced by
refrigerant compressor technique; nonetheless, it is needed to face up to a large
electricity consumption, which involves a large expense due to the deregulation of
the european electricity market.

In 2004 Sweden became part of a common european electricity market and


swedish plant will therefore meet higher european prices, which will lead to a

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

precarious scenario because of its intensive utilization of electricity [2].


Consequently, the use of electricity has to be decreased, for instance by changing

energy carrier when it is used for non-electricity specific purposes. To reach this
target, the choice of absorption facilities as cooling technology is clear.

Absorption cooling sytem uses heat as fuel, which make it possible to


combine with cogeneration plants and make the most of surplus heat. Moreover, it
is especially benefitial in summer periods when there is a large amount of waste
heat and electricity generation needs to be therefore reduced or stopped.

1.1.2. GVLE ENERGI AB AND ITS PLANS FOR THE


FUTURE
Gvle Energi AB is an energy company that belongs to Gvle community
and it develops, produces and sells products and services in energy and
communication with great view of the environment and nature. The company
owns and runs most of the electricity as well as district heating network in the
municipality of Gvle.

Gvle Energi AB not only ensures short-term goals but it has always longterm objectives to contribute actively to the Gvle region's development. Thus, as
cooling demand is large when seen from a global perspective, it is building a
district cooling network which will be finished in a near future. In a first step, the
planned production of cold is based on refrigerant compressor technology and at
present, it is thinking of future possibilities of using absorption cooling systems
because of its low operational costs.

This way, the company wants to study the construction of district cooling
systems by absorption cooling facilities for three small islands as large customers:
city center, Hemlingby shopping centers and, finally, Kungsbck area (university,
hospital and technological park as a whole). Power for producing cold for these

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

sites could be supplied by steams boilers at LEAF, Johannes and future


Mackmyra whisky factory respectively.

Table 1. Production sites and customers

SITE

NEARBY LARGE
CUSTOMER

1) Planned biofueled ORC plant at LEAF


production site in Gvle

Planned network in the central


of Gvle.

2) Planned production site of Mackmyra


whiskys in Kungsbck

HiG, Gvle general hospital and


technological park

3) Biofueled steam boiler at Johannes CHP


plant

Hemlingby shopping centers

It needs to be underlined that customers and areas have been chosen


according to the possible disposal production sites. If other adequate steam boilers
were, perhaps Gvle Energi AB might think about other customer islands in the
victinity of Gvle.

1.2. PURPOSE
The aim of this thesis is to study economic and technological aspects of
absorption cooling in the three cases already presented (see Table 1.). Therefore,
it is required to decide needed size of installations in order to analyze costs and
profits.

1.3. SCOPE
A district cooling system consists of three primary components: central
plant (production), distribution system and customer system (market). The first
two will be studied, starting from technological aspects and going through
economic ones after.

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

It should be investigated the following with regards to each of the three


sites in Gvle:
- Operational conditions (maximum/minimum power, hours of operation per
year and so forth).
- Operational and investment cost of absorption system installations.
- Cost of distribution systems by only concentrating on costs of main pipes
(from production plant to customer substations).
- Most economical size of installations.

1.4. LIMITATIONS
Even though more aspects ought to be taken into account, the matters
mentioned in the scope are at focus and neither investment costs of steam boilers
nor costs regarding customer substations should be considered. On the one hand,
boilers either already exist or will be built anyway (this way, operational costs of
producing steam for absorption chillers are also not pondered because boilers are
working anyway and extra costs are negligible). On the other hand, it is very
difficult to estimate the cost of customer facilities and furthermore, they will be
the same whichever way the cold is produced (the main aim is to compare cooling
production systems).

Moreover, it has to be underlined that the research is only centred on those


three areas of the municipality.

1.5. METHOD
First of all, the issues of the thesis and reasons why they are interesting to
investigate have been analyzed. In this way, the project has been specified and
tasks for carrying it out have been defined in depth. Afterwards, a literature study

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

has been done to get enough knowledge about subjects: cooling technologies,
district cooling systems and CHP plants using biofueled steam boilers.

Secondly, in the projects early stages, it has been got in touch with
consultants of Gvle Energi AB and experts at absorption cooling (Ramboll) and
refrigerant compressor (SWECO) technologies for gathering together information
about real installations and equipments in the market, as well as for examining
them from different points of view.

Once different parts have been understood, it has been gone ahead with the
thesis by concentrating on the real cases the investigation had to be focused on.
Like this, it has been asked for data about customers cooling demand (load
required), distribution distances and so on to make a first estimation of needed
size of the installations and thus, the operational conditions.

The next step has been to decide on production plant size, for later weigh
costs up. This has let profits of the new technology be known as regards extra
electricity production and use of steam for cooling production. And, to finish with
the production part, the compression installation has been compared with
absorption one and, in addition, a sensitivity analysis, which ranges over size of
equipments, costs and profits, has been done.

Last but not least, decisions regarding distribution systems have been
made and costs has been also assessed.

1.6. OUTLINE OF THE THESIS


Chapter 2 explains the existing two main cooling production systems,
refrigerant compressor and absorption technologies, but it is mainly concentrated
on absorption installations. Then, it is finished with a comparison between them
and advantages as well as disadvantages are discussed.

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

In Chapter 3 district cooling systems are presented. Section 3.1. describes


production plants shortly, that is, what cogeneration or a CHP plant is and profits
of working with them. Section 3.2. is about cooling distribution systems, which
covers both characteristics of the piping networks (Section 3.2.1.) and type of
pipes which are going to be used (Section 3.2.2.).

Chapter 4 studies thoroughly the real cases. This way, firstly it is presented
the current situation and future plans (Section 4.1.). Thereafter, it is explained
how decisions about production sites and customer areas have been made, in
addition to sum up collected data about cooling demands and estimations about
distances (Section 4.2.). Finally, data researchs and analysis regarding absorption
cooling plants are included (Section 4.3.).

In Chapter 5 the obtained results are shown. Firstly, operational conditions


and total costs of all production sites are gathered together (Section 5.1.).
Moreover, Section 5.2. presents compression and absorption cooling systems
comparison based on the existing project at LEAF. Lastly, Section 5.3. decribes
the distribution systems and the costs they involve.

To finalize, there is the most important part: discussions and conclusions


(Chapter 6), where types of absorption chillers to be used are decided, economical
and technological aspects of the two cooling production technologies are
compared and it is reasoned out which the best solution is.

CHAPTER 2

Cooling system technologies


Production of cold is like considering extraction of heat. There are several
procedures that allow it, which are based on the fact that the heat can be
transferred from one to another body with a difference in temperature by
conduction and radiation. In this way, there are several procedures: chemicals,
physicals and systems that are based on phase transformation of substances.
Likewise, refrigerating machines can be classified into: adsorption, absorption,
compression and ejector machines. [3]

In industry, refrigerant compressor and absorption cooling systems are


mostly used. Refrigerant cycles for vapour compression and absorption are similar
in that both evaporate and condensate a refrigerant at different pressures to
produce chilled water. Nevertheless, a vapour compressor chiller uses a
mechanical means to compress and carry refrigerant vapour to condenser, whereas
absorption chiller establishes differential pressure depending on a thermodynamic
process that involves refrigerant and water. In addition, the energy source is
electricity for compression chillers, while it is heat for absorption ones. It bears
mentioning that there are also other heat-driven cooling alternatives, which are
ejector, desiccant and hybrid heat-driven cooling technologies.

Next stage is to study both technologies.

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

2.1. REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR INSTALLATION


The most common cooling system used is refrigerant compressor
technology, vapour compression heat pump to be precise. It is widely used for
residential and commercial cooling, food refrigeration and automobile air
conditioning. [4]

Vapour-compression system is a work-driven cycle that is illustrated in


Figure 1. Main parts of the system are: condenser, evaporator, compressor and
expansion valve. Depending on the system, it is possible to find more accessories,
such as units to purge and valves for controlling the flow of refrigerant.

Figure 1. Refrigerant compression cycle [5]

The evaporator is a heat exchanger where refrigerant is evaporated at the


expense of cooling space. It can be either an air coil, if air is directly cooled, or a
chiller (shell heat exchanger) if it cools a liquid.

The compressor increases the pressure of refrigerant vapour, which is


coming from the evaporator, in order to rise its temperature. The cooling capacity
is regulated by varying the output of the compressor in most of the systems.

10

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

The condenser is a heat exchanger where high-pressure refrigerant vapour,


which is coming from the compressor, is cooled down until it is transformed into
liquid. The cooling media can be air or water; larger systems use water since it
allows reducing the condensing temperature, whereas small systems and those
with limitation of water release directly heat to the air.

Some systems can have an accumulator, which depends on evaporator and


condenser sizes and capacities, and pipes. It is actually a storage tank for liquid
refrigerant.

In this way, how a vapour-compression cycle operates can be summed up


(Figure 2.). First, input work in the compressor rises the pressure and temperature
of the refrigerant (State 2). Then, refrigerant vapour with high pressure and
temperature passes through the condenser, where it is converted into liquid by
rejecting heat to ambient air (State 3). After that, refrigerant passes through an
expansion valve where its temperature and pressure is reduced (State 4). Finally,
low-pressure liquid refrigerant is transformed into low pressure vapour in the
evaporator by absorbing heat from ambient environment (State 1). The cycle is
completed when low pressure refrigerant enters the compressor. [5]

Figure 2. Temperature-Entropy (T-s) diagram for a Vapour-Compression Refrigeration


Cycle (Source: http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/thermo/design-library/refrig/refrig.html)

11

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

It is common a temperature lift of up to 50C between evaporator and


condenser and if water cooled chillers are used, a coefficient of performance
(COP)1 of 4,5 can be reached.

Nowadays, the most usual refrigerants are ammonia (NH3) and R134A
(CHF2CHF2).

2.1.1. COMPRESSOR AND SYSTEM EFFICIENCY


The system efficiency analysis requires compressor design and
compression process characteristics study [4]:

a.

Selection of refrigerant

The potential system efficiency depends on refrigerant used.

Regarding compressors, centrifuging compressors work well at low


pressures and high specific volumes whereas alternative compressors work better
at high pressures and small specific volumes.

Likewise, refrigerants temperature in the condenser and evaporator


depends on cold and warm areas, which also define pressure regions. According
to the previous description, high pressure is needed in the evaporator and low in
the condenser.

The coefficient of performance for compression refrigerant systems is:


COPcooling = Qcold /W
where Qcold is the heat moved from the cold reservoir (to the hot reservoir) and W is the work
consumed by the system.

12

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

Thus, refrigerant has to be selected taking into account required saturation


pressure and temperature for each particular application. Moreover, it is necessary
to consider chemical stability, toxicity, how corrosive it is and cost.

b. Flow in the compressor


The kinetic energy of the flow is influenced by its turbulence, which
entails its conversion in waste heat energy. But leakages are the main problem of
the compressor.

c. Primary energy: compressor driver


All energy input in a compression system goes into the compressor driver,
which can be an electric motor (mostly), a reciprocating engine, a gas turbine or
another machine.

2.2. ABSORPTION COOLING INSTALLATIONS


Absorption cooling cycle is similar to compression cycle, which uses a
volatile refrigerant. Refrigerant vaporizes alternately under low pressure in the
evaporator, by absorbing cooling latent heat from materia to be cooled, and
condenses at high pressure, delivering latent heat into condensing means.

The main difference between absorption and compression cycles is, as


shortly mentioned before, the motivating force that makes refrigerant to flow
through the system and provides the differential pressure required between
evaporating and condensing processes. In the absorption cycles, the compressor is
replaced by an absorber and a generator (as it is shown schematically in Figure 3.,
components to the left of the dashed Z-Z line are the same as the ones used in
compression cycles). Moreover, while energy required in compression cycles is

13

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

provided by compressors mechanical work, energy input in absorption cycles is


in the form of heat supplied directly to the generator, which is typically steam or
hot water.

Figure 3. Scheme of basic absorption cycle [5]

The system consists of four basic components: evaporator and absorber,


which are located on the low pressure side of the system, and generator and
condenser, which are located on the high pressure side. Two fluids are used,
refrigerant and absorbent. The flow of refrigerant follows the cycle condenserevaporator-absorber-generator-condenser, while absorbent goes from the absorber
to the generator and returns to the absorber.

The sequence of operation is as follows: high pressure liquid refrigerant


leaving the condenser passes through an expansion or restrictor device which
reduces the pressure of refrigerant before it goes into the low pressure evaporator.
Refrigerant vaporizes in the evaporator by means of absorbing latent heat of the
material being cooled and low pressure refrigerant vapour is absorbed through a
not restricted conduit to the absorber, where it is mixed in a solution together with
the absorbernt.

Refrigerant flows from the evaporator to the absorber because vapour


pressure of solution absorbent-refrigerant is lower in the absorber than vapour

14

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

pressure of refrigerant in the evaporator. Vapour pressure of solution absorbentrefrigerant in the absorber determines the pressure in low-pressure side of the
system and accordingly, refrigerants evaporating temperature. In turn, vapour
pressure of solution absorbent-refrigerant depends on absorbers nature,
temperature and concentration. The lower the temperature of absorbent is and, in
addition, the higher its concentration is, the pressure in the solution will be lower.

As refrigerant vapour from the evaporator is dissolved in absorbing


solution, volume of refrigerant decreases (compression) and heat is released. To
keep the temperature and vapour pressure at the required level in absorbent
solution, heat released in the absorber (which sums up latent heat of condensation
of refrigerant vapour and heat from the absorption) should be given off to
surroundings. Since the efficiency of absorber increases as the temperature of
absorbent solution decreases, it is clear that the efficiency of the absorber depends
on the temperature of refrigerant available.

When refrigerant vapour is dissolving in absorbing solution, resistance


(percentage of refrigeration) and vapour pressure of the solution is increasing.
Therefore, it is necessary to make continuously more concentrate the solution in
order to keep the vapour pressure of it low enough, just as it is required in the
evaporator. This is got by eliminating constantly the strong absorbing solution
from the absorber and flowing again through the generator, where it is evaporated
by means of a heat source. In this way, the weak absorbing solution is returned
to the absorber, where it absorbs more refrigerant vapour from the evaporator.

According to all this, since the absorber is in the low pressure side of the
system and the generator in the high pressure one, the strong solution must be
pumped from the absorber to the generator and the weak solution must be
returned through a pressure reducing valve or restrictor to the absorber.
Refrigerant is not compressed in the process of increasing its pressure, since it has
to take place in the absorber. Consequently, power required by the pump is
relatively small.

15

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

In the generator, solution is heated up and refrigerant is evaporated; like


that, it is separated from absorbent. Afterward, obtained high pressure refrigerant
vapour passes to the condenser, where its latent heat goes outside and it is
condensed. Finally, it is ready for starting again the cycle.
With regard to the weak solution that remains in the generator, as before
described, it is returned to the absorber through the return pipe. Relative resistance
on the weak solution is controlled by the amount of heat supplied to generator.
[4], [6], [7]

Once how the system works is known, it has to be underlined that


maximum efficiency in the system is attained when pressure difference between
low and high pressure sides in the system is as small as possible (by maintaining
pressure in its low side as high as possible and as low as possible in the high
pressure side). It should be remembered that the pressure in the low pressure side
is mainly determined by absorbing solutions vapour pressure, which in turn
depends on the temperature and concentration of the solution. Since control of
temperature in the solution is limited by available temperature of refrigerant,
control in the low pressure side (evaporator) is usually obtained by means of
varying concentration of absorbing solution.

The next stage is to study whether efficiency can be improved even more.
This can be achieved by introducing a heat exchanger between the strong
solution that goes to the generator and the weak solution (with high
temperature) that returns from the generator to the absorber. As temperature of the
solution that goes to the generator is increased, whereas it is decreased in that
which goes to the absorber, it is needed to supply the generator with less heat as
well as to cool down less in the absorber. [7]

From Figure 4. in the next page it can be seen an illustration of the


described absorption system, where streams 11-12 represent heat source (steam or
hot water), streams 15-16 cooling water, streams 17-18 district cooling water,
streams 13-14 cooling water and so forth.

16

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

Figure 4. Schematic of the fundamental absorption refrigeration system [8]

Furthermore, as well as in compression cycles, some gas is created in


liquid refrigerant when it goes from the condenser to the evaporator, as a result of
a pressure drop while it is passing through an expansion devise (valve).
Consequently, effect of the refrigerant is reduced. Therefore, cooling effect and
efficiency of the system would be improved if refrigerant that goes from the
condenser to the evaporator was subcooled by means of introducing a heat
exchanger between the evaporator and absorber.

2.2.1. CONSIDERATIONS

FOR

DIMENSIONING

ABSORPTION CIRCUITS
It is more difficult to dimension absorption systems than compression
ones. That is due to the fact that they work according to the thermodynamic
balance, which changes depending on environmental conditions. For this reason,
to determine whether instantaneous performance of certain equipments is correct,

17

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

it is necessary to measure periodically purity of water and saline solutions. With


this purpose, there are used instruments, such as decanting pumps, and chemical
additives are added.

Moreover, the efficiency depends on the quantity and quality of energy


consumed in the generator. Hence, for those reasons, it is very important to obtain
thermodynamic equilibrium (Qin = Qout QE + QG = QC + QA).

2.2.2. WORKING FLUID


All absorption chillers just work as the presented basic cycle (Figure 3.),
but their design and performance are based on the used working fluids (refrigerant
and absorber). Likewise, their efficiency depends widely on (in addition to what
has been explained before) properties of the working fluid.

Desirable properties are [9]:


Large affinity between absorbent and refrigerant.
Low heat of mixing.
An absorbent with very low volatility (refrigerant vapour that goes to the
generator should contain few or nothing of absorbent).
Low pressures, close to the atmospheric pressure, to minimize leakages.
High latent heat of refrigerant, for minimizing flow rate.

The most conventional medias (refrigerant/absorbent) are water/lithium


bromide and ammonia/water. Absorption chillers working with the first ones use
water as refrigerant and lithium bromide as absorbent, whereas ammonia is the
refrigerant and water the absorbent in the second combination.

18

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

2.2.2.1.WATER/ LITHIUM BROMIDE (H2O/LiBr)


Lithium bromide as absorbent has the advantage of not being volatile (it is
an hygroscopic salt), so it is not needed to purify desorbed water vapour.
Nevertheless, it can crystallize easily.

The use of water as refrigerant is restricted by its freezing point. Hence, it


must be used above 0 C but it may be achieved up to 5C.

Water/lithium bromide systems are typically used for production of chilled


water for air conditioning systems in large buildings. Available sizes of these
machines range from 10 to 1500 tons and their COP2 is between 0,7 and 1,2 [5].

2.2.2.2.AMMONIA/WATER (NH3/H2O)
High volatility of water makes to be necessary the introduction of a
rectifier (reflux condenser) after the generator so that water steam that refrigerant
contains is eliminated before it goes into the condenser. Otherwise, temperature in
the evaporator is increased and consequently, cooling capacity decreases.
Moreover, it may form ice in the evaporator and expansion device.

The coefficient of performance for absorption cooling systems is defined as:


COPcooling = Qcold /Qh where Qcold is the heat moved from the cold reservoir (to the hot
reservoir), that is, the refrigeration capacity, and Qh the heating energy.

19

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

Figure 5. Ammonia/Water absorption cycle [5]

The mixture ammonia/water requires higher pressure and larger


temperature differences: the driving temperature is usually 140 C.

With regards to the temperature of refrigerant, it is allowed to use much


lower temperatures, around -60 C (the freezing temperature of ammonia is
-77,7 C).

Concentration of ammonia has to be controlled as the mixture could


become explosive if there is 15,5-27% of ammonia by volume (although
ammonia/air mixtures are barely inflammable). [10]

Ammonia/water systems are more common for small tonnages, from 3 to


25 tons, and have generally COPs of around 0,5. This way, they are usually used
in air conditioning systems. [5]

The use of ammonia as refrigerant has a large disadvantage. Toxicity of


ammonia3 makes its use not possible in no well-ventilated areas. There might not
3

Ammnois is caustic, has a pungent smell and is toxic.

20

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

be problems in an industry (since emissions from ammonia/water chillers could be


solved in water and, as a result, a caustic solution would be formed), but they can
be harmful to occupants in commercial and residential buildings. [11]

2.2.2.3. COMPARISON BETWEEN WATER/LITHIUM BROMIDE AND


AMMONIA/WATER SOLUTIONS

Water/lithium bromide solution has two problems mainly: it exists the


possibility of solid formation and the absorbent (LiBr) crystallizes at moderate
concentrations. Then, this mixture can be normally used only when the absorber is
water cooled, which temperature is kept by means of reconcentrating and
controlling the absorbent solution. [12]

Figure 6. Crystallization temperatures of water/lithium bromide solution against the mass


concentration of lithium bromide [12]

Thereby, temperature difference between evaporator and absorber cannot


be higher than 40C in order to avoid risk for crystallization. If higher temperature
lifts are required, it is needed either to change chiller configuration or to use
another working pair with higher hygroscopic temperature lift. [13]

Other disadvantages regarding water/lithium bromide pair are the low


pressure (see Figure 7. and Figure 8.) that is required (improperly operated or
21

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

maintained units can lead to leak of atmospheric air into them) and the high
viscosity of the solution. On the contrary, it is very safe and has high volatility
ratio, affinity and stability, in addition to high latent heat. [12]

Figure 7. Maximum system pressures against the condenser temperature [12]

Figure 8. Minimum system pressures against the evaporator temperature [12]

As it can be observed from previous Figure 7. and Figure 8., operation


pressures of the ammonia/water system are higher than water/lithium bromide
ones.

22

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

An evaporator temperature of around 3-4C is normal for water/lithium


bromide systems if the lowest temperature in the cooling net is 6C [13]. A
temperature of 30C in the absorber and condenser would be reasonable for
applications with low temperature cooling water (temperature in the condenser
will set pressure in the generator) [13].

Ammonia/water systems are more complex than the water/lithium bromide


ones (rectifier and so) and their performance depend on design parameters (it is
required higher pressure and larger temperature differences). For this reason,
construction of plants using ammonia is more expensive. Moreover, better heat
recovery means is required [12].

MIXTURE

ABSORBENT

REFRIGERANT

Next Table 2. sums up properties of both solutions.

Table 2. Absorption working fluids properties [14]


WATER/LITHIUM
PROPERTY
AMMONIA/WATER
BROMIDE
High latent
Good
Excellent
heat
Modearate
Too high
Too low
vapor pressure
Low freezing
Excellent
Limited application
temperature
Low viscosity
Good
Good
Low
vapour
Poor
Excellent
pressure
Low
viscosity
No solid fase
Low toxicity
High affinity
between
refrigerant and
absorbent

Good

Good

Excellent
Poor

Limited application
Good

Good

Good

23

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

In this way, lets say that water/lithium bromide systems have much less
problems and are simple to operate, although concentration of the mixture has to
be controlled to prevent crystallization. Likewise, its COP (also limited by
crystalization) is higher.

Figure 9. COP of the absorption systems against the condenser temperature (heat exchanger
efficiency 0,6) [12]

Figure 10. COP of the absorption systems against the generator temperature (heat
exchanger efficiency 0,6) [12]

24

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

Figure 11. COP of the absorption systems against the evaporator temperature (heat
exchanger efficiency 0,6) [12]

Even though absorption cycles are mostly based on water/lithium bromide


solutions (ammonia/water systems are unusual in the market), there are a lot of
applications where ammonia/water can be used and especially where lower
temperatures are needed. Main industrial applications for refrigeration are in the
temperature range below 0C, which is the field for the binary system
ammonia/water [11]. Hence, absorption systems using water as refrigerant are
commonly used for air conditioning, whereas ammonia is used in large-tonnage
industrial applications (such as food industry and slaughter houses) [12].
Consecuently, calculations of this thesis are based on water/lithium bromide
systems.

2.2.3. PRIMARY ENERGY


There are two parts that need energy supply in absorption cycles: the
generator and pump, which need heat and electricity respectively.

The required electricity represents 1-2% of the total cooling effect. With
regards to the heat, depending on how absorption chillers are fired, the system can
be:

25

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

Direct-fired system. Gas or another type of fuel is burned in the system.


This system is used in residential applications to produce chilled water
at 6C. In addition, it can supply hot water if an auxiliary heat exchanger is
introduced.

Indirect-fired system. Fuel is steam or high temperature water that comes from
a separate source such as CHP plants, geothermal, solar or waste heat. This
thesis studies these ones.

Finally, it cannot be left behind that the absorber as well as condenser are
cooled down by a refrigeration tower, which energy consumption has to be
considered. Natural water, such as water from the river, can be used instead of
cooling towers for optimizing overall efficiency of the system.

2.2.4. TYPES OF ABSORPTION CHILLERS


Although simple or single-effect absorption cycles (see Figure 5.) have
just been studied, there are more types of absorption equipments in the market.
The most common are single-effect (water/lithium bromide or ammonia/water)
and double-effect (water/lithium bromide) chillers. Nevertheless, there are
advanced H2O/LiBr cycles, such as low-temperature or half-effect chillers and
triple-effect absorption chillers (the latest ones are in development), as well as two
stage ammonia/water systems. Moreover, energy storage is possible in
water/lithium bromide systems in the form of chemical potential difference [14].

The main difference between single- and double-effect absorption chillers


is that the last ones uses two stages of lithium bromide solution reconcentration,
which increases efficiency and reduces therefore energy consumption.

26

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

2.2.4.1. SINGLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION CHILLERS

Single-effect absorption chillers use low-presure steam or hot water as


energy source. The typical temperature range is from 93 to 132 C. [5]

The COP for these chillers is, depending on the model, around 0,7 [13]
(for instance, Carrier 16TJ-41 and 16TJ-42 have a COP of 0,73 and 0,72
respectively).

Figure 12. Cooling cycle schematic


(Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

27

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

2.2.4.2. DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION CHILLERS


Because of the relative low COP associated with single-effect machines, it
is difficult for them to compete economically with conventional vapour
compression systems except for low waste heat applications where the input
energy is free [14]. Double-effect technology, which purpose is to increase COP
of the cycle, is much more competitive.

Double-effect absorption chillers, which are also known as super


absorbers, use a second generator, condenser and heat exchanger that operate at
higher temperature. Likewise, they require higher driving heat temperature and
use steam.

Figure 13. Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller Schematic [5]

Schematic of double-effect machine provided as Figure 13. shows that the


cycle includes two solution heat exchangers, which represents that internal heat
exchange is achieved in practice by means of incorporating these two components
into a single transfer device [14]. Low pressure condenser and generator operate

28

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

at approximately the same conditions as the ones of a single-effect mahine [14].


Operating temperature and pressure of high pressure devices can be inferred from
Figure 14., which represents pressure-temperature chart schematic of doubleeffect water/lithium bromide chiller.

Figure 14. Sketch for a double effect absorption heat pump in a log pressure-temperature
diagram [13]

The COP of two stages cycles is in the range of 1,0 to 1,2 [14] (for
instance, Carrier 16NK-53 has a COP of 1,42).

Design for a double-effect absorption chiller is more complex compared to


a single-effect chiller. How to connect solution circuits is one of the major design
choices: parallel or series flow are the basic options [14]. A summary of
performance of different types of double-effect technology configurations is
presented in Table 3. (results are based on the same heat exchanger sizes and
external fluid loop conditions).
Table 3. Comparison of parallel and series flow for double-effect water/lithium bromide
cycles [14]
CONFIGURATION
COP
CAPACITY [KW]
Parallel

1,325

354,4

Serie, high-pressure generator first

1,244

371,1

Serie, low-pressure generator first

1,238

370,2

29

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

As it can be seen from Table 3. in the previous page, parallel flow


configuration is the best option according to the COP. Nevertheless, capacity
favors series flow configurations.

Even though a double-effect system needs more devices than a singleeffect one, if a cooling tower is needed as a heat sink, less cooling tower capacity
is needed per unit cooling effect due to the higher COP in a double-effect chiller
[13]. Taking this into account, total system cost may be comparable to a singleeffect chiller [13].

2.3. REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR TECHNOLOGY


VERSUS

ABSORPTION

COOLING

TECHNOLOGY
As it has already been said, absorption cycles have some common
characteristics with vapour compression cycles, but they differ in two important
aspects:

1. Constitution of the compression process. In absorption cooling system


vapour is not compressed between the evaporator and condenser, but
refrigerant is absorbed by a secondary substance (absorbent) in order to
form a liquid solution that is compressed to high pressure.

As the average specific volume of liquid solution is much lower


than the average specific volume of refrigerant vapour, less work is
needed. So absorption cooling systems have the advantage of, compared to
vapour compression systems, requiring less power for compression.

2. In absorption systems a means should be introduced to recover the coolant


steam from liquid solution before refrigerant enters the condenser, where it

30

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

is transferred heat from a source at a relatively high temperature. This


makes economic residual heat and steam that otherwise would be thrown
away untapped in environment.

Therefore, application of absorption equipments is a really interesting


alternative for decreasing electricity consumption. Furthermore, companies which
use steam in their processes have an additional advantage, since they would be
using waste or residual steam.

Heat demand in absorption systems is higher than in compression ones.


Actually, it can be, depending on evaporation temperature, more than three times
higher; nevertheless, it has to bear in mind that waste heat is often used as driving
heat. With regards to energy demand, following diagrams (Figure 15.), which
show ratios between driving energy and produced refrigeration capacity, can be
studied for making a comparison.

Figure 15. Comparison between compression and absorption technologies using ammonia as
refrigerant and cooling water with a temperature of 25 C [10]

31

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

As it can be observed from the diagrams (Figure 15.), COP for absorption
technology is much less affected by a drop in evaporating temperature. This is a
significant advantage in overall economy. [11]

Initial costs for an absorption system are higher than for a compressor one
of the same cooling capacity as:
Absorption system needs more metallic materials in heat exchangers.
Lower pressures are requiered in absorption technologies, which implies
higher diameter of tubes in order to reduce pressure losses.
Size of condenser water pump is generally a function of flow rate per unit
cooling capacity. Cooling technologies with lower COP typically require a
significantly higher condenser water flow rate and, consequently, a larger
pump too, than those technologies with higher COP. Similarly, absorption
chillers require larger cooling tower capacity than electric chillers because of
larger volume of water.
It is needed more space for absorption systems since the equipments are
bigger.
In addition, cost and volume of absorption machines increase when temperature of
the generator is low.

A compression cooling machine needs roughly 0,5 kWh of electricity for


providing 1 kWh cooling, whereas in an absorption process 1-1,2 kWh of heat is
needed for that [15]. Regarding energy costs, it works out cheaper and more
efficient to supply energy directly in form of heat than when it must go through
several stages of transformation. Undoubtedly, economical advantages of
absorption systems depend on how the driving heat is produced: it is generally not
economic when a boiler has to be installed to generate cooling, but it is an
interesting technology when waste heat or renewable energies with low price are
used, as well as when capacity of the boiler is available all the time.

If investment and running costs are taken into consideration, absorption


systems can compete against compression systems when the price of electricity is

32

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

from 8 to 9 times higher than the cost of heat. In CHP plants, high investment cost
of absorption machines are thwart by the more efficient use of fuel (see Table 4.).
Table 4. Energy saving with cogeneration for 4 = 0,54
SEPARATE
SEPARATE
TOTAL FUEL
ELECTRICITY
HEAT
CHP
production
production
CONSUMPTION
(condensing plants) (steam boiler)
FUEL
CONSUMPTION
EFFICIENCY
ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTIOIN
HEAT
PRODUCTION

100

73,3

63,6

0,88

0,42

0,9

30,8

30,8

57,2

57,2

136,9

During warm periods, heat in excess in CHP plants decreases electricity


production, since those plants are dimensioned for the heating demand in winter
and hot water is only needed in summer. On the contrary, cooling demand
increases in summer, so it takes the advantage of using the excess of heat for
cooling systems.

Finally, operation and maintenance can be mentioned. The most important


part in compression systems is compressors work, whereas it is the equilibrium
obtained by thermodynamic effects in absorption systems. For this reason,
operating with absorption technologies is more complicated (see Section 2.2.1.).

In this way, to sum up, absorption refrigeration systems operating


characteristics can be listed [10]:
-

It is driven by economic heat (waste or free heat) and it has low


consumption of electricity.

Simple design and maintenance (no moving machinery).

Long service life.

It is reliabiled, then it is more available.

Environmentaly friendly working media (in addition, it is easy to


clean effluent gases) and oil-free refrigerant. It is very clean and heat

Electric-thermal ratio: = Wel/Qheat = el/t where Wel is the electrical power output, Qheat is the
useful thermal power output, el is the electrical efficiency and t is the thermal efficiency.

33

Chapter 2. COOLING SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

transfer resistances due to contamination are not produced. In addition,


carbon dioxide emissions are reduced at the same time.
-

Low noise level and there is no vibrations.

The earliest three characteristics are the most important criteria when comparing
absorption systems with vapour compression systems.

To finish with cooling technologies, Table 5. summarizes their


characteristics and Table 6. makes a short comparison between them.

Table 5. Summary of characteristics for cooling options [13]


DRIVING HEAT
COP
5
TECHNOLOGY
COPel
TEMPERATURE
(cooling)
[C]
Conventional (Single-effect)

SCALE
[kWcooling]

0,7

20-50

120

>250

1,2

15-40

150-170

>350

NH3/H2O absorption chiller

0,5

10-25

>100

Vapour compression chiller

1-5

H2O/LiBr absorption chiller


Double-effect
H2O/LiBr absorption chiller

Table 6. Comparison between two 1000kW chillers [10]

It only includes the chiller electricity consumption for absorption systems

34

CHAPTER 3

District Cooling System


Distrist cooling system or technology delivers coolant, commonly chilled
water, from a central refrigeration plant to multiple buildings through a
distribution network. At each connection point of the distribution mains, energy is
delivered to the terminal devices at the user premises to meet their space/process
cooling requirements [1].

District cooling system is mainly made up of three components: cooling


production plant, distribution network and building substations.

Figure 16. Components of district cooling systems

Figure 17. District cooling system (or district heating system6) [15]

The same concept applies when it comes to district heating systems.

36

Chapter 3. DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM

District energy systems enable to use energy in a more efficient way and
reduce greenhouse gas emissions because, on the one hand, it is used a central
refrigeration plant instead of many small machines which are less efficient and, on
the other hand, it is produced electricity for the central grid that can replace other
electricity sources such as coal-fired plants.

3.1. PRODUCTION
3.1.1. COGENERATION. BENEFITS WITH INTEGRATION
OF COOLING TECHNOLOGY
Cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a power
station for simultaneous generation of both electricity and useful heat
(conventional power plants produce but not use a large amount of heat). That is, it
is an energy conversion technology where two separate systems are integrated
together by a cascade of thermal energy [14]. Thus, it can be led to increase the
system performance7 by designing systems that can use the heat: the efficiency of
energy production can be increased from current levels that range from 35% to
55%, to over 80% [16]. In addition, some of the obligatory heat rejection is at a
high enough temperature to supply energy for comfort heating and cooling.

Figure 18. An schematic of cogeneration process that shows the consumed and produced
power in the whole system [15]

Overall efficiency: tot = el + t = We/Qfuel + Qheat /Qfuel = (Wel + Qheat)/Qfuel


It is also called energy utilization factor, EUF.

37

Chapter 3. DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM

Figure 19. Illustration of a CHP plant connected to a district heating network


(Source: Gvle Energi AB)

This way, shopping malls and blocks of business, university and collages,
hospitals, industries and so forth take the advantage of the economic benefits
provided by a central plant, through the use of boilers that produce hot water or
steam for heating and vapour compression or steam-driven absorption
refrigeration machines that produce chilled water for cooling.

Table 7. Different types of plants using a steam boiler and their characteristics
Flexible, low operating and investment costs
HEATING CONDENSING
BOILER

No full use of all heat in the fuel

CHP plant

Heat and electricity production

(BIOFUELED STEAM BOILER)

Full use of heat in the fuel


Heat, electricity and cooling production

TRIGENERATION plant
(BIOFUELED STEAM BOILER)

Energy Export CO2-negative


"Free" energy

There is only one requirement for the integration of two technologies:


temperature of available heat from one system must be adequate to fulfil
requirements of the mating system. The source of energy for district energy
systems is usually a steam boiler, which is fired, in the cases to be considering in
this thesis, by biofuel.

38

Chapter 3. DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM

3.2. COOLING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


3.2.1. PIPING NETWORK
Flow in cooling (as well as in heating) distribution systems varies with the
load, so the flow through each substation is regulated by two-way control valves.
The reasons for this are mainly to lower pumping costs and to increase the
difference between supply and return temperatures, which affects the efficiency of
the whole system [15]: a higher supply and return temperature differential is able
to lower the distribution pump power consumption, but will increase the heat loss
at pipe surfaces [17]. Consequently, a high return temperature is preferable in
district cooling system. This way, forward temperature is roughly 6 C and return
temperature is alternatively between 12 and 16 C.

Anyway, distribution losses can be almost always neglected in district


cooling systems since temperature difference between outdoor and forward water
is very low and the resistances are therefore despised. For this reason, there is not
needed, unlike in district heating, to insulate the pipes. This makes cooling
distribution systems cheaper than heating ones.

Control valves must regulate the flow, but the pressure too. The available
differential pressure becomes lower at substations which are furthest away in the
system (because of greater pressure drops caused by the increased flow in the
distribution system) and it might not be enough for the required flow. Hence,
either another pump has to be used or the speed of the existing one has to be
increased to maintain the differential pressure. [15]

39

Chapter 3. DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM

3.2.2. MATERIALS FOR THE PIPES


There are different types of pipes depending on the application (pressure,
gravity, drainage and so on). In this case, pressure pipe systems are studied.

There are polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), PVC and PEX pipes, in
addition to steel and cooper ones. For water applications, PE pipes are widely
used because their quality is high and they are economic at the same time. This
way, polyethylene pressure pipes offer the following benefits:
-

Cost saving with faster installation

Long life time and maintenance free

Suitability for renovation

Corrosion resistance

Flexibility (it allows ground movement)

Joint thightness

Plastic pipes are much cheaper than, for instance, steel ones. As the last
ones are widely used in district heating systems, lets say that the material for
cooling pipes is less costly. Likewise, construction of networks works out cheaper
than as appropiate for district heating pipes.

40

CHAPTER 4

Process
4.1.

GATHERING OF INFORMATION ABOUT


EXISTING INSTALLATIONS AND PRESENT
SITUATION

4.1.1. STEAM BOILERS AT LEAF AND KAPPA


There is an oil steam boiler at LEAF8 nowadays, which has a maximum
capacity of 5 MW and produces satured vapour at 8 bar. The average power it
operates is 2 MW all over the year except for 48 h at Easter.

In addition, there is Kappa paper mill close to that boiler, which has
another oil boiler of 2 MW and produces steam at 12 bar for 80 hours per week9.
In this way, Bionr10 is thinking about building a new biofueled steam
boiler which would replace those two11. It is wanted to make the most of that and
it is therefore planning to produce electricity too. Ramboll consultancy has
considered building a biomass fired CHP plant based on Organic Rankine Cycle
(ORC), as a low capacity boiler to produce needed steam at roughly 70 bar (which
requires a sophisticate water purification system) and a turbine are much more
expensive.

8
9
10

11

It is a factory which is located in Gvle and produces confectionery, candy and pastilles.
It is working 5 days/week, not at weekends, and 16h/day, not during night.
It is a subsidiary of Gvle Energy AB, which owns the 45%. One of the customers of Bionr is
LEAF.
Although the operating times of the boilers are different, the new boiler can work at 2 MW
during the day and increase its capacity during the night, when it can be produced the steam
which is needed in the paper mill during the day (storage in accumulator vessels).

42

4. PROCESS

Figure 20. ORC plant in biomass based cogeneration system


(Source: http://www.turboden.it/en/products.asp)

ORC units have high overall energy efficiency: 20% of the thermal power
is transformed into electric power, while 78% remains as steam. Nowadays, it is
planning to build a TURBODEN 14 CHP plant that costs 5 300 000 SEK and
which performance is 1,26 MW of net active electric power and 5,35 MW of
steam ( = 0,23), with a biomass consumption of 7,63 MW.

.
Figure 21. Energy efficiency of ORC units in cogeneration applications
(Source: http://www.turboden.it/en/products.asp)

Gvle Energi AB, as knows of this project, might take the opportunity to
use this installation turning it into a trigeneration plant by means of introducing an
absorption cooling system that would use the steam produced in it. Hence, it is
needed an even bigger ORC unit and to make a decision about it is one of the
tasks of this project.

43

4. PROCESS

4.1.2. BIOFUELED JOHANNES CHP PLANT


Johannes CHP plant (Figure 22.), which is owned by Gvle
Kraftvrme AB12, is located in the south of Gvle, exactly in Johannesbergsvgen.

Figure 22. Johannes CHP plant before 2003 (Source: Gvle Energi AB)13

The steam boiler was built in 1999, which aim is to produce heat to deliver
in the district heating network of the municipality. It is a Bubble Fluidized Bed
(BFB) boiler and has a maximum capacity of 77 MW, whereas the minimum
power output is 20 MW.

Johannes is not able to fulfil the heating demand of Gvle in winter, so


waste heat is bought from Korsns pulp and paper mill in Gvle for distributing it
in the system. In summer time, when the demand decreases noticeably (as it is
only needed for hot water), the steam coming from Korsns is enough to meet
customer requirements and therefore, the boiler at Johannes is shut down (in other
periods, its power output is reduced). Last year (2008) the plant was operating
6500 hours continiously (24 h/day), which means that it was stopped roughly
95 days during summer.

In 2003 a backpressure turbine of 22 MW was introduced, turning this way


the installation into a cogeneration plant. This enables to increase profits to great
extends; actually, the company makes money from electricity, although its
12
13

It owns all production facilities in Gvle Energi AB but it is owned 100% by Gvle Energi AB.
The turbine is missing since it was introduced in 2003.

44

4. PROCESS

production has to be managed according to the heating demand of the


municipality.

Taking into consideration average values, 320 GWh of steam are


produced, which entails 406,4 GWh of biofuel consumption. With regards to
electricity, the production is around 97 GWh (as value is 0,29), which means a
large profit.

Figure 23. Production of heat (for District Heating) and electricity at Johannes

The next challenge could be to introduce an absorption cooling plant and


Johannes would have to do with a trigeneration, which would be able to fulfil the
cooling demand in the shopping centers (Hemlingby) close to that by means of a
distribution system. Furthermore, electrically driven refrigeration devices that are
mainly used for the turbine could be replaced. And last but not least, the boiler
could be kept running almost the whole year with a large income because of the
electricity produced (there are possibilities to increase electricity output by
increased heat load from heat-driven chillers, especially in June-August. See
Figure 23.)

For more information about Johannes CHP plant, see Appendix 7.

45

4. PROCESS

4.1.3. MACKMYRA
Nowadays, Mackmyra Svensk Whisky is located in Valbo, at the outskirts
of Gvle. There is an electric boiler with a capacity of 850 kW that operates
continuously all over the year14, which is owned by Bionr.

Figure 24. Existing electric boiler in Mackmyra (Source: Gvle Energi AB)

According to an already approved project, a new plant, Mackmyra


Whiskyby, will be probably built with a bigger production capacity. It is planned
to be in Western Kungsbck, just at the west of the central Gvle and few
kilometers from the existing distillery, and it will be built in several stages,
starting in the second half of this year (2009).

A bigger distillery entails, among other things, the necessity of a bigger


boiler. Thus, it has been proposed to replace the electric boiler by a biofueled
boiler with capacity doubled so that it could be turned into a cogeneration plant by
introducing a turbine. This means that, in addition to produce steam needed in the
factory, profits would be increased because of electricity output.

It could be even thought about a bigger boiler and a third step could take
place. As well as for LEAF, Gvle Energi AB might turn it into a trigeneration
plant where cold would be produced by firing absorption cooling machines with
steam. It is estimated that it would be needed a ten times bigger boiler;

14

8760 h/year. It is only switched off because of breakdowns and maintenance.

46

4. PROCESS

nonetheless, it will be calculated according to the cooling demand in that site of


the victinity.

Figure 25. Existing and planned boilers at Mackmyra (different stages)

4.1.4. REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR COOLING


PROJECT
The refrigerant compressor cooling project, which plans to fulfil the
cooling demand in the city center by producing chilled water at LEAF and
delivering it by district system, is being built now and it is thought the first stage
will be finished for next summer (2009). Nowadays, there is only one customer,
which has a cooling demand of roughly 250 kW.

The drafts of installations and equipments needed are in Appendix 1.


According to the calculations, that can be also seen in Appendix 1., the investment
cost for the installation is 22 629 000 SEK, which has a pay-back time of
approximately 10 years. There are needed roughly 4 240 675 kWh of electricity
per year for running the whole installation, which means 4 240 675 SEK per year,
and there are produced 7 142 836 kWh of cooling per year by means of
compression technology. With regards to the maintenance costs, those are time
dependant and 170 000 SEK for the first year (see Section A1.4. in Appendix 1.).
This way, the total cost of the system for ten years is 66 204 500 SEK.

47

4. PROCESS

4.2. GATHERING OF DATA: CUSTOMERS. LOAD


REQUIRED AND DISTANCES
Once different existing possibilities of building absorption cooling systems
have been studied, two small islands with future large district cooling customers
have been defined: Hemlingby shopping centers in Johannesbergsvgen and
Kungsbck area, which would comprise the university (Hgskolan i Gvle),
hospital (Gvle Sjukhus) and technological park (Teknikparken). This way, the
production sites would be Johannes and planned new Mackmyra whisky factory.

Moreover, the city center is also subject of investigation, so that it is the


third island, which cooling demand could be supplied by introducing absorption
chillers at LEAF. Then, it will have to be studied if it is economic to replace the
compression refrigeration plant.

48

4. PROCESS

Figure 26. Three cooling production and customer sites and main pipes

49

4. PROCESS

Next Table 8. shows different cooling demands for the planned three
production sites (see Appendix 2.).

Table 8. Cooling load demand at each site

PRODUCTION
SITE/AREA

CUSTOMER
LEAF

LEAF/CITY CENTER

MACKMYRA/
KUNGSBCK

COOLING
DEMAND
[MW]
2,5

CITY CENTER

9,0
11,5 TOTAL

MACKMYRA
HOSPITAL
UNIVERSITY
TECHNOLOGIC PARK

0
1,7
1,8
1,0
5,0 TOTAL

JOHANNES
HEMLINGBY SHOPPING
JOHANNES/
CENTERS
JOHANNESBERGSVGEN

1,4
2,0
3,4 TOTAL

Regarding distribution systems, as it can be seen in Appendix 4., the main


pipe in the city center is 1370 meters long. Far away from the city center,
Johannesbergsvgen area is and, according to the estimations (see Appendix 4.),
there are 1775 m between the plant and the buildings that need cooling. The third
and last area is Kungsbck, where it would be needed a pipe from Mackmyra to
the hospital, 2390 m, and to the university too, 810 m; nonetheless, it could be
used the same pipe for both of them in the first 500 meters (see Appendix 4.).

50

4. PROCESS

4.3. ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION COOLING PLANTS


4.3.1. ABSORPTION CHILLERS
Next task is to study the absorption cooling machines to be used. There are
mainly two options, starting with a premise that they have to be steam-fired:
single- and double-effect steam-fired absorption chillers. The difference between
them is that the double-effect has two generators, thus a better COP and higher
cost, roughly from 2 to 2,5 times the price of the single-effect.
Single-effect absorption chillers are designed for using available low
sature pressure waste steam (100-150 kPa), so they are a recovery solution. With
regards to double-effect chillers, they use satured steam at around 500-800 kPa. In
this context, as mentioned before (Section 2.2.2.3.), water/lithium bromide units
are only considered

Following Table 9. and Table 10. gather information about different


possible installations (calculations and specifications are in Appendix 3.). Even
though chillers with highest cooling capacity have been considered, they cannot
cover the cooling demand and therefore, it is necessary to add several units in
parallel.

Table 9. Possibilities to fulfill the cooling demand in the city center by using steam-fired
absorption chillers
DOUBLE-EFFECT STEAMSINGLE-EFFECT STEAMPRODUCTION
SITE

LEAF

FIRED ABSORPTION

FIRED ABSORPTION

CHILLER: TSA-16NK- 81

CHILLER: TSA-16TJ- 53

NUMBER OF CHILLERS

NUMBER OF CHILLERS

51

4. PROCESS

Table 10. Possibilities to fulfill the cooling demand in Kungsbck by using steam-fired
absorption chillers
DOUBLE-EFFECT STEAMSINGLE-EFFECT STEAMPRODUCTION
SITE

FIRED ABSORPTION

FIRED ABSORPTION

CHILLER: TSA-16NK- 81

CHILLER: TSA-16TJ-53

NUMBER OF CHILLERS

NUMBER OF CHILLERS

MACKMYRA

At first, it was focused on steam-fired machines for being more efficient.


Nonetheless, it has been deduced it is not possible their use at Johannes plant from
the analysis of steam streams. During summer, when the boiler is at its minimum
capacity nowadays, the pressure of the steam leaving the turbine is lower than
1 bar (see Table A3. 1.), which is the minimum pressure required for satured
steam needed in single-effect steam-fired absorption chillers. It would be possible
to use high-pressure super-heated steam that enters the turbine (see Figure A3. 1.);
however, it is not an interesting alternative as electricity production would be
therefore reduced (it would mean going down in profits). As a result,
water/lithium bromide single-effect hot water-fired absorption chillers have been
studied (Table 11.).

Table 11. Possibilities to fulfill the cooling demand corresponding to Johannes plant
SINGLE-EFFECT HOT WATER-FIRED
PRODUCTION
SITE

ABSORPTION CHILLER: TSA-16LJ- 53


NUMBER OF CHILLERS

JOHANNES

4.3.1.1. STUDY OF OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS


Cooling demand changes during the year mainly because of climatic
conditions (time period). Despite total or maximum cooling demand is only
known, an estimation can be made for the whole year (see Section A3.3.,
Appendix 3.):

52

4. PROCESS

Table 12. Cooling that should be produced for different sites during the year
COOLING
POWER PRODUCTION [kW]
TIME PERIOD
Winter time: 15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
April & 15 October-1 November
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
Summer time: 15 June-15 August

LEAF
895
3512
4683
6749
9779

MACKMYRA
389
1527
2036
2934
4252

JOHANNES
1556
2011
2214
2574
3101

11500

5000

3400

Figure 27. Cooling power to be produced in different sites during the year

In winter the cooling demand is very low. Hence, there is no need for
producing cooling at LEAF (899 kW) and Mackmyra (389 kW) due to the fact
that free cooling is allowed in this time of the year15. With regards to Johannes
(1556 kW), there is no river around the plant, so it is necessary to fulfil the
demand in another way. As heat demand is the highest in winter, produced hot
water cannot be used for firing absorption chillers (all heat ought to be delivered
in the district heating network) and consequently, the best solution would be to
use the already existing cooling and HVAC systems in Hemlingby and Johannes
during winter.
15

The river is far away from Mackmyra production site but the customers (university and
hospital) are quite close to it. Therefore, it is possible to introduce heat exchangers there for
free cooling in this area.

53

4. PROCESS

4.3.2. THE REST OF EQUIPMENTS

Figure 28. Typical piping diagram of an absorption system (Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

The operation of chillers needs additional devices and equipments:


-

Cooling towers.

Chilled water pumps and cooling water pumps for each chiller.

Strainier, pressure gauge and drain trap, which should be near the steam inlet,
for each chiller.

Air vent valve in each of the chilled and cooling water lines.

Shut-off valve to prevent the steam flow into the chiller during shut-down.

Etc.

Necessary pumps, valves, pipes, etc. inside production installations cannot


have been calculated because of limited provided information. Thus, same
investment and operational costs (power input) as for absorption cooling project
which has just been built in Falun (see Appendix 6.) have been considered.

Regarding cooling towers, they produce cold water for cooling down
absorbers and condensers inside the chillers and their size is decided according to
the required cooling power. This equipment can be replaced by a heat exchanger
at LEAF, as water from the river is cold enough.

54

4. PROCESS

Lastly, there are two more heat exchangers which are planning to be used
for free cooling at LEAF and Mackmyra in winter time.

Specifications about cooling equipments (cooling towers and heat


exchangers) are gathered together in Table A3. 8. (Appendix 3.).

55

CHAPTER 5

Results

5.1. PRODUCTION PLANTS


5.1.1. LEAF
5.1.1.1. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
Table 13. Power and steam demand of different chillers sets for the required cooling load at LEAF during the year
NUMBER OF
POWER SUPPLY
STEAM SUPPLY
CHILLERS
COOLING LOAD16 [MWh] TO CHILLERS
TO CHILLERS
WORKING
[MWh]
[MWh]
TIME PERIOD
FREE
ABSORPTION
16NK-81 16TJ-53
16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81 16TJ-53
COOLING
COOLING
15 November-15 March

862,78

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November

856,93

2,62

1,72

750,96

1412,95

April & 15 October-1 November

1704,61

3,90

2,56

1483,92

2811,27

1-15 May & 15 September-15 October

2902,07

9,22

4,54

2543,56

4785,81

15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September

6571,49

21,61

9,46

5759,41

10836,57

15 June-15 August

8487

23,73

12,99

7438,75

13993,87

862,78

20 522,10

61,08

31,27

TOTAL [MWh/year]

16

17 976,60 33 840,46

Operation hours data are taken from Anders Kedbrant estimations, Table A1. 15. (Appendix 1.), for all calculations because of lack of information.
57

5. RESULTS

Table 14. Biofuel (for producing steam), electricity and water consumption. LEAF
16NK-81
16TJ-53
25,71
48,39
TOTAL BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION17 [GWh/year]
61,08
31,27
CHILLERS
ELECTRIC POWER
450,82
REST OF THE PLANT18
SUPPLY [MWh/year]
511,91
482,10
TOTAL

5.1.1.2. COSTS
5.1.1.2.1. INVESTMENT COSTS
Table 15. Investment costs [SEK] for LEAF
3 ABSORPTION CHILLERS
5 ABSORPTION CHILLERS TSA-16TJ- 53
3 * 6 200 000
TSA-16NK- 81 (CARRIER-SANYO)
(CARRIER-SANYO)
BACK-UP COMPRESSOR CHILLER 19
BACK-UP COMPRESSOR CHILLER
600 000
YRTBTBT0550C (YORK)
YRTBTBT0550C (YORK)
3 HEAT EXCHANGERS
S121-IS10-502-TMTL47-LIQUIDE (Sondex)
5 HEAT EXCHANGERS (+ FILTER)
3 * 619 000
+
MX25-MFMS (Alfa Laval)
FILTERS BSG350/1,0P (Bernoulli)
HEAT EXCHANGER (+FILTER)
HEAT EXCHANGER (+FILTER)
120 000
TL10-BFG
TL10-BFG
REST OF THE INSTALLATION20
1 450 000
REST OF THE INSTALLATION
22 627 000
TOTAL [SEK]
TOTAL [SEK]
NOTE: all specifications are in Appendix 3.
17
18

19

20

5 * 2 700 000
600 000

5 * 550 000

120 000
1 450 000
18 420 000

Biofuel consumption in the ORC CHP plant (TURBODEN 14) = 1,43 MW biofuel/MW steam
Reference: Falun Cooling Project (see Appendix 6.).
Considered operation hours = chillers operation hours. It is known that submersible pumps for the whole installation are working the whole year
but data about them is missing.
It has been assumed the same for both Mackmyra and Johannes production plants.
The considered back-up chiller is the one planned for compression refrigeration project (VKA3). It is only considered its investment cost as it is not
usually running (it is just started up because of breakdowns and when the cooling demand is higher than the expected one). Calculations for
Mackmyra and Johannes production sites are also based on the same compressor.
Reference: Falun Cooling Project (see Appendix 6.).
It has been assumed the same for both Mackmyra and Johannes production plants.
58

5. RESULTS

5.1.1.2.2. OPERATIONAL COSTS


Table 16. Operational costs at LEAF21
16NK-81
BIOFUEL [SEK/year]
4 241 579,13
-165 SEK/MWh-22
ELECTRICITY [SEK/year]
511 906,24
- 1 SEK/kWh4 753 485,4
TOTAL [SEK/year]

16TJ-53
7 984 657,3
482 095,36
8 466 752,7

5.1.1.2.3. TOTAL COSTS


PAY-BACK time of the equipments (chillers, pumps, etc.) is roughly 10
years (the investment is recovered approximately after ten years). Thus, costs are
calculated for this period of time:
Table 17. Total costs of LEAF absorption cooling plants for 10 years
16NK-81
16TJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT 22 627 000

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
- 770 SEK/MWh-23
TOTAL [SEK]

47 534 854

70 164 854

18 420 000
84 667 527

103 087 527

- 31 836 561

- 59 931 460

38 328 293

43 156 067

Maintenance costs are very low because there are few components that
demand maintenace and there is just cleaning work mainly. As a result, these
costs can be neglected.

21

22

23

Operational costs of producing steam are not considered as explained in Chapter 1


(Limitations).
Biofuel price was 150 SEK/MWh in 2008. As it is rising all the time, it has been considered
10% more expensive for the future.
Electricity selling price to the grid was 700 SEK/MWh in 2008. As it is rising all the time, it has
been estimated that profits are 10% larger in the future.
Electricity selling price is made up of two major parts: actual electricity (MWh) delivered
into the electrical grid (400 SEK/MWh) + green certificates, GCs (1 MWh = 1 certificate;
300 SEK/MWh).

59

5. RESULTS

Next graph, Figure 29., compares all costs for different chillers sets at
LEAF.

Figure 29. Graph that shows the breakdown of total costs for 10 years at LEAF

After ten years, there are only operational costs, which are lower for
16NK-81 chillers set. If profits due to electricity production are taken into
account, costs for fulfilling customers demand in the city center will be
1 569 829 SEK/year and 2 473 607 SEK/year for 16NK-81 and 16TJ-53 chillers
set installations respectively.

60

5. RESULTS

5.1.2. MACKMYRA
5.1.2.1. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
Table 18. Power and steam demand of different chillers sets for the required cooling load in Mackmyra production during the year
NUMBER OF
POWER SUPPLY
STEAM SUPPLY
CHILLERS
COOLING LOAD [MWh]
TO CHILLERS
TO CHILLERS
WORKING
[MWh]
[MWh]
TIME PERIOD
FREE
ABSORPTION
16NK-81 16TJ-53
16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81 16TJ-53
COOLING
COOLING
15 November-15 March

375

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November

372,59

2,62

0,86

326,51

614,35

April & 15 October-1 November

741,10

3,90

1,28

649,46

1221,98

1-15 May & 15 September-15 October

1261,62

4,61

3,03

1105,60

2080,23

15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September

2857,34

7,20

4,73

2503,99

4711,36

15 June-15 August

3690

15,82

5,20

3233,68

5989,37

375

8922,66

34,15

15,09

7819,23

14 617,29

TOTAL [MWh/year]

Table 19. Biofuel (for producing steam), electricity and water consumption. Mackmyra
16NK-81
16TJ-53
24
11,18
20,90
TOTAL BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION [GWh/year]
34,15
15,09
CHILLERS
26,32
43,49
COOLING TOWERS (fans)
ELECTRIC POWER
SUPPLY [MWh/year]
450,82
REST OF THE PLANT
511,30
509,40
TOTAL
37 147,6
34 148,2
TOTAL WATER FOR COOLING TOWERS [m3/year]

24

It has been assumed that the biofuel consumption in the future boiler at Mackmyra is the same as in the one at LEAF, as the boiler might be small
and its efficiency is not therefore very high.
61

5. RESULTS

5.1.2.2. COSTS
5.1.2.2.1. INVESTMENT COSTS
Table 20. Investment costs [SEK] for Mackmyra
2 ABSORPTION CHILLERS
2 ABSORPTION CHILLERS TSA-16TJ- 53
2 * 6 200 000
TSA-16NK- 81 (CARRIER-SANYO)
(CARRIER-SANYO)
BACK-UP COMPRESSOR CHILLER
BACK-UP COMPRESSOR CHILLER
600 000
YRTBTBT0550C (YORK)
YRTBTBT0550C (YORK)

2 * 2 700 000
600 000

2 COOLING TOWERS
OCT09HB05-5-90 (Vestas Aircoil)

2 * 1 595 000

2 COOLING TOWERS
OCT09HB03-3-120 (Vestas Aircoil)

2 * 998 000

HEAT EXCHANGER (+ FILTER)


TL6-BFG

60 000

HEAT EXCHANGER (+ FILTER)


TL6-BFG

60 000

REST OF THE INSTALLATION


TOTAL [SEK]

1 450 000
17 700 000

REST OF THE INSTALLATION


TOTAL [SEK]

1 450 000
9 506 000

5.1.2.2.2. OPERATIONAL COSTS


Table 21. Operational costs in Mackmyra production site
16NK-81
16TJ-53
BIOFUEL [SEK/year]
1 844 948,48 3 448 948,8
-165 SEK/MWhELECTRICITY [SEK/year]
511 296,31
509 404,38
- 1 SEK/kWhWATER [SEK/year]
148 590,4
136 592,8
- 4 SEK/m32 504 835,19 4 094 945,98
TOTAL [SEK/year]

62

5. RESULTS

5.1.2.2.3. TOTAL COSTS


Table 22. Total costs of Mackmyra absorption cooling plants for 10 years
16NK-81
16TJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
- 770 SEK/MWh-25
TOTAL [SEK]

17 700 000
25 048 352

42 748 352

9 506 000
40 949 460

50 455 460

- 9 031 216

- 16 882 966

33 717 136

33 572 494

Next graph, Figure 30., compares all costs for different chillers sets in
Mackmyra production site.

Figure 30. Graph that shows the breakdown of total costs for 10 years
in Mackmyra production site

After ten years, if profits due to electricity production are taken into
account, costs for fulfilling customers demand in Kungsbck area will be

25

Assumption: = 0,15. It has to be quite smaller than for Johannes ( = 0,29) since the boiler is
smaller and works at lower pressure. The smaller the boiler is, the lower the efficiency is.
Moreover, the lower pressure in the boiler is, the lower electricity production is ( value
depends mainly on the pressure of the boiler).

63

5. RESULTS

1 601 714 SEK/year and 2 406 649 SEK/year for 16NK-81 and 16TJ-53 chillers
set installations respectively.

5.1.3. JOHANNES
5.1.3.1. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
Table 23. Power and hot water demand of chillers set for the required cooling load at
Johannes during the year
HOT
POWER
NUMBER OF ABSORPTION
WATER
SUPPLY TO
TIME PERIOD
16LJ-53
COOLING
SUPPLY TO
CHILLERS
CHILLERS
LOAD [MWh]
CHILLERS
[MWh]
WORKING
[MWh]
15 November-15 March

15 March-1 April
2
490,68
1,72
733,84
1-15 November
April
2
805,90
2,56
1204,65
15 October-1 November
1-15 May
2
1106,82
3,03
1654,47
15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June
2
2083,87
4,73
3115,98
15 August-15 September
15 June-15 August
2
2509,2
5,20
3750,75
6996,47
17,23
10459,69
TOTAL [MWh/year]

5.1.3.2. COSTS
Table 24. Biofuel (for producing steam), electricity and water consumption. Johannes
TOTAL BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION26 [GWh/year]
CHILLERS
HVAC systems (winter time)27
ELECTRIC POWER
COOLING TOWERS (fans)
SUPPLY [MWh/year]
REST OF THE PLANT
TOTAL
TOTAL WATER FOR COOLING TOWERS [m3/year]

26
27

16LJ-53
13,28
17,23
749,99
36,50
450,82
1254,55
28 753,8

Biofuel consumption in Johannes = 1,27 GWh biofuel/GWh steam


HVAC systemscooling factor: COP =cooling/(electricity to compressor) = 2-3. As the systems
are not new and operational conditions are unknown, COP = 2 has been considered.

64

5. RESULTS

5.1.3.2.1. INVESTMENT COSTS


Table 25. Investment costs [SEK] for Johannes
2 ABSORPTION CHILLERS
2 * 2 700 000
TSA-16LJ- 53 (CARRIER-SANYO)
BACK-UP COMPRESSOR CHILLER
600 000
YRTBTBT0550C (YORK)
2 COOLING TOWERS
2 * 675 000
OCT09HB02-2-120 (Vestas Aircoil)
REST OF THE INSTALLATION
TOTAL [SEK]

1 450 000
8 800 000

5.1.3.2.2. OPERATIONAL COSTS


Table 26. Operational costs in Johannes production site
16LJ-53
BIOFUEL [SEK/year]
2 191 828,57
-165 SEK/MWhELECTRICITY [SEK/year]
1 254 551,77
- 1 SEK/kWhWATER [SEK/year]
115 015,2
- 4 SEK/m33 561 395,54
TOTAL [SEK/year]

5.1.3.2.3. TOTAL COSTS


Table 27. Total costs of Johannes absorption cooling plant for 10 years
16NK-81
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
- 770 SEK/MWhTOTAL [SEK]

8 800 000
35 613 955

44 413 955

- 23 356 493
21 057 462

Next graph, Figure 31., shows all costs for 10 years in Johannes
production site.

65

5. RESULTS

Figure 31. Graph that shows the breakdown of total costs for 10 years
in Johannes production site

After ten years, if profits due to electricity production are taken into
account, costs for fulfilling customers demand in Johannesbergsvgen area will
be 1 225 746 SEK/year.

66

5. RESULTS

5.1.4. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS


Apart from studying different production sites according to possible
customers demand, a sensitivity analysis28, which ranges over size of absorption
units and other equipments, costs and profits, has been carried out for when the
cooling demand is both ten percent higher and lower than the estimated one.

5.1.4.1. LEAF
When cooling demand is 10% higher, one more 16 TJ-53 single-effect
absorption chiller is needed at LEAF. Hence, one more MX25-MFMS (Alfa Laval)
heat exchanger for cooling down single-effect chillers set (with six chillers in
parallel) has to be introduced too. Furthermore, it cannot be left behind that
cooling load is also higher in winter time (1012,7 kW).

Next Table 28. and Table 29. gather together new operational conditions
and total costs respectively.
Table 28. Operational conditions of different chillers sets at LEAF during the year when the
cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL STEAM
TOTAL BIOFUEL
ELECTRICITY
COOLING LOAD
SUPPLY
CONSUMPTION
SUPPLY
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
FREE ABSORP.
16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81
16TJ-53
COOL.
COOL.
976,24 23 198,59 20 331,87 41 420,45
515,81
489,85 29 074,58
59 231,24

Table 29. Total costs of LEAF absorption cooling plants for 10 years when the cooling
demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
16NK-81
16TJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
TOTAL [SEK]

28

22 627 000
53 131 141

75 758 141

21 670 000
102 630 077

124 300 077

- 36 007 749

- 73 355 610

39 750 391

50 944 467

Calculations in this Section 5.1.4. are based on the same assumptions and estimations as for the
three cases studied before.

67

5. RESULTS

When cooling demand is 10% lower, chiller configurations do not change;


either three 16NK-81 units or five 16TJ-53 units in parallel are still needed. In this
case, 779 kW of free cooling are necessary.

Following Table 30. and Table 31. show, on the one hand, new total
cooling load and operational conditions; on the other hand, the total costs (take
note that investment costs are the same).
Table 30. Operational conditions of different chillers sets at LEAF during the year when the
cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL STEAM
TOTAL BIOFUEL
ELECTRICITY
COOLING LOAD
SUPPLY
CONSUMPTION
SUPPLY
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
FREE ABSORP.
16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81
16TJ-53
COOL.
COOL.
750,96 17 845,07 15 640,52 29 426,53
504,70
482,10 22 365,94
42 079,94

Table 31. Total costs of LEAF absorption cooling plants for 10 years when the cooling
demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
16NK-81
16TJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
TOTAL [SEK]

22 627 000
41 950 824

64 577 824

18 420 000
74 252 852

92 672 852

- 27 699 356

- 52 114 385

36 878 468

40 558 467

68

5. RESULTS

5.1.4.2. MACKMYRA
When cooling demand is 10% higher, one more 16 TJ-53 single-effect absorption chiller is also required in Mackmyra production
site. This way, one more OCT09HB03-3-120 (Vestas Aircoil) cooling tower is needed too. Likewise, roughly 39 kW cooling/year more
ought to be produced by means of free cooling in winter.

New total cooling load and operational conditions as well as total costs are shown in Table 32. and Table 33.
Table 32. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Mackmyra production site during the year
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
TOTAL
TOTAL STEAM
TOTAL BIOFUEL
TOTAL WATER
TOTAL COOLING
ELECTRICITY
SUPPLY
CONSUMPTION
CONSUMPTION
LOAD [MWh/year]
SUPPLY
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[m3/year]
[MWh/year]
FREE
ABSORP.
16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81 16TJ-53
16NK-81
16TJ-53
16NK-81
16TJ-53
COOL.
COOL.
413,03
9 814,79 8 600,87 16 181,66
512,05
510,02
12 299,24
23 139,78
44 472,4
40 396,1

Table 33. Total costs of Mackmyra absorption cooling plants for 10 years
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
16NK-81
16TJ-53
INVESTMENT 17 700 000
44 893 151
OPERATING 27 193 151
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
- 9 934 004
PRODUCTION [SEK]
34 959 146
TOTAL [SEK]

TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

13 204 000
44 896 671

58 100 671

- 18 689 819
39 410 852

69

5. RESULTS

When cooling demand is 10% lower, it is only necessary one 16NK-81 double-effect absorption chiller (one less) and, therefore,
only one OCT09HB05-5-90 (Vestas Aircoil) cooling tower too. Regarding demanded cooling in winter, 351 kW are just required.
Following Table 34. and Table 35. gather together new total cooling load as well as operational conditions and total costs,
respectively.
Table 34. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Mackmyra production site during the year
when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
TOTAL
TOTAL STEAM
TOTAL BIOFUEL
TOTAL WATER
TOTAL COOLING
ELECTRICITY
SUPPLY
CONSUMPTION
CONSUMPTION
LOAD [MWh/year]
SUPPLY
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[m3/year]
[MWh/year]
FREE
ABSORP.
16NK-81 16TJ-53 16NK-81 16TJ-53
16NK-81
16TJ-53
16NK-81 16TJ-53
COOL.
COOL.
337,93
8 030,28 7 036,80 13 240,73
511,07
498,42
10 062,62
18 934,24
27 893,3 34 148,2

Table 35. Total costs of Mackmyra absorption cooling plants for 10 years
when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
16NK-81
16TJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
TOTAL [SEK]

9 905 000
22 829 801

32 734 801

9 506 000
37 591 672

47 097 672

- 8 127 503

- 15 293 040

24 607 298

31 804 632

70

5. RESULTS

5.1.4.3. JOHANNES
The installations remain the same in Johannes production site when
cooling demand is 10 % higher or lower. Cooling load and hence, operational
conditions are only changed.

Next Table 36. and Table 38. show the new operational conditions and
Table 37. and Table 39. the consistent new total costs.

Table 36. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Johannes production site during
the year when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
TOTAL
TOTAL HOT
TOTAL
ABSORPTION
TOTAL BIOFUEL TOTAL WATER
WATER
ELECTRICITY
COOLING
CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION
SUPPLY
SUPPLY
LOAD
[MWh/year]
[m3/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
7 353,12
10 991,43
1 268,15
13 959,11
28 753,8

Table 37. Total costs of Johannes absorption cooling plants for 10 years
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
16LJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
TOTAL [SEK]

8 800 000
36 864 168

45 664 168

- 24 543 860
21 120 308

Table 38. Operational conditions of different chillers sets in Johannes production site during
the year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
TOTAL
TOTAL HOT
TOTAL
ABSORPTION
TOTAL BIOFUEL TOTAL WATER
WATER
ELECTRICITY
COOLING
CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION
SUPPLY
SUPPLY
LOAD
[MWh/year]
[m3/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
6 639,31
9 923,21
1 241,36
2 079 408,443
28 324,8

Table 39. Total costs of Johannes absorption cooling plants for 10 years
when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
16LJ-53
TOTAL
COSTS [SEK]

INVESTMENT

OPERATING
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION [SEK]
TOTAL [SEK]

8 800 000
34 340 656

43 140 656

- 22 158 526
20 982 130

71

5. RESULTS

5.2.

COMPRESSION
TECHNOLOGY
VERSUS
ABSORPTION TECHNOLOGY. COMPARISON
FOR LEAF PRODUCTION SITE
Technological possibilities and aspects of absorption cooling systems at

three specific sites in the victinity of Gvle, as well as the costs and profits
(economic aspects), have been evaluated. Nevertheless, the main aim of this thesis
is to analyze possible benefits with the use of heat driven absorption chillers
instead of conventional vapour compressor chillers. Thus, compression cooling
machines at LEAF have been replaced by equivalent absorption ones in order to
make a comparison.

Compression cooling installation (see Appendix 1.) will be made up of


five chillers: VKA1 (1254 kW), VKA2 (1254 kW), VKA3 (717 kW), VKA4
(3226 kW) and VKA5 (3226 kW), which are going to be replaced except for
VKA3, as it is a back-up chiller that would be also used in the absorption cooling
plant. The rest of the installation (building, pumps and so on)29 as well as
operational conditions30 remain the same.

This way, four double-effect steam fired absorption chillers are going to be
introduced: two 16NK-41 (1371 kW) and other two 16NK-71 (3446 kW), which
has been choosen taking into account different sizes and models of chillers that
exist in the market. Both VKA1 and VKA2 could be replaced with just a single
bigger absorption machine (16NK-62); nevertheless, five machines ought to be in
total so that absorption cooling installation would have been also built in two
stages31. Likewise, an installation with single-effect absorption chillers is not
29

30

31

KM1 pumps are not taken into consideration as electricity consumption of absorption chillers,
which belongs with pumps, is calculated. Regarding distribution pumps, those are taken into
account in this case as they are also included in the costs of the refrigeration compression
installation.
Compression cooling plant is using free cooling not only in winter but all around the year
except for May-August (altogether 1936 h/year). Even though it is not right (it should be used
only in winter time: 15 November-15 March), the same operational conditions have been
considered so that new calculations are comparable with the existing compression project.
There are only VKA1 and VKA2 cooling machines in the first stage of the compressor
refrigerant cooling project and one of them is a back-up chiller. For that reason, there are two
small compressor chillers when the installation is totally built (in addition to VKA4 and
VKA5) instead of a bigger one.
72

5. RESULTS

studied since more than four absorption chillers would be needed (their maximum
capacity is 2461 kW).

Next, all calculations are shown.


Table 40. Operational conditions of the existing cooling
project but with absorption machines
CAPACITY [kW]
OPERATING TIME
VKA1 16NK-41,1
VKA4 16NK-71,1
[h/year]
VKA5 16NK-71,2
VKA2 16NK-41,2
44,28
1254
3226
487,08
940,5
2419,5
605,16
627
1613
339,48
315,5
806,5

Table 41. Power and steam demand of chillers set for the required cooling load in the
existing cooling project but with absorption machines
VKA1 16NK-41,1 VKA4 16NK-71,1
TOTAL
VKA2 16NK-41,2 VKA5 16NK-71,2 [MWh/year]
STEAM SUPPLY
2 * 876,51
2 * 2249,84
6252,67
TO THE CHILLERS
[MWh/year]
TOTAL POWER SUPPLY
2 * 9,78
2 * 15,99
51,53
TO THE CHILLERS
[MWh/year]
TOTAL BIOFUEL
2 * 1253,42
2 * 3217,30
8941,37
CONSUMPTION
[MWh/year]

Table 42. Operational costs in the existing cooling project but with absorption machines
51 530,11
CHILLERS
ELECTRICITY [SEK/year]
- 1 SEK/kWh3 192 656
REST OF THE EQUIPMENTS
1 475 326,19
BIOFUEL [SEK/year] - 165 SEK/MWh4 719 512,30
TOTAL [SEK/year]

Table 43. Total costs of the existing cooling project but with
absorption machines for 10 years
VK3
600 000
COOLING
16NK-41
2 * 3 000 000
EQUIPMENTS
16NK-71
2 * 5 300 000
BUILDING
4 000 000
INVESTMENT COSTS
[SEK]
PIPES INSIDE THE BUILDING
4 500 000
PUMPS AND FILTERS
3 000 000
INSIDE THE BUILDING
TOTAL
28 700 000
47
195
123
COSTS OF OPERATION [SEK]
PROFITS: ELECTRICITY
- 11 073 544
PRODUCTION [SEK]
- 770 SEK/MWhTOTAL [SEK]
64 821 579
73

5. RESULTS

Next Figure 32. gathers together all information about both cooling installations at LEAF.

8941 MWh
biofuel
165 SEK/MWh

ORC

1438 MWh electricity


to the grid
770 SEK/MWh

= 0,23
6253 MWh
steam

3245 MWh
electricity
0,001 SEK/MWh

ABSORPTION COOLING INSTALLATION

7143 MWh

28 700 000 SEK

COOLING

TOTAL COSTS FOR 10 YEARS:


64 821 579 SEK

MAINTENANCE
COSTS
[SEK]

= 170 000 x

when x = 1 x: years

= 340 000 10 200 x

when 1 < x 5

= 289 000 + 89 250 (x 5)

when x 6

4241 MWh
electricity
0,001 SEK/MWh COMPRESSION COOLING INSTALLATION
22 629 000 SEK

7143 MWh
COOLING

TOTAL COSTS FOR 10 YEARS:


66 204 500 SEK

(profits due to electricity production are


taken into account)

Figure 32. Comparison of cooling installations with absorption and compression machines at LEAF
74

5. RESULTS

5.3. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


5.3.1. INSTALLATION
The most important information about the main networks is gathered in the
following Table 44. Calculations and estimations, as well as all explanations, are
presented in Appendix 5.
Table 44. Data about the distribution systems
INTERNAL EXTERNAL
CHILLED
DIAMETER DIAMETER
DISTANCE
WATER
OF THE
OF THE
[m]
FLOW
PIPE
PIPE,
[m3/h]
[mm]
dn [mm]

PRODUCTION
SITE

PIPE
KWH PE
(PN10)

LEAF

LEAF

1370

175

200

Mackmyra I

500

262

315

Mackmyra II

310

166

200

Mackmyra III

1890

203

250

Johannes

1775

370

450

MACKMYRA

JOHANNES

P
[kPa]
(in the
distribution
system)

771

328

317

250

171

718

5.3.3. COST OF THE MAIN PIPING NETWORKS


Total costs of the distribution systems for each of the three studied sites
can be seen in the next Table 45. They are made up of cost for distribution pumps
and pipes; the later one includes, apart from the material (pipe itself), digging,
construction and calculation plus quality control costs. Moreover, Table 46.
gathers together power consumption of the distribution pumps as well as
operational costs. For further information, see Section A5.2. in Appendix 5.
Table 45. Cost of the distribution systems
PRODUCTION
PUMP COST
PIPES COST
TOTAL COSTS
SITE
[SEK]
[SEK]
[SEK]
LEAF
110 000
6 850 000
6 960 000
MACKMYRA
62 000
16 621 100
16 683 100
JOHANNES
69 000
9 577 900
9 646 900
Table 46. Operational conditions and costs of distribution pumps
ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY
OPERATIONAL
PRODUCTION SITE
TO DISTRIBUTION PUMPS
COSTS [SEK/year]
- 1 SEK/kWh[MWh/year]
LEAF
336,04
336 040
MACKMYRA
119,39
119 390
JOHANNES
193,20
193 200

75

CHAPTER 6

Discussions
Amount of provided information was limited and to collect accurate
information was difficult. Therefore, results are only approximations, as they are
based on quiet a lot assumptions. As a result, definitive conclusions cannot be
come up with.

6.1. PRODUCTION PLANTS


To finish with this research, one of the tasks is to make a decision about
more adequate types of absorption chillers to be used. In the case of Johannes
cooling production plant, hot-water absorption cooling machines ought to be
introduced as there are no more options from the technical point of view.
Regarding the other two sites, investment costs are higher for double-effect steam
fired chillers than for single-effect ones, whereas operational costs are much
more, about 50%, lower. Both scenarios, LEAF and Mackmyra, can be examined
in depth.

On the one hand, investment costs for double-effect installation are


4 207 000 SEK higher

at

LEAF.

Nevertheless,

operational costs are

3 713 268 SEK lower per year, which means that the initial extra costs would be
paid back in less than 2 years. If profits due to electricity output are taken into
consideration, the difference in annual costs would not be so large, but still
903 778 SEK/year (in this case, higher investment costs would be paid back in
5 years).

On the other hand, despite double-effect facilities cost 8 194 000 SEK
more

than

single-effect

ones

at

Mackmyra,

operational

costs

are

77

6. DISCUSSIONS

1 590 110 SEK lower per year. As a result, the extra investment costs are paid
back in 5 years. This time rises up to 10 years if produced electricity is taken into
account.

Therefore, needless to say that it is more profitable to introduce doubleeffect chillers in both sites, since the pay-back times for extra investments are
short and the earnings would be considerable. This way, costs and profits for the
possible future three absorption cooling plants in Gvle would be those that are
gathered together in the following Table 47.
Table 47. Most adequate chillers and costs & profits for the three production sites
PROFITS
OPERATIONAL
FROM
PRODUCTION ABSORPTION
INVESTMENT
COSTS
ELECTRICITY
SITE
CHILLERS SETS
COST [SEK]
[SEK/year]
PRODUCTION
[SEK/year]
3 double-effect
LEAF
chillers (4652 kW)
22 627 000
4 753 785
3 183 656
in parallel
2 double-effect
MACKMYRA chillers (4652 kW)
17 700 000
2 504 835
903 122
in parallel
2 single-effect hot
water chillers
JOHANNES
8 800 000
3 561 396
2 335 649
(1846 kW) in
parallel

Next graph in Figure 33. shows total heat that might be produced in
different biofuel boilers for the three absorption plants and accordingly obtained
extra electricity output.

78

6. DISCUSSIONS

Figure 33. Increased heat load for the three absorption plants and the possible extra
electricity that would be produced

In Figure 23. was shown that when the load in the district heating network
is low there is almost none electricity production in Johannes CHP plant. In
addition, it is shut down during summer, June-August. If heat driven absorption
chillers were introduced, heat load and therefore, electricity output, would be
increased as it is shown in the next graph in Figure 34.

Figure 34. Increased heat and electricity load in the probable Johannes trigeneration plant

79

6. DISCUSSIONS

Nevertheless, this heat load would not be even enough to keep the boiler
running during summer because of efficiency problems, that is, the minimum
working capacity. The graph in Figure 35. shows that the boiler would have to
work at around 5 MW, whereas it is shut down when the loading is lower than
25% of its maximum capacity (20 MW).

Figure 35. Required operational conditions of the boiler for the cooling plant at Johannes

Consequently, cooling production at Johannes is a contribution but at


present it is not possible to keep the plant running during summer because of the
minimum load problem. It might be feasible if either heat or cooling market grew
in the future.

6.2.

MOST PROFITABLE TECHNIQUE FROM


ECONOMIC POINT OF VIEW. SUSTAINABILITY
Next graph in Figure 36. depicts all costs for the two different cooling

systems with absorption and vapour compressor technologies at LEAF. It has to


be underlined that the comparison is limited since water from the river is used for
cooling down the chillers and one of the main differences between these machines
is the required size of cooling towers.
80

6. DISCUSSIONS

Figure 36. Comparison of total costs for ten years for the different cooling production
technologies at LEAF

The larger investment costs of the absorption cooling compared to


compression cooling, 6 071 000 SEK, are paid back after five years (4,39 years)
because of lower electricity consumption and larger fuel utilization32, in addition
to increased electricity production.

Next Table 48. gathers together annual benefits after the first 10 years
when using absorption chillers instead of compression cooling machines:
Table 48. Annual benefits of absorption cooling technology at LEAF after 10 years
PROFITS
ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY
FROM
CASE
CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION
ELECTRICITY
[MWh/year]
[MWh/year]
[SEK/year]
LEAF 8905 kW
- 996
1438
1 107 354

32

It bears reminding from Section 2.3. that absorption systems can compete against compression
ones when price of electricity is around 8 times higher than cost of heat.

81

6. DISCUSSIONS

An efficiency comparison between system including absorption or vapour


compressor chillers can be made too. If overall system is taken into account, total
efficiency for compressor cooling system is 58% higher 33. Nevertheless, if
internal electricity consumption is analyzed, the coefficient of performance
(COPel) is 23% greater for the absorption machines installation34, as absorption
chillers only use electricity for pumping the absorbent solution whereas
compression ones are driven by electric power.

Deregulation and real-time pricing for electricity give an incentive to


manage electrical loads. A compression chiller is a very big target when looking
for ways to reduce electrical loading and to control costs. Thus, absorption units
allow it without sacrificing either performance or reliability.

Moreover, as mentioned before, an absorption cooling system contributes


to an increased electricity production. Hence, it gives good opportunities of
utilizig the biofuel in an effective way.

This way, it is come to the conclusion that a sustainable energy system for
Gvle for meeting the cooling demand can be the erection of district cooling
networks with trigeneration plants by producing cooling in heat driven absorption
cooling machines. Increasing of the energy system with a third output (cooling)
would optimize the system even more. Furthermore, it is also very good from
environmental point of view, since extra electricity produced could be sold as
green in the Swedish market and it could replace, this way, margin produced
electricity.
It bears mentioning that the system border of electricity production and
consumption has to be taken into consideration when studying environmental
aspects and, like this, carbon dioxide emissions. From global point of view,
electricity production in Gvle would affect European energy system and total
33

TOT, compression system = Wcooling/Welectricity = 1,684


TOT, absorption system = (Wcooling + Welectricity)/(Qfuel + Welectricity) = 0,705

34

COPel, compression chillers set = Wcooling/Welectricity = 1,684


COPel, absorption chillers set = Wcooling/Welectricity = 2,201

82

6. DISCUSSIONS

CO2 emissions would be therefore negative. However, the local emissions would
be negatively affected because of increased use of fuel; anyway, biofuel, that is,
clean fuel, would be used.

6.3. COOLING DEMAND VERSUS COSTS AND


BENEFITS
OF
ABSORPTION
COOLING
TECHNOLOGY
There are three scenarios that it does not even compare at all to each other
as the installations are quiet different. Even though double-effect steam fired
chillers might be at both LEAF and Mackmyra production sites, water from the
river could be used for cooling down the chillers at LEAF whereas cooling towers
are required at Mackmyra, which entails electricity consumption and higher
investment costs for the latest case. Regarding Johannes production site, although
it also needs cooling towers, steam is not used, but hot water.

As a result, each case is going to be studied separately.

6.3.1. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION


The environmental and economical effects with absorption systems
compared with vapour compression ones are consistently positive and become
more and more evident with higher cooling demands and higher electricity prices
(note Figure 37. in the next page).

83

6. DISCUSSIONS

Figure 37. Electricity production and consumption according to the


cooling demand in three different scenarios

6.3.2. COSTS AND PROFITS. THE BEST OPTIONS

JOHANNES

Figure 38. Costs and profits (due to electricity production) according


to the cooling demand in three different scenarios

Johannes absorption cooling plant with hot-water chillers is the smallest


one. The previous graph in Figure 38. shows how investment costs are kept

84

6. DISCUSSIONS

constant with variations of 10% in cooling demand. This means the same
machines can be used to produce up to 10% more than required cooling nowadays
with higher profits, as electricity output together with income from customers
increase while variation in costs of operation is little.

On the other hand, steam-fired chillers are under study. The trend at LEAF
is the same as at Johannes. However, there is a big difference at Mackmyra when
demand decreases by 10%: investment costs are 44% lower. Therefore, the best
option would be to build smaller installations and meet the cooling demand in
Kungsbck area by other means. This could be accomplished in two different
ways: by storing energy or by making the network smaller and using another.

The university, which cooling demand is 1,8 MW, could be connected to


the network in the city center, as it is not far away from Konserthuset (where the
main pipe might reach). In addition, as mentioned earlier, there would be no
problem to produce required extra cooling with the same facility at LEAF.
Research on advantages and disadvantages of this option could make possible the
execution of a new thesis project.

Regarding energy storage, accumulator tanks for chilled water should be


considered for many reasons: problems to fulfil the cooling demand, dynamic
demand during the year, security in the system and so forth. Consecuently, further
research into those systems could be done.

85

CHAPTER 7

Conclusions
This research seeks to compare compression and absorption cooling
technologies and to make a decision about which one is the best solution, in
addition to deal with the analysis of three trigeneration plants with absorption
cooling systems in Gvle. In connection with this, next all interesting made
conclusions are summed up and gathered together.

Development of district cooling systems with trigeneration plants that


produce chilled water in absorption machines is the best solution to
meet the cooling demands.
Benefits with absorption systems compared with vapour
compression ones become more and more evident with higher cooling
demands and higher electricity prices.

It is more profitable to introduce double-effect steam-fired absorption


chillers than single-effect ones.

Even though steam-fired chillers are more efficient, single-effect hot


water chillers might be introduced at Johannes, as the pressure of the
steam leaving the turbine is lower than the required one for steam fired
cooling machines.

The cooling plant at Johannes might be a contribution, but at present


it is not feasible because of boilers minimum load problem.

It would be more profitable to increase the production of cooling in


10% over the demand at LEAF and Johannes. Nevertheless, regarding
Mackmyra production site, the best option would be to build smaller
installations and meet the demand by other means.

87

REFERENCES

REFERENCES

[1] T.T. Chow, K.F. Fong, A.L.S. Chan, R.Yau, W.H. Au, V. Cheng, Energy
modelling of district cooling system for new urban development, Energy and
Building 36 (2004) 1153-1162.
[2] L. Trygg, B. G. Karlsson, Industrial DSM in a deregulated European
electricity market-a case study of 11 plants in Sweden, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkping Institude of
Technology, Linkping S-581 83, Sweden.
[3] A. Rojey, Cold producing process, 4,037,426 United States Patent.
[4] M. J. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, Fundamentos de termodinmica tcnica
(Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics), Revert (2004). ISBN 84291-4313-0.
[5] United States Departament of Energy (DOE), Mississippi Cooling, Heating,
and Power (micro-CHP) and Bio-fuel Center, micro- Cooling, Heating, and
Power (m-CHP) Instructional Module, Mississippi State, MS 39762
(December 2005 First Printing).
[6] R. Gianfrancesco, Method and apparatus for the absorption-cooling of a fluid,
5,177,979 United States Patent.
[7] R. Daro Ochoa V., Absorcin como una alternativa de ahorro de energa
(Absorption as alternative for saving energy), Tecnologa Empresarial S.A.
(2003).
[8] A. encan, K. A. Yakut, S. A. Kalogirou, Exergy analysis of lithium
bromide/water absorption systems, Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 645-657.
[9] G. Cohen, A. Rojey, Absorbers used in absorption heat pumps and
refrigerators, 4,299,093 United States Patent.
[10] Y. Hassan, Cold from Waste Energy. The Absorrption System, Mechanical
Department, Sudan University.
[11] D W Hudson, Gordon Brothers Industries Pty Ltd, Ammonia absoption
refrigeration plant, The official journal of AIRAH (August 2002).
[12] I. Horuz, A comparison between ammonia-water and water-lithium bromide
solutions in vapor absorption refrigeration systems, PII S07351933(98)00058-X.
[13]M. Rydstrand, Heat driven cooling in district energy systems, KTH Chemical
Engineering and Technology, Stockholm (2004). ISBN 91-7283-794-2.
[14] K.E. Herold, R.Radermacher, S. A. Klein, Absorptioni Chillers and Heat
Pumps, CRC Press (1996). ISBN 0-8493-9429-9.

89

REFERENCES

[15] P. E. Nilsson, Achieving the Desired Indoor Climate. Elergy Efficiency


Aspects od Systen Design, Studentlitteratur, Lund (2003). ISBN 91-44-032358.
[16] M.A. Rosen, M. N. Le, I. Dincer, Efficiency analysis of a cogeneration and
district energy system, Applied Thermal Engineering 25 (2005) 147-159.
[17] F. Lin, J. Yi, Y. Weixing, Q. Xuzhong, Influence of supply and return water
temperatures on the energy consumption of a district cooling system, Applied
Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 511-521.

INTERNET SOURCES:
1. http://www.air-conditioning-and-refrigeration-guide.com/refrigerationcycle.html
2. http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/thermo/design-library/refrig/refrig.html,
Design of Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Cycles
3. http://www.commercial.carrier.com, Absorption Chillers
4. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Gas-absorption-refrigerator
5. http://www.grappa.co.yu/b/index.php?page=shop.getfile&file_id=36&product_
id=48&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=30, Carrier-Sanyo Super Absorption
16LJ 11-53
6. http://www.kwhpipe.com
7. http://www.carrier.com
8. http://www.turboden.it/en/products.asp

BROCHURES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

16TJ Single-Effect Steam-fired chillers (Carrier-Sanyo).


16NK Double-Effect Steam-Fired Absorption Chillers (Carrier-Sanyo).
16LJ Single-Effect Hot water-fired chillers (Carrier-Sanyo).
The Complete Pipework Solution (KWH Pipe).
PE Pressure Pipe Systems (KWH Pipe).
OCR technology, biomass application (TURBODEN).

90

REFERENCES

PERSONAL CONTACTS:

Table R. 1. Information about personal contacts

NAME
ke Bjrnwall
Hkan Rannestig
Ulf Hedman
Anders Kedbrant

COMPANY/ CAPACITY
Gvle Energi AB: Project & Development
Supervisor
Gvle Energi AB: Manager P&U

INFORMATION
Tel direct 026 17 86 15
ake.bjornwall@gavle.se
026-17 26 60

AREA OF EXPERTISE
- General
- Gvle Energi
Cooling project

Rambll Sverige AB (www.ramboll.se)


Consultant
SWECO Systems AB (www.sweco.se)
Consultant

Tel direct 026-149507


ulf.hedman@ramboll.se
Tel direct 026-66 20 02
Mobil 0706-623262
anders.kedbrant@sweco.se
026-17 86 80
026-17 86 59
026-17 85 25

- Boiler-projects
- Absorption cooling
- Existing project
- Compression
Refrigeration
Customer data
GIS
Distribution system

Per-Arne Vahlund
Inger Wiklund
Greger Berglund

Gvle Energi AB: Marketing


Gvle Energi AB: Documentation
Gvle Energi AB: Project Manager

Lucas Enstrm

Gvle Energi AB: Operation Manager

026-17 26 65
lucas.enstrom@gavle.se

Johannes CHP plant

Daniel Widman

Falu Energi & Vatten AB : Project Manager

Tel direct 023-77049052


daniel.widman@fev.se

District Cooling project in


Falun

Sale assistants: Tomas Lundgren and Tyko Sandell from Carrier, Thomas Nystrm from Z&I Pumps, Anna Schlegel
from Grudfos, Robert Lindberg from Baltimore Air Coil (BAC), etc.

91

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. PLANNED REFRIGERANT COMPRESSION INSTALLATION

A1.1. INSTALLATION

Figure A1. 1. Draft of the whole compression installation (Source: Anders Kedbrant, SWECO)

93

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

2nd stage

1st stage

2nd stage

1st stage

Figure A1. 2. Draft of the devices of the compression installation (Source: Anders Kedbrant, SWECO)

94

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

INSTALLATION ON ITS FIRST STAGE


-

Submersible pumps for the whole installation: KM1-P6A and KM1-P6B

Main pumps for the distribution pipes: KB1-P6A and KB1-P6B


Cooling

water in the distribution system:


FORWARD PIPE:

5,5 C

RETURN PIPE:

13,2 C

2 cooling machines (compressor, evaporator, condenser): VKA1 and


VKA2
o 2 dry single pumps: KB1-P1 and KB1-P2
o 2 dry single pumps: KM1-P1 and KM1-P2 (they keep set flow in the
condenser).

Heat exchanger unit: KB1-VVX1

MACHINES AND DEVICES TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE


SECOND STAGE
- 3 cooling machines (compressor, evaporator, condenser): VKA3, VKA4
and VKA5
o

3 dry single pumps: KB1-P3, KB1-P4 and KB1-P5

3 dry single pumps: KM1-P3, KM1-P4 and KM1-P5

PUMPS:
Table A1. 1. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation I

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KM1-P6A / P6B
(SUBMERSIBLE, BRUNN1, BRUNN2)
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / FA 25.93D WITH ENGINE FK34.16/50
WATER 20C
265 l/s
150 kPa
75 kW
151 A
88 %
95

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

Table A1. 2. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation II

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KB1-P6A / P6B
Grundfos / : TP300/590/4 A-F-A DBUE or
equivalent
WATER 5,5C
320 l/s
400 kPa
200 kW
340/196 A
---

Table A1. 3. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation III

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KB1-P1, KB1-P2
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / : IL 150/190-5,5/4 or equivalent
WATER 5,5C
45 l/s
50 kPa
5,5 kW
11,4 A
71 %

Table A1. 4. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation IV

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KB1-P3
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / IL 80/170-2,2/4
WATER 5C
25 l/s
50 kPa
2,2 kW
4,7 A
67 %

Table A1. 5. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation V

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KB1-P4, KB1-P5
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / IL 200/240-15/4
WATER 5C
110 l/s
70 kPa
15 kW
28,5 A
76 %

96

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

Table A1. 6. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation VI

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KM1-P1, KM1-P2
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / IL 100/170-3/4
WATER 20C
40 l/s
45 kPa
3 kW
6,4 A
73 %

Table A1. 7. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation VII

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KM1-P3
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / IL 100/160-2,2/4
WATER 5C
30 l/s
45 kPa
2,2 kW
4,7 A
77 %

Table A1. 8. Pump specifications of compression cooling installation VIII

TYPE
PROCEDURE
MEDIA
FLOW
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
POWER
RATED CURRENT
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

KM1-P4, KM1-P5
DRY SINGLE PUMP
Wilo / IL 200/240-7,5/6
WATER 5C
80 l/s
50 kPa
7,5 kW
16 A
74 %

CHILLERS:
Table A1. 9. Vapour Compressor chillers specifications I

TYPE
REFRIGERANT
MAXIMUM CAPACITY
INPUT POWER
VOLTAGE

VKA1, VKA2
MODEL: YRWCWCT3550C
R134 A
1254 kW
187 kW
400/ 50 Hz

97

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

Table A1. 10. Vapour Compressor chillers specifications II

TYPE
REFRIGERANT
MAXIMUM CAPACITY
INPUT POWER
VOLTAGE

VKA3
MODEL: YRTBTBT0550C
R134 A
717 kW
110 kW
400/ 50 Hz

Table A1. 11. Vapour Compressor chillers specifications III

TYPE
REFRIGERANT
MAXIMUM CAPACITY
INPUT POWER
VOLTAGE

VKA4, VKA5
MODEL: YKKKKLH95CQF
R134 A
3226 kW
451 kW
400/ 50 Hz

FREE COOLING HEAT EXCHANGER UNIT:


Table A1. 12. Heat exchanger specifications of compression cooling installation

TYPE/MANUFACTURER
CAPACITY
STREAMS TEMPERATURE
FLOW
PRESSURE DROP

KB1-VVX1 AlfaLaval
500 kW
4,5/15 C (primary)
5,5/165 C (secondary)
11,3 l/s (primary & secondary)
96,9 kPa (primary)
98,8 kPa (secondary)

VKA2 is a back-up chiller in the first stage. When the second stage is
built, both VKA1 and VKA2 will be working together with VKA4 and VKA5 and
VKA3 will be the back-up chiller (it is not considered for calculations).

All calculations, which are shown next, are for the whole installation.

98

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

A1.2. COOLING LOAD


Table A1. 13. Operational conditions of VKA1 and VKA2 compressors
(YRWCWCT3550C) in time steps
OPERATING
COOLING
CAPACITY
% OPERATING
% LOAD
COP
TIME
LOAD
[kW]
(during year)
[h/year]
[kWh/year]
100
1254
6,712
3
44,28
55 527,12
75

940,5

7,524

33

487,08

458 098,74

50

627,0

7,377

41

605,16

379 435,32

25

315,5

4,679

23

339,48
1476
(see Table A1. 15.)

107 105,94

TOTAL

1 000 167,12

Table A1. 14. Operational conditions of VKA4 and VKA5 compressors


(YKKKKLH95CQF) in time steps
OPERATING
COOLING
CAPACITY COP % OPERATING
% LOAD
TIME
LOAD
[kW]
(during year)
[h/year]
[kWh/year]
100
3226,0
7,148
3
44,28
142 847,28
75

2419,5

7,830

33

487,08

1 178 490,06

50

1613,0

7,868

41

605,16

976 123,08

25

806,5

6,350

23

339,48

273 790,62

TOTAL

1476

2 571 251,04

NOTE: the following Table A1. 15. shows the operation hours.
Table A1. 15. Operating time for cooling delivering during the year
Month
Days
hours/day
hours/month
January

31

248

February

28

224

March

31

248

April

30

240

May

31

12

372

June

30

12

360

July

31

12

372

August

31

12

372

September

30

240

October

31

248

November

30

240

December

31

248

Free cooling (1936 h/year)


Compression refrigeration (1476 h/year)

99

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

Thus, as there are two YRWCWCT3550C compressors and other two


YKKKKLH95CQF,
TOTAL COOLING LOAD PRODUCED BY COMPRESSION
REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGY: 7 142 836,32 kWh/year

A1.3. INPUT LOAD AND COSTS

FIRST STAGE

Table A1. 16. Power needed in the compression cooling installation during the year
INPUT POWER
OPERATING TIME
INPUT
[kW]
[h/year]
LOAD
Winter
Winter
Shut down
[kWh/year]
time
time
compressors
KM1-P6A
75
22,5
1476
1936
6260
295 110
KM1-P6B
75
22,5
1476
1936
6260
295 110
KB1-P6A
KB1-P6B

200
200

60
60

1476
1476

1936
1936

6260
6260

786 960
786 960

VKA1/VKA2

see
Table
A1. 17.

1476

149 046,48

KB1-P1
KB1-P2
KM1-P1
KM1-P2

5,5
5,5
3
3

1476
1476
1476
1476

8118
8118
4428
4428

KB1-VVX1

500

1476

149 046,48

1476

359 465,04

1476

359 465,04

1476
1476

1476
1476

22 140
22 140

11 070
11 070

VKA2

SECOND STAGE

VKA3
VKA4

VKA5

KB1-P3
KB1-P4
KB1-P5
KM1-P3
KM1-P4
KM1-P5

see
Table
A1. 17.
110
see
Table
A1. 18.
see
Table
A1. 18.
2,2
15
15
2,2
7,5
7,5

TOTAL

1936

968 000

4 240 675,04

100

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

Working the whole year (when the compressors are shut down too)
30% of the total power is just used in winter time and when
the compressors are not working
It is ony used in winter time, when free cooling is allowed

NOTES:
-

Following Table A1. 17. and Table A1. 18. show input load for different
compressors in time steps.
Table A1. 17. Input load VKA1 and VKA2 compressors
(YRWCWCT3550C) in time steps
INPUT
OPERATING
INPUT
%
POWER
TIME
LOAD
LOAD
[kW]
[h/year]
[kWh/year]
100
187
44,28
8 280,36
75

140,25

487,08

68 312,97

50

93,5

605,16

56 582,46

25

46,75

339,48

15 870,69

1476

149 046,48

TOTAL

Table A1. 18. Input load VKA4 and VKA5 compressors


(YKKKKLH95CQF) in time steps
INPUT
OPERATING
INPUT
%
POWER
TIME
LOAD
LOAD
[kW]
[h/year]
[kWh/year]
100
451
44,28
19 970,28
75

338,25

487,08

164 754,81

50

225,5

605,16

136 463,58

25

112,75

339,48

38 276,37

1476

359 465,04

TOTAL

Input loads for pumps should be calculated in the same way, as they
depend on the cooling load (system curve). Nevertheless, their design
curves are unkown and therefore, it has been considered they are working
at their maximum capacity except for winter time (and when compressors
are shut down too), when they work at 30% of the maximum capacity
(minimum capacity).

101

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

Finally, Table A1. 19. gathers together total needed load in the system and
operational costs.
Table A1. 19. Total input load and operating costs in the compression cooling installation

TOTAL INPUT LOAD [kWh/year]


OPERATING COSTS [SEK/year] -1SEK/kWh-

4 240 675
4 240 675

A1.4. TOTAL COSTS


Table A1. 20. Costs of the compressor refrigerant system
COOLING EQUIPMENTS
BUILDING

INVESTMENT
COSTS
[SEK]

COSTS OF
OPERATION
[SEK/year]
MAINTENANCE
COSTS
[SEK]

PIPES INSIDE THE BUILDING


PUMPS AND FILTERS
INSIDE THE BUILDING
TOTAL: 22 629 000

11 129 000
4 000 000
4 500 000
3 000 000

4 240 675
1st year
159 800

nd

th

2
3
5th
6th
10th

year
year
year
year
year
149 600 139 400 119 000 89 250 89 250 89 250

Evolution of maintenance costs (it includes parts and working time,


412 h/year, of 2 people) is shown in Figure A1. 3. below:

Figure A1. 3. Maintenance costs in the course of time

102

Appendix 1. Planned refrigeration compression installation

A1.5. PAY-BACK TIME FOR THE INVESTMENTS


Table A1. 21. Pay-back times for the compression installation
INVESTMENTS
PAY-BACK TIME [years]
COOLING EQUIPMENT (compression machine)
10
PIPES
20-30
PUMPS AND FILTERS
10

As the depreciation of equipments is in roughly 10 years (the investment is


recovered), costs can be calculated for this period of time:

Table A1. 22. Total costs for the refrigeration compression


system for the first 10 years
22 629 000
INVESTMENT COSTS [SEK]
COSTS OF OPERATION [SEK]
MAINTENANCE COSTS

35

[SEK]

TOTAL [SEK]

42 406 750
1 168 750
66 204 500

Thus, TOTAL COSTS FOR 10 YEARS are: 66 204 500 SEK


6 620 450 (SEK/year)

Later on, after the first 10 years, there will be only operational and
maintenance costs.

35

Total maintenance costs are equal to the area under the curve in Figure A1. 3. This way, they
will be: (51000*5/2) + (119000-89250)*5 + (89250*10) = 1168750 SEK for ten years.

103

Appendix 2. EXPECTED COOLING DEMAND


A. CITY CENTER (LEAF)

OWNER

Norrporten

Norrvidden

Dis Fastigheter

Table A2. 1. Cooling demand of possible future customers in the city center and additional data
NAME
COOLING
COOLING
OF
ADDRESS
N
INSTALLED
DEMAND
NOTES
ESTATE
[KW]
Yes
No
Kv Hvdingen,
N skepparg 2
1
X
150
Kv Notanus,
N Strandgatan 1
2
X
70
Kv Syndicus
Kyrkogatan 4
3
X
200
Lnsstyrelsen,
Borgmstarplan 2
4
X
Not interested
Polishuset
S Centralg 1-3
5
X
350
New cooling system installed 2007
Kv Vulkanus
S Sjtullsgatan
6
X
100
Byggforskningen
Kv Vasen
Lantmterigatan
7
X
700
Kv Kapellbacken
Skomakargatan 1
8
X
400
Skattehuset
Kv. Klockstapeln
Vgskrivargatan 5
9
X
200
Kv Gevalia
Nygatan 25-27
10
X
250
Cooling machine installed 2004
Kv Skamplen
11
X
400
Present cooling system contain R22.
Kv Lektorn
12
X
200
Cooling machine installed 1998
Norr 23:5
13
X
200
Old cooling machine which
(Skandihuset)
need to be replaced
Postterminalen
14
X
100
Kv Nattvktaren
15
X
700
Cooling machine installed 2000
Sankt George:1
16
X
40
Kv Hoppet
17
X
40
Kv Pechlin
Folksamhuset
18
X
100
New cooling machine installed 2005

104

Appendix 2. Expected cooling demand

OWNER
Gavlegrdarna
Gavlefastigheter

Kv Tomvkaren

Boetten
Kraft Foods
Handelsbanken
Lnsmuset
Jernhusen station AB
Banverket
Allokton
F2 Hyresbostder
Folkets Hus

Table A2.1 (continuation). Cooling demand of possible future customers in the city center and additional data
NAME
COOLING
COOLING
OF
ADDRESS
N
INSTALLED
DEMAND
NOTES
ESTATE
[KW]
Yes
No
Alderholmen
Building not erected yet.
19
X
30
servicehus
Kv Trhsten
Frvaltningshuset
20
X
400
Sure customer
Biblioteket
The library
21
X
700
Kommunhuset
22
X
300
Teatern
The theatre
24
X
300
Need cooling solution
Konserthuset
25
350
Problem with present solution
Boultbee
26
Have two machines built 2004
Kv Krrlandet
Nian
27
X
700
Cooling machines installed 2004.
Gamla domstolarna
28
X
45
Existing customer
Drottningatan 48
29
X
20
Kv Alderholmen
30
X
500
100 kW sure, 400 kW potential
Kv Skolstuvan
31
X
200
Kv Plantagen
The museum
32
X
250
Centralstationen
Railway station
33
X
60
New cooling machines installed 2005.
Kv Storn
34
X
100
Need to expand present capacity
Kv Gesllen
35
X
350
Kv Borgen
36
X
40
37
X
120
Not interested at present
Kv islandsskolan
38
X
40
Norr 23:3
39
X
100
Contact by SWECO

105

Appendix 2. Expected cooling demand

Total cooling demand in the city center is 8905 kW (data for


Konserthuset was missing but it has been considered slightly bigger than for the
theatre because it is quite bigger building but activities going on there are similar).
Nevertheless, taking into account that it is unkown cooling demand of some
places (such as n 26) and there could be more customers in the future, it is
considered a cooling demand of 9000 kW. In addition, LEAF itself needs
2500 kW of cooling. Like this,
TOTAL COOLING DEMAND FOR LEAF PRODUCTION SITE:
11 500 kW

B. KUNGSBCK AREA (MACKMYRA)


Table A2. 2. Customers and their cooling demand in Kungsbck
CUSTOMER
COOLING DEMAND [kW]
HOSPITAL

1700

UNIVERSITY

1800

TECHNOLOGIC PARK

1000

4500 kW has to be delivered through the main pipe of district cooling


distribution system that leaves the cooling production plant. However, it is needed
to increase production output power since the whisky factory might use cold as
well. Anyway, this cooling demand would not be much, as there is not any
cooling system in the current factory and storage rooms that are planning to build
would be underground, where temperature would be adequate (under 17 C). This
way,
TOTAL COOLING DEMAND FOR MACKMYRA PRODUCTION SITE:
5000 kW

106

Appendix 2. Expected cooling demand

C. JOHANNESBERGSVGEN AREA (JOHANNES)


Table A2. 3. Cooling demand for Johannes production site
CUSTOMER
COOLING DEMAND [kW]
HEMLINGBY SHOPPING CENTERS

2000

Cooling demand of possible customers in Johannesbergsvgen area is


2000 kW. Moreover, cooling is also used at Johannes CHP plant, mainly for
the refrigeration of the turbine, which is produced by electrically driven
devices. Thus, this cooling system could be also replaced and it is like this
planning to produce the cooling needed too, which is roughly 1,3-1,4 MW, in
the absorption plant. So,

TOTAL COOLING DEMAND FOR JOHANNES PRODUCTION SITE:


3400 kW

107

Appendix 3. SPECIFICATIONS AND CALCULATIONS

REGARDING ABSORPTION COOLING


INSTALLATIONS
A3.1. ABSORPTION CHILLERS
A.3.1.1. MODELS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
A. LEAF AND MACKMYRA
-

SINGLE-EFFECT STEAM-FIRED
Carrier-Sanyo 16TJ

ABSORPTION

CHILLERS:

108

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

(Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

109

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

According to the brochure, 16TJ-53 absorption chiller consumes 5460 kg/h


satured steam at 100 kPa. It is known that the enthalpy of satured vapour at 1 bar
is 2675,5 kJ/kg [4] (Pressure Table of Properties of Satured Water), so:

5460

kg
h

1h
3600 s

2675,5

kJ
kg

4057,84 kW satured steam

Thus,

4,1 MW satured steam


at 1 bar

16TJ-53

2,5 MW cooling

ABSORPTION
CHILLER

On the other hand, electric and cooling power to be supplied are:


P = 400V * 11,0 A * 0,8 (power factor that most generators use) = 3520 W
Pelectricity supply = 3,52 kW

P = 159 kg/s * 4,2 kJ/(kg.K) * (38,4 29,4) K= 6010,2 kW


Pcooling supply = 6,01 MW

Take note that the relation between capacity of the chiller used and cooling
water power as well as steam needed can be considered linear (part-load curve is
almost linear). However, the cooling water flow is usually constant. That is, i.e. an
16TJ-53 absorption chiller working at 50% of its maximum capacity (1230,5 kW)
needs 2028,92 kW of satured steam and 3005,1 kW of cooling (the water flow is
159 l/s). With regards to the electric power supply (for pumps), it is constant.

110

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

DOUBLE-EFFECT STEAM-FIRED ABSORPTION CHILLERS:


Carrier-Sanyo 16NK

111

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

(Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

112

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

According to the brochure, 16NK-81 absorption chiller consumes


5300 kg/h satured steam at 784 kPa. It is known that the enthalpy of satured
vapour at 8 bar is 2769,1 kJ/kg [4] (Pressure Table of Properties of Satured
Water), so:

5300

kg
h

1h
3600 s

2769,1

kJ
kg

4076,71 kW satured steam

Thus,
4,1 MW satured steam
at 8 bar

16NK-81

4,7 MW cooling

ABSORPTION
CHILLER

On the other hand, electric and cooling power to be supplied are:


P = 400V * 33,5 A * 0,8 = 10 720 W
Pelectricity supply = 10,72 kW
P = 333,9 kg/s * 4,2 kJ/(kg.K) * (35,4 29,4) K= 8414,28 kW
Pcooling supply = 8,41 MW

113

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

B. JOHANNES

Figure A3. 1. Water streams (steam and DH) at Johannes CHP plant (Source: Gvle Energi AB)
114

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Next Table A3. 1. shows pressures of the first steam stream extracted from
the turbine related to electricity and district heating production capacities during
the year. The values in blue point out the steam cannot be used in absorption
chillers. The last four values belong to summer period, when the boiler is running
at its minimum capacity (20 MW).
Table A3. 1. Production data and pressure of the first steam stream extracted from the
turbine (Source: Gvle Energi AB)
ELECTRICITY
DISTRICT HEATING
P
[MW]
[MW]
[kPa]
23,704
56,168
1
24,367

59,375

1,044

20,531

55,589

2,25

19,848

52,422

2,23

21,738

50,532

0,8835

11,137

34,355

2,13

10,679

32,022

2,12

12,687

30,004

0,5511

3,602

18,624

2,05

3,683

18,555

2,05

4,244

15,991

0,7415

4,449

15,723

0,7409

4,677

15,558

0,4139

4,877

15,28

0,4136

As the pressure of steam is not suitable during peak periods of cooling


demand (summer)36, a steam-fired absorption machine cannot be introduced.

36

It is not considered the last steam stream leaving the turbine since its pressure is even lower.

115

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

SINGLE-EFFECT
HOT
WATER-FIRED
CHILLERS: Carrier-Sanyo 16LJ

ABSORPTION

116

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

(Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

117

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

According to the brochure, 16LJ-53 absorption chiller consumes 73 l/s hot


water (95,0 C 86,0 C) at its maximum cooling capacity. This is a heat supply
of:
P = m * Cp * T
P [kW] = 73 [kg/s] * 4,2 [kJ/kg K] * 9 [K] = 2759,4 kW

Pheat supply = 2759 kW

On the other hand, electric and cooling power to be supplied are:


P = 400V * 11,0 A * 0,8 = 3520 W
Pelectricity supply = 3,52 kW
P = 119,2 kg/s * 4,2 kJ/(kg.K) * (38,4 29,4) K= 4505,76 kW
Pcooling supply = 4,51 MW

A3.1.2. INVESTMENT COSTS


Next Table A3. 2. shows price and capacity comparison of different
chillers (LJ and TJ units compared to NK units).
Table A3. 2. Price comparison of single- and double-effect units
(Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

118

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Investment costs for different needed models are the followings


(Table A3. 3.):

Table A3. 3. Investment costs for different absorption chiller units


(Source: Ulf Hedman, Ramboll)
ABSORPTION CHILLER
PRICE [SEK]
16TJ-53

2 700 000

16LJ-53

2 700 000

16NK-81

6 200 000

16NK-71

5 300 000

16NK-41

3 000 000

A3.1.3. OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS


According to the estimations Anders Kedbrant did for refrigerant
compression cooling project, the cooling demand load curve in the city center for
2008 is as shown in Figure A3. 2., which has been divided in different cooling
power production periods.

8900
7568

5223

3624
2718

693

Figure A3. 2. Cooling demand load curve (2008) divided in periods according to
the power needed to be produced

119

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Information from the previous graph (Figure A3. 2.) is gathered in


Table A3. 4.
Table A3. 4. Average city centers cooling demand in time steps for 2008
PRODUCTION
COOLING
HOURS
% of max.
(reference:
TIME PERIOD
DEMAND
37
power
compression
[kW]
refrigeration project)
Winter time:
693
7,79
964
15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April
2718
30,54
244
1-15 November
April
3624
40,72
364
15 October-1 November
1-15 May
5223
58,69
430
15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June
7568
85,03
672
15 August-15 September
Summer time:
8900
100
738
10 June-15 August

NOTE: There is no production of cooling in winter time, since free


cooling is allowed (it is needed to introduce a heat
exchanger).

Taking into account calculated percentages, cooling load during the year can
be estimated for the three production sites that are subject of studying:

37

Information from first column can be translated into percentages taking the maximum power as
reference.

120

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

A. LEAF
Table A3. 5. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers (double- and single- effect) at LEAF during the year
NUMBER OF CHILLERS WORKING
COOLING
% of
& CAPACITY [kW]
POWER
TIME PERIOD
max.
PRODUCTION
power
TSA-16NK-81
TSA-16TJ-53
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
895,45

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
3512,02
3512
1756
1756
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
4682,70
4652 (max.)
2342
2342
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
6748,82
3375
3375
2250
2250
2250
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
9778,88
3260 3260 3260 2445
2445
2445
2445
15 June-15 August
100
11500
3834 3834
NOTE: minimum working power of absorption chillers is 20% of their maximum capacity

3834

2300

2300

2300

2300

2300

Table A3. 6. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers at LEAF during the year
COOLING OF CHILLERS free cooling- [kW]
TIME PERIOD
TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

15 November-15 March

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


6352,31
4288,46
4288,46
April & 15 October-1 November
8414,28
5719,58
5719,58
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
6104,51
6104,51
5494,9
5494,9
5494,9
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
5896,51 5896,51 5896,51 5482,69
5482,69
5482,69
5482,69
15 June-15 August
6934,73 6934,73 6934,73 5617,01 5617,01 5617,01 5617,01 5617,01
NOTE: Heat exchangers are going to be calculated for cooling down the chillers when they are working at their maximum capacity
(security margin, just in case). Although cooling water flow is better to be constant, in this case it needs to be changed as
conditions of free cooling (temperature of water from the river), that is, the cooling power, cannot be controlled. Therefore,
necessary water flow can be set by a valve just before it goes into the chillers.

121

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 7. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers (double- and single- effect) at LEAF during the year
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
NUMBER OF CHILLERS WORKING
COOLING
% of
& CAPACITY [kW]
POWER
TIME PERIOD
max.
PRODUCTION
power
TSA-16NK-81
TSA-16TJ-53
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
1012,7

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
3970,2
3970
1985
1985
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
5293,6
2647
2647
1766
1766
1766
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
7529,7
3815
3815
1908
1908
1908
1908
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
11053,9
3685 3685 3685 2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
15 June-15 August

100

13000

4334

4334

4334

2600

2600

2600

2600

2600

2600

Table A3. 8. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers at LEAF during the year
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
COOLING OF CHILLERS free cooling- [kW]
TIME PERIOD
15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
April & 15 October-1 November
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
15 June-15 August

TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

7180,72
4787,75
4787,75
6900,36
6900,36
6665,22 6665,22 6665,22
7839,10 7839,10 7839,10

4847,72
4847,72
4312,89
4312,89
4312,89
4659,68
4659,68
4659,68
4659,68
5399,66
5399,66
5399,66
5399,66
5399,66
6349,66 6349,66 6349,66 6349,66 6349,66 6349,66

122

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 9. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers (double- and single- effect) at LEAF
during the year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
NUMBER OF CHILLERS WORKING
COOLING
% of
& CAPACITY [kW]
POWER
TIME PERIOD
max.
PRODUCTION
power
TSA-16NK-81
TSA-16TJ-53
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
779

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
3054
3054
1527
1527
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
4072
4072
2036
2036
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
5869
2935
2935
1957
1957
1957
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
8503
4252
4252
2126
2126
2126
2126
15 June-15 August

100

10000

3334

3334

3334

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

Table A3. 10. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers at LEAF during the year
when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
COOLING OF CHILLERS free cooling- [kW]
TIME PERIOD
15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
April & 15 October-1 November
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
15 June-15 August

TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

5523,91
7365,21
5308,57
5308,57
7690,78
7690,78
6030,35 6030,35 6030,35

3729,21
3729,21
4972,27
4972,27
4779,34
4779,34
4779,34
5192,07
5192,07
5192,07
5192,07
4884,36 4884,36 4884,36 4884,36 4884,36

123

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

B. MACKMYRA
Table A3. 11. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers
(double- and single- effect) in Mackmyra production site during the year
NUMBER OF CHILLERS WORKING
COOLING
% of
& CAPACITY [kW]
POWER
TIME PERIOD
max.
PRODUCTION
power
TSA-16NK-81
TSA-16TJ-53
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
389,33

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
1526,97
1527
1527
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
2035,96
2036
2036
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
2934,27
2934
1467
1467
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
4251,69
4252
2126
2126
15 June-15 August *
100
5000
2500
2500
2461 (max.)
2461
* TSA-16TJ- 53. Back-up chiller can be used to produce extra cooling (78 kW) which is needed

Table A3. 12. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and necessary cooling towers in Mackmyra production site
COOLING OF CHILLERS [kW]

COOLING TOWERS NEEDED

TIME PERIOD
15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
April & 15 October-1 November
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
15 June-15 August

TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

2762,12
3682,60
5306,86
7690,78

3729,21
4972,27
3582,68
3582,68
5192,07
5192,07

Capacity: 7691 kW
Flow: 1202,04 m3/h
Tmax. = 5,76 K

Capacity: 6010 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 9 K

Capacity: 4523 kW
Flow: 1202,04 m3/h
Tmax. = 3,39 K

Capacity: 6010 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 9 K

4522,14

4522,14

6010,2

6010,2

124

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 13. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers (double- and single- effect) in Mackmyra
production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
NUMBER OF CHILLERS WORKING
COOLING
% of
& CAPACITY [kW]
POWER
TIME PERIOD
max.
PRODUCTION
power
TSA-16NK-81
TSA-16TJ-53
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
428,45

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
1679,7
1680
1680
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
2239,6
2240
2240
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
3227,95
3228
1614
1614
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
4676,65
2338
2338
2338
2338
15 June-15 August

100

5500

2750

2750

1833

1833

1833

Table A3. 14. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and necessary cooling towers in Mackmyra
production site when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
COOLING OF CHILLERS [kW]

COOLING TOWERS NEEDED

TIME PERIOD
TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November

3038,69

4102,86

April & 15 October-1 November

4051,59

5470,48

1-15 May & 15 September-15 October

5838,63

15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September

4228,84

4228,84

15 June-15 August

4974,05

4974,05

Capacity: 5839 kW
Flow: 1202,04 m3/h
Tmax. = 4,37 K

3941,68

3941,68

5709,81

5709,81

4476,51

4476,51

TSA-16NK-81

4476,51

TSA-16TJ-53
Capacity: 5710 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,98 K
Capacity: 5710 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,98 K

Capacity: 4975 kW
Flow: 1202,04 m3/h
Tmax. = 3,72 K

Capacity: 4477 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 7,04 K

125

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 15. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers (double- and single- effect)
in Mackmyra production site during the year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
NUMBER OF CHILLERS WORKING
COOLING
% of
& CAPACITY [kW]
POWER
TIME PERIOD
max.
PRODUCTION
power
TSA-16NK-81
TSA-16TJ-53
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
350,55

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
1374,3
1374
1374
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
1832,4
1832
1832
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
2641,05
2641
1321
1321
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
2826,35
3826
1913
1913
15 June-15 August

100

4500

4500

2250

2250

Table A3. 16. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year and necessary cooling towers in Mackmyra
production site when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
COOLING OF CHILLERS [kW]
TIME PERIOD
15 November-15 March
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
April & 15 October-1 November
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
15 June-15 August

TSA-16NK-81

TSA-16TJ-53

2485,22
3313,62
4776,89
6920,26
8139,35

3355,55
4474,07
3226,12
3226,12
4671,87
4671,87
5494,90

5494,90

COOLING TOWERS NEEDED


TSA-16NK-81

Capacity: 8140 kW
Flow: 1202,04 m3/h
Tmax. = 6,09 K

TSA-16TJ-53
Capacity: 5495 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,64 K
Capacity: 5495 kW
Flow: 572,4 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,64 K

126

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

C. JOHANNES
Table A3. 17. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers in Johannes production site during the year
COOLING
TOTAL
POWER
% of max.
COOLING
NUMBER OF TSA-16LJ-53
PRODUCTION
TIME PERIOD
power for
POWER
CHILLERS WORKING
FOR
Hemlingby
PRODUCTION
& CAPACITY [kW]
HEMLINGBY
[kW]
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
155,8
1555,8

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
610,8
2010,8
1006
1006
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
814,4
2214,4
1107
1107
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
1173,8
2573,8
1287
1287
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
1700,6
3100,6
1551
1551
15 June-15 August
100
2000
3400
1700
1700

NOTE: Cooling demand in Johannes represents the cooling needed for the turbine itself (to cool it
down because of friction energy generated by turbines axis and generator). Therefore, it is the
same all over the year, that is, it does not depend on the time period (outdoor temperature). This
way, cooling demand during the year has been estimated for Hemlingby shopping centers and
then, 1,4 MW for Johannes have been added up to each of them.

127

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 18. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers during the year
and necessary cooling towers in Johannes production site
COOLING OF
COOLING TOWERS
TIME PERIOD
CHILLERS [kW]
NEEDED
15 November-15 March

Capacity: 4150 kW
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
2455,47 2455,47
Flow: 858,24 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,70 K
April & 15 October-1 November
2701,99 2701,99
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September

3141,34
3785,72

3141,34
3785,72

15 June-15 August

4149,40

4149,40

Capacity: 4150 kW
Flow: 858,24 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,70 K

Table A3. 19. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers in Johannes production site
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
COOLING
TOTAL
POWER
% of max.
COOLING
NUMBER OF TSA-16LJ-53
PRODUCTION
TIME PERIOD
power for
POWER
CHILLERS WORKING
FOR
Hemlingby
PRODUCTION
& CAPACITY [kW]
HEMLINGBY
[kW]
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
171,38
1571,38

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
671,88
2071,88
1036
1036
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
895,84
2295,84
1148
1148
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
1291,18
2691,18
1346
1346
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
1870,66
3270,66
1635
1635
15 June-15 August
100
2200
3600
1800
1800

128

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 20. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers in Johannes production site during the year
when the cooling demand is 10% higher than the estimated one
COOLING OF
COOLING TOWERS
TIME PERIOD
CHILLERS [kW]
NEEDED
15 November-15 March

Capacity: 4394 kW
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
2528,69 2528,69
Flow: 858,24 m3/h
Tmax. = 9,22 K
April & 15 October-1 November
2802,07 2802,07
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September

3285,35
3990,75

3285,35
3990,75

15 June-15 August

4393,48

4393,48

Capacity: 4394 kW
Flow: 858,24 m3/h
Tmax. = 9,22 K

Table A3. 21. Cooling load to be produced and working power of different chillers in Johannes production site
when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
COOLING
TOTAL
POWER
% of max.
COOLING
NUMBER OF TSA-16LJ-53
PRODUCTION
TIME PERIOD
power for
POWER
CHILLERS WORKING
FOR
Hemlingby
PRODUCTION
& CAPACITY [kW]
HEMLINGBY
[kW]
[kW]
15 November-15 March
7,79
140,22
1540,22

15 March-1 April & 1-15 November


30,54
549,72
1949,72
975
975
April & 15 October-1 November
40,72
732,96
2132,96
1066
1066
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
58,69
1056,42
2456,42
1228
1228
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15 September
85,03
1530,54
2930,57
1465
1465
15 June-15 August

100

1800

3200

1600

1600

129

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

Table A3. 22. Cooling power to be supplied to the chillers in Johannes production site during
the year when the cooling demand is 10% lower than the estimated one
COOLING OF
COOLING TOWERS
TIME PERIOD
CHILLERS [kW]
NEEDED
15 November-15 March

Capacity: 3906 kW
15 March-1 April & 1-15 November
2379,80 2379,80
Flow: 858,24 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,19 K
April & 15 October-1 November
2601,92 2601,92
1-15 May & 15 September-15 October
15 May-15 June & 15 August-15
September
15 June-15 August

2997,33

2997,33

3575,81

3575,81

3905,32

3905,32

Capacity: 3906 kW
Flow: 858,24 m3/h
Tmax. = 8,19 K

130

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

A3.2. THE REST OF EQUIPMENTS


Table A3. 23. Required cooling towers and heat exchangers technical data
PRODUCTION SITE

16NK-81
chillers

COOLING TOWERS

LEAF
16TJ-53
chillers

16NK-81
chillers
MACKMYRA
16TJ-53
chillers

JOHANNES

16LJ-53
chillers

OCT09HB05-5-90 (Vestas Aircoil)


Flow: 1221 m3/h. Evaporation: 10,9 m3/h
Capacity: 5988 kW
Number of fans: 5
Air flow/fan: 30,41 m3/s. Rotation speed: 439 rpm
Electric power supply/fan: 6,1 kW
OCT09HB03-3-120 (Vestas Aircoil)
Flow: 573 m3/h. Evaporation: 7,7 m3/h
Capacity: 8499 kW
Number of fans: 3
Air flow/fan: 21,29 m3/s. Rotation speed: 340 rpm
Electric power supply/fan: 5,14 kW
OCT09HB02-2-120 (Vestas Aircoil)
Flow: 429 m3/h. Evaporation: 5,7 m3/h
Capacity: 4483 kW
Number of fans: 2
Air flow/fan: 23,91 m3/s. Rotation speed: 531 rpm
Electric power supply/fan: 7,3 kW

HEAT EXCHANGERS (+FILTER)


-chillerscooling downS121-IS10-502-TMTL47-LIQUIDE (Sondex)
Flow: 339 kg/s
Capacity: 8505 kW
FILTER: BSG350/1,0P (Bernoulli)
MX25-MFMS (Alfa Laval)
Flow: 241,4 l/s
Capacity: 6010 kW

HEAT EXCHANGERS
(+FILTER)
-free cooling-

TL10-BFG (Alfa Laval)


Flow: 38,7 l/s
Capacity: 895,0 kW

TL10-BFG (Alfa Laval)


Flow: 16,8 l/s
Tin = 12,2C. Tout = 6,7 C

131

Appendix 3. Specifications and calculations regarding absorption cooling installations

NOTE 1: Power of cooling towers is determined by fans air flow (cooling


water flow is constant), of which relation can be considered to be
linear. For calculating power of fans (electricity supply), following
equations are used:

q1/q2 =n1/n2
P1/P2 = (n1/n2)3

where:
- q: fans air flow
- n: fans rotation speed (rpm)
- P: power

NOTE 2: Size of equipments


-

LEAF. Same heat exchangers have been considered for the three cases
since differences between the needed capacities are not so large and, in
addition, those equipments can work at 10% higher capacity than the
specified one.

MACKMYRA.

The

highest

capacity

between

required

cooling

equipments have been approximately taking into consideration to make


the decision about the cooling towers to be introduced. They are valid for
all cases as the flow is constant, so they will work according to the needed
cooling capacity (they are too big in some cases but data about more
adequate towers could not be obtained).
-

JOHANNES. Cooling tower has been choosen so that it can cover the
cooling demand in the three cases, as the differences are not so large.

132

Appendix 4. MAPS OF CUSTOMERS AND DISTANCES FROM THE PRODUCTION SITES


A. CITY CENTER (LEAF)

Figure A4. 1. Map of the city center with the main pipe that leaves LEAF production site and its length

133

Appendix 4. Plans of customers and distances from the production sites

It has been followed the same way for the main pipe as in the refrigerant
compression cooling project, since the production site and customers are the same
and, in addition, as necessary remarks for this decision have been already taken
into account.

134

Appendix 4. Plans of customers and distances from the production sites

B. KUNGSBCK AREA (MACKMYRA)

Figure A4. 2. Map with the customers, pipes and distances for Mackmyra production site

135

Appendix 4. Plans of customers and distances from the production sites

The pipe which arrives at hospital from Mackmyra would need to go


through the technologic park, since it is also a customer. This way, it has been
decided to follow the direction of roads and the existing district heating
installation.

136

Appendix 4. Plans of customers and distances from the production sites

C. JOHANNESBERGSVGEN AREA (JOHANNES)

HEMLINGBY SHOPPING CENTERS

Johannes

Figure A4. 3. Map with the customers for Johannes production site, pipe and its length

137

Appendix 4. Plans of customers and distances from the production sites

The absorption plant at Johannes would be used to fulfil the cooling


demand of the existing Hemlingby shopping center and buildings which are under
construction now, with a total cooling floor area of 35 000 m2 (see Figure A4. 4.).
The extension is expected to be finished by this summer (2009).

Figure A4. 4. Map of the shopping centers under construction in Hemlingby

For this reason, the main distribution pipe is planning to be between all
these buildings. Once the pipe would leave the constructed area, it would go
through the forest, since its digging is cheaper than roads, and cross E4 highway
taking the advantage that it already exists a tunnel there. Thereafter, it would
reach the production plant as drawn because of the possibility of future customers
over there. Next Figure A4. 5. shows the future plan of the municipality of
building a new area close to Johannes CHP plant.

138

Appendix 4. Plans of customers and distances from the production sites

Figure A4. 5. Map of the future residential area close to Johannes plant

139

Appendix 5. CALCULATIONS ABOUT DIMENSIONS OF PIPES, DISTRIBUTION PUMPS

AND THEIR COSTS


A5.1. DIMENSIONING

PRODUCTION
SITE
LEAF

Table A5. 1. Dimensioning of pipes and pressure drop (part I)


COOLING
VOLUMETRIC
DISTANCE MASS FLOW
PIPES
CUSTOMER
DEMAND
FLOW
[m]
[kg/s]
[kW]
[m3/h]
LEAF
CITY CENTER
214,29
9000
1370
771,43
HOSPITAL

1700

UNIVERSITY
TECHNOLOGIC
PARK
TOTAL

1800

4500

500

107,14

385,71

Mackmyra II

UNIVERSITY

1800

310

42,86

154,29

1700

Mackmyra III

HOSPITAL
TECHNOLOGIC
PARK
TOTAL

1890

64,29

231,43

1775

47,62

171,43

Mackmyra I

MACKMYRA

1000

1000
2700

HEMLINGBY
SHOPPING
2000
CENTERS
NOTE: Mass flow: P [kW] = m [kg/s] * Cp [kJ/kg K] * T [K] m = P/Cp/T
JOHANNES

Johannes

140

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

PRODUCTION
SITE

PIPES

LEAF

LEAF

Table A5. 2. Dimensioning of pipes and pressure drop (part II)


INTERNAL
CROSS
DIAMETER
RESISTANCE
CUSTOMER
SECTION OF
OF THE PIPE
[Pa/m]
2
THE PIPE [m ]
[mm]
CITY CENTER
0,11
65
369,44

PRESSURE
LOSS for
each pipe [Pa]

PRESSURE FOR
DISTRIBUTION
PUMP [Pa] 38

89050

328100

HOSPITAL
UNIVERSITY
TECHNOLOGIC
PARK
TOTAL

0,05

261,24

100

50000

25000

Mackmyra II

UNIVERSITY

0,02

165,22

175

54250

258500

Mackmyra III

HOSPITAL
TECHNOLOGIC
PARK
TOTAL

0,032

202,35

130

245700

641400

0,02

174,16

160

284000

718000

Mackmyra I

MACKMYRA

JOHANNES

Johannes

HEMLINGBY
SHOPPING
CENTERS

NOTES (in the next page):

38

As the flow passes through pipes and other components in the system, the pressure decreases. Thus, it is needed a pressure difference in the system which is
generated in the pump and which is progressively dissipated by pressure losses in the distribution system with increasing distance from the pump. This is
shown in schematic Figure A5. 2.

141

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

NOTES:
- Diameter of pipes: = 2 (A/)
- The cross section of pipes has been calculated for a velocity of water flow of 2 m/s
(it is usually between 1 and 3 m/s for large pipes), for considering it the most
suitable (Greger Berglund).

The resistances have been calculated by using a SBI nomogram that can be seen in
the following page (Figure A5. 1.).

- Pressure increase that is needed (distribution pump) has been calculated considering
that there is a pressure drop of 150 kPa in the customer site (Greger Berglund),
although it is usually enough with 30-50 kPa safety margin-.

142

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

Figure A5. 1. SBI monogram showing the parameters of the different pipes

143

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

Figure A5. 2. Differential pressures in a direct return distribution


system with one terminal unit

Distribution losses could be calculated as following:

(Source: lecture of Energy Systems, HIG, by Heimo Zeinko)

Nevertheless, they are not taken into consideration because of being very small.
There is only a temperature difference of 4C between the water that goes through
pipes and outside, so the resistances are therefore almost zero.
144

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

Going back to the diameter of pipes, outer diameters have been obtained
by using the following Table A5. 3. once internal diameters (see Table A5. 2.)
have been calculated.
Table A5. 3. PE Pressure Pipes for water supply: EN 12201, ISO 4427
(Source: PE Pressure Pipe Systems brochure)

145

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

Finally, Table A5. 4. shows the dimension of pipes needed.


Table A5. 4. Data of the pipes needed
PIPES
MATERIAL
dn 39 [mm]
40
LEAF
KWH PE, PN10
450
Mackmyra I
KWH PE, PN10
315
Mackmyra II
KWH PE, PN10
200
Mackmyra III
KWH PE, PN10
250
Johannes
KWH PE, PN10
200

A5.2. COSTS
A. DIGGING FOR PIPES AND TOTAL COSTS
The distribution system in ground looks like it is shown in Figure A5. 3..
Ground is dug and two pipes, forward and return ones, are introduced keeping the
distances (Greger Berglund) that can be observed in the figure. The hole is filled
with sand.

Figure A5. 3. Piping excavation section

39
40

dn: nominal outer diameter


PN: nominal pressure. Maximum pressure for plastic pipes is 10 bar (PN10).

146

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

The values of parameters B and C from Figure A5. 3. depend on the outer
diameter, dn. Those are gathered in Table A5. 5.
Table A5. 5. Values of parameters C and B for the required dn
(Source: Greger Berglund, Gvle Energi AB)
dn [mm]
C [mm]
B [mm]
200

400

1000

250

450

1100

315

525

1250

NOTE: data for dn = 315 mm was missing, so the values have been interpolated
from the values of the original data and rounded off.

When pipes are going through water (as appropiate for LEAF), the
installation is totally different. Pipes are placed in the bottom of the river (or sea,
in other cases), keeping a distance of described C value between them. It would be
750 mm for LEAF pipes (dn = 450).

Next, costs of the main distribution system are shown, Table A5. 6.,
without taking into account the pumps.

Table A5. 6. Total cost of the pipes


(Source: Greger Berglund, Gvle Energi AB, and Anders Kedbrant, SWECO)
COST SINGLE
PIPE
PIPE [SEK/m]
MACKMYRA I
3408
MACKMYRA II
2698
COUNTRY SIDE
MACKMYRA III
3053
JOHANNES
2698
WATER river-

LEAF

2500

Cost for pipes in countryside can be splitted up in its different


components. This way, the following graph in Figure A5. 4. shows it in
percentages.

147

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

Figure A5. 4. Distribution system cost split up in its components and their contribution to
the total cost

Finally, total costs of the distribution system except for the pumps can be
calculated:

PRODUCTION
SITE
LEAF

MACKMYRA

Table A5. 7. Calculation of the pipes costs


COST
DISTANCE
COST
PIPE
PER PIPE
[m]
[SEK/m]
[SEK]
LEAF
1 370
2500
3 425 000
Mackmyra I

500

3 408

1 704 000

3 408 000

Mackmyra II

310

2 698

836 380

1 672 760

Mackmyra III

1 890

3 053

5 770 170

11 540 340

TOTAL
JOHANNES

TOTAL
COST
[SEK]
6 850 000

Johannes

1 775

16 621 100
2 698

4 788 950

9 577 900

148

Appendix 5. Calculations about dimensions of pipes, distribution pumps and their costs

B. PUMPS
Table A5. 8. Needed distribution pumps and their cost (Source: Zander & Ingestrm AB)
MAX.
PRODUCTION
Q 41
P
POWER PRICE
PUMP TYPE
SITE
[m3/h] [kPa]
CONS.
[SEK]
[kW]
KENFLO centrifugal
LEAF
771,43 328,1
77,4
110 000
pump, KPS 30-250
KENFLO centrifugal
MACKMYRA
317,14
250
27,5
62 000
pump, ISO 200x150-315
KENFLO centrifugal
JOHANNES
171,43
718
44,5
69 000
pump, ISO 100x65-250

NOTE: Electric power consumption cannot be calculated in accordance


with pumps working power during the year as their design curves
are unkown. Thus, it has been assumed that they work the same
way as pumps from compression refrigerant cooling project and
therefore considered that they are working at their maximum
capacity all over the year except for winter time and for when
chillers are shut down, when they work at 30% of the maximum
capacity.

41

Q: volumetric flow

149

Appendix 6. FALUN COOLING PROJECT: A REFERENCE

A6.1. INSTALLATION

Figure A6. 1. Draft of the whole cooling installation in Falun (Source: Daniel Widman, Falu Energi & Vatten AB)
150

Appendix 6. Falun cooling project: a reference

Table A6. 1. Reference specifications about absorption chiller in Falun


(Source: Carrier-Sanyo)

There are additional remarkable devices in the installation, such as:


- A compression chiller of 1290 kW. It has two functions: to keep cooling in
reserve and to fulfil the demand in periods of higher loads.
- Two BAC (Baltimore Air Coil) VXT 470 cooling towers.
- Grundfos pumps. Distribution pumps: FK-P01 (50 kW).

151

Appendix 6. Falun cooling project: a reference

A6.2. TOTAL COSTS


Table A6. 2. Investment costs for different installations in Falun
10 000 000
COST OF THE WHOLE INSTALLATION [SEK]
COST OF THE COMPRESSION COOLING MACHINE [SEK]

1 500 000

COST OF THE ABSORPTION CHILLER [SEK]

2 700 000

COST OF THE COOLING TOWERS [SEK]

2 * 675 000

COST OF THE DISTRIBUTION PUMPS [SEK]

100 000

Like this, the COST of the INSTALLATION without distribution pumps,


chillers and cooling towers is 1 450 000 SEK.

Maintenance costs are very low, so they are therefore not taken into
account. With regards to operational costs, they are calculated as sum of electric
power needed and water for cooling towers (it is assumed that steam is free). This
way, it is needed to assess costs for 250 kW plus 50 kW per each distribution
pump of electricity (1 SEK/kWh) and 10 m3/h of water (4 SEK/ m3).

Total electric consumption of the whole installation is made up of:

Table A6. 3. Input electric power in Falun installations


TOTAL
250 kW
POWER SUPPLY TO THE ABSORPTION CHILLER
POWER SUPPLY TO THE COOLING TOWERS
(there are 2 fans in each cooling tower)
POWER NEEDED IN THE REST OF THE INSTALLATION

5,84 kW 42
2 * 30,0 kW
184,16 kW

NOTE: Compressor chillers input power at its maximum capacity is


300 kW. Nevertheless, it is not included as it is seldom
working.

42

P = 7,3 kVA * 0,8 (power factor that most generators use) = 5,84 kW

152

Appendix 7.

EXTRA
INFORMATION
JOHANNES POWER PLANT

ABOUT

Johannes plant has a biofueled steam boiler, where there are mainly burnt
bark, forest residues and waste wood43. Nonetheless, it is needed oil to start up the
plant (which takes between 12 and 18 hours) and unfortunately, this fuel has to be
also sometimes used because of technical problems.

Next, basic scheme of the plant is shown in Figure A7. 1. for explaining
how it operates thereafter.

12

11
5
9
10
6
7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

FUEL INTAKE
SIEVING (fuel mixer)
FUEL STORAGE
CONVEYOR BELT FOR BIOFUEL UP TO THE BOILER
STEAM BOILER
DIRECT CONDENSER
TURBINE
VESSEL ACCUMULATORS
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
FLUE GAS CONDENSER (FGC)
CHIMNEY STACK
CONTROL ROOM
OIL TANK
AMMONIA TANK

4
13

3
14
2

Figure A7. 1. Scheme of Johannes CHP plant (Source: Gvle Energi AB)

The different types of biofuel, which are stored according to their


composition in different piles outside (see Figure A7. 2.), are mixed and carried
43

The blending changes frecuently, which depends on the availability of different fuels, costs and
so forth.

153

Appendix 7. Extra information about Johannes power plant

into a silo (sieving). Afterwards, the fuel mixture is put on a fuel storage building.
This place has a fuel capacity of a weekend production, since there is nobody
working on fulfilling it during this period.

Figure A7. 2. Fuel storage 44 and conveyor belt carrying biofuel to the boiler at Johannes

The biofuel mixture is transported to the boiler using a conveyor belt


(which gets in a fuel container) as means of transport (see Figure A7. 2.), where it
is then burned. The steam boiler, which scheme is shown in Figure A7. 3., is a
Bubble Fluidized Bed (BFB) with a maximum capacity of 77 MW.
Biofuel enters the boiler through two intakes together with some air (it is
injected in order to avoid flames go into fuel silo). Primary air goes in the bottom,
where a sand bed is. There, solid fuel is suspended on upward-blowing jets of air
and a turbulent mixing is achieved. As a result, more effective combustion and
heat transfer take place.

The combustion heats water, which is coverted into superheated steam at


high and constant pressure. The steam leaving the boiler goes thereafter to the
turbine.

44

This picture was taken the 24th of March of 2009, when it was still winter. Despite the snow
and cold weather, biofuel keeps well since it is warm inside due to reactions (aerobic
decomposition of organic matter) that take place in there.

154

Appendix 7. Extra information about Johannes power plant

29 kg/s
94 bar

Figure A7. 3. Bubble Fluidized Bed (BFB) boiler of Johannes CHP plant
(Source: Gvle Energi AB)

The turbine called Olga was installed in 2005, which means that there
was previously a direct condenser instead that was used to cool down the steam by
means of district heating return water (it is still in there in case of a breakdown or
higher heating demands). It is a backpressure turbine, model Siemens SST-600,
which works in two steps and has a power output capacity of 22 MW (see
Figure A7. 4. and left side of Figure A7. 5.), where electricity is produced by
expanding and cooling the steam.
The exhaust steam leaving the turbine is then condensed in two heat
exchangers (see right side of Figure A7. 5.) and the water that extracts heat from
the steam goes to the supply pipe of the district heating network. When heat
supply is higher than the demand, hot water is stored, what there are two heat
accumulators for, and this way, it is delivered when the demand is higher
(compensation of load variations).
Characteristics of obtained electricity and water for district heating are
gathered in Table A7. 1.

155

Appendix 7. Extra information about Johannes power plant

Turbine

Generator

Heat exchangers

Figure A7. 4. Illustrative drawing of Olga turbine and components


(Source: Gvle Energi AB)

Figure A7. 5. Olga turbine on the left side and heat exchangers on the right side. Johannes
CHP plant

Table A7. 1. Characteristics of the obtained outputs at Johannes


ELECTRICITY
Power
23MW
Generator voltage
11 kV
DISTRICT HEATING
Power
50 MW
Forward temperature
96 C
Return temperature
67 C

Exhaust gases leaving the boiler go through an electrostatic precipitator in


order to eliminate particulate matter and after that heat is extracted in a flue-gas

156

Appendix 7. Extra information about Johannes power plant

condensation system (see Figure A7. 6. and for more specified information,
Figure A7. 7.). This waste heat is also used in the district heating network and
sand-ashes, together with the sand extracted from the bottom of the boiler and
cleaned in a rotational sieve, are recycled for reutilizing them in the boiler.

Figure A7. 6. Schematic of the FGC at Johannes (Source: Gvle Energi AB)

Figure A7. 7. Detailed scheme of the condensate treatment plant at Johannes


(Source: Gvle Energi AB)

Moreover, there is a water purification system where ultrapure water


(conductivity < 20 S/m) is obtained as it is required for the boiler. The
technology is called EDI (electrodeionisation), which combines ion exchange and
membrane filtering.
157