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Syllabus

25 February 2013

19:59

1. Urban populations
Urbanization

Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns.

Inward
movement

Explain the process of centripetal movements (rural-urban migration,


gentrification, re-urbanization/ urban renewal).

Outward
movement

Explain the process of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counterurbanization, urban sprawl).

Natural change

Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density


within urban areas.

The global
megacity

Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population
over 10 million).

2. Urban land use


Residential areas Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity and family
status (stage in life cycle).
Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter
settlements, areas of low-cost housing and inner-city areas).
Examine the causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups since
the 1980s.
Areas of
economic
activity

Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning of urban and
suburban functions and the internal structure of the central business district
(CBD).
Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas.
Examine the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service and
manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites.

3.Urban stress
Urban microclimate

Examine the effects of structures and human activity on urban


microclimates, including the urban heat island effect and air pollution.

Other types of
environmental and
social stress

Examine the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion,


overcrowding and noise, depletion of green space, waste overburden, poor
quality housing, social deprivation, crime and inequality.

4.The sustainable city


The city as a
system

Describe the city as a system in terms of:


- inputs - energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
- outputs - solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and
outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/ linear) city system with
uncontrolled inputs and outputs.

Case studies

Referring to at least two city case studies, discuss the concepts of:
- sustainable city management
- the urban ecological footprint.

Sustainable

Evaluate one case study of each of the following.

Sustainable
strategies

Evaluate one case study of each of the following.


- One socially sustainable housing management strategy.
- One environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy.
- One strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from in-migration.

Glossary
25 August 2012

11:17

1. Urban populations
Term

Definition

Urbanization

The increasing percentage of a population living in urban areas due to ruralurban migration and higher levels of natural increase in the urban areas.

Growth rate

The rate of increase or decrease in the population numbers.

Inward
movement

The process of people migrating into cities or towns (centripetal movement).

Centripetal
movements

The process of people migrating into cities or towns.

Rural-urban
migration

The movement of people from rural areas to urban areas.

Gentrification

The renovation of the housing fabric in an old, usually inner-city area, when more
affluent groups displace lower income groups en masse over a relatively short
period of time. May be triggered by a clear event such as the improvement or
provision of a better transport link, or by something less tangible such as a
fashion trend taking off in the housing market.

Reurbanization/ The process of redeveloping a previously developed area, due to the aging
urban renewal
facilities.
Outward
movement

The process of people migrating out of cities or towns (centrifugal movement).

Centrifugal
movements

The process of people migrating out of cities or towns.

Suburbanization The process of affluent people moving out from the city center, into quieter and
bigger housing areas.
Counterurbanization

Decentralization of population from large urban areas to smaller ones or rural


areas. Thought to be a result of both
improved communication and connectivity as well as a reaction against the
problems associated with large urban areas.

Urban-sprawl

The unchecked spread in the land area occupied by an urban area when
development is low-rise and it is felt that space efficiency is not an issue.

Green Belt

In the UK, an area of land surrounding an urban area in which planning


restrictions severely curb new housing, commercial and industrial developments.
Designed to stop urban sprawl. As they generally remain as they were when
designated, and as building developments have occurred either in settlements
beyond them or taken place as redevelopment of derelict land in the urban area,
they can be said to have been a success. Pressure continues to build however,
and it remains to be seen whether they will survive.

Natural change

This is difference between birth rate and death rate. It tells you by how many the
population will be growing per thousand of population per year.

Megacity

Megacities are large metropolitan areas or urban agglomerations of 10 million


inhabitants or more.

Agglomeration

An agglomeration is the metropolitan area incorporating several large towns and


cities (e.g. New York/ Newark).

2. Urban land use


Term

Definition

Term

Definition

Residential areas An area where the dominant land-use is for homes.

1. Urban populations
16 August 2012

19:52

Urbanization

Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns.

Inward
movement

Explain the process of centripetal movements (rural-urban migration,


gentrification, re-urbanization/ urban renewal).

Outward
movement

Explain the process of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counterurbanization, urban sprawl).

Natural change

Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density


within urban areas.

The global
megacity

Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population
over 10 million).

Urbanization
Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns.
Urbanization
An increasing percentage of a country's population comes to live in towns and cities. It
may involve both rural-urban migration and natural increase.
For more information, see source 1.
Variation in global growth rates and patterns
Graph: global growth rates and patterns

Low birth rates in HICs/ stable population rates


High income countries (core areas) typically have a stable population level, and a
low birth rate. This therefore means that the proportion of people in HICs are
relatively minimal in relation to that of the low income countries, or peripheral
areas. Reasons include:
This is due to the high economic burden raising a child has on parents in
HICs.
Middle-class families in HICs are often small, with all members of the family
working in day jobs. This is due to their high aspirations, and the lack of
time to take care for a child.
Child planning services/ classes allow parents in HICs allow parents to know
that having a lot of children may not necessarily be a good thing.
Continuous increase in LICs
The next generation is needed to continue everyday activities, such as agricultural
activities.
The chances of death are still relatively high in some areas, due to the lack of

The chances of death are still relatively high in some areas, due to the lack of
medical support and clean water. Some parents produce more children, as they
worry that their children will die from sicknesses.
People in rural areas often place more rigid social pressures on women.
Varied rates of urbanisation between LICs and HICs
Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 1955

Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 1965

Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 1975

Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 1985

Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 1995

Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 1995

Map: The world's biggest cities that house over 5 million people in 2005

Back in the 1950s, the majority of the build and urban environments were situated
in Europe and North America. These were considered to be the "powerhouses" or
cores of the world. However, as the numbers in peripheral areas (LICs) increased
dramatically, more and more people want to live in urban areas, as these areas
are deemed to be full of job opportunities. The rural population may have
migrants moving towards the urbanised areas; and people living in already
urbanised areas, may elect to move to other urbanised cities (international or
even intra-national migration).
The urbanisation of HICs (cores) on the other hand is relatively slow. This is due to
the lack of population growth, as well as the lack of need to move into more
urbanised areas. Whilst some people may still deem this to be necessary, due to
the perceived increase in job opportunities, many may think that living in rural
areas would give them an equal quality of life.
Inward movement
Explain the process of centripetal movements (rural-urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanization/

Explain the process of centripetal movements (rural-urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanization/


urban renewal).
Centripetal movements
Centripetal forces/ movements are ones that cause the inward movement (in towards
the different towns and cities) of people. There are several places that people may
come from; these include:
Countryside (rural areas)
Other places around the world (international migration)
Suburbs (reurbanization)
Rural-urban migration
Process of moving from the countryside (rural areas), to towns and cities
(urbanized areas).
This is an important process in LICs as the population believes that they would be
better off there, due to:
the increase in job opportunities
The increase in salary at the job opportunities
Gets away from the quiet way of life in the countryside
Better schooling
The reduction in the vulnerability of natural hazards
Gentrification
Gentrification is the process of redeveloping old and deprived areas.
This process is usually done by younger generations that are relatively wealthy.
When the restoration/ renewal process is complete, new markets would move in.
Common in brownfield sites (e.g. abandoned, derelict, underused industrial
buildings and land) that may be contaminated, but has the potential for
redevelopment.
Can be used for residential purposes, or commercial purposes.
May cause social-displacement (the rich replacing the poor, forcing the poor to
move out).
Examples:
New York
Greenwich Village
Brooklyn Heights
Toronto
Riverdale
London
Fulham
Chelsea
Reurbanization
Process of revitalizing urban areas, and moving people back into them.
Example:
Barcelona, 1992
The use of the 1992 summer Olympic Games to re-establish the city.
Urban renewal
Rehabilitation of areas of a city that have gone into decline.
Example:
Manhattan, New York
Note: Reurbanization and urban renewal are both similar to gentrification, in the way
that they both "renew" and "redevelop" the city. However, whilst gentrification utilises
buildings that were previously built, and refurbishes them; reurbanization and urban
renewal build new buildings to replace the old ones.
Outward movement
Explain the process of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counter-urbanization, urban sprawl).
Centrifugal movements
Centrifugal forces/ movements are ones that cause people to move away from the city
centre and towards areas such as the countryside.
Suburbanization

Suburbanization
This is often the case with older, more affluent people.
These people may want to dodge the busy life that CBDs and inner city areas
bring, hence move outwards to suburbs.
Causes for the phenomena
The increase in efficiency and ease of use of transportation systems (by use
of railways, electric trams and buses).
The reduction in price of farmland, hence the scope for urban expansion.
In the 20th century, rising wages and living standards were coupled with
rising expectations, hence there was a boom in private house building.
Other reasons included:
Lower costs of living
Very low interest rates
Expansion of building societies
Willingness of local authorities to provide utilities (e.g. sewers,
electricity, gas, water)
Increased public transport
Counter-urbanization
Process of counter-urbanization is similar to that of suburbanization. It is a process
of population decentralization, and causes people to move from inner urban areas
to areas beyond city limits (rural areas).
Reasons for the movement include:
Push factors of the inner city area:
High land prices
Congestion
Pollution
High crime rate
A lack of community
Declining services
Pull factors
All the opposites of the push factors from the inner city area.
IT and the option of teleworking (there is no need to work in the CBD).
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl is the process of an unplanned and uncontrolled physical expansion
of the urban area into the surrounding countryside. It is closely linked to the
process of suburbanisation.
Some areas have "Green Belts" (area of land with development restrictions) that
prevent the further expansion, creating a limit.
Examples:
Seoul
Mexico City
Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) - population of 500000 in 1970s; 6000000 in 2007
Natural change
Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density within urban
areas.
Natural change
Natural change can occur due to the various patterns, relating to migration, as
well as the level of disparities.
The level of poverty or wealth would often change the rate of natural change. Families
that are wealthier would often have less children, due to the financial demands, and the
economic aspirations of both partners. Meanwhile, families that are of poorer
background would often have more children, due to the perceived economic demands.
However, as the health care is improved, the death rate decreases, thus causing a
natural increase. The population density in poorer areas are therefore also increased.
In addition to the factor of health care improvement, thus natural change, the amount
of wealth and therefore land owned may also cause a disparity in population density.
For instance, a wealthy person may not have a big family, but may own a large plot of
land. This would reduce the population density of the area. However, a poor family

land. This would reduce the population density of the area. However, a poor family
may have a relatively large family due to traditional factors, whilst living in a small
apartment. This would increase the population density of the area.
Combine the factors of wealth and improved health care, we will see a disparity in
population density within an urban environment, where wealthier locations often have a
lowered population density, and vice versa.
The global megacity
Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population over 10 million).
Megacities
Megacities are cities that have 10 million inhabitants or more.
Causes include:
Economic growth
High rates of natural increase
Rural-urban migration
Expansions of megacities (or large cities that are on the verge of becoming megacities)
may swallow up nearby rural areas and small towns.
Megacities become multi-nuclei centres.
The population of megacities can be bigger than the entire population of some countries
(e.g. Tokyo has a greater population than the whole of Canada).
Global increase in the number of megacities

Year

Year

Year

1975

2009

2025

Rank

Megaci Pop.
Rank
ty
millions

Megaci Pop.
Rank
ty
millions

Megaci Pop.
ty
Million
s

Tokyo

26.6

Tokyo

36.5

Tokyo

37.1

New
15.9
York/
Newark

Delhi

21.7

Delhi

28.6

Mexico 16.7
City

Sao
Paulo

20.0

Mumba 25.8
i

Mumba 19.7
i

Sao
Paulo

21.7

Mexico 19.3
City

Dhaka

20.9

New
19.3
York/
Newark

Mexico 20.7
City

Shangh 16.3
ai

New
20.6
York/
Newark

Kolkata 15.3

Kolkata 20.1

Dhaka

Shangh 20.0
ai

10

Buenos 13.0
Aires

10

Karachi 18.7

14.3

Great increase in the number of megacities from the 1970's, with only 3
megacities (Tokyo, New York/ Newark and Mexico City), to the ever-increasing
number of megacities today. Factors for this increase include:
Colonial influences
As invaders set up coastal cities in previously uninhabited areas, or
rural areas, people from overseas may arrive to seek their fortunes.
Example:

Example:
The Spanish and Portuguese created Lima (Peru) and Buenos
Aires (Argentina) which then grew as Europeans flocked to the
"new world" to seek their fortunes.
Ports and trading cities
Some coastal cities developed from the 1600s till the 1800s, and
specialise in trade in particular products.
Example:
Shanghai grew through export of cotton, silk and textiles.
Reassignment of a city as a capital city
During the reassignment of a city as the national capital, people would
flock to them.
Example:
Prior to the independence of Bangladesh, Dacca (Dhaka) was
the eastern regional administration capital and an old trade
centre. In 1950 the population was only 430000, but by 1975 (4
years after independence), the population had risen to 2.3
million, with an annual growth rate of 7.25%.
Post independence policies frequently favoured urban areas over rural
Industrialisation became a major component of the postindependence strategies of many countries, as terms of trade had
begun to favour Britain and the United States. These industries were
primarily located in the bigger cities, and hence attracted many rural
migrants.
Example:
Latin America (Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires) and
India had major industrialization components in their postindependence strategies, causing a large centripetal movement,
as people flocked in, in search for job opportunities.
Post-war modernisation and industrialisation
After the world depression in the 1930s and the Wall Street crash,
developed countries had the need for manufactured goods from other
countries, as they had converted their factories to produce goods for
war use. Developing countries such as the ones in Latin America were
therefore used in place, and started to manufacture goods for the
developed regions. This caused the attraction of many rural migrants,
hence the increase in population.
Example:
Latin America
Declining mortality rates
Due to the bettering medical facilities in the modern world, the
vulnerability of people, both in urban and rural environments have
decreased, causing people to live longer, and hence the increase in
population.
Rural to urban migration
Classic push and pull factors for rural to urban migration caused a
large increase in populations in megacities.
Example:
Rural to urban migration accounted to 20% of Buenos Aires'
growth between 1940 and 1980.
Settlement laws
Governmental incentives to rural populations to move into urbanised
areas caused many people to move from rural areas to urbanised
areas, inducing rural to urban migration.
Example:
In 1950s China, people were either classified as "entitled"
("entitled" people were people who lived in urbanised areas,
and were allowed to access subsidies and welfare) and "nonentitled" ("non-entitled" people were not entitled to the

entitled" ("non-entitled" people were not entitled to the


subsidies and welfare). This caused the "entitled" sector to
become attractive, causing a large volume of people migrating
to urban areas.
Location of international production into urban areas
Peripheral areas such as areas in South East Asia have been major
players in the economic markets, as developed countries would invest
in these developing regions, to profit in the cheap labour that these
places may bring. This would therefore cause an influx of people from
international to rural origins.
Example:
Bangkok accounts for 86% of Thailand's GNP in banking,
insurance and real estate and 74% of manufacturing.
Locations of megacities
Previously, megacities were mostly located in developed regions. This was due to
the high influx of job opportunities in these areas, from the manufacturing to the
financial industries. However, as time passed, economical, social and political
factors as listed above have caused cities in developing areas to become more and
more popular, causing an great increase in population, and thus making them
megacities. Megacities in developed countries on the other hand, may have a
reduction in population, due to the various push factors it brings, such as the high
costs of living, causing people to move outward (centrifugal movements), away
from the core of the megacity.
The progression of the locations of mega-cities:
Map: Distribution of global megacities in 1980

Map: Distribution of global megacities in 2010

As the maps show, there has been an increase in the number of megacities
in LICs, or peripheral areas. Areas such as that of North America and
Western Europe may be considered as the core area, whilst others such as
South America, Africa, Central/ Eastern parts of Asia may be considered to
be peripheral areas.

Source 1: What's an urban environment?


31 January 2013

11:34

What's an urban area?


Dateline: 06/09/97
It is difficult to compare countries based on the percentage of urban population since many
countries have different definitions of what size population is necessary to make a community
"urban."
In Sweden and Denmark, a village of 200 people is counted as an "urban" population but it takes a
city of 30,000 in Japan. Most other countries fall somewhere in between. Australia and Canada use
1000, Israel and France use 2000 and the United States and Mexico call a town of 2500 residents
urban.
Due to these differences, we have a problem with comparisons. Let us assume that in Japan and in
Denmark there are 100 villages of 250 people each. In Denmark, all of these 25,000 people are
counted as "urban" residents but in Japan, the residents of these 100 villages are all "rural"
populations. Similarly, a single city with a population of 25,000 would be an urban area in
Denmark but not in Japan.
Japan is 78% and Denmark is 85% urbanized. Unless we are aware of what size of a population
makes an area urban we can not simply compare the two percentages and say "Denmark is more
urbanized than Japan."
Below is a table with some countries, the minimum population which makes an area urban and the
percent of the country which is "urbanized." Notice that some countries with a higher minimum
population have a lower percentage of urbanized population.
Country

Min. Pop. Urban Pop.

Sweden

200

83%

Denmark

200

85%

South Africa

500

57%

Australia

1000

85%

Canada

1000

77%

Israel

2000

90%

France

2000

74%

United States

2500

75%

Mexico

2500

71%

Belgium

5000

97%

Iran

5000

58%

Nigeria

5000

16%

Spain

10,000

64%

Turkey

10,000

63%

Japan

30,000

78%

Sources
Hartshorn, Truman A. Interpreting the City: An Urban Geography. 1992.
Famighetti, Robert (ed.). The World Almanac and Book of Facts. 1997.
From <http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa060997.htm>

2. Urban land use


25 August 2012

16:44

Residential areas Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity and family
status (stage in life cycle).
Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter
settlements, areas of low-cost housing and inner-city areas).
Examine the causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups since
the 1980s.
Areas of
economic
activity

Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning of urban and
suburban functions and the internal structure of the central business district
(CBD).
Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas.
Examine the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service and
manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites.

Residential areas
Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity and family status (stage in life
cycle).
Residential patterns due to wealth
Graph: The density curve

Crater in the middle


As the city centre (CBD) has an incredibly expensive land price, residents
cannot afford to live there, and hence the population density is low.
Steep slopes around crater
For the ease of access to job opportunities, people would try to live as close
to the CBD as possible. This creates a steep slope in terms of the population
density, as people can afford the housing options surrounding the crater.
Shallow slope following peak (traditional model)
Traditionally, the poorer people would live closer in towards the city centre,
as this would provide a higher chance in getting a job. Meanwhile the
richer, more affluent population would live further out, causing a gradual
decline in population density.
Residential patterns due to ethnicity
Ghettoization
Around the city, there may be various ghettos for various religious or ethnic
groups. Groups of people from the same ethnic background would typically group

groups. Groups of people from the same ethnic background would typically group
and live together in a part of town, that is separate from the host society. This is
often in the suburban areas, or in the countryside.
For example, people of a Western background that live in Hong Kong would often
choose to live in Sai Kung, where there is a greater number of Westerners.
Residential patterns due to family status (family life cycle)
The family status of a person would often dictate the location in which he or she is living
in.
1. Individual (student) - A student would often live with his or her parents, in a
relatively upsized apartment or house.
2. Individual (student of higher education) - When going to college, or other forms
of higher education, the student would often rent an apartment. These are often
small, but cheap. During this stage, the person would move several times.
3. Living with a partner (early years - from about 25 to 30) - Often, people would
find living partners at around this age. The pair would move into a small house.
4. Living with a partner (children) - Once the pair have a child, they would often
move to another bigger house, to accommodate for their needs.
5. Living with a partner (more children) - At around the age of 35, more children
would come into the pair's lives, and will therefore require a bigger house.
6. Family life - As the person progresses in his or her carrier, the family's income
would increase. This would allow for the family to afford bigger housing.
7. Retirement - When the children have grown up, and the person is growing old
(reaching retirement age), the partners will retire. The children will move out as
they move on in life, and the size of the house they're in may be too large. The
pair will therefore move to a smaller sized house.
8. Death of the partner - As a partner dies, the other partner would want to leave
the house they were living in, to forget the memories. The spatial need is also
reduced. The living partner would therefore relocate to a smaller home.
9. Incapacity - After a certain age, it becomes more and more difficult for people to
care for themselves. They would therefore move to care homes for assisted living.
Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter settlements, areas of
low-cost housing and inner-city areas).
Urban deprivation
Although there are regions within a city that is relatively well off, with large numbers of
facilities serving the local population, there are also parts of a city that are deprived.
The quality of life is reduced.
In MEDCs, the areas of deprivation are often seen in inner-city areas or ghettos.
Meanwhile in LEDCs, urban deprivation is seen in shanty towns.
There are multiple factors that one can look at, when considering an area's level of
deprivation.
Physical indicators
Physical indicators would include looking at the urban fabric. This would
include the quality of housing, as well as the quality of the infrastructure in
the city, in general.
Physical indicators would also include the level of pollution, as well as the
frequency of crimes, vandalisms and graffiti.
Social indicators
Social indicators such as the rate of crime, the fear of crime, as well as the
levels of education and health care are used. Other social factors such as
the amount of subsides given to the population, as well as the number of
lone-parent families are used.
Economic indicators
The level of employment or unemployment, levels of income and the ability
for one to access jobs are looked at.
Political indicators
Political factors include the opportunity for one to vote, as well as the ability

Political factors include the opportunity for one to vote, as well as the ability
for one to take part in community organisation.
Slums and squatter settlements
Slums and squatter settlements are often highly deprived. They are typically
located in areas where urban planners would not use, such as on slopes,
floodplains, on the edge of town, or close to major industrial complexes.
These areas are often deprived due to the lack of money from the residents.
Residents of this area are usually poor, and come from various locations (residents
are typically migrants looking for jobs). Basic services such as running water isn't
always possible, and the sites are often hazardous.
Slums also have poor levels of hygiene and sanitation. This problem is worsened
by the number of people living in these areas.
An example of this is the slum in Lagos. The slum of Lagos (in Nigeria) is situated
on multiple islands off the CBD. It has a high level of deprivation, with an
extremely unhygienic environment. One can see multitudes of garbage floating
around everywhere.
There isn't a built infrastructure for sanitary purposes, and the quality of housing is
extremely poor.
However, there are lowered levels of crime, in comparison to inner-city areas.
There are also many forms of informal employment, allowing people to work at
home.
One of the main reasons for why some of the population have moved into this
settlement, is the close proximity between the slum and the CBD. The local
people believe that Lagos would provide better job opportunities, in comparison
to the rural areas that they come from. Furthermore, the housing in a slum is
often cheap, and affordable.
Image: Lagos slum

For more information, see source 1.

Areas of low-cost housing


Areas of low cost housing would often have a high level deprivation. This is due to
the lack of money available to improve the urban fabric. Low cost housing can be
seen in all cities around the world, and are typically relatively close to the CBD.
For instance, the "tong lau" in Hong Kong are often cheap, but offer a
high level of deprivation. For instance, the levels of wealth of the people who live
in these places may be low, and people may not have jobs. Furthermore, the
quality of the building may not be guaranteed. For instance, a "tong lau" in To

quality of the building may not be guaranteed. For instance, a "tong lau" in To
Kwa Wan collapsed in 2010, due to the poor quality of the building, and errors by
workers.
For more information, see source 2.
Image: Tong Lau in Hong Kong

Other examples of low cost housing include the cage-homes seen in Hong Kong.
These homes are often small, are can only fit a bed. Toilet and kitchen services
are often communal, and are shared between multiple families. There are
constant risks of fire, and are generally highly deprived.
Image: cage-homes in Hong Kong

Inner-city areas
Inner-city areas are often highly deprived, with poor urban fabrics and multitudes
of social problems. This is particularly obvious in MEDCs, where there are many
overcrowded households, and high rates of crime. The following is a concise list of
problems related to urban deprivation, seen in many inner-city areas in MEDCs
Social Problems
Properties have deteriorated
High percentage of overcrowded households

High percentage of overcrowded households


Higher death & infant mortality rates
Lower life expectancy
Social segregation Racial discrimination e.g. Brixton. People are
socially excluded.
Persistent unemployment culture of poverty
High levels of stress due to poverty family breakdowns.
Economic problems
Loss of business & industry massive unemployment (51% above
national average.
Few people can afford to own their own houses or invest any money.
Local authorities have little taxes so lack of investment in the local
area.
Environmental decay spiral of decline.
Businesses put off by high land prices, lack of space, high crime &
traffic congestion.
Environmental Problems
Decay & deprivation of factories seedbeds for crime e.g. drugs.
Lack of open space
Dereliction and poor state of repair causes depressing environment.
Air pollution
Local watercourses often badly polluted by factories.
For more information, see source 3.
Examine the causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups since the 1980s.
Causes and effects of movement of socio-economic groups
Industrial movements
Since the 1980s, companies have moved manufacturing activities to peripheral
areas. These areas include South East Asia (e.g. India, Indonesia), as well as areas
such as in Sub-Saharan Africa (newly industrialised countries - NICs). This
movement is due to the reduction of manufacturing costs, whilst retaining the
same quality.
Examples of products being manufactured in these peripheral areas include shoes
and clothing.
As a result of the movement of TNCs to NICs, there have been movements within
the population to areas where there are more job opportunities. For instance, as
core countries started to invest into China's manufacturing industry on the
coastline of China, the Chinese population started migrating towards these areas.
One of the main manufacturing zones in China is Guangzhou. More than 5 million
of Guangzhou's population are migrants (accounting for 40% of the population).
For more information, see sources 4 and 5.
Urbanisation around the world
Since the 1980s, there has been an increased trend of rural to urban migration.
This is due to the perceived increase in job opportunities. For instance, many
Nigerians would travel hundreds of miles to Lagos to live in a slum, in search for a
higher paid job.
Through technology, many nodes around the world have been connected, thus
increasing the number of global connections, thus financial flows. These
connections have encouraged people to work in urbanised areas, for TNCs.
Suburbanisation for the riches
As people become richer and more affluent, they would want to move away from
the CBD, to suburbs where the environment is a lot quieter. This has been a trend
seen in many core countries.
For instance, the more affluent people of Hong Kong would move to quieter
corners of the busy city, such as that of Fei Ngo Shan, located in the mountains
between Sai Kung and Kowloon.

Areas of economic activity

Areas of economic activity


Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning of urban and suburban functions and the
internal structure of the central business district (CBD).
Spatial pattern of economic activity
Burgess model
Image: The Burgess Model

The Burgess Model states the CBD is in the middle of the model, with rings
surrounding it. Most of the economic activity would be conducted in the CBD and
factories. Meanwhile, surrounding that would be the various residential areas for
the different classes.
Companies such as TNCs will be situated within the first two rings, whilst the low
class residents would be situated next to it. Low class residents would live here,
due to the proximity between their homes and the companies. It is perceived that
there are high chances of occupation if one is located near to the CBD.
Cities may follow this model if the entire city is located on flat land.
An example of the Burgess model in real life is Chicago. For more information, see
source 6.
Hoyt Sector model
Image: Hoyt Sector Model

This model dictates that the CBD is in the centre, but there are various sectors that
stretch out from here. For instance, high class residential areas stretch out from
here to the edge of the urban environment. This is surrounded by a ring of
medium class residential areas.
On the opposite side of the urban environment are the low class residential areas.
In between the CBD and the low class residential areas are the factories and
industrialised areas.

industrialised areas.
Cities may follow this model due to a major transport link, such as a major road, or
a river.
An example of the Hoyt Sector Model in real life is Newcastle upon Tyne.
Multi-nuclei model
Image: Multi-nuclei model

The multi-nuclei model shows that although the CBD is in the middle of town,
there may be other business districts surrounding it. Residences of different
classes and various industries may be in between these districts.
An example of a multi-nuclei city would be Hong Kong. Hong Kong's CBD is
between Tsim Sha Tsui and Central. However, Hong Kong multiple business
districts, such as Tuen Mun, Tseung Kwan O etc. There are residential areas and
industrial areas of different classes and levels between these districts.

Zoning of urban and suburban functions


Image: Zoning of urban environments

Central business district (CBD)


The CBD is where most of the business is conducted. The CBD houses facilities
such as banks, businesses, high class retailing etc. Skyscrapers may also be found
in these areas. Hong Kong's CBD is Tsim Sha Tsui and Central.
Inner-city area (zone of transition)
The inner-city area surrounds the CBD and houses lower class housing. For
instance, there may be high numbers of terraced housing. These areas are
typically gentrified, or are in the process of being gentrified. An inner-city area in
Hong Kong may be the mid-levels.
Industry
Industrial areas are typically set along major transport links. They can be new or
old, and are areas that are undergoing change. An old example of an industrial
area in Hong Kong, is Kwun Tong. This area used to house many industrial
factories, such as toy companies. It was set in this location, due to its proximity to
the sea, and the ability for ships to simply pull up to the dock.
Inner suburbs
Inner suburbs would often house middle-class housing. As people increase their
wealth, they would start moving out. This will be the first point of movement. An
example of an inner suburb would include Kowloon Tong.
Outer suburbs
Outer suburbs are filled with modern housing, that are mainly privately owned.
These are usually reserved for the wealthy and high class.
However, there may be isolated examples where the government would have
built council estates.
An example of an outer suburb in Hong Kong would be Tai Po. The government
has built multiple council estates in this region. However, there are also multiple
resorts reserved for the riches. Examples include Hong Lok Yuen.
Industrial estates
Industrial estates are typically on the rural-urban fringe (similar position to that of
outer suburbs). They are typically placed on cheap land, that is accessible and
allows room for expansion. An example of an industrial estate in Hong Kong is the
Tai Po Industrial estate.

Tai Po Industrial estate.


Internal structure of CBD
Image: The core-frame model

Inner core
The inner core is reserved for the most important of businesses, and utility
stores. Examples of services available in the inner core include:
Department stores
Specialist shops
High rise office blocks
Commercial offices (e.g. banks)
Outer core
The outer core is reserved for other less important businesses. These
include:
Smaller shops
Public administration
Theatres and cinemas
Offices (e.g. insurance and solicitors)
Frame
The remaining services and businesses that are of lesser importance are
placed in the frame. These include:
Education
Social services
Care sales and services
Light manufacturing
Wholesale services
Zones of assimilation
Zones of assimilation are areas which increasingly develops the functions of
the CBD; the CBD of the future, characterized by whole scale redevelopment
of shops, offices, and hotels.
Zones of discard
A zone of discard is an area, once a part of the CBD but now in decline and
characterized by low status shops and warehouses, and vacant property.
Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas.

Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas.
Informal sector
Definition
The informal sector includes self-employment and the jobs that are done by selfemployed people, and which are neither declared to, nor regulated by, the
authorities.
Characteristics of the informal sector
South America and Asia- 60% of the urban population in the informal sector
Sub-Saharan Africa - 70% of the urban population in the informal sector
Most are unskilled and poorly paid jobs. No qualifications or training required.
Some are skilled jobs (such as tutors) in core areas.
There aren't any set hours of work, and pay may fluctuate.
There is no legal protection or job security.
Jobs may be labour intensive, and may be illegal.
There aren't specific locations in the city, although street vending and services
tend to happen within the CBD. Other informal activity may occur elsewhere,
such as in residential areas.
Examples of informal activity
Fruit vendor
Rickshaw puller
Barber
Taxi driver
Waste-picker
Tutors
Advantages and disadvantages of informal sector
Advantages

Disadvantages

Plays a vital role in the economies of developing


countries, as they bring in income

There are negative


connotations with the
informal sector, such as
drug pushing, prostitution,
political corruption etc.

Doesn't cost a lot. For instance, in Angola, setting up Negative connotations


a formal business requires 13 procedures, 124 days may be a push factor for
and almost 500% of the average income. Informal
some.
businesses don't cost as much.
Informal sector and formal sector often
No benefits from the
interdependent - informal sector may produce goods government.
at minimal costs, which are finished by the formal
sector.
Aids the economy (was the basis of the Industrial
Revolution in the 19th century)

They are often exposed to


health and safety risks.
They may be exposed to
chemicals that are harmful
to one's health, but yet
have no protective
clothing on.

Examine the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service and manufacturing activities to
new locations, including brownfield sites.
Causes and effects of the movement of retailing and services
Retailing and services
Definition
Retailing is sale of goods and services to the public.
Causes for movements to new locations
Increased rent - Movements of retailing and services are often down to the
increased price for land. For instance, a small sized (approximately 1500 ft)

increased price for land. For instance, a small sized (approximately 1500 ft)
shop can be on rent for up to $30000 per month in Hong Kong. This is often
not sustainable for small businesses, and are therefore forced to move
elsewhere. Brownfield sites are often cheaper to rent, and most
governments do encourage the use of these locations. For instance, Hong
Kong has launched "Operation Building Bright" to salvage the many
brownfield sites/ disused locations in Hong Kong, to reduce urban sprawl,
and increase Hong Kong's sustainability.
Proximity to market - There are some services that may target particular
markets. For instance, tuition firms often have the target market of
students. By moving to residential areas, they are reducing the distance
between their business, and the target market.
Place for expansion - Some businesses may simply be expanding to increase
their markets. For instance, restaurant chains in Hong Kong would often
start in the CBD, then move out to the suburban areas, once they are
known. Examples may include Hong Kong's Caf de Coral.
Quality of the environment - The quality of the environment may be a pull
factor for business' to move. For instance, services relating to personal
treatment (massage, spas etc.) may benefit from the improved
surroundings, thus move.
Effects from movement to new locations
Decentralised CBD - As businesses start to move around, a decentralised
CBD is formed. Businesses will be scattered all around the city, and will not
follow the core-frame model.
Increased air pollution due to more frequent commutes - As people start to
commute to the edges of the city (rural-urban fringe), or to other locations,
such as brownfield sites, the amount of air pollution generated increases,
thus increasing the factor of air pollution.
Change in land prices - As businesses shift out of the CBD, the land prices
within the CBD starts to reduce.
Destruction of green field sites - As businesses search for alternative
locations for relocation, the possibility of moving to green field sites
appears. Some businesses will therefore move to these locations,
destroying the original vegetation.
Causes and effects of the movement of manufacturing activities
Manufacturing activities
Definition
Manufacturing activities typically involve factories that produce products.
Causes for movements to new locations
Increased rent - Movements of manufacturing activities are often down to
the increased price for land. For instance, a small sized factory in the CBD
can cost up to $20000 for rent each month. The prices of factories in the
outer urban area is significantly lower.
Political factors - Policies such as environmental policies may dictate the
amount of air pollution permitted for manufacturing facilities in CBDs. As
factories may often be polluting, they may not adhere to these regulations,
and therefore must move. Noisy factories are also often a cause for
concern.
Transport routing - CBDs may be difficult to get to, due to the tight streets.
In order to increase the flow of goods out of the manufacturing zone,
factories may move to transport hubs in order to allow for a better efficient
shipping procedure. For instance, the industrial estate in Tai Po is located
next to one of Hong Kong's most important highways - Tolo Harbour
Highway. This highway leads all the way to mainland China's gateway (Lo
Wu), as well as the heart of Hong Kong.
Built infrastructure - Factories may often reutilise brownfield sites. They are
cheap to rent, and often require only small fixes in order to be suitable to
restart manufacturing processes.

restart manufacturing processes.


Flat land (with room for expansion) - As factories may expand, it may be a
good idea to find a location where expansion is possible. CBDs are often
tightly packed, and expansion is near impossible.
Effects from movement to new locations
Increased air pollution in suburban areas - Suburban areas would therefore
be affected providing manufacturing processes move here. Air pollution as
well as noise pollution will be the main culprits. However, factories may also
prove to be an eye-saw.
Destruction of green field sites - When factories relocate to the countryside,
they typically take up massive plots of land. This will therefore require a
mass deforestation activity. For instance, when Boeing built it's megafactory at Paine Field, Washington, they had to remove 399,480 m of trees
for the factory alone.

Source 1: Nigeria: Lagos, the mega-city of slums


03 February 2013

14:15

NIGERIA: Lagos, the mega-city of slums


Lagos, 5 September 2006 (IRIN) - Canoes glide through the black, stinking water as children run along
an overhead maze of precarious walkways through Makoko, a growing slum on stilts in Nigerias
sprawling commercial capital, Lagos.
Many of the original residents of Makoko are fishermen attracted from across the region to hopes of
a better life in Nigeria, West Africas oil-rich economic powerhouse. But life is tougher than they had
imagined.

I moved here to fish, to set up a business, said Martins Oke, in his 70s, who left his village on the
Benin border when he was a small boy. But some days I dont even catch a single fish.
Many Makoko residents have been here for generations, losing touch with family back home. Pride
stops others from returning to their communities empty handed.
Despite the hardship, every year more and more people come to Lagos.
It is already one of the worlds mega-cities a crime-ridden, seething mass of some 15 million
people crammed into the steamy lagoons of southwest Nigeria. Two out of three Lagos residents live
in a slum with no reliable access to clean drinking water, electricity, waste disposal - even roads.
As the city population swells by up to eight percent every year, the slums and their associated
problems are growing. The government estimates that Lagos will have expanded to 25 million
residents by 2015.
By 2015 Lagos will be the third largest city in the world but it has less infrastructure than any of the
worlds other largest cities, said Francisco Bolaji Abosede, Lagos Commissioner for Town Planning
and Urbanisation.
Abosede is keen to emphasise that his is not a political appointment a euphemism for corruption.
His desk is piled high with maps and proposals for new developments and regeneration projects for
Lagos Island the citys central business district.
A WORLD AWAY

Sunday Merunu rarely ventures from his stilt-home in Makoko into downtown Lagos, although he
can see it from where he sits amongst his fishing nets.
Merunu shares a two-room shack with three other adults and eight children. The family buys water
by the bucket for drinking, cooking and bathing. Like the estimated 15,000 other residents of
Makoko, all the familys waste and raw sewage go directly into the inky water beneath their homes.
Merunus house has a couple of light bulbs and even a television, but electricity supply by the state
power company, NEPA, is at best erratic and most nights the family has only kerosene lamps for
light.

We spend 20 naira [15 cents] to buy water every couple of days and divide the electricity bill
between a few families, said Merunu. There isnt enough money left over to send the kids to
school.
The World Bank has identified nine of Lagos largest slums, Agege, Ajegunle, Amukoko, Badia, Bariga,

The World Bank has identified nine of Lagos largest slums, Agege, Ajegunle, Amukoko, Badia, Bariga,
Ijeshatedo/Itire, Ilaje, Iwaya and Makoko, for upgrading with a US $200 million loan to improve
drainage and solid waste management.
An estimated one million people will benefit from the loan, which is the largest single project backed
by the World Bank in Nigeria.
Since President Olusegun Obasanjos elected government came to power in 1999, ending 15 years of
military rule, millions of dollars have been spent on urban regeneration and projects aimed at
reducing crime, but results have been poor.
Security forces rarely venture into Makoko, except perhaps for the occasional demolition of shanty
houses. Instead, security is provided by Area Boys, self-styled vigilante groups made up of
unemployed young men that defend their territory with threats and often violence.
CORRUPTION AT THE ROOT

Like the Area Boys, at every level of society in Lagos someone is looking to make their levy.
Nigeria is one of the most corrupt countries in the world, according to international NGO
Transparency International. Since independence in 1960, billions of dollars of Nigerias oil revenue
have been siphoned from state and government coffers into Swiss bank accounts of the countrys
rulers.
Nigerias rampant corruption and lack of enforced regulations have enabled buildings to go up
unchecked only 30 percent of houses in the city have an approved building plan.
The Ebute-Metta area of Lagos is a short drive inland from Makoko. New buildings are falling down
almost as fast as they are going up. Poor workmanship and corrupt inspectors means that buildings
less than five years old are collapsing, sometimes crushing to death whole families inside.
We had noticed the cracks in the walls, but we never thought it would collapse, said Debola
Igbosanmi, who had a shop on the ground floor of 71 Bola Street before it caved in without warning
in mid-July, killing about 20 people.
According to Abosede at the Lagos Town Planning office, 199 buildings in Ebute-Metta alone have
been identified for testing for poor workmanship. Many still have people living inside.
Abosede says his office is cracking down on corruption. Its a crusade that President Obasanjo says
he is spearheading since taking up office nearly eight years ago. Although Obasanjo has won praise
overseas for his anti-corruption drive, his critics say that the president has used his Anti-Corruption
Bill only against his opponents.
In August, the woman at the forefront of his governments anti-graft campaign, Ngozi OkonjoIweala, quit as foreign minister after being relieved as finance minister in June. This was evidence,
critics said, that she had been a little too good at her job.
Okonjo-Iweala led negotiations that resulted in Africas biggest debt write-off of US $18 billion. She
also initiated reforms which saved Nigeria US $500 million by forcing the renegotiation of contracts
that had already been awarded.
But Okonjo-Iwealas successes merely scratch the surface in a country where corruption is not just a
government pursuit but has seeped into the very fabric of society.
Abutting Makoko is Iwaya, one of the oldest slum areas of Lagos. There, Chief Murtiala Aremu Oloko
sits in this three-storey home rising out of the haphazard sprawl.
When asked to list the needs faced by his subjects, Oloko laughs, It would take all day. The

When asked to list the needs faced by his subjects, Oloko laughs, It would take all day. The
problems are too numerous, ranging from healthcare shortages to schools shortages and more, he
says.
When asked what he was doing as the traditional leader in Iwaya to help his people, Oloko didnt
pause: That depends what they give me.
From <http://www.irinnews.org/Report/60811/NIGERIA-Lagos-the-mega-city-of-slums>

Source 2: The Collapse of To Kwa Wan


03 February 2013

14:12

The Collapse of To Kwa Wan


After the tragic incident, is it now the time to redevelop old buildings in Hong Kong?
talk of the town
| Text : Alex Frew McMillan | Photo : www.stockxpert.com |

Those idle daydreams of To Kwa Wans residents turned into a nightmare at the end of
January when the five-floor structure at Block J, 45 Ma Tau Wai Road collapsed in minutes.
It killed at least four people and threw dozens more out on the street.
Construction workers renovating a shop on the ground floor came rushing out of the building
moments before it came down around 1:45pm on Friday, January 29. And since the police
investigation into the reasons for the collapse is still ongoing, the question is: did the workers
remove a load-bearing wall, or walls, leaving little to keep the building standing on its feet?
Thats the implication, although the forensic experts and investigators still have their say.
The government instantly ordered emergency inspections for all buildings that were built
before 1960. The building in question was built in 1955.

It seems preposterous that a 55-year-old building cant be expected to stay standing. In most
European cities, many buildings are hundreds of years old. Even in the New World half a
century is a very short lifespan for a structure. Should the Chrysler Building, completed in
1930, or the Empire State Building, which replaced the Chrysler as the worlds largest
building when it was finished in 1931, be torn down because theyre past their best-before
date? Only somewhere like Hong Kong, where new buildings are sometimes destroyed
without even being occupied to make way for more profitable projects, would a building
thats in its sixth decade be considered ancient.
Hong Kong has had buildings collapse before. A devastating landslide hit Mid-Levels on
June 18, 1972, carving a huge gash in the hillside. It sent a huge flow of mud and debris
sluicing from a construction site down Po Shan Road and across Conduit Road, with some
of the rubble reaching Kotewall Road some 270 meters down the slope. Two buildings were
destroyed and 67 people died.
But there were natural causes behind that disaster exceptionally heavy rain, and one of
the buildings had already been weakened by a typhoon. Slopes are now monitored carefully,
and building standards have improved. The To Kwa Wan collapse appears to be entirely
man-made.
Thats very unusual. I havent seen a similar case at all, says Victor Lai, managing director
of Centaline Surveyors. If there was no illegal construction work being carried out, I think a
concrete building will last for over 50 years, at least.
In the collapsed buildings, all the balconies had been filled, renovations that are illegal but
very common in Hong Kong. That loaded weight on the front. Many of the flats had been
divided and subdivided again, raising the likelihood that structural walls clearly marked on
plans lodged with the Buildings Department were knocked down.
One of the problems with old tenement buildings like the one that collapsed is that they
hardly ever have owners committees to oversee communal building renovations or to
maintain the structure. Most of the poor tenants are renting and have no ownership stake in
the building.
No doubt, the Urban Renewal Authority will trumpet the collapse and use it as motivation to
step up its programme of knocking down old buildings in unfashionable parts of town and

step up its programme of knocking down old buildings in unfashionable parts of town and
replacing them with luxury housing. Sadly, many of the displaced tenants will be unlikely to
afford those new digs.
Banks, which had been getting better about loaning money on old buildings, may grow leery
again. One thing is for sure: few structures stand the test of time in Hong Kong. Says Lai: In
Hong Kong, its a short cycle; most of the buildings will be redeveloped.
From <http://www.squarefoot.com.hk/section/magazine-94-the-collapse-of-to-kwa-wan/>

Source 3: Urban decay & deprivation


03 February 2013

14:23

Urban decay & deprivation

Decay & deprivation is a relative concept depending on how deprived the area is in relation to
more prosperous areas.
Inner city areas suffer
Poverty
Pollution
Crime
Overcrowding
Poor housing conditions
Unemployment
Racial tension

Causes of Deprivation

Inner city areas were once thriving communities with a mixture of land-use and rich living
alongside poor. There were shops & houses, services, community spirit & little crime. However
there were high levels of pollution land, air & water. Poor sanitation led to a high death rate.

Cycle of deprivation

After the industrial revolution people became increasingly affluent. This led to social segregation
rich move out of inner city
suburbs. People left in the inner city:
Older residents
Single parent families
Students
Poorer families
Ethnic minorities left behind formation of ghettos.
Decentralisation increases the problem: Movement of businesses out of inner city unemployment Dead Heart.
Removal of businesses causes a loss of money from the area so there is little money available to
invest in improvements.
Out-of-town shopping centres means less wealthy are deprived of better shops less mobile.

Inner city Problems

Social Problems
Properties have deteriorated
High percentage of overcrowded households
Higher death & infant mortality rates
Lower life expectancy
Social segregation Racial discrimination e.g. Brixton. People are socially excluded.

Social segregation Racial discrimination e.g. Brixton. People are socially excluded.
Persistent unemployment culture of poverty
High levels of stress due to poverty family breakdowns.
Economic problems
Loss of business & industry massive unemployment (51% above national average.
Few people can afford to own their own houses or invest any money.
Local authorities have little taxes so lack of investment in the local area.
Environmental decay spiral of decline.
Businesses put off by high land prices, lack of space, high crime & traffic congestion.
Environmental Problems
Decay & deprivation of factories seedbeds for crime e.g. drugs.
Lack of open space
Dereliction and poor state of repair causes depressing environment.
Air pollution
Local watercourses often badly polluted by factories.
Overall the problem was so bad that there was multiple deprivation due to huge number of
different problems that the areas face. There were numerous initiatives to try to stop
deterioration.
From <http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/wiki/Revision:Urban_Deprivation_in_MEDCs#Cycle_of_deprivation>

Source 4: What Are Newly Industrialized Countries?


03 February 2013

15:10

What Are Newly Industrialized Countries?


Newly industrialized countries are members of a socioeconomic classification given to locations that have
recently experienced an economic shift towards stability and industry. These countries typically sit at a
juncture between Third and First World governments. They have shifted towards a stable government
and industrialized economy, but havent made permanent changes. Such countries have a higher
standard of living and per capita income than other developing nations, but still lower than that of First
World countries. Due to this discrepancy, other nations often outsource certain industries or
manufacturing jobs to these locations.
The term "newly industrialized countries" originally applied to four emerging Asian countries: Hong Kong,
Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore. These four countries developed significantly faster than many other
nearby nations, and in order to describe the distinction made by these governments, economists found
they needed to develop a new term. This term was used to describe nations that were pulling ahead of
their contemporaries in terms of economic and industrial development, but were still behind other
industrialized nations.
There are many factors that need to come together to determine if a nation is a newly industrialized
country. One of the most obvious is its level and pacing of industrialization. Countries achieving this
status have outpaced their counterparts, but have also achieved a stable level of industrialization. This
stability means that the country isnt tearing itself apart financially, socially, or environmentally in order
to achieve its industrialization.
Outside of their industrial achievements, such countries have certain political and social characteristics as
well. They typically have stronger governments with less corruption then a Third World country. Nonviolent transitions of power and elected officials are common. In addition, social rights for common
people are more prevalent.
With this level of social and political stability, coupled with an increasingly industrial workforce, the lives
of common people is better than in most Third World countries. The per capita income is higher, which
causes a corresponding increase in standard of living. The social and political reforms common in newly
industrialized countries create a greater sense of national pride and culture. Countries in this status often
have a resurgence of non-religious cultural interest, something that many Third World countries lack.
All of these improvements often come with a price. Fully industrialized and First World countries often
use newly industrialized countries as a cheap labor force. While increasing jobs in the host country and
making cheaper goods in the guest country may seem positive at first, the benefits aren't always lasting.
In these new countries, the infrastructure and laws are often behind. Environmental protection, labor,
and commerce laws are sometimes unable to handle the massive influx of new work, and the countries
often suffer for it.
From <http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-newly-industrialized-countries.htm>

Source 5: Migrants In Guangzhou


03 February 2013

15:11

Migrants In Guangzhou
The southern metropolis of Guangzhou is one of the most prosperous cities in the country. Its fastgrowing economy and great employment opportunities make the city a magnet for rural migrant
workers. So far, the number of migrant workers in Guangzhou exceeds five million, accounting for 40
percent of the city's total population. This has made administrating and serving the ever-growing
migrant population a tough task for the local government. In today's program, our reporter Dan Dan
will take us to Guangzhou to look at what the city has been doing to help the migrants better
integrate into urban society.
Reporter: These are children playing happily at the Dadongjie cultural center in downtown
Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong province. Their parents are all rural migrant
workers living in the Dadongjie residential district. Zhang Xiang is the mother of a four-year old
girl. A few years ago she followed her husband to Guangzhou from a village in east China's
Zhejiang province. After finding jobs in the downtown area, they rented a small house and settled
down in Dadongjie community.
Zhang Xiang says since a cultural center for the migrant people was established in the community
two years ago, it's become the most favorite place for her daughter and herself.
"I often come here with my daughter. In the center's children's room there are many books, toys
and amusement facilities. My child likes playing with them very much. She has also made friends
with many kids playing here. As for myself, I like the internet bar and the reading room the most.
It's good that everything here is free of charge."
The Dadongjie cultural center, which is also called Home of Golden Geese, is a two-story multifunctional building that was especially built for the migrant population in Dadongjie area with joint
investment from the municipal and district governments.
The first floor features a service office, a meeting room, an Internet cafe, a library as well as a
number of classrooms used to organize vocational training courses for migrant workers.
The second floor is installed with all kinds of cultural, recreational and fitness facilities, where both
adults and children can find what they like and enjoy a good time.
The Dadongjie cultural center is the first of its kind to be built in Guangzhou to serve the migrant
population. Li Huiming is the deputy director of the Dadongjie district administration office.
"There are over six thousand migrants living and working around the Dadongjie( ) district.
This has posed a great problem for us on the proper and effective administration of the migrants.
Two years ago, the municipal government launched a Golden Geese Project in a wish to help the
migrant people become a proper part of the urban society. The project was so named because we
often describe the floating population as migrant wild geese. The Dadongjie district was designated
as the pilot spot to carry out the golden geese project. Since then we have done a lot of work to
facilitate the work, life, education and healthcare of the migrant people."
The official says the migrant workers are mainly from impoverished rural areas in central and
western China, and most of them are poorly educated. Due to their rural roots and low level of
education, the migrants usually have low social status and live on the edge of the urban society.
To help them better enjoy their lives in their new homes, the local government has established a
wide range of service facilities for the migrant people, such as the Dadongjie cultural center, the
golden geese school, the employment service agency and the migrant people's fraternity.
At the same time, the Dadongjie community medical center has had all the migrants, especially

At the same time, the Dadongjie community medical center has had all the migrants, especially
children and women, covered under the basic community healthcare service.
"The golden geese project features a series of programs, activities and services to make the
migrants feel more at home in Guangzhou. The Dadongjie cultural center, for example, serves as a
common home for all the local migrants. It's not just a place for entertainment. It offers regular
vocational training classes to improve the migrants' professional skills and employment
competence. These classes are very popular with the migrants because they are useful and free of
charge. Besides, the center often holds cultural, sports and social activities to enrich the migrants'
leisure lives."
As the common home for the migrants, the cultural center also looks after all kinds of community
affairs related to the migrant population. It helps solve their problems in life and work, provide
information consultations, protect their legal rights and interests, and help newcomers adapt to
the urban life and find employment. It's become common that when the migrant people encounter
troubles and difficulties, they first turn to the cultural center, better known as the home of golden
geese, for advice and help.
Zhou Xia in her 20s is a migrant worker from southwest China's Guizhou province. She says at
holiday times she always misses her family very much. Since the home of golden geese was set
up, during the festive seasons the center workers often organize parties and entertainment
activities for the migrant workers so that they feel less lonely and homesick.
"I'm very thankful for the staff at the home of golden geese. They have done a lot of good things
for us. During last year's Spring Festival, for example, they held a grand party for us migrants who
didn't return to our hometowns. We enjoyed a great carnival and a banquet of dumplings. It was
really a memorable spring festival to me. I feel warm in this new home."
Following the pilot implementation in the Dadongjie community, the golden geese project has been
expanded to all the residential districts in Guangzhou. Cultural centers for the migrants, which
share the name of home of golden geese, have been established in all the major communities of
the migrant people.
Li Huiming from the Dadongjie district administration office says the goal of the golden geese
project is to try whatever the local government and society can do to make life easier and more
enjoyable for the migrant population in Guangzhou.
"It will contribute to the building of a harmonious society by better integrating the migrant
population into the local communities. The migrant workers have taken on many jobs that the
local citizens are unwilling to do. They have made remarkable contribution to the city's
development and deserve the respect and gratitude of the locals. So we should open our hearts
and arms broader to welcome them as an integral part of the urban society. This way the locals
and the migrants can both enjoy more beautiful and harmonious lives in this metropolis."
From <http://english.cri.cn/4026/2008/01/25/44@317459.htm>

Source 6: The Burgess Urban Land Use Model


03 February 2013

17:52

The Burgess Urban Land Use Model

In 1925, Burgess presented a descriptive urban land use model, which divided cities in a set
of concentric circles expanding from the downtown to the suburbs. This representation was built
from Burgess' observations of a number of American cities, notably Chicago, for which he provided
empirical evidence. The model assumes a relationship between the socio-economic status (mainly
income) of households and the distance from the Central Business District (CBD). The further from
the CBD, the better the quality of housing, but the longer the commuting time. Thus, accessing
better housing is done at the expense of longer commuting times (and costs). According to this
monocentric model (see above figure), a large city is divided in six concentric zones:
Zone I: Central Business District (called the "loop" in Chicago) where most of the tertiary
employment is located and where the urban transport infrastructure is converging, making
this zone the most accessible.
Zone II: Immediately adjacent to the CBD a zone where many industrial activities locate to take
advantage of nearby labor and markets. Further, most transport terminals, namely port sites
and railyards, are located adjacent to the central area.
Zone III: This zone is gradually been reconverted to other uses by expanding manufacturing /
industrial activities. It contains the poorest segment of the urban population, notably first
generation immigrants living, in the lowest housing conditions.
Zone IV: Residential zone dominated by the working class and those who were able to move
away from the previous zone (often second generation immigrants). This zone has the
advantage of being located near the major zones of employment (I and II) and thus represents
a low cost location for the working class.
Zone V: Represents higher quality housing linked with longer commuting costs.
Zone VI: Mainly high class and expensive housing in a rural, suburbanized, setting. The
commuting costs are the highest. Prior to mass diffusion of the automobile (1930s), most of
these settlements were located next to rail stations.
According to Burgess, urban growth is a process of expansion and reconversion of land uses, with a
tendency of each inner zone to expand in the outer zone. On the above figure, zone II (Factory zone)
is expanding towards zone IV (Working class zone), creating a transition zone with reconversion of
land use. Although the Burgess model is simple and elegant, it has drawn numerous criticisms:
The model is too simple and limited in historical and cultural applications up to the 1950s. It is

The model is too simple and limited in historical and cultural applications up to the 1950s. It is
a product of its time.
The model was developed when American cities were growing very fast in demographic terms
and when motorized transportation was still uncommon as most people used public transit.
Expansion thus involved reconversion of existing land uses. This concept cannot be applied in a
contemporary (from the second half to the 20th century) context where highways have
enabled urban development to escape the reconversion process and to take place directly in
the suburbs.
The model was developed for American cities and has limited applicability elsewhere. It has
been demonstrated that pre-industrial cities, notably in Europe, did not at all followed the
concentric circles model. For instance, in most pre-industrial European cities, the center was
much more important than the periphery, notably in terms of social status. The Burgess
concentric model is consequently partially inverted.
There were a lot of spatial differences in terms of ethnic, social and occupational status, while
there were low occurrence of the functional differences in land use patterns. The concentric
model assumed a spatial separation of place of work and place of residence, which was not
generalized until the twentieth century.
However, the Burgess model remains useful as a concept explaining concentric urban development,
as a way to introduce the complexity of urban land use and to explain urban growth in American
cities in the early-mid 20th century.
From <http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch6en/conc6en/burgess.html>

3.Urban stress
03 October 2012

09:19

Urban microclimate

Examine the effects of structures and human activity on urban


microclimates, including the urban heat island effect and air pollution.

Other types of
environmental and
social stress

Examine the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion,


overcrowding and noise, depletion of green space, waste overburden, poor
quality housing, social deprivation, crime and inequality.

Urban microclimate
Examine the effects of structures and human activity on urban microclimates, including the urban
heat island effect and air pollution.
Urban microclimates
Definition
The urban microclimate is the local climate conditions that show variations to the
general climate conditions of the wider environment.
Urban heat island effect
Image: urban heat island

Where there is human civilisation, heat is produced. Many different human


activities produce heat. For instance, driving a car would produce heated exhaust
fumes; generating electricity would generate heat in the form of steam; turning on
the air conditioning in doors would produce hot exhaust gases to be released in
the outside environment. This would generate an excessive amount of heat. As a
general rule, the more people, the more heat, due to the requirements for more
energy.
Under normal and natural circumstances, this heat is able to disperse through
wind. However, in urban environments, this is not possible. Buildings have the
effect of blocking wind from passing through. It also has the effect of causing the
canyoning effect, where wind, or air movement is only available on large streets.
This would mean that the surrounding streets would not have any air movement,
causing the heat to be trapped.
Image: Urban canyon in Chicago

Heat is further trapped and absorbed by the materials used to build the
surrounding infrastructure. The reflectivity of a material, or the albedo, dictates
how much of the solar radiation (heat energy) is absorbed. Materials such as
concrete and tarmac would have a low albedo, reflecting minimal amounts of
heat. This means that the material would heat up, trapping the heat, increasing
the urban environment's temperature.
If trees were in place of these materials, the albedo would be significantly higher,
thus reflecting more heat, reducing the temperature.
Image: albedos of different materials

The urban environment, with a smaller number of trees would also mean a
reduction of relative humidity. In most cities, heat is reduced through the
evaporation of water. The energy is removed through water vapour.
However, urban materials don't hold water, as they aren't porous. Water cannot
be removed from the materials, causing the heat to be trapped within the
material. If these materials were replaced by trees, much of the heat would be
removed through the respiration process. The water would be used as a medium
to carry the heat energy. Water vapour would be released, thus increasing the
relative humidity.
Urban heat waves can also form without warning, causing multiple fatalities.

Pollution
Air pollution can also be created by human activities. For instance, the exhaust
fumes of a car contains carbon dioxide; the factories around the city produce
smog (nitrogen dioxide); power plants produce carbon monoxide. These
particulate matter produced by human activities creates a pollution dome in the
city. Not only does this particulate matter trap heat, increasing the urban heat
island effect, it also causes multiple problems regarding one's health.
Respiratory problems for the old and the young
Long term sicknesses
Human discomfort due to intense heat
Increase in the spread of diseases
Other types of environmental and social stress
Examine the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion, overcrowding and noise, depletion
of green space, waste overburden, poor quality housing, social deprivation, crime and inequality.
Congestion and overcrowding
A major symptom of urban stress is congestion and overcrowding. This is where the
carrying capacity of a city is exceeded, causing unnecessary delays, and therefore social
stress. A good example of overcrowding and congestion can be seen in Hong Kong.
Hong Kong is renowned for its high traffic environment. No matter if you're talking
about on land, in the air, on the sea or underground, it's all congested.
We can often see traffic jams in Hong Kong - it's a daily sight. This increases the tensions
of people unnecessarily, causing social stress. It is also a type of urban stress, as the

of people unnecessarily, causing social stress. It is also a type of urban stress, as the
environment isn't capable of allowing the large number of people from living there.
Image: Congestion and overcrowding in Mong Kok

Overcrowding underground is also seen. People would herd into MTR stations at
rush hour, causing unnecessary tension.
Noise
Noise pollution is also a major factor of urban stress. As noise levels increase, it
becomes a nuisance. Social stress levels are increased, and the environment is
disturbed. Typically, in a peaceful and quiet corner of town, the noise levels can
be as low as 10 decibels. However, one would be lucky to be in an urban
environment (in Hong Kong), where the readings are below 90 db. This is down to
the various noise creating factors, such as transport, machinery (air conditioning)
etc.
An increased level of noise would increase tension, and unnecessary discomfort.
Depletion of green space
Image: depletion of green space in Hong Kong

Many cities, such as Hong Kong, have the problem of the lack of green space.
Green space is important in urban environments, as it provides people with a
place to relax and calm down. Greenery is also important to maintain an
equilibrium in terms of air pollution. A depletion of green space would therefore
not allow for the environment to "clean" itself, or to allow for people to relax.
This would therefore increase urban stress, as well as social stress.
Many countries such as Hong Kong have made an effort in reducing this problem.
For instance, road side plants and small parks filled with greenery have been put in
place.
Waste overburden
Waste overburden may also create urban stress. When an area is over populated,
the amount of waste produced would exceed the amount that an area can handle.
This causes major problems, as in the near future, there would be no place for the
waste to go.
For instance, Hong Kong's landfills are projected to all be filled by 2020. If no
solutions are sought, Hong Kong would not have a place to remove its rubbish.
It is therefore mandatory for one to recycle and reuse, reducing waste.
Poor quality housing
Poor quality housing may also signify urban stress, as it suggests a lack of care, and
money invested into maintaining the appearance and integrity of the housing. If
large sums of poor quality housing are present, then the urban stress levels would
be high, and vice versa.
The quality of housing is indicative of levels of wealth and disparities in society.
Low quality housing may not have proper water, sanitary or electrical facilities.
The sizes of housing may also be small, increasing social stress. The lack of basic
facilities may also stretch the local's limits.
An example of poor quality housing in Hong Kong, can be found in Pok Fu Lam
village. This is a slum area, where a high number of people live in small huts, that
dont have a reliable fresh water supply.
Social deprivation, crime and inequality
Social deprivation can include the crime rates, as well as the level of inequality. A
high crime rate would suggest that there is a high level of social stress, thus urban
stress levels. Inequalities, such as the ability for one to vote also has the same
effect.
Further sources of social deprivation may be from the lack of job opportunities, as
well as factors such as the lack of social services.
Hong Kong in general, doesn't have the problem of social deprivation, due to the
good social system in place. However, there are inequalities between the various
races, which would increase the urban stress levels. For example, domestic

races, which would increase the urban stress levels. For example, domestic
helpers have a minimum wage of under $4000 a month, whilst everyone else has a
minimum wage of $28 per hour.

4.The sustainable city


03 October 2012

09:19

The city as a
system

Describe the city as a system in terms of:


- inputs - energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
- outputs - solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and
outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/ linear) city system with
uncontrolled inputs and outputs.

Case studies

Referring to at least two city case studies, discuss the concepts of:
- sustainable city management
- the urban ecological footprint.

Sustainable
strategies

Evaluate one case study of each of the following.


- One socially sustainable housing management strategy.
- One environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy.
- One strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from in-migration.

The city as a system


Describe the city as a system in terms of:
- inputs - energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
- outputs - solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled
and an unsustainable (open/ linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs.
The city as a system
Inputs
The inputs are the resources that a city uses. These would include the energy
required to run the city, the water used, the materials needed, the products
purchased, and the food consumed. People may also be listed as an input, as they
contribute to the city's operation.
Outputs
The outputs are typically the products of the city. These would include the various
types of waste produced, such as solid, atmospheric and liquid waste. Noise is
also a product of the city, as different activities would produce a large volume of
noise. Meanwhile, humans may also be produced in the process.
Sustainable (circular metabolism) system
Image: a circular metabolism system (Rogers model)

In a sustainable system, many products of the city (original outputs) are recycled.
This reduces the level of urban stress due to waste overburden, and increases the
city's level of sustainability.
The recycling and reusing of waste would also mean the reduction of inputs.

The recycling and reusing of waste would also mean the reduction of inputs.
The recycling process can be split into two types: organic and inorganic. Organic
matter such as waste water can be processed and reused. For example, waste
water (grey water - water that one flushes down the sink) may be cleaned and
filtered, then used as toilet water. This would reduce the need for the region to
obtain water from other sources.
Inorganic matter can also be processed. For instance, thermoplastics can be
melted, and reformed into any shape desired. This would again, reduce the need
for the increased number of inputs, as well as reduce the number of outputs.
Linear (metabolism cities) systems
Image: a linear metabolism system (Rogers model)

In a linear system, there are large inputs and outputs. In a totally linear system,
nothing is recycled, meaning that a large range and volume of resources are
utilised.
Large quantities of resources, such as water, food, materials etc are used. When
these resources are used, they are simply discarded.
Case studies
Referring to at least two city case studies, discuss the concepts of:
- sustainable city management
Sustainable city management
Case study 1: Curitiba, Brazil
Reducing inputs regarding energy
This area has one of the most efficient and sustainable transport systems in
the world, which includes a bus network that allows for only a few buses to
be entering the center of town, which reduces congestions. The use of
buses itself is also very sustainable, as no tunnels or underground networks
will need to be built. The fact that buses are used, also allows for congested
route to have more cars connected to the motor bus, extending the length
and capacity of the bus without having to hire more drivers. This reduces
cost, and increases in efficiency, as not much money is required to set up
stations (only a small hut or similar infrastructure required).
The plan of the bus network is also very impressive, as most buses go
around the city, avoiding more congested areas, hence people can travel
across town in a fraction of the time it takes to go through town, to exit at
the other side. By going around the city, the effects of the urban heat island
are reduced.
In Curitiba, there are also designated bus lanes, which reduces congestion,
and increases the average speed of the bus. This allows people to travel
from the origin to their destination in a limited amount of time.
Image: Curitiba bus network

Reducing inputs and outputs through recycling


Curitiba also has one of the most efficient methods of recycle. Collection
facilities are in place to allow for people to people to discard items that may
not be of use. In return, the local population can get food, bus tickets,
tickets to entertainment events etc. This system promotes a recycling
culture, thus reducing the inputs into the city system.
For instance, the recycling system for paper, recycles the equivalent of 1200
trees per day.
For more information, see source 1.
Case study 2: Hong Kong
Reducing outputs such as air pollution
Hong Kong has vowed to reduce its emissions, and problems relating to air
pollution for many years. However, there hasn't been much success, due to
the trade winds from China, bringing large sums of air pollution down to
Hong Kong. With that said, Hong Kong's air pollution levels can be much
higher if the following policies weren't put in place.
Policy which dictates one must turn off idling engines
This policy applies to all sorts of vehicles, from taxis to buses.
Cars that have stopped, and have idling engines must be turned
off, or risk being dealt a fine. This policy was put in place to
reduce the volume of carbon dioxide produced in the urban
environment.
Car/ vehicle renewal program
Ever since the Euro-4 series of commercial transport vehicles
were put into sale, the government of Hong Kong have launched
initiatives to encourage people to trade in their old and
polluting cars, for newer, more environmentally friendly ones.
For instance, private bus companies were offered tax reductions
and sums of cash equating to more than $40,000 to trade in
each commercial vehicle.
Integration of various types of transport
The government of Hong Kong have attempted to integrate a
sustainable yet effective transport system in Hong Kong, to
discourage people from driving. Hong Kong has one of the most
effective transport systems in the world: the MTR system, bus
network, tram routes etc. Nearly every single corner of Hong
Kong is now linked to one of multiple methods of public
transport. The Hong Kong government aims to reduce transport
problems that cause people to drive, as driving would cause the
appearance of various types of urban stress, namely congestion,
and air pollution.

and air pollution.


Reducing inputs through recycling
Hong Kong has a fantastic recycling system in place. Recycling bins can be
seen all over the street, encouraging people to recycle items that are made
from glass, plastic or paper. These bins are constantly cleared of, and the
materials in them recycled. By recycling these materials, the outputs
(waste) and inputs are reduced.
For more information, see source 2.
- the urban ecological footprint.
Urban ecological footprint
Definition
The ecological footprint is a measure of the area of land required to keep a city
going. The ecological footprint covers the various needs of human civilisation,
such as water, food, materials etc.
The world's ecological footprint is increasing. However, there may be variations of
footprints between various locations. Some areas may be more sustainable, and
therefore have a smaller ecological footprint; whilst others may be of the opposite.
Typically, a HIC (core area) would have a larger ecological footprint due to the various
luxuries. The world average in 2007 was 2.7 global hectares per person.
Case study 1: Tokyo
Average of 1.8 hectares per person
Demands for 6.25 hectares per person, but only has a supply of 1.88 hectares per
person, leaving a deficit of 4.37 hectares
The use of land is reduced by tightly packed buildings (e.g. Shinjuku district)
The use of fuels is reduced by an efficient metro system
There have been technological advancements, such as the electric car to reduce
the ecological footprint.
For more information, see source 3.
Case study 2: Curitiba
50 square metres per person.
Environmental policies aids this small ecological footprint. These include the use
of sustainable transport system (bikes, bi-articulated buses, bus lanes etc.)
Congested areas are pedestrianized
Green spaces are put in place, to displace the pollutants produced
Cheap and low cost technology solutions used.
For more information, see source 4.
Sustainable strategies
Evaluate one case study of each of the following.
- One socially sustainable housing management strategy.
Sustainable housing management strategy
Case study: Hong Kong Housing Authority
The Hong Kong Housing Authority exercises multiple housing schemes for its
population. For instance, it enables the poor to own or rent a house at a cheap
price. These housing estates are scattered all around Hong Kong, from areas that
are extremely far away from the local CBD (such as that of Tuen Mun), to housing
estates that are located literally minutes away (such as that of Ho Man Tin).
The government continues to build extra housing blocks each year, and in the past
years have built 1.3 million separate apartments. These apartment blocks are
sustainable, as they compact a large sum of people into a relatively small area,
reducing the city's ecological footprint. They are also cheap and affordable, for
the poorest of families.
- One environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy.
Sustainable pollution management strategy
Case study: Hong Kong

Case study: Hong Kong


Hong Kong has vowed to reduce its emissions, and problems relating to air
pollution for many years. However, there hasn't been much success, due to the
trade winds from China, bringing large sums of air pollution down to Hong Kong.
With that said, Hong Kong's air pollution levels can be much higher if the following
policies weren't put in place.
Policy which dictates one must turn off idling engines
This policy applies to all sorts of vehicles, from taxis to buses. Cars
that have stopped, and have idling engines must be turned off, or risk
being dealt a fine. This policy was put in place to reduce the volume
of carbon dioxide produced in the urban environment.
Car/ vehicle renewal program
Ever since the Euro-4 series of commercial transport vehicles were put
into sale, the government of Hong Kong have launched initiatives to
encourage people to trade in their old and polluting cars, for newer,
more environmentally friendly ones.
For instance, private bus companies were offered tax reductions and
sums of cash equating to more than $40,000 to trade in each
commercial vehicle.
Integration of various types of transport
The government of Hong Kong have attempted to integrate a
sustainable yet effective transport system in Hong Kong, to discourage
people from driving. Hong Kong has one of the most effective
transport systems in the world: the MTR system, bus network, tram
routes etc. Nearly every single corner of Hong Kong is now linked to
one of multiple methods of public transport. The Hong Kong
government aims to reduce transport problems that cause people to
drive, as driving would cause the appearance of various types of urban
stress, namely congestion, and air pollution.
- One strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from in-migration.
Strategy to control rapid city growth
Case study: Hong Kong
Formation of new towns
To support the influx of in-migrants, new towns were set up at the edge of
the city. For instance, the new towns of Tseung Kwan O and Tuen Mun were
set up, to accommodate the population.
These new towns were supported by an efficient transport network, that
would bring people from these new towns, all the way to the middle of the
city in a matter of minutes - connecting the whole city.
As the accommodation constructed were public, they followed Hong Kong's
public housing scheme, and were therefore rented/ sold at a cheap price.

Source 1: Curitiba: The Green Capital


04 February 2013

15:32

CURITIBA: THE GREEN CAPITAL


The inhabitants of the megapolis of Curitiba in Brazil have 16 parks, 14 forests and more
than 1000 green public spaces as their immediate neighbours. As a whole, the green
urban areas in Curitiba are among the largest in the world and every inhabitant of the city
has approximately 52 m of nature to romp about in. Brazil's green capital makes a
tremendous effort to preserve the city's natural environment and is regarded by many as
one of the world's best examples of green urban planning.
With a network of almost 30 parks and urban forested areas, Curitiba is the greenest capital in
southern Brazil. Back in 1970, each of the city's inhabitants had less than 1 m of green area. A
goal-directed effort has since boosted this area to 52 m per inhabitant and the city is still actively
improving its natural environment. In 2007, Curitiba came third on the list of the 15 Green Cities
in the World in the American magazine Grist.
Curitiba's environment legislation protects the local vegetation (mixed subtropical forest), which
has been threatened by urban development. It makes sure that the Paran pine (Araucaria
angustifolia) is not felled in public or private parks. In order to protect the local vegetation, the
city's Municipal Secretariat of the Environment produces 150,000 endemic cuttings, 16,000 fruit
trees and 260,000 flower seeds, at the same time as 350,000 cuttings are nursed in a botanical
garden and three greenhouses.
The city has succeeded in introducing a Green Exchange employment programme to the benefit
of the environment and socially deprived groups. Low income families living in the favelas,
shantytowns out of reach of the city's dustcarts, can exchange their rubbish bags for bus tickets
and food. Children can exchange reusable waste with school articles, chocolate, toys and tickets
to entertainment events. The project results in less household waste in the streets as well as in
sensitive areas such as rivers and parks. In combination with other initiatives, 70% of Curitiba's
waste is recycled by the city's inhabitants. The city's recycling of paper alone accounts for the
equivalent of 1,200 trees a day.
The population at large in Curitiba is also involved in the green city's development and have,
among other things, planted 1.5 million trees along the city's highways and byways. Many streets
in the city centre have been converted to pedestrian precincts and a 'flower street' is cared for by
street children. Curitiba's 'Open University' provides an education for a modest fee, and the city's
inhabitants are taught about environment protection. Clapped out old city buses are used as
mobile schools which teach the population about sustainability.
Curitiba has set new standards of sustainable urban planning. In order to demonstrate the city's
contribution to the global agenda, Curitiba held an international summit in 2007 on urban
planning and biodiversity for civic leaders from all over the world. Here, Jamie Lerner, the
recognised urban planner and former mayor of Curitiba, pointed out that urban planning both
should and can incorporate environmental, social and economic sustainability, as they have done
in Curitiba.

"Cities are not the problem, they are the solution." Jamie Lerner, urban planner and
former mayor of Curitiba.
From <http://www.dac.dk/en/dac-cities/sustainable-cities-2/all-cases/green-city/curitiba-the-green-capital/?
bbredirect=true>

Source 2: Top Five Most Sustainable Cities in the World


04 February 2013

15:49

Top Five Most Sustainable Cities in the World


From using renewable energy to cutting back on emissions, five cities across the globe are
leading the way when it comes to implementing sustainable initiatives.

VANCOUVER, CANADA

Consistently performing well in worldwide livable city rankings, Vancouver has an


ambitious goal of becoming the the greenest city in the world by 2020. They already lead
the world in hydroelectric powermaking up 90 percent of its supplyas well as
regularly tapping into renewables like wind, solar, and wave power.
Thanks to mass transit, bike lanes (248 miles worth), ride sharing programs, and greenways,
Vancouver has the lowest per capita carbon emissions of any major city on the continent.
As part of their 2020 goals, they aim to decrease emissions an additional 33 percent, while
also enacting strict green building codes (all new developments must be carbon neutral) and
improving the energy efficiency of existing structures by 20 percent.
One area where Vancouver could improve is in their use of electric vehicles. The Vancouver
Electric Vehicle Association estimates there are only 20 pure electric vehicles on city roads.
This is largely due to availability, with the Chevy Volt only just released in Canada and the
Nissan Leaf expected later this fall. While there are only 15 charging stations currently
planned, city officials are planning more for the future and expect EVs to account for 15
percent of new vehicle sales in Vancouver by 2020.

SAN FRANCISCO, U.S.

Atop the ever-shifting throne of green North American cities sits San Francisco, one of the
most densely populated metropolitan areas in the U.S. High marks for air quality, waste
management, and commitment to eco-friendly commuting options continue to separate
San Fran from its counterparts.
Why do we do all this? former Mayor Gavin Newsom said in a 2008 interview. Because
its the right thing to do. Were consistently among the top travel destinations in the world.
We think people are attracted to the values of this city.
The metropoliswhich was recently ranked as the number one green city in North
Americarecycles 77 percent of its waste, reserves nearly 20 percent of its land to

Americarecycles 77 percent of its waste, reserves nearly 20 percent of its land to


green spaces, and has more than 497 LEED-certified green building projects.
On the auto front, San Francisco is considered the electric vehicle capital of the U.S., with
over 160 public charging stations and plans to install an additional 2,750. An innovative
battery-swapping station is also planned for mid-2012 to service a 60-car EV taxi fleet. Its
estimated that the city will have over 1,000 EVs and 5,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles by the end
of 2012.

OSLO, NORWAY

With more than two-thirds of its municipality covered in protected forest, waterways, and
agriculture land, its no surprise that Oslo is one of Europes leading sustainable cities.
Examples of pioneering practices include intelligent lighting that adjusts intensity depending
on traffic conditions and weather, bio-methane from waste to power mass transit and
heating, and an eco-certification program that involves all 43,000 employees of the city.
By 2030, Oslo aims to cut carbon emissions by 50 percentNorway as a whole plans to
be carbon neutral by 2050and is targeting its transportation sector for the greatest
gains.
Car and bike sharing programs are in place (including a hugely successful EV sharing fleet),
and 400 charging stations have been installed downtown. Already, over 1,700 EVs grace
Oslos roads, all receiving free parking, toll immunity, and access to lanes generally reserved
for public transport.
The citys heating system is currently powered by 80 percent renewable energy, mainly from
biomass from residual waste. This relationship annually saves the carbon emissions
equivalent to 60,000 vehicles. Within the next decade, Oslo plans on expanding the system
to reach 100 percent renewable sources for heating.

CURITIBA, BRAZIL

Named by Readers Digest as the Best Place to Live in Brazil, Curitiba is regularly
commended for its sustainability and conservation efforts. Back in the early 1970s, the city
set out to develop a long-term urban plan that would not only accommodate future growth,
but also encourage green spaces and a clean environment. Only non-polluters were invited
to resign within its limits and public transport was efficiently divided into concentric circles
within commercial corridors.
Where there was once only one square meter of green space per person, now there is more
than 52. Over 1.5 million trees have been planted along city streets and a network of 28
parks and forests developed. Some 2.3 million people a day use Curitibas inexpensive and
fast transit servicea model of efficiency adopted by other cities including Los Angeles

fast transit servicea model of efficiency adopted by other cities including Los Angeles
and Bogota, Colombia.
Ninety percent of residents recycle two-thirds of their garbage daily and the city has even
come up with an innovative program that allows people to exchange trash for transit tokens
or fresh produce. This has greatly minimized litter and waste in even some of the poorer
sections of Curitiba.
Said former Mayor Jamie Lerner: There is no endeavor more noble than the attempt to
achieve a collective dream. When a city accepts as a mandate its quality of life; when it
respects the people who live in it; when it respects the environment; when it prepares for
future generations, the people share the responsibility for that mandate, and this shared
cause is the only way to achieve that collective dream.

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

Copenhagen, site of 2009s climate change talks, is a shining green jewel as Denmarks
capital city. Like to bike? Youll be in good companyas more than a third of the citys
1.2 million people regularly cycle to work via more than 217 miles of dedicated bike
lanes. Officials hope to get 50 percent of the population on two wheels by 2015 by closing
down some major roads to cars and developing an additional 43 miles of bike lanes.
Besides having the largest wind turbine industry in the world, Denmark also leads in wind
productionsupplying roughly 19 percent of the countrys power needs. A new
offshore wind farm planned for 2013 (featuring 111 turbines) will supply an additional
four percent.
As part of their goal to be the worlds first carbon neutral capital by 2025, city officials have
instituted a mandatory green roof policy, requiring all new developments to incorporate
some level of vegetation into their building designs. In addition, pocket parks (half the size
of a soccer field) are being installed around Copenhagen so that by 2015, 90 percent of all
residents will be able to walk to a green space in less than 15 minutes.
Better yet, just grab your bike.
From <http://www.ecomagination.com/top-five-most-sustainable-cities-in-the-world>

Source 3: The Ecological Footprints of Tokyo


04 February 2013

16:03

The Ecological Footprints of Tokyo


The footprint of a city is defined as the amount of land required to sustain its metabolism; that is, to
provide the raw materials on which it feeds, and process the waste products it excretaes.
"Tokyo" as defined here is a conurban region that includes the 23 wards of Tokyo Metropolitan
Government and the surrounding prefectures of Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama (Yokohama city is
therefore included within Kanagawa prefecture.)
With this definition, Tokyo population was 26.6 million for 1995. The total population of the country
was 125.1 million (1995). The total land area of Japan is 377, 700 sq km. (37,770,000 ha) (habitable
land is equal to 125,500 sq km or 12,550,000 ha, approximately 33% of the total land).[ OneWorld ]

1. According to the Earth Council report, "Ecological Footprints of Nations" a biologically


productive area of 1.7 ha is available per capita for basic living. This means that for sustainable living,
the people in Tokyo alone need an area of 45,220,000 ha - which is 1.2 times the land area of the
whole of Japan. If mountains and other regions are discarded and only habitable land included, then
this becomes 3.6 times the land area of Japan.

2. From the same report, taking the country as a whole, Japan has a demand for 6.25 ha per capita
(for resources such as energy, arable land, pasture, forest, built-up area, etc.). But the supply has been
1.88 ha per capita. This leaves a 'ecological deficit' of 4.37 ha per person that has to be met from
outside the country. For Tokyo alone, this is equal to 116,242,000 ha or 3.07 times the land area of
Japan.

3. Lets take another viewpoint, based on the write-up, "London's Footprint" in OneWorld.
26,600,000 people live in Tokyo. Area required for food production is 0.2 ha per person. For Tokyo,
this will be a total of 5,320,000 ha ... (1) Similarly the forest area required by Tokyo for wood products
is 0.109 ha per person. Tokyo's value is 2,899,400 ha. ... (2) Land area that would be required for
carbon sequestration (=fuel production) is 1.5 ha per person This is 74,214,000 ha for Tokyo ... (3) The
total of 1, 2 and 3 is 108,528,000 ha - 2.14 times the land area of the whole of Japan!!
Each of the above methodologies give different multiples of Japan's land area needed to sustain the
population of only Tokyo, the world's largest city. The key point to understand here is the sponge that
an urban area is, in soaking up the earth's natural resources.
But environmental footprints are not an 'exact science'. As we saw above, different definitions can
provide different footprints. It also depends on issues of scale in which it is measured - city, nation,
region. Besides, excess footprints for small, developed nations are inevitable.
Footprints are useful, however from three points of view:
to shock, to generate awareness - focussing on urban lifestyles and living, resource utlization
etc.
to build scenarios: if criteria used to define the footpirnts are changed, or resource utilization
reduced, how does it affect the footprints?
to evaluate and monitor policies and programmes. What footprints have particular policies and
programmes generated? If their structure is changed/modified, or new policies put inplace, how
are footprints affected?
From <http://www.gdrc.org/uem/tokyo-fprint.html>

Source 4: Measuring the Footprint of the 'World's


Greenest City'
04 February 2013

16:03

Measuring the Footprint of the Worlds Greenest City

12/07/2010 08:22 PM

Some 50 square meters of parkland per inhabitant. A food-for-trash program that supports a 70-percent
citywide recycling rate: the highest in the world. A public transportation system that carries 1.9 million
riders a day, 70 percent of commuter traffic. A vast network of open space, mowed by grass-nibbling
sheep, that serves as flood control and offers an attractive alternative to concrete canals.
These are just a few of the attributes that make Curitiba, Brazil something of an Emerald City for green
development.
Its eco-minded policies have not only won it accolades but contributed to a high quality of life: According to
one survey, 99 percent of the citys residents say it is a good place to live.
And yet the place named the worlds most sustainable city this year by the Globe Forum runs risk of
becoming a victim of its own success. Affluence is leading to more cars and greater consumption among
city residents, while the citys desirability has contributed to a tenfold increase in population over the last
five decades.

Curitiba is considered the ecological capital, and we want to keep this title, said Pedro Amrico Norcio
Duarte of SENAI/PR, an industrial group that sponsored the study. The city recently released its Curitiba
2030 plan to maintain its status of high sustainability in the future. As part of that goal, it conducted an
analysis of its Ecological Footprint to understand its areas of resource pressure and demand.
Curitiba is growing rapidly. More and more industries are growing and producing, Duarte said. An
important part of planning for the citys future, he said, will be in addressing personal consumption and the
demands it places on the environment.

Meat, cars are major factors


The Footprint of Curitiba residents is more than 40 percent higher than the Brazilian averagea factor
driven largely by affluence. One of the largest contributers to residents Ecological Footprint is consumption
of meat and other goods and services produced from animals. The grazing land Footprint makes up nearly
half of the average Curitibans Footprint and is signficantly larger than the average Brazilian grazing land
Footprint, the report says. The analysis also found that, in spite of the success of public transit, Curitiba
residents also spend more than twice the Brazilian average on the purchase and operation of private
transportation.

The study is careful to point out, however, that the citys Footprint would be much higher without its green
initiatives. Curitiba likely has one of the lowest Footprints for a city of its size and wealth, the report says.
With their supportive government, Curitiba residents can strive to match Brazils per capita Footprint, the
report says. Changes in dietfor example through the promotion of occassional VeggieDays, such as
those pursued in Ghent, Belgiumcould have significant potential to reduce the Footprint. Also, by
maintaining and using to full advantage the citys public transportation infrastructure, the city can decrease
the stock of privately-owned vehicles or, in any event, the miles traveled in them.

From
<http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/blog/measuring_the_footprint_of_the_worlds_greenest_city>