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Assessment of Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Unbalance

Zia Emin National Grid Transco Network Design System Policy & Support

Assessment of Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Unbalance Zia Emin National Grid Transco Network Design System Policy

What is Quality of Supply? (1)

I de a l 3-Pha se Ba l a nced Vol tages

1 0. 9 0. 8 0. 7 0. 6 V(Re d) 0. 5 V(Ye l l
1
0.
9
0.
8
0.
7
0.
6
V(Re d)
0.
5
V(Ye l l ow )
0.
4
V(Bl ue )
0.
3
0.
2
0.
1
0
-0. 1
-0. 2
-0. 3
-0. 4
-0. 5
-0. 6
-0. 7
-0. 8
-0. 9
-1
0
0.01
0. 02
Ti m e (Se conds)
0.03
0.04
V(pu)
What is Quality of Supply? (1) I de a l 3-Pha se Ba l a nced

What is Quality of Supply? (2)

Actual measurement 3-phase measurement

1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 V (pu)
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
V (pu)
What is Quality of Supply? (2) Actual measurement 3-phase measurement 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

Today’s Talk

Will cover harmonic voltage distortion and voltage unbalance assessment in some detail Will not cover voltage dips, volt age steps, flicker or transients

Today’s Talk • Will cover harmonic voltage distortion and voltage unbalance assessment in some detail •

Voltage Waveform Quality: the Grid Code

National Grid is bound by Grid Code CC6.1.5 to:

Apply G5/4 planning criteria for new connections to limit harmonic emissions

Take existing and prospective users into account Comply with the compatibility levels of G5/4

To ensure, under planned conditions, a maximum continuous Phase Voltage Unbalance of <1% unless abnormal conditions prevail

Voltage Waveform Quality: the Grid Code • National Grid is bound by Grid Code CC6.1.5 to:

ER G5/4 Stage 3 Assessment

All new connections at 33 kV

Consider voltage distortion at the connection point and other nodes (not necessarily owned by NGT)

Detailed harmonic impedance model of the network Resonance conditions must be considered

ER G5/4 Stage 3 Assessment • All new connections at ≥ 33 kV • Consider voltage

Stage 3 Assessment Process

BACKGROUND

MEASUREMENTS

HARMONIC

STUDIES

ESTIMATE TOTAL HARMONIC VOLTAGES
ESTIMATE
TOTAL HARMONIC
VOLTAGES

EMISSION

LIMITS

Stage 3 Assessment Process BACKGROUND MEASUREMENTS HARMONIC STUDIES ESTIMATE TOTAL HARMONIC VOLTAGES EMISSION LIMITS

Harmonic Studies (1)

Entire transmission system modelled Consider various demand levels and typical planned outages Include detailed distribution networks near the connection point Remaining distribution networks represented by simpler lumped load models

Harmonic Studies (1) • Entire transmission system modelled • Consider various demand levels and typical planned

Harmonic Studies (2)

For each system condition, calculate up to the 50 th harmonic:

Harmonic self-impedance (Z Ah ) at the connection point (node A) Voltage gain to other nodes (G AXh ) Harmonic voltages:

– At the connection point: V Ah = I h Z Ah

– At a remote node X:

V Xh = V Ah G AXh

Harmonic Studies (2) • For each system condition, calculate up to the 50 harmonic: • Harmonic

Harmonic Study Example

G AC (Z Ah ) Node A V Ah =I h . Z Ah Node B
G
AC
(Z Ah )
Node A
V Ah =I h . Z Ah
Node B
I
h
Polluting Load
Node H
Node E
V Hh =G AHh . V Ah
G
AH
400kV
132kV
MV
Node C
G
AE
Harmonic Study Example G AC (Z Ah ) Node A V Ah =I h . Z

Self-Impedance at Node A (Z Ah )

0.5 in t a ct syst e m sys t em c o n d it
0.5
in t a ct syst e m
sys t em
c o n
d it ion
1
sys t em
c o n
d it ion
2
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8
2 0
2 2
2 4
Zmag (pu)
Self-Impedance at Node A (Z ) 0.5 in t a ct syst e m sys t

harm onic n u m b er

Voltage Gains

In ta c t S ys te m C o n d itio n s

8. 0 7. 0 G AB 6. 0 G AE G AH 5. 0 4. 0
8.
0
7.
0
G AB
6.
0
G AE
G AH
5.
0
4.
0
3.
0
2.
0
1.
0
0.
0
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8
2 0
2 2
2 4
voltage gain
Voltage Gains In ta c t S ys te m C o n d itio n

har m o n i c nu m b er

Background Measurements

Minimum period of 7 days (no bank holidays!) 95 th percentile assumed for background Preferably no outages Choose a few representative sites Not possible at some locations (no suitable transducer) Access can be a problem (3 rd party sites)

Background Measurements • Minimum period of 7 days (no bank holidays!) • 95 percentile assumed for

Example Background Measurement

5 th H a r m o n ic V o lt a g e

Magnitude Fr i S at T hu Tue M on W ed W e d S
Magnitude
Fr i
S at
T hu
Tue
M on
W ed
W e d
S un
95 th Pe rce n t i l e (2 .3 5 % )
0. 0%
0. 5%
1. 0%
1. 5%
2. 0%
2. 5%
3. 0%
Example Background Measurement 5 H a r m o n ic V o lt a g

Estimate Total Individual Harmonic Voltages

Combine study results and measured background:

Assume 0º phase shift for the harmonic with the highest magnitude

V = V + V totalh calch meash
V
= V
+ V
totalh
calch
meash

90º for the rest

  • V totalh

2 2 calch meash + V
2
2
calch
meash
+ V

= V

Estimate Total Individual Harmonic Voltages • Combine study results and measured background: • Assume 0º phase

Estimated Total Harmonic Voltage (5 th )

3. 50 % ne w lo a d backgro und 3. 00 % G 5 /4
3.
50
%
ne w lo a d
backgro und
3.
00
%
G 5 /4 Pla nning Le vel
2.
50
%
2.
00
%
1.
50
%
1.
00
%
0.
50
%
0.
00
%
A ( 4 0 0kV)
B ( 132 kV)
E ( 11k V )
5 th harmonic voltage magnitude
Estimated Total Harmonic Voltage (5 ) 3. 50 % ne w lo a d backgro und

N odes

Harmonic Emission Limits

Set to declared emission level, unless planning levels are exceeded

Otherwise, reduce emission until V totalh is below planning level at all nodes

What if background already exceeds planning level?

Harmonic Emission Limits • Set to declared emission level, unless planning levels are exceeded • Otherwise,

Phase Unbalance

Under unfaulted system condition, caused by:

Untransposed transmission lines Unbalanced loads (e.g. traction supplies)

Phase Unbalance • Under unfaulted system condition, caused by: • Untransposed transmission lines • Unbalanced loads
Phase Unbalance • Under unfaulted system condition, caused by: • Untransposed transmission lines • Unbalanced loads

Balanced Phases

Unbalanced Phases

Inverse relationship to system strength eg 50 MVA phase to phase load at fault level of 5000 MVA gives approx 1% NPS voltage

Highest risk is generator NPS relay operation Low NPS levels when the network is intact Unfavourable outages could lead to higher levels

Phase Unbalance • Under unfaulted system condition, caused by: • Untransposed transmission lines • Unbalanced loads

Where does OHL NPS come from?

For a double-circuit one can write

[

V

seq

]

[

= Z

seq

]

[

* I

seq

]

where

V

seq

V

1

V

1

pps

nps

V

= 

 

1

V

2

V

2

V

2

zps

pps

nps

zps

 

I

seq

I

1

pps

I

1

nps

= 

I

1

zps

 

I

2

pps

I

2

nps

I

2

zps

 

Z seq

=

Z

Z

Z

 

Z

Z

Z

11

21

31

41

51

61

Z

12

Z

22

Z

32

Z

42

Z

52

Z

62

Z

13

Z

23

Z

33

Z

43

Z

53

Z

63

Z

14

Z

24

Z

34

Z

44

Z

54

Z

64

Z

15

Z

25

Z

35

Z

45

Z

55

Z

65

Z

16

Z

26

Z

36

Z

46

Z

56

Z

66

 

V

1

nps

=

Z I

21

1

pps

+

Z I

22

1

nps

+

Z I

23

1

zps

+

Z I

24

2

pps

+

Z I

25

2

nps

+

Z I

26

2

zps

if the phasings are RYB/BYR then

Where does OHL NPS come from? • For a double-circuit one can write [ V seq

Z

seq

=

 

0.256

86

0.027

43

0.023

∠ −

78

0.013

∠ −

81

0.015

∠ −

151

0.010

∠ −

125

0.027

135

0.256

86

0.025

∠ −

108

0.015

∠ −

31

0.013

∠ −

101

0.010

78

0.025

∠ −

108

0.023

∠ −

78

0.778

82

0.010

114

0.010

43

0.436

78

0.013

∠ −

101

0.015

∠ −

151

0.010

43

0.256

86

0.027

15

0.025

11

0.015

∠ −

31

0.013

∠ −

81

0.010

114

0.027

163

0.256

86

0.023

161

0.010

∠ −

76

0.010

∠ −

125

0.436

78

0.023

161

0.025

11

0.778

82

 

Configurations Leading to System Unbalance

A B outaged C
A
B
outaged
C

Loop in of a demand point creating mismatch in flows

A B outaged C
A
B
outaged
C

Loop in of a demand point creating opposite flows

A B C outaged
A
B
C
outaged

Loop in of a generation point creating opposite flows

Configurations Leading to System Unbalance A B outaged C Loop in of a demand point creating

NPS Voltage due to Flow Mismatch

A B 1000 1.00% outaged outage of C - B C 900 line taken at this
A
B
1000
1.00%
outaged
outage of C - B
C
900
line taken at this
point
0.90%
flow from A to B
800
0.80%
700
0.70%
600
0.60%
NPS voltage at C
500
0.50%
400
0.40%
300
0.30%
flow from A to C
200
0.20%
100
0.10%
flow from C to B
0
0.00%
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
00
power flow (MW)
NPS voltage (% of fundamental)

time (hr)

NPS Voltage due to Flow Mismatch A B 1000 1.00% outaged outage of C - B

NPS Voltage due to Counter Flow

A pproximate NP S l evels for generation connected to Quad Cir cuit Si ngl e circuit export w ith counter flow i n the par allel cir cuit

5 4 3 NP S Volt s % 2 1 0 0 25 50 75 10
5
4
3
NP S
Volt s
%
2
1
0
0
25
50
75
10 0
  • gen/1 400

M VA flo w

  • 400 MW

  • gen/2 400

M VA flow

  • 400 MW

  • flow /3400 MV A fl ow

    • 400 MW

  • gen/1 800

    • 800 MW

M VA

flo w

  • gen/2 800

    • 800 MW

M VA

flo w

  • gen/3 800

    • 800 MW

M VA

flo w

NPS Voltage due to Counter Flow A pproximate NP S l evels for generation connected to

Flow

NPS Voltage due to Counter Flow A pproximate NP S l evels for generation connected to

Gen

Li ne Length k M

NPS Voltage due to Counter Flow A pproximate NP S l evels for generation connected to

NPS Voltage Measurement

0 95 th percentile 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 NPS Voltage (%) Sun W ed Mon
0
95 th percentile
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
NPS Voltage (%)
Sun
W ed
Mon
Tue
Tue
Thu
Sat
Fr i
NPS Voltage Measurement 0 95 th percentile 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 NPS Voltage (%) Sun

Effects of Phasing

NPS/ZPS NPS/ZPS Voltages Currents Maximised Maximised RYB RYB YBR BRY YBR BRY
NPS/ZPS
NPS/ZPS
Voltages
Currents
Maximised
Maximised
RYB
RYB YBR
BRY
YBR
BRY
Effects of Phasing NPS/ZPS NPS/ZPS Voltages Currents Maximised Maximised RYB RYB YBR BRY YBR BRY

Distribution of NPS Voltage with Proper Phasing

RYB RBY BYR YBR YRB BRY
RYB
RBY
BYR
YBR
YRB
BRY
Distribution of NPS Voltage with Proper Phasing RYB RBY BYR YBR YRB BRY

Unbalanced Loads Optimum Phase-Pair Allocation

1.2 1.2 -------- 0.9pf -------- 0.9pf 90 90 -------- 1.0pf -------- 1.0pf Y-B load Y-B load
1.2
1.2
-------- 0.9pf
-------- 0.9pf
90
90
-------- 1.0pf
-------- 1.0pf
Y-B load
Y-B load
o
o
1
1
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
o
o
180
0
180
0
o
0
o
0
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
-0.2
-0.2
B-R load
B-R load
-0.4
-0.4
-0.6
-0.6
-0.8
-0.8
R-Y load
R-Y load
-1
-1
o
o
270
270
-1.2
-1.2
Unbalanced Loads Optimum Phase-Pair Allocation 1.2 1.2 -------- 0.9pf -------- 0.9pf 90 90 -------- 1.0pf --------

Controlling NPS Voltages

Introduce phase transpositions Create parallel lines Install phase balancer

Controlling NPS Voltages • Introduce phase transpositions • Create parallel lines • Install phase balancer

Transposition Tower (It’s nothing new)

Transposition Tower (It’s nothing new)
Transposition Tower (It’s nothing new)