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6.

OABC is a quadrilateral with coordirates as shown'


D, E, F and G are the mid-points of the sides'
(a) Find the coordinates of D, E, F ar.d G.
(b) By considering the gradients of DE, EF, FG, GD
show that DEFG is a Parallelogram.
(c) What general result about quadrilaterals is indicated

COORDINATE METHODS IN GEOMETRY


The coordinate geometry formulae developed in this section are as follows'

GRADIENT
1. The gradient of the line joining (* r, y,,)

: mx *
Ifax*by

2. If y
3.

and

(xr, yr) is m

B(6.8)

by this exercise?

--'#

b the gradient is m, the y intercept is b'

4. If two lines with

0 the graclien t
grad.ients

m,

it * : -1.

and

tn2 zta (a) parallel, tbert m,

o(0,

: rn,

(b) perpendicular, then m1 : -*

axts: Y

3. General form: ax

by

:
*

6.

5. Point-gradient form:
6. Two-point form:

'#r:

7. Intercept form: I *'U:

mx

equation
-4) and C(6,2) are the vertices of a triangle. Find the
of the perpendicular-bisector of side ,BC and show that the bisector passes through the vertex I'
What does this telt you about the triangle ABC?
8. The points A(-1, - 1), ,B(1, 3) and C(9, - 1) are joined to form LABC'
(a) Prove that LABC is right-angled.
(b) Find the coordinates of M, the mid-point of the hypotenuse'
Sno* that M is the centre of a circle that could be drawn through A, B and C.

0.

I
! - !-r : *x-xt

4. Gradient-intercept {orm:7

o)

A(4.

7. The points A(-2,4), B{-4,

EOUATIONS OF A STRAIGHT LINE


1.. Paraltel to the y ais'. x : a.
2. Parallel to the x

o) D

i"j

b.

and. CD are defined by the end-points A(6,3), B(3, -4), C(-2,1), D(1,
(a) Show that the intervals AB and CD are equal and parallel'
iq n AO and BC are joined show that these intervals are also equal and parallel.

9. The intervals AB

8).

10. The points A(0, 4), B(5, 4), C(8, 0), D(3, 0) form the vertices of a quadrilateral.
(u) BV showing that the opposite sides are parallel, prove that ABCD is a parallelogram.
iU) Sno* that all the sides are equal and hence that the quadrilateral is a rhombus.
(c) Show that the diagonals of the rhombus bisect each other at right angles.

8. Line through the pornt of intersection of two other lines:


(arx * bJ * cr) + k(arx * bzl * cz) : 0'

71. ABCD is a parallelogram in which ,4, B and C have coordinates (4, l), (1, -6), (-4, - 1) respectively. The diagonals meet at M. Find the coordinates of M and the fourth vertex D'

POINTS AND DTSTANCES

: m'
* : \i2
, : )'t t lz '

1. Distance between two Points: d

2. Mid-point of an interval:

3. Coordinates of a point d.ividing

an interval in the ratio

4. Perpendicular distance of a point from

lile d : lo"

:ni

12. The coordi:rates of three points are P(5, 4),


the area of LPQR.

+=by

: ry#,
'.! 'l

Ja2 + b'

: !!i#

13. Find the equations of the lines through the point of the intersection of 2x
6x - 3y - ! - 0 which are:
(a) parallel and
(b) perpendicular to the line 7x - 4y * 3 : 0.
14. Findthecoordinatesof thecentreof

(1, -12) and(21,

In the following miscellaneous set of examples any of the above mathematics can be used.

Q$,6) and R(7,8): Find, by any

suitable method,

6y

thecirilewhichpassesthroughthethreepoints(-5,0),
t

15. Find the equation of the circle with centre at the origin and which-touches the line 3x

-2,

--

"o:

each side and show the

4. Show that the three points (3,

5), (1, 1) and

(-2, -

5) are collinear.

5. A quadrilateral is a square if the diagonals are equal, perpendicular and bisect each other. Use
these conditions to show that the quadrilaterul A(2, 1), B(7 , 4), C(4,9), D(- l, 6) is a square.

(or'o)

I + ,(tZ+ xZt
- ttz - xzn

6z

(q)

@)

slmn a:znbs

slluns

'9r

'el
'71

solscsosr

: Vrtl @)
(t-'t) (O 's
:O : Z - 'te + xg 'L
e poutof are

: )I{ :

st.J{YV

gI4{

'petrrloJ st uer8o1al1ured
;o sopts eql Jo stulod-pr-E eql

1e.ra1zg:penb ,(ue

g- - nutil : ew:g- : xu'.8 :,G

JI

(c)
(q)

't)c '(o'rU'(r's)s'(o'z)o (e) 's

"06:

slpn a:unbs fg (q)

O,z,te

* Aq : zdt

@)

'E

L,(.,+_,2

o L'0 L

30.

(-3,4)

(s't-)o:(o'o)r'v 'tt

triangle is right-angled.

(b) Find the area of the triangle.

4y

9e:zt*{'91'rt
(t- 's)

0:

1) is isosceles.

3. (a) Using the converse of the Theorem of Pythagoras show that the triangle joining D(4,5),
E(5, l) and f'(0, 4) is a right triangle and indicate which is the right angle.

find the coordinates of B given that A is the point

EXERCISE 10.10
1. Show that the triangle with vertices A(0,0), B(3,4) and C(-1,

0 and

-2).

16. If AB is divided at P in the ratio 5 :


and P is the point (2, l4).

2. A triangle has vertices X(1, 1), f(3,0) and Z(4,7). Find the gradient of

* |:

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