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COMBINED COOLING, HEATING AND POWER

COMBINED BENEFITS OF
DISTRIBUTED COGENERATION
Wrtsils ongoing development of distributed power plant solutions is based on demands
for alternative energy sources, the need to shorten transmission distances, and increasing
stipulations for fuel efficiency. With deregulation and liberalisation of the energy markets on
the increase everywhere, the trend is towards decentralised systems. Power, heat and chilling
generated closer to consumers shortens transmission routes considerably.
Wrtsils Combined Heat & Power (CHP) and Combined Cooling, Heating & Power
(CCHP) systems are supplied to utilities, independent power producers (IPP), industries and
municipalities around the globe.The combination of high efficiency and low emission in power
plants built by Wrtsil is unequalled on the market. Wrtsil plants comply with national
and local environmental requirements and with World Bank guidelines for power plants. The
internal combustion technology with its very fast starting and stopping capabilities is also a
flexible and good complement to power production with renewables, wind and solar energy.
Wrtsil CHP plants run on various grades of natural gas and liquid fuels, while still
maintaining low emissions and high efficiency. The plants include thermal heat recovery for
hot water, steam, direct-fire, or chilled water thereby increasing the already high efficiency
of up to 49% in terms of net electricity, to a total plant efficiency of 90% or more.
Typical plant sizes are 4600 MWe and up to 175 MWch/50,000 TR chilling in single or
multi-engine configurations.

Typical specific CO2 emissions by different power plant types


CO2 emissions in g/kWh

Electricity production only


Electricity and heat production
Electricity and chilling production

750
600

400
260

240

Diesel engine
fuel oil DCAP

340

Coal fired
chilling plant

Gas engine
natural gas single cycle

Diesel engine
fuel oil single cycle

Gas turbine
natural gas single cycle

Gas turbine
fuel oil single cycle

Coal fired
steam boiler

450

Gas engine
natural gas CHP (hot water)

600

Gas engine
natural gas CHP (steam)

800

WRTSIL CHP/CCHP CONCEPT


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Extremely efficient utilisation of primary fuels


Distributed energy production enables individual CHP/CCHP solutions
Optimised plant size with step-by-step investment thanks to multi-unit design
Maximised plant availability in all operating situations due to engine wise heat
recovery systems
Flexible operation for changes in power, heat and chilling demands
Electrical output and efficiency are unaffected by the rate of heat production
Lower power transmission costs and shorter piping routes
On-site maintenance without production downtime
Flexibility allows Transmission and Distribution System Operators (TSO, DSO)
to host more wind and solar power.

==Low capital and operational costs per output unit

HIGH PROFITABILITY!
3

Exhaust gas silencer

PLANT CONCEPT
Wrtsil CHP/CCHP plants powered by
combustion engines offer flexibility and
uncompromising performance wherever power,
heat and/or chilling are required.
Typical heat recovery systems, between the
prime mover and the customers equipment, are
of hang-on type and ensure both optimised
heat production and effective engine cooling
and operation. Wrtsils heat recovery design
takes into account all the customers seasonal,
monthly, weekly and daily variations in running
and operational heat/cooling production
conditions. Heat production does not affect the
electrical output or the electrical efficiency of the
prime mover.

The modular design of Wrtsil CHP/CCHP plants


enables rapid delivery anywhere in the world.
Prefabricated, functionally pre-tested modules
guarantee consistent quality and performance
and make on-site installation a matter of
assembling and connecting the modules.
Wrtsil has the resources and capabilities
to carry out deliveries ranging from the supply of
equipment and engineering to complete turnkey
projects including engineering, procurement
and construction. A globally experienced project
organisation guarantees successfully executed
deliveries around the world.
One of the benefits of Wrtsils modular
plant concept is the unique flexibility of operation
enabled by the cascading multi-engine structure
of the plants. Multi-unit installations provide high
plant efficiency at any load: extra generating
sets can be turned off, while the plant continues
to run at peak efficiency with as many units as
required.
As demands change, the design of the plants
makes it possible to increase the plant size in
stages by adding new engines. This also allows
for a smaller initial investment with the option to
expand later as required.

Exhaust gas boiler

Radiator
+15,500

Combined
SCR/OXI-CAT
(option)

CHP-module
22,500

Engine-generator set

CHP module

+10,950

Wrtsil 20V34SG

Engine auxiliary module (EAM)

CHP-module

Engine-generator set

21,250

FIELD CONCEPT EXAMPLE


Where the building site is ample and not situated in the
midst of a densely populated area, the single oor plant
layout with an overall lower plant profile is used. The main
heat recovery system is situated outside the main engine
hall, either under a separate roof or as weatherproof
equipment.

Pre-engineered and pretested modules minimise


construction time and maximise reliability.

TOWN CONCEPT EXAMPLE


When the plant is situated in the middle of a city or an
industrial plant site, the layout is more compact and the
protective shielding is stronger. The two oor plant lay-out
allows a small and compact footprint. The exterior of the
plant and possible architectural design of the power house
has also to be suited to its surroundings. The emission
levels have to be kept very low with effective emission
reduction systems and heavy-duty silencers have to be
installed to eliminate any noice problems.

PLANT TOTAL EFFICIENCY DEPENDING ON HOT WATER TEMPERATURES


Supply temperature
75C

80C

90C

100C

110C

120C

Total Recovered
efficiency
heat

70C

Return temperature

130C

65C

60C

90%

10,100 kW

85%

9000 kW

80%

7900 kW

75%

6800 kW

76%78%

55C

78%80%
80%82%
82%84%

50C

84%86%
86%88%
88%90%
90%92%

45C

A distributed combined heat and power plant


increases the reliability of energy supply. Total
energy production is local and close to the
point of consumption. Local heat generation
ensures a quick response to changes in
capacity or temperature in the industrial
process or the district heating network.
To optimise the balance between thermal
and electrical energy production, each plant is
customised to suit the needs of the end user.
Whether it is hot water for district heating,
industrial process steam or even chilled
water, Wrtsil provides a design that ensures
maximum efficiency and the best possible
operational flexibility. The automation system
not only controls all the internal processes in
the Wrtsil CHP plant but is also carefully
integrated with all necessary signals and
connections to existing systems thereby
guaranteeing a fully compatible plant.

Steam
consumer

Electricity

CAC 1 and 2

Plant auxiliaries < 1%

Electricity 46%
From the engines

Power (net) 44%

Heat recovery
from the engine

Steam generation 18.5%

Losses 35.5%

Total efficiency 62.5%

The high efficiency of Wrtsils CHP plants


translates into considerable savings in fuel
costs compared to other technologies.
For optimised profitability, the plants are
customised to the customers specific needs.

STEAM GENERATION FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Fuel consumption 100%

CHP SOLUTIONS

CHEONG SOO, KOREA


The purpose of Cheong Soo plant is to provide
District heating and electricity (CHP) to a town
with about 6400 households including public
buildings. The CHP plant generates electricity
in parallell with the electrical grid and supplies
the district heating to the network for the town.
During summer the plant provides also district
cooling.
Type of customer ..........................................IPP
Engine type....................... 2 x Wrtsil 20V34SG
Total electrical output......................... 16.9 MWe
Total heat output................................ 14.2 MWth
Total efficiency......................................... 85.1%
Fuel..................................................Natural gas

Photo courtesy of Jung Bu City Gas and JB Enertek Co., Ltd

HOT WATER GENERATION FOR DISTRICT HEATING APPLICATIONS


Engine

CHP module HT plus

District heat
Lubricating oil
HT cooling water

Exhaust gas
boiler

LT cooling water
Exhaust gas

Economiser
Lube oil
back-up cooler

Jacket
water
heat
exchanger

Hot water
system

LT CAC

HT CAC
Lube oil
cooler

Plant auxiliaries < 1%

Power (net) 44%

Total efficiency 90%

Fuel consumption 100%

Electricity 46%
From the engines

High temperature heat 31%


From the engines
Heat to DH system 46%
Low temperature heat 15%
From the engines
Losses 8%

CCHP SOLUTIONS
District heating systems are a well established
infrastructure technology. However, for warmer
countries with a short yearly demand for heat
and very high summer temperatures, chilling
generation is of essence.
When generating electric power, a
substantial amount of chilling can be
generated from the exhaust gas and engine
cooling waste energy by applying absorption
chiller technology. Wrtsil has designed
its cogeneration chilling plants to meet the
demands for both power and chilling optimally.

AMBIENT INFLUENCES
Both electric power and chilling consumption is
dependent on seasonal and daily fluctuations,
and the cogeneration plant has to follow the
load accordingly.
These variations can be very large, with
ambient temperatures reaching 50 C during
summer afternoons. Therefore, the fluctuations
in electrical power consumption is also
considerable. Today, 70% of the electricity
produced in the Middle East is used for
electrically driven chillers.

Electricity 46%

Electricity to TC-chiller 010% (COP = 5)

Heat 31%
From the engines
Heat to chiller 31%
(COP = 1)

Coldd water (net)


= 0.40.7 kWe/TR

Fuel cons umption 100%

From the engines

Total efficiency 77.0%

Power (net)
4330%

Plant auxiliaries 13%

Losses 23.0%

23C 24C 27C 32C 36C 39C 41C 41C 39C 35C 30C 26C
JAN
0

FEB MAR APR MAY


1

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

10

10

10

RAINFALL (cm)
8

11

11

10

SUNSHINE (hrs)

Electricity
Purchased electricity

MW

ENGINE 1

ENGINE 2

Electricity demand

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Heating and cooling


Electrical chiller

DCAP SOLUTIONS
The Wrtsil DCAP (District Cooling and Power) system has been developed
for very hot areas where no heat is required, only power and chilled water
for district cooling and AC.
These systems can be designed for 50,000 TR. The optimal solution
is always based on the correct design and sizing. The entire chilled water
demand should not be covered solely by absorption chillers. Instead
utilizing electrically driven chillers and/or chilled water storage tanks to
cover peaks minimizes the total investment cost of the chiller capacity. The
plant can provide both the required electricity and chilling, even during the
hottest time of the year. When the engines feed electricity to the grid, all
available waste heat is used efficiently for chilling. In case the chilled water
cannot be utilized right away, the plant is able to run in pure electricity
mode or charge the storage tanks, letting no capacity go to waste.

Peaking boiler

MW

ENGINE 1

ENGINE 2

Heating

DCAP REDUCES PRIMARY FUEL USAGE BY TWO THIRDS


The DCAP plant can obtain 0.7 kWe/TR without, and 0.6 kWe/TR with,
a storage tank. Compared to conventional centralised power plants, or
electrically driven compressor chilling plants installed on rooftops, this
represents primary fuel savings of more than 60%.

Cooling
JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Case: Typical variation curves for a two engine trigeneration plant supplying
electricity, heat and chilled water according to the customers needs. Heat
from the engines is utilized for heating during the winter period, and as a
heat source for chillers during the summer. Thus, the plants heat recovery is
efficiently used throughout the entire year.

REFERENCES

Absorption chillers at Madrids Barajas airport, Spain.

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BARAJAS AIRPORT, SPAIN


In 2003, AENA, the Spanish Airport Authority, called for bids to supply thermal
and electrical energy for the very important Barajas airport in Madrid under a
Power Purchase Agreement for a twenty-year period.
The CCHP plant generates a net electric power of 33MW and is
connected to both the airports internal grid and the public grid. The plant
provides electricity on a continuous basis, and heating during the winter and
cooling during the summer.
Engines: ............................... 6 x Wrtsil 18V32DF
Total electrical output:.......................... 33,600 kWe
Total heat output:................................ 24,000 kWth
Total absorption cooling output:........... 18,000kWc
Total efficiency: ............................................... 74%

LINATE AIRPORT, ITALY


In June 2007, Wrtsil and EuroPower SpA handed over a 24 MWe CCHP
power plant at Linate airport, Milan in Italy. The plant has been built for
Malpensa Energia Srl, whose shareholders are the Milan airport management
company SEA Aeroporti Milano and the Milan multi-utilities company AEM
Milano.
The plant is equipped with three Wrtsil 20V34SG gas-fuelled
generating sets, together with ancillary equipment, exhaust heat recovery
economisers and two gas fired boilers. The plant is located inside Linate
airport.
Operating on baseload, the plant is flexible in operation, economically
meeting the variations in heat demand in summer and winter for both heating
and air conditioning. The heat output of the plant is 81.7 MWth in winter and
74.8 MWth in summer, with a year-round electrical power output of 24 MWe.
Engines.................................3 x Wrtsil 20V34SG
Total electrical output........................... 24,000 kWe
Total heat output................................. 17,505 kWth
Total efficiency............................................. 80.2 %

GAS GENSETS
Wrtsil 34SG

9L34SG

16V34SG

20V34SG

Power, electrical (50 Hz/750 rpm) kW

4340

7740

9730

Power, electrical (60 Hz/720 rpm) kW

4170

7430

9340

77

120

130

Genset dry weight (tonne) 5%


Wrtsil 50SG

18V50SG

Power, electrical (50 Hz/500 rpm) kW

18 320

Power, electrical (60 Hz/514 rpm) kW

18 760

Genset dry weight (tonne) 5%

360

Reduced transport weight (tonne) 5%

285

MULTI-FUEL GENSETS
Wrtsil 32GD

6L32GD

9L32GD 12V32GD 16V32GD 20V32GD

Power, electrical (50 Hz/750 rpm) kW

2640

3970

5300

7120

8920

Power, electrical (60 Hz/720 rpm) kW

2580

3890

5180

6970

8730

58

77

92

120

130

Genset dry weight (tonne) 5%


Wrtsil 46GD

12V46GD

18V46GD

Power, electrical (50 Hz/750 rpm) kW

11380

17080

Power, electrical (60 Hz/514 rpm) kW

11380

17080

Genset dry weight (tonne) 5%

265

370

Reduced transport weight (tonne) 5%

170

298

Wrtsil 34DF

6L34DF

9L34DF

16V34DF

20V34DF

Power, electrical (50 Hz/750 rpm) kW

2580

3890

6970

8730

Power, electrical (60 Hz/720 rpm) kW

2490

3760

6740

8440

55

79

120

130

Genset dry weight (tonne) 5%


Wrtsil 50DF

18V50DF

Power, electrical (50 Hz/500 rpm) kW

16640

Power, electrical (60 Hz/514 rpm) kW

17080

Genset dry weight (tonne) 5%

369

Reduced transport weight (tonne) 5%

297

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Wrtsil is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the


marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation
performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers. Wrtsil is
listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland.

WRTSIL is a registered trademark. Copyright 2005 Wrtsil Corporation.

WRTSIL is a registered trademark. Copyright 2013 Wrtsil Corporation.

DBAC626958 / 05.2013 / Bocks Office / Waasa Graphics

and total efficiency, Wrtsil maximises the environmental and economic