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Castings

casting image processing. This model is based on an anisotropic

diffusion equation driven by a diffusion tensor, whose structure

depends on the coupled time-delay regularization of a matrix. The

diffusion tensor determines the directions of the diffusion as well

as the speed in these directions. Experimental results show that

this model is superior to the PM model and other methods based

on classical edge detection in processing the casting images

without affecting its interesting features. Namely, it has better

preservation of the flaws.

Index Terms-anisotropic

time-delay regularization

diffusion,

diffusion

part of (a)

the original radioscopic image usually has a large size (fig. 1 (a),

540 X 540 ), while continuingly processing directly on the

whole image, it consumes much time. Such as [6], in its part of

"identification of potential flaws", it's too time-consuming

when finishing all steps in this part. b) They use classical edge

detection methods that often result in inaccurate edge. In [6],

accurate contour of defects actually cannot be obtained based

on zero-crossing method.

This paper here proposes a new system to deal with these two

problems. Here is our overall inspection system, seeing Fig.2.

tensor,

1. INTRODUCTION

inside during the casting process, such as cavities, gas,

inclusions, and sponging occurs. And these defects must be

image f0&~rMtion -

most defects, X-ray imaging is adopted to defect detection. An

example of a radioscopic image is shown in Fig. I.

lerectr

X-ray

!._......._.._.

-- -- --

pyrorerssng by rhe.

(a)

(b)

Guangdong (2004BI0201035) and Guangzhou (2004C13G0021) technology

fund of P. R. C. China.

Situ Wuchao is with the Electronics and Communication Engineering

Department, South China University of Science and Technology, People's

Republic of China. He is a graduate student (e-mail: cchaos@tom.com

<mailto:cchaos@tom.com>).

Huang Qian is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Electronics and

Communication Engineering, South China University of Science and

Technology, People's Republic of China. (e-mail:eeqhuang@scut.edu.cn).

Wu Yuan is with the Electronics and Communication Engineering

Department, South China University of Science and Technology, People's

Republic ofChina. He is a graduate student (e-mail: tuoge@tom.com)

0-7803-9435-6/05/$20.00 @2005 IEEE.

In Fig.2, the step of segmentation is to abstract the most

significant part (where assembles most potential defects) of the

whole original radioscopic image. Because this part usually has

301

segmentation, roughly speaking, we first do edge abstracting of

the whole image, then many general edges can be obtained.

Next, according to some requirements and characteristics of the

defects (for example, the edge of the defect is closed or nearly

closed and usually defects assemble in a certain place of an

entire original radioscopic image), the significant part can be

located (we will specify the segmentation algorithm in another

paper).

After segmentation, the flowing steps will focus on dealing

with the relatively small but most significant image. This paper

here proposes a voting diffusion model to continue the defect

detection, unlike other methods that often result in inaccurate

edges based on classical edge detection, our model can have a

more accurate contour of the flaw (seeing the flowing rest of

the paper).

au - div(L[Vu]Vu) = 0

at

m-+ L = F[Vu]

FIVu]= IP1

if IVu.s {

vu

2(P

)Id2I

V

II. PM MODEL

Id=(

equation.

a

at

or

1

1

k

(3)

c(l1 Vu(x,y,t) 1) = exp{f-(I VU(X,Y,t) 11)2 }

k

where u(x,y,t) denotes the image pixel at position(x,y), t

refers to time or iteration step in discrete case and

c(lI Vu(x, y, t) ||) is a diffusion coefficient, a decreasing

conductivity function of the image gradient magnitude

gradient magnitude u(x,y,t) ). The basic idea is to smooth

out noise presented in the image without sacrificing the useful

details and highlight certain image features preferentially.

From then on, numerous PDE models are designed based on

the PM model. A large number ofthem are focus on modifying

the diffusion coefficient c(|) [2][3][4]. Virtually, these can be

viewed as curvature-driven anisotropic diffusion models or as

the evolutions corresponding to the minimization of total

variation. They have the same basic idea as PM model trying to

stop the diffusion where the magnitude of the gradient of the

image intensity is high.

Instead of focusing on the curvature-driven diffusion models,

where the diffusion is governed by the diffusion coefficient

c(*), we use another type of diffusion model [5], where the

diffusion is governed by a matrix, called diffusion tensor,

embedded in the equation.

otherwiseJ

u-L

(6)

u(x,y,O) = I

In 1990, Perona and Malik [1] put forward a new model for

image processing: the Perona-Malik (PM) nonlinear diffusion

(5)

at

Here

(4)

U2

-uUy

(7)

L(x,y,O) = Id

I

Vu=( X)

matrices .

In order to prevent diffusion across significant edge of the

image, the diffusion tensor L was constructed in (5) that the

diffusion is only along the direction perpendicular to Vu .

IPV is the orthogonal projection on the direction orthogonal

to Vu. L is the time-delay regularization ofF. Time-delay

regularization enables us to bring the past information of the

gradient of image into account, so that over-smoothing can be

adjusted.

Roughly speaking, in (6), inside the homogeneous regions

where the gradients are not large, the diffusion is isotropic

while on the edge where the gradients are high, the diffusion is

only in the direction perpendicular to Vu .

IV. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS

Here, we present our numerical scheme and several

experiments. We denote by u(x,y) the value of u at the pixel

(x=ih,y= jh).

We define:

h

pixel (i, j)

Uij=

u. -u-I

a h

pixel (i, j)

(Ayu. j and

302

V (u

A;yu,j

)

have similar results)

div (Vu)

div u

div

(A yui fJ)

A+ (A-u jj)

A+(A-v,,j)

(a)

h

so

n +

-U

At

div (L V u)

div

((

L1 )( Axui,j

L22 )tAyU ij;

L21

A XUi

L21 A2

UYJj + L2

2IV

=

[A+ (LI, A-

A+ (L2IAxUjIj

L22

u ij

LI2 A- uiuj)

jj +

A-uij)]

+

/ h

then,

nj+ =nj

ui

++At

(h)[A

(L, A~u1j

L12A;Ui,)

(8)

A;

(L21Au,j

L22AUi,j

LI"+ _l Li j

L'l'

At

In=

m(

)]

I in

L,j +F

(9)

At

our programme

is based

conditions L j Id u

=

on

= I.

V. EXPERIMENTS

Here we do some experiments on

obtained by X-ray.

our

(g)

casting pictures

of (a), by the PM model (iteration=100, k =8, using equation (3)

for c(e) ). (c) Processed picture of (b) after thresholding. (d) Processed

picture of (a), by the proposed diffusion model (iteration=l00, At

=0.05, m =5, S =2). (e) Processed picture of (d) after thresholding. (f)

Zero crossing image of (a), using Gaussian lowpass filter (c = 1.25,

kernel size = 11 x 11). (g) Result of finding closed edges in (f)

model not only erases most of the noise but also tracks the

contour of the flaws more accurately and suitablely (seeing

(d),(e)). However the PM model tracks the contour so rough

and sometimes generates some small speckles around the

contour then the thresholded picture must affect the subsequent

work in dealing with the flaws sorting that is based on the

accurate contour (seeing (b),(c)). (f) is obtained based on the

method in [6] and by observing (g) we find this method cannot

provide acceptable result- there are so many irregular edges

and distorted shapes without any accuracy.

303

flaws are found which are more accurate. As for (g), it is based

on classical edge detection ( using method of [6] ) , and often

produces many irregular curves. Though after finding the

closed edges, we can get some potential defects, however, the

edges obtained finally (seeing (h)) are inaccurate (the result

can't satisfy our requirements), comparing with (a). The root

cause of this is that the classical edge detection method is weak

in preserving an accurate contour of the defect.

VI. CONCLUSION

in aluminum castings. This model, govemed by diffusion

tensor, can track the flaw edge more accurately than the PM

model as well as other methods based on classical edge

detection. PM model is actually trying to diminish the diffusion

where the magnitude of the gradient of the image is high, but

doesn't take the diffusion directions on the edge into account.

So it leads to a rough contour that causes distortion from the

real edge of the flaw. As for methods based on classical edge

detection, because of its weakness in accurate edge

preservation, the result is not so satisfactory. However, the

suggested diffusion model, while on the edge, controls the

diffusion only in the direction perpendicular to Vu without

diffusing towards direction of Vu through the diffusion

tensor. Then better contours can be preserved. Since accurately

tracking flaws is very important for flaw sorting in the whole

process of casting defect detection, PDE model govemed by

diffusion tensor must have a bright prospect in this field.

Our future work has two main aspects: a) continuing with the

improvement of the voting diffusion model used in the castings

image; b) further investigation about the classification to

abstract the real defects from the potential ones.

(h)

Fig.4. (a) Real defects ofX-ray casting image. (b) Processed picture of

(g)

equation (3) ). (d) Processed picture of (c) after thresholding. (e)

Processed picture of (a), by the proposed diffusion model

(iteration=100, At =0.05, m =5 At, S =2). (1) Processed picture of

(e) after thresholding. (g) Zero crossing picture of (a), using Gaussian

lowpass filter (a = 1.25, kernel size = 11 x 11 ). (h) Result of finding

closed edges in (g).

In figure 4, we can find similar results to what fig. I shows.

Without any processes in advance, a good binarization result

could not be obtained directly by thresholding the real defects

of X-ray casting image. Seeing picture (b) above, contours

obtained are rough and one of them is even distorted, together

with some noise. In picture (d), though general contours of the

flaws we are interested in are found and the uninteresting

objects are denoised, however, the contours are still rough,

part of the

what is more, the shape actually changes a lot

contours become a straight line. These are the disadvantages of

REFERENCES

[1] P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale space and edge detection using anisotropic

diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell, vol. 12, pp.629-630,

1990.

[2] F. Catte, J. M. Morel, P. L. Lions and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing

and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAMJournal on Numerical

Analysis, pp.182-193, Feb. 1992.

[3] Y. Chen, B.C. Vemuri, and L. wang, "Image denoising and

segmentation via nonlinear diffusion," Internat.J.Comput.Math. Appl., to

appear.

[4] B. Smolka, "Combined Forward and Backward Anisotropic Diffusion

Filtering of Color Image." Pattern Recognition Proceedings of 24th

DAGM Symposium, pp1 6-18,2002.

[5] G. H. Cottet and M. E. Ayyadi, "A Volterra type model for image

processing," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.7, issue. 3, pp.292-303,

Mar. 1998.

[6] D. Mery, "Automated Flaw Detection in Aluminum Castings Based on

the Thanking of Potential Defects in a Radioscopic Image Sequence,"

IEEE Trans. Robotics & Automation, vol. 18, 2002.

Defect Detection in Aluminium Castings." ICIAR 2004, LNCS 3212, pp.

304

826-833, 2004.

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