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Introduction to Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic System and Control Volume

Properties, Processes and Cycles

Units

Specific Volume and Density

Pressure

Energy and Temperature

1

Control Mass:

Control Volume:

Control surface

Control surface

Conversion of fuel energy into electricity and heat

Water

Loop

Heat

Loop

(Condenser)

Refrigerator pushes energy out of a cold space into a warmer space (room)

Refrigerant flows

in a loop through

4 devices

Phases: Solid, Liquid and Vapor (gas)

State: a specific condition expressed by a unique set of property values

like P, T and density .

Two independent properties are needed to specify a state

Intensive properties are independent of mass (P, T, )

Extensive properties depend on mass (Mass, Volume, Energy)

through a continuous variation of the state.

Example: Heat a cup of cold water to be warm water

Example: Compress air in a cylinder to a smaller volume (bike pump)

name that relates to the condition under which this happens. This is given

by the way the device behaves as a process equation or device equation.

Example: The heating of water in a cup takes place at atmospheric

pressure so it is called an isobaric process, pressure is constant.

Example: Heating of air in a constant volume container is called an

isochoric process, volume is constant.

Example: Air is compressed in a piston cylinder while it is maintained

at a constant temperature called an isothermal process.

Example: Air is compressed in a well insulated piston cylinder so it

does not have any heating or cooling called an adiabatic process.

The type of process is often dictated by the device behavior and could

also be called a device equation.

6

Cycle: A process path that ends in the initial state. It can be a complex

process or a combination of several simple processes.

Example: Water circulating in a steam power plant

Example: Refrigerant (like R-134a, R-410A or R-12) circulating in a

refrigerator or air-conditioner.

Example: Air going through 4 sequential processes in a piston cylinder

similar to what happens in a car engine. This is repeated in time.

Cycles do not (net) change the working substance which keeps looping in

space (flow) or in time. However during the cycle the outside world

exchanges energy with the working substance at different conditions

during the cycle so the net effect is an energy conversion process.

UNITS

SI or English:

SI: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), force (N)

F = ma has units

F = mg has units

distinguish between gram mole (mol) and kilomole (kmol).

m=nM

Specific volume: Volume per unit mass (v)

v = V/m

= m/V limit for small volume

Liquid water: v 0.001 m3/kg and 1000 kg/m3

Atmospheric air: v 1 m3/kg and 1 kg/m3

See Tables for a few

typical substances.

SI: A3, A4, A5

Eng.: F2, F3, F4

Pressure

Pressure is force per unit area (normal stress)

= lim

Fext = P Acyl

Units for P

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 kPa = 1000 Pa = 1 kN/m2

1 bar = 105 Pa = 100 kPa = 0.1 MPa

1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.696 lbf/in2

10

Pressure

Study 1.1

A hydraulic lift

A hydraulic cylinder has a diameter of 7.5 cm. What should the

fluid pressure inside be to create a force of 6000 N on the rod if we

neglect the outside pressure?

Solution

____

_____

F=PA

or

F

P=A

so the pressure becomes

P=

F

6000 N

=

= 1 358 080 Pa = 1358 kPa

A 0.004418 m2

11

Manometer/Barometer

Manometer

Force acting down on cross section at B:

Column mass:

m = AH

PB = PA = Po + P = Po + gH

Pgauge = P = gH

Manometer

Barometer

The top pressure is near zero (perfect vacuum)

Column:

m = AHo held up by

Barometer

12

Manometer

Example:

densities of 1000 and 1 kg/m3 respectively, use g = 10 m/s2.

Solution

____

______

Manometer

We can neglect P in atmospheric air for most cases.

13

Energy on the macroscale can be written as

E = Internal + Kinetic + Potential = U + KE + PE

2

= mu + mV + mgZ

velocity and elevation are for the center of mass.

The internal energy u has similar terms on the microscale

2 modes of rotation ( x, z axis)

1 mode of vibration (in y axis)

Term 1: potential energy from intermolecular forces fct. of distance

strong (solid, liquid) weak for a gas (distance is large)

Term 2: molecular kinetic energy

Term 3: depends on structure of molecule

3 modes of rotation (not shown)

Each mode of energy possesses kT of energy in average, k is

Boltzmans constant. Translation always has 3 modes (x, y, z).

14

Temperature

Temperature is a measure of hotness which is a sensible level of average energy in

atoms and molecules and photons. Energy (frequency) has a distribution that is

characteristic for a single temperature. Recall the average energy per energy mode

(degree freedom) is kT. In practice we use a thermometer to measure T which rely on

some other property like v or , an ohmic resistance (thermistor) or a voltage from a bimetal junction (thermocouple) all sensitive to T.

Relative T (has offset):

Absolute T ( T 0):

Ice point at 1 atm:

Very cold:

Celcius

Kelvin

C

K

0.01 oC,

32 F

40 oC, 40 F

or

or

Fahrenheit F

Rankine

R

(at this point TC = TF)

212 F

TK = TC + 273.15

TR = TF + 459.67 = 1.8 TK

TC

-40

-17.8

0

10

20

25

30

37.8

50

70

100

TF

-40

0

32

50

68

77

86

100

122

158

212

Later we show the ideal gas temperature scale, chapter 2, and the thermodynamic

temperature scale, chapter 5, and prove they are the same as the absolute T above.

15

Thermocouples, thermistors

16

Chapter 2

The Two Phase States

The Liquid and Solid States

The Superheated Vapor States

The Ideal gas States

Compressibility Factor

Equations Of State (EOS)

Computerized Tables

17

Complete phase diagram (P, T) separates the solid (S),

the liquid (L) and the vapor (V) phases.

Sublimation line (S above, V below)

Fusion line (S left, L right)

Vaporization curve (L above, V below)

On each curve: P = Psat(T)

or T = Tsat(P)

One point on each curve is a pair (Psat, Tsat)

State a:

Superheated vapor (T > Tsat for same P)

Expanded vapor (P < Psat for same T)

State b:

Compressed liquid (P > Psat for same T)

Subcooled liquid (T < Tsat for same P)

Vaporization curve

Water

CO2

O2

N2

Tc, oC

374

31

-118

-147

Pc, MPa

22

7.4

5.1

3.4

Ttp, oC

0.01

-56

-219

-210

Ptp, kPa

0.6113

520

0.15

12.5

18

The phase diagram for water

19

Show the (T, v) combinations following constant P processes for water

Small vs are liquid

Large vs are vapor (gas)

Liquid and vapor regions

are separated by a 2-phase

region of mixtures with a

combination of liquid and

vapor.

liquid

vapor

Saturated liquid line and

Saturated vapor line

They meet at critical point

20

Saturated two-phase liquid + vapor region

Table B.1.1 Gives listing of

Tentry Psat, vf, vfg, vg, .

Table B.1.2 same but with

Pentry Tsat,

vf vfg vg

Psat as function of T

21

Table B.1.3 superheated vapor along a constant P curve: Tentry, v,

Table B.1.4 compressed liquid

TABLE B.1.3

Superheated

Vapor

Subheading P (Tsat)

22

The saturated solid-vapor table and the sublimation line

23

Example 2.1

Determine the phase for each of the following water states using table B.1 and indicate

the relative position in the P-v, T-v and P-T diagrams.

a. 120oC, 500 kPa

b. 120oC, 0.5 m3/kg

Solution

____

_____

a. Enter B.1.1: T = 120oC: Psat = 198.5 kPa < P = 500 kPa so compressed liquid.

Enter B.1.2: P = 500 kPa: Tsat = 151.86oC > T = 120oC

so subcooled liquid

24

Consider a mixture of some liquid in equilibrium

with some vapor. For the combination we can

write:

V = Vf + Vg = mf vf + mgvg

m = mf + mg

Average specific volume

mf

mg

v = V/m = m vf + m vg

v = (1 x) vf + x vg

Quality x mg / m (mass fraction: 0 x 1)

Defining vfg = vg vf we can also write

v = vf + x vfg

v is the mass fraction weighted average of vf and vg

x = mass fraction of vapor, 1 x = mass fraction of liquid

25

Example 2.3

Determine the phase for each of the following states using the table in Appendix B and

indicate the relative position in the P-v, T-v and P-T diagrams.

a. Ammonia 30oC, 1000 kPa

b. R-134a 200 kPa, 0.125 m3/kg

Solution

____________________

_________

a. Enter B.2.1: T = 30oC: Psat = 1167 kPa since P < Psat it is superheated vapor.

If entry with 1000 kPa: Tsat 25oC and we see it is superheated about 5oC.

26

Pv=RT

PV=mRT=nRT

Here n is the number of moles and M is the molecular mass.

n=m/M

From ideal gas law: 1 mol occupies same V at a given (P, T) regardless of which substance it is.

Compare a mass at state 1 with same mass at a state 2:

mR=

P2V2 P1V1

=

T2

T1

Differentiate the ideal gas law with time for constant state (P, T ) to get:

.

.

. _

P V = m R T = n RT

(2.1

27

Example 2.6

28

When do you have an ideal gas?

For very large v, so molecular distances are large (very small force between molecules)

To get a sense look at a T-v diagram for water.

If T is higher you can allow smaller vs and still have an ideal gas.

29

The deviation from the ideal gas law can be expressed by a factor Z so

P v = Z RT

For an ideal gas Z = 1 and for states approaching liquid Z becomes very small. For very high pressures Z can

actually be higher than 1. A chart for nitrogen gives a general shape of a compressibility chart.

30

Equations of State

The P-v-T surface is approximated in an equation of state. Several of these are extensions of the ideal gas law

as

P=

RT

a

2

v b v + cbv + db2

a = ao Pc x2 ; b = bo x ;

x = RTc/Pc

c and d are model constants shown in Tabel. D.1 including a correction with the accentric factor,

31

Work from substance to piston

W = F dx = PA dx = P dV

2

=

P dV = area

1W2

To evaluate:

P = function of V

1W2

= Function(1, 2, path)

dV < 0

so

1W 2

is negative

Magnitudes:

1W2 A < 1W2 B < 1W2 C

32

Example 3.4 continued

P = C1 + C2V;

C2 = ks /A2

2

1W2

=

P dV = area under the process curve

1

1

W

=

1 2 2 (P1 + P2)(V2 V1)

1

= 2 m (P1 + P2)(v2 v1)

33

Polytropic process definition:

PV n = constant = C

or

Pv n = constant

2

n

C V dV =

P dV =

1W2 =

C

2

(

V1 n )1

1n

C

1n

1n

(

V2

V1 )

1n

1

n 1n

n 1n

=

(

P2V2 V2

P1V1 V1 )

1n

1

=

(P V P1V1)

1n 2 2

=

2

V2

2

P dV = C V dV = C ln V1 = P1V1 ln V

1W2 =

34

Example 3.6

An ideal gas in a piston cylinder starts out with 200 kPa, 0.04 m3. Let us look at 4

different possible processes and find the work for each case.

Solution __________________________________________________

a. Process: P = C, Heat the gas to V2 = 0.1 m3

2

1W2

=

P dV = P dV = P (V2 V1)

1

b. Process: T = C, Heat the gas to V2 = 0.1 m3

Ideal gas: PV = m RT = C so polytropic with n = 1

2

V2

P dV = P1V1 ln V

1W2 =

1

1

0.1

= 7.33 kJ

0.04

35

Example 3.6 continued

c. Process: Polytropic with n = 1.3, Increase volume to V2 = 0.1 m3

1.3

1

W

=

1 2 1 n (P2V2 P1V1)

1.3

= 60.77 kPa

= 6.41 kJ

d. Process: V = C, Cool the gas to P2 = 100 kPa

2

1W2

=

P dV = 0

1

Comment:

To do the process (c) the mass (load) on piston varies

To do the process (d) the piston is locked in place

36

Main characteristic:

u = uext molecule + utranslation + uint molecule

uint molecule = Potential + Rotation + Vibration + Atoms

uext molecule is sensitive to molecular distances and all parts are sensitive to T.

For liquid and solid phases this first part is significant (small distances) and it

diminishes for the vapor states going to zero for ideal gas states.

Information is in the B section tables for substances as fct(T, P).

For a two phase mixture of liquid and vapor

U = Uliq + Uvap = mliquf + mvapug

u = U/m = (mliq/m) uf + (mvap/m) ug

u = (1 x) uf + x ug

u = uf + x ufg

37

Example 3.8

Determine the missing property (P, T, v, x) for water at each of the following states:

a. T = 300oC, u = 2780 kJ/kg ;

b. P = 200 kPa, u = 2000 kJ/kg

Solution __________________________________________________

a) Table B.1.1 at 300oC: u > ug = 2563.0 kJ/kg, so superheated vapor,

x is undefined,

Table B.1.3 between 1600 and 1800 kPa at 300oC:

1600 kPa, 300oC: u = 2781.03 kJ/kg; v = 0.15862 m3/kg

1800 kPa, 300oC: u = 2776.83 kJ/kg; v = 0.14021 m3/kg

linear interpolation:

2780 2781.03

P = 1600 + 200

= 1600 + 200 0.24524

2776.83 2781.03

= 1648 kPa

v = 0.15862 + (0.14021 0.15862) 0.24524 = 0.1542 m3/kg

38

Example 3.8 continued

Determine the missing property (P, T, v, x) for water at each of the following states:

a. T = 300oC, u = 2780 kJ/kg ;

b. P = 200 kPa, u = 2000 kJ/kg

Solution __________________________________________________

b) Table B.1.2 at 2000 kPa:

uf = 906.4 < u < ug = 2600.3 kJ/kg two-phase

u = 2000 = uf + x uf g = 906.4 + x 1693.8

x = 0.6456

v = vf + x vfg = 0.001 177 + 0.6456 0.098 45

E

= 0.064 74 m3/kg

39

The Enthalpy

Example: The constant P process

Recall the work for a constant pressure process

1W2

P dV

= P dV = P (V2 V1)

energy equation gives the heat transfer as

1Q2

= m (u2 u1) + P m (v2 v1)

= m [(u2 + P2v2) (u1 + P1v1)]

Definition of enthalpy

H U + PV ;

h u + Pv

h = (1 x) hf + x hg = hf + x hfg

as the mass fraction [1 x and x] averaged property (same as for v, u).

Comment: Any combination of thermodynamic properties is another

property. Enthalpy is used because it appears often.

40

The Enthalpy

Example 3.12

A piston cylinder has 0.1 m3 with 0.5 kg steam at 400 kPa. Heat is added to reach a final

temperature of 300oC while the pressure is constant. Find the heat transfer and work.

Solution ________________________________________

Control volume all the steam, a control mass.

Process:

P = C.

v1 = V1/m = (0.1/0.5) m3/kg = 0.2 m3/kg = vf + x1 vfg

0.2 0.001084

= 0.4311

0.4614

h1 = hf + x1 hfg = 604.74 + 0.4311 2133.8 = 1524.7 kJ/kg

v2 = 0.6548 m3/kg,

h2 = 3066.8 kJ/kg

41

The Enthalpy

Example 3.12 continued

Work term from area in (P-v) diagram

1W2

1Q2 = m (u2 u1) + 1W2 = m [(u2 + P2v2) (u1 + P1v1)]

= m (h2 h1) = 0.5 kg (3066.8 1524.7) kJ/kg = 771.1 kJ

Comment: We could have found (u1, u2) and not used the enthalpies, same result.

42

Specific heats

Previous cases (KE = 0 and PE = 0 ) give for an incremental process per unit mass:

dv = 0

w = 0

so

q = du

dP = 0

w = P dv

so

q = dh

We want to express this in terms of a property we can measure: T. Due to the above

processes we define the specific heats as:

u

Cv = T ;

v

h

CP = T

P

approximation, in the single phase regions: solid, liquid and ideal gas.

du

Cv dT ;

dh

CP dT

No phase change

Then

du = Cv dT

and

u2 u1 = Cv dT Cv (T2 T1)

dh = CP dT

and

h2 h1 = CP dT CP (T2 T1)

43

Specific heats for solids and liquids

Matter in these phases are dense and nearly incompressible so

v = constant and v is small

Then

dh = du + d(Pv) = du + P dv + v dP du + v dP

so

h2 h1 = u2 u1 + v dP = u2 u1 + v (P2 P1)

Cv (T2 T1) + v (P2 P1)

If pressures are moderate then the last term can be neglected thus changes in u and h are

the same and the two specific heats are the same.

C = Cv = CP are listed for some solids and liquids in Tables A.3, A.4, F.2 and F.3

Liquids in [kJ/kg-K]:

Solids in [kJ/kg-K]:

water (4.18)

ice (2.04)

granite (0.9)

metals (0.4 typ.)

If temperature varies significantly or great accuracy is required then a model for the

variation of C = Cv with temperature is required and integral must be done

u2 u1 = Cv dT

44

Specific heats for ideal gases

Large intermolecular distance gives small potential energy between molecules so only the

internal (like rotation, vibration) molecular energy terms for u are present.

u = uext molecule + utranslation + uint molecule utranslation + uint molecule = u(T)

Pv = RT

so

h = u + Pv = u + RT = h(T)

du

Cv0 = dT ;

Tables:

dh

CP0 = dT = Cv0 + R

u2 u1

Cv0 dT

h2 h1

CP0 dT

A.5, F.4

A.7-9, F.5-6

A.6

The zero subscript indicates ideal gas, any gas when P 0 (v ) is an ideal gas.

45

Monatomic gases Ar, He, ... cannot

rotate or vibrate so specific heat is

constant. Only translation active so

specific heat also low.

The complex molecules have more

modes of internal energies possible.

See Appendix C for more details.

Notice CP0/R is dimensionless

46

Example 3.13

Calculate the change of enthalpy as oxygen is heated from 300 K to 1500 K. Assume

ideal gas behavior.

Solution ________________________________________

Table A.8:

Table A.6:

h2 h1 =

=1.5

1

1

1

= 1000 [0.88 2 0.0001 2 + 3 0.543 4 0.33 4 ] =0.3

= 1241.5 kJ/kg

Table A.5:

The result goes from most accurate (A.8) to least accurate (A.5).

Notice how the slope of the cord is close to CP0(Tavg = 900 K)

1267 kJ/kg

slope = (h2 h1) / (T2 T1) = 1200 K = 1.056 kJ/kg-K

CP0 900 K = 0.88 0.0001 0.9 + 0.54 0.92 0.33 0.93

= 1.077 kJ/kg-K

47

The Entropy

Consider a cycle composed of two processes, A + B moving a substance between states 1

and 2. Assume both of these are reversible then

2

Q

=

0

=

T

1

1 Q

Q

T A +

2 T B

2 Q + 1 Q

Q

=

0

=

T C T B

T

1

2

Since the second integral is common we get by subtraction

2 Q = 2 Q = Fct(1,2)

T A

T C

1

1

Integral is the same for all reversible paths, define a state function:

Entropy S:

Q

dS T rev

or

q

ds T rev

[kJ/kg-K]

2 q

s2 s1 =

T rev

1

48

The Entropy

Entropy of a pure substance.

properties as (T, P, v, u, h, s) in the B section

of appendix. Properties (u or h) and s are

zero at a reference point that depends on

the substance.

In the two-phase region s relates to the

saturated liquid-vapor values as (v, u, h)

s = (1 x)sf + x sg

= sf + x sfg

49

The Entropy

T-s diagram from CATT3 for water.

Showing P = 1.55 MPa & v = 0.13 m^3/kg

curves with the plot option

h-s diagram, Mollier diagram

50

The Entropy

Entropy changes in reversible processes.

In general

q

ds = T rev

and

qrev = T ds

Notice:

1. Change ds follows magnitude and sign of q

2. For a given q change ds is smaller for high T

3. For a reversible process we find heat transfer

2

qrev = T ds

1q2

=

T ds = area

1

51

The Entropy

Entropy changes in reversible processes.

From the definition of the entropy there are two processes

for which we can evaluate the integral without further

developments.

Reversible adiabatic process:

q

ds = rev = 0

T

q = 0

T-S diagram

so

s = constant

2

1q2

=

T ds = area = 0

1

Reversible isothermal process:

2

s2 s1 =

T = constant so

1q2

q

T rev = T

area below the process curve

shows the heat transfer.

2

1q2

=

T ds = area = T (s2 s1)

1

52

Entropy changes in the Carnot Cycle.

T-S diagram

processes so the cycle looks like a rectangle in a T-s

diagram as shown. Notice how the heat transfer is the area

below the process curve as in the heat engine

1q2

= TH (s2 s1) = qH

3q4

= TL (s4 s3) = qL

and

The two isentropic processes (rev. and adiabatic) give

s2 = s3

and

s4 = s 1

3 4 process. The net work equals the net heat transfer so

the cycle efficiency is

wnet qH qL area 1-2-3-4-1

= q = q

= area 1-2-b-a-1

H

H

The reversed cycle is a refrigerator or heat pump and it has

opposite changes in entropy and all heat transfers.

53

Entropy changes in reversible processes.

Consider a constant pressure process of boiling

saturated liquid to saturated vapor from state 1 to state 2

in the diagram. From the energy equation

1q2

= u2 u1 + 1w2 = h2 h1 = hfg

Constant P process

2 q

1q2 hfg

s2 s1 = sfg = T rev = T = T

1

evaporation hfg. This is a consistency requirement for

the tables of thermodynamic properties.

hfg

sfg =

T

54

For a solid or liquid we have the behavior for an incompressible substance:

v constant;

v also small;

du = C dT

du P

du

C

ds = T + T dv T = T dT

If specific heat is constant we can integrate

T2

2 C

s2 s1 = T dT = C ln T

1

1

Since v is constant u and s are functions of temperature only. Thus in an isentropic

process the temperature does not change, like pumping a liquid to higher pressure.

Example 6.3

Liquid water is heated from 20oC to 90oC. Find the change in entropy using constant

specific heat and by using the steam tables.

Solution _____________________________________________________

Table A.4:

T2

363.15

s2 s1 = C ln T = 4.18 kJ/kg-K ln 293.15 = 0.8951 kJ/kg-K

1

Table B.1.1:

55

Now use the two Gibbs relations for an ideal gas

Ideal gas:

Pv = RT ;

du = Cv0 dT ;

dh = Cp0 dT

Gibbs:

RT

T ds = du + P dv = Cv0 dT + v dv

Cv0

R

ds = T dT + v dv

v2

2 Cv0

s2 s1 = T dT + R ln v

1

1

Gibbs:

(6.13)

RT

T ds = dh v dP = Cp0 dT

dP

P

Cp0

R

ds = T dT P dP

P2

2 Cp0

s2 s1 = T dT R ln P

1

1

(6.15)

Conclusions:

Ideal gas: u(T), h(T) but s(T, P) or s(T, v)

Entropy increases with T, increases with v, but decreases with P

Model for specific heat (recall Cp0 = Cv0 + R) needed to evaluate the integrals

56

Constant specific heat model:

Cp0 , Cv0 assumed constant and found in Table A.5, F.4

Integrals are done to give:

P2

2 Cp0

s2 s1 = T dT R ln P

1

1

v2

2 Cv0

s2 s1 = T dT + R ln v

1

1

T2

P2

s2 s1 = Cp0 ln T R ln P

1

1

(6.16)

T2

v2

s2 s1 = Cv0 ln T + R ln v

1

1

(6.17)

The expressions are alternatives and consistent. Use Cp0 = Cv0 + R and ideal gas law to

mathematically transform from one to the other equation.

Variable simple specific heat model:

Cp0(T) = Fct(T) polynomial, exponential or power functions

Cv0(T) = Cp0(T) RT

57

Variable complex specific heat model:

Standard entropy tabulated:

Absolute entropy:

T Cp0

0

dT

+

s

ref

To T

(6.18)

P2

R ln

P1

(6.19)

s(T,

0

P0) = s T

s2

0

0

s1 = sT2 sT1

P

0

s(T, P) = sT R ln P

Function is shown for air in A.7, F.5 and other gases in A.8, F.6 with an offset to make

0

the standard entropy a certain value at T0. For other Tables sref = s(T0, P0) may be set to

zero. Normally we need a difference so any offset will cancel out.

0

0

T2 Cp0

0

T1 Cp0

0

dT

+

s

dT

s

ref

ref

To T

To T

T2 Cp0

To Cp0

2 Cp0

=

dT +

dT = T dT

To T

T1 T

1

58

Example 6.4

Find the change in specific entropy of oxygen when state changes from 300 K, 200 kPa

to 1500 K, 150 kPa.

Solution _____________________________________________________

The most accurate result is using standard entropy from A.8 corrected for pressure as

s2

0

0

s1 = sT2 sT1

P2

150

R ln P = 8.0649 6.4168 0.2598 ln 200 = 1.7228 kJ/kg-K

1

The next best evaluation is using the equation from Table A.6 to get

P2

s2 s1 = CP0/T dT = CP0/ d R ln P

1

1

=1.5

P2

P1

= 1.7058 kJ/kg-K

Constant specific heat evaluation becomes

T2

P2

1500

150

s2 s1 = Cp0 ln T R ln P = 0.922 ln 300 0.2598 ln 200 = 1.5586 kJ/kg-K

1

1

This last evaluation is too low since Cp0 is taken at 300 K and it increases with T so in

Example 3.13 we found the average should be like Cp0 = 1.06 kJ/kg-K.

59

Process: Isentropic, s = constant.

A simple reversible adiabatic compression or expansion is an isentropic process. From

the previous expressions for changes in s we can get relations between P, v and T. A set

of explicit relations are obtained using constant specific heat.

Constant specific heat model:

T2

P2

T2

v2

0 = s2 s1 = Cp0 ln T R ln P = Cv0 ln T + R ln v

1

1

1

1

First one gives:

Cp0 / R

P2 = P1 [T2 / T1]

Cv0 / R

v2 = v1 [T1 / T2]

k/(k 1)

= P1 [T2 / T1]

k1

= v1 [T1 / T2]

Cp0

Cp0

k

=

=

R Cp0 Cv0 k 1

and

Cp0

k=C

v0

60

The Isentropic Process continued

The relations can be extended with specific volume by the ideal gas law Pv = RT

P2 T2 k/(k1) v1 k

=

=

P1 T1

v2

T2 P2 (k1)/k v1 k1

=v

T1 = P1

2

These relations are known as the power relations and are valid for an isentropic process

in an ideal gas with constant specific heats. If one of the ratios is known in an isentropic

compression or expansion (typically the P or v ratio) the other ratios can be found.

The pressure to volume relation can be rewritten to recognize

P vk = constant

as a polytropic process with polytropic exponent n = k. The different processes are:

P vn = constant

Isobaric:

n = 0, P = constant

Isentropic:

n = k, s = constant

Isothermal:

n = 1, T = constant

Isochoric:

n = , v = constant

61

The polytropic processes:

P vn = constant

Isobaric:

n = 0, P = constant

Isentropic:

n = k, s = constant

Isothermal:

n = 1, T = constant

Isochoric:

n = , v = constant

62

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