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ET-205

TN Densimeter Repair

One Volume
Revision 1.03
22 August 2005

BJ Services

ET-205 TN Densimeter Repair


Revision 1.03

ET-205 TN Densimeter Repair

ET-205 TN Densimeter Repair

Title

Revision 1.03

Revision 1.03

BJ Services

Services

BJ Services

BJ

Introduction

Definition of Terms

Theory of Operation

Radiation Safety Review

Detector Assembly

BJ Digital Transmitter
Controllers/Data
Acquisition Systems
Specifications and
Conversions
Nuclear Densimeter
Calibration
Nuclear Density
Maintenance
Appendix A

Appendix B

Nuclear Densimeter Introduction


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

BJ Services Introduction
BJ Services is an oilfield service company specializing in pressure-pumping and coiled tubing
operations. A large part of the pressure pumping services include the cementing and stimulation of
wells. These services require a means to measure the density of the various slurries pumped into the well
during a given job.
Nuclear Densimeter Introduction
To this end, BJ utilizes the TN Technologies Nuclear Densimeter, which measures the density of a slurry
through radiation detection. This method of measurement works well with both proppant-laden and
cement-laden slurries. This device, however, is extremely sensitive, and the Electronic Technician, or
ET, is usually assigned the duty of ensuring the Nuclear Densimeter works properly.

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Scope Of This Manual

Nuclear Densimeter Introduction


Terminology
Theory Of Operation
Radiation Safety Course Review
Detector Assembly
Transmitters
Specifications
Conversion
Calibration
Maintenance
Troubleshooting

Scope Of This Manual


In order to properly maintain the Nuclear Densimeter, the ET must first understand both Operational and
Standardization procedures. The scope of this course, then, can be divided into three main objectives:
Operation
Standardization
Duties Of The Electronic Technician
Operation
Before an Electronic Technician can perform his required duties for the Nuclear Densimeter, he must
first understand its operation (bullet points 1-6), down to the electronic level.
Standardization
With BJs acquisition of various oilfield service companies through the years, the issue of
standardization (bullet points 7-8) has increased in importance. The Instrumentation Engineering
department has made the effort to incorporate the plug n play concept, where if a district borrows a
Nuclear Gauge, or any other piece of instrumentation from another district, no modification is necessary.
The device is simply hooked up and used for the job. While these various companies use the same
Nuclear Technology, there are electronic differences that can make the plug n play concept difficult
to implement. It is the responsibility of the ET to ensure that all Nuclear Densimeters are wired the same
way, regardless of company origin.
Duties Of The Electronic Technician
After standardization is achieved, the ET is ready to perform his duties (Bullet Points 9-11). There are
calibration and maintenance procedures that the ET must perform in order to ensure that the Densimeter
works properly, and when problems occur, he must find the source of the problem and correct it in a
timely fashion.

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Specifications
Dimensions (w/o Pipe)

Length, 13 in (33.0 cm)


Width, 13 in (33.0 cm)
Depth, 30 in (76.2 cm)
Weight, 125 lbs (56 kg)

Pipe Size
2 to 10 in (5.1 to 25.4 cm)

Operating Temperature
40 to 130F (4 to 54C)

Detector Output
0 to 10VDC

Power Requirements
15VDC @ 60mA minimum

Specifications
From this point, the operation of the Nuclear Densimeter, or Gauge, is discussed. To begin, the
specifications for this device are listed above. They include:
Dimensions
Pipe Size
Operating Temperature
Detector Output
Power Requirements
Pipe Size
The Nuclear Densimeter can be mounted on a wide range of pipe sizes. For BJ Services, this range is
from 2 to 10 inches. If the Gauge is removed from one pipe and mounted on another, it must be recalibrated. There are however, certain gauges that cannot legally be removed from the pipe. This topic
is discussed in Section 3, Nuclear Densimeter Theory of Operation.
Operating Temperature
Specifications list the operating temperature as 40 to 130F (4 to 54C). If the Nuclear Densimeter is
operated outside this temperature range, it will still function but its accuracy may be compromised, and
its output may become unstable, causing the density reading to fluctuate.
Detector Output
Depending on the density of the fluid circulating through the pipe, the Gauge outputs a 0 to 10VDC nonlinear signal.
Power Requirements
The Nuclear Densimeter requires 15VDC to operate. It receives this power from some type of
monitoring electronics, referred to in this course as a Transmitter.

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Nuclear Densimeter/Transmitter

0-10VDC Signal
15VDC Power

Transmitter

TN Nuclear Densimeter

TN Nuclear Densimeter/Transmitter Relationship


To receive its needed dual-polarity power, the TN Nuclear Densimeter is typically connected to a
transmitter. There are additional functions of the transmitter, which are discussed in Section 3, Nuclear
Densimeter Theory of Operation. The slide above shows a Gauge connected to a BJ Digital Transmitter,
operating as a Stand Alone Transmitter. In addition to this type of transmitter, there are other devices
that possess the capacity to power a Gauge. These include:
Data Acquisition Systems
Control Systems

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Stand Alone Transmitters

TN Analog Transmitter

TN Digital Transmitter

BJ Digital Transmitter

Stand Alone Transmitters


A Stand Alone Transmitter can power the TN Nuclear Densimeter. The various transmitters used by BJS
include:
TN Analog Transmitter
TN Digital Transmitter
BJ Digital Transmitter
Only the BJ Digital Transmitters will be discussed in detail in this manual.
Aliases
Depending on the Company of Origin (i.e., BJ Services, Western, NOWSCO, Fracmaster), the District,
or even the individual, these Transmitters are known by various names, including:
Analog Head
Digital Head
BJ Density Module
Density Module
Density Display
Tex. Nuc. Density
Each of these names is an alias for one of those listed in the previous bullet points.

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Data Acquisition Systems

3305 Mini Monitor

3600 Well Treatment Analyzer

Data Acquisition System


The primary function of a Data Acquisition System is to monitor and record the processes during a job.
In addition to this function, they possess the capacity to power a Nuclear Densimeter. The data
acquisition, or monitoring systems used by BJ include:
3305 Mini Monitor
3600 Well Treatment Analyzer
Isoplex36 Well Treatment Analyzer
Isoplex DAU
Operations Manuals
Each data acquisition system listed has an operations manual available which discusses the connection of
a Nuclear Densimeter, therefore they are not covered in this manual. The 3305 Mini Monitor is
mentioned in the Calibration section to demonstrate the calibration procedure for a Nuclear Densimeter.

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Control Systems

611C Control System


Pendant Control System

Control Systems
The primary function of a control system is to regulate the processes of a job. Similar to the data
acquisition systems, most control systems have the ability to power a Nuclear Densimeter. These
include:
Pendant Control System (shown above)
611C Control System (shown above)
Universal Control Module II (UCM II)
Mixing Control Module Series (MCM Series)
Automatic Cement Controller II (ACC II)
The Nuclear Densimeter provides the Operator with a density reading at the controller and, on blenders
used in stimulation applications, this density reading from the Gauge can be compared with the density
reading calculated from sand-screw rpm's for control purposes.

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Stimulation Applications

125C Blender

8 Nuclear Densimeter, Mounted on 125C Blender

Stimulation Applications
When used in stimulation applications, a Nuclear Densimeter is usually mounted at the following
locations:
Blender discharge line (Low Pressure)
The Treating Line (High Pressure)
Nuclear Densimeter Mounted On The Blender
A Gauge is mounted on the discharge side of a blender, so that the Operator knows the density of the
slurry as it leaves the blender tub. At this point in the process, the slurry is pumped at low-pressure,
ranging between 40-100 PSI. The advantage of the low pressure Densimeter is its rapid response to
changes in concentration. Once the slurry leaves the blender, it enters the frac pump(s). The photos
above show a low pressure Nuclear Densimeter mounted on a 125C blender discharge line.

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Stimulation Applications

Nuclear Densimeter, Mounted in the Treating Line

Nuclear Densimeter Mounted In The Treating Line


Once the slurry exits the frac pumps, it travels to the well head under high pressure via the treating line.
A Gauge is mounted on a short line (Pup Joint) and installed in the treating line in order to monitor the
density of the slurry just before it enters into the well head. Pressure in the treating line may approach
15,000 PSI, and in some cases, 20,000 PSI. The photo above shows a Nuclear Densimeter mounted in
the treating line. Because the low pressure slurry from the blender may contain some air, thus limiting
the accuracy of the low pressure Nuclear Densimeter, the high pressure Densimeter is generally more
accurate. Additionally, having two Nuclear Densimeters on the job provides backup insurance and a
means for comparison. For these reasons, a high pressure Nuclear Densimeter is normally used on every
job.
Additional Application
In addition to stimulation applications, the Nuclear Densimeter can be used in cementing applications.

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Cement Applications

RAM Cement Unit

Nuclear Densimeter, Mounted on RAM Cement Unit

Cementing Applications
When used in cementing applications, a Nuclear Densimeter is mounted on cement units (on-shore
cement applications), or cement skids (off-shore cement applications). For these applications, the
Nuclear Densimeter is usually powered by one of the following:
Automatic Cement Controller II (Control System)
3305 Mini Monitor (Data Acquisition System)
3600 Well Treatment Analyzer (Data Acquisition System)
The Automatic Cement Controller II
When powered by the Automatic Cement Controller II, or ACC II, the Nuclear Densimeter can be used
to provide feedback to the ACC II, in order to regulate the cement-mixing process. Additionally, it is
possible to serially link the ACC II and the 3305 Mini Monitor so that the density reading can be
transmitted to the 3305 for monitoring and recording purposes.
The 3305 Mini Monitor
In some instances, a DB-IV electronic densimeter is used to regulate the cement-mixing process. In this
case, the Nuclear Densimeter is powered by a 3305 Mini Monitor and used for monitoring and recording
purposes.

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10

Review Questions
Introduction, Densimeter Repair
1. The Nuclear Densimeter can be mounted on a wide range of pipe sizes. For BJ
Services, this range is from 2 to 10 in. If the Gauge is removed from one pipe and
mounted on another, it must be ____________________.
2. Specifications list the Operating Temperature as __________ to __________F
(__________ to __________C).
3. Depending on the Density of the Fluid circulating through the pipe, the Gauge outputs
a ____________________ Non-Linear Signal.
4.

The Nuclear Densimeter requires ____________________ to operate.

5. When used in Stimulation Applications, a Nuclear Densimeter is usually mounted at


the following locations:
_________________________ (Low Pressure)
_________________________ (High Pressure)
6. The advantage of the Low Pressure Densimeter is its ____________________ to
changes in Concentration.

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Review Questions
Introduction, Densimeter Repair

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Page 2 of 2

Definition Of Terms
Densimeter Repair

Definition Of Terms
The first step an Electronic Technician, or ET, must take toward learning Nuclear Densimeter operation
is to understand the associated terminology used by Operations personnel. This is important because,
usually, the ET isnt on location where job problems may occur. When the equipment arrives to the
yard, the ET must repair the problem, and the Operator is usually the only person who can tell the ET
exactly what happened. The Electronic Technician, however, must be capable of interpreting the
necessary information from the Operator. To achieve this goal, this section discusses terminology
associated with the Nuclear Densimeter that is used at the operations level.

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Definition Of Terms
Density
Types Of Density
Bulk Density
Absolute Density

Proppant Concentration
Specific Gravity
Density Units for Various Applications
Stimulation
Cement
Sand Control

Definition Of Terms
The items listed above are terminology related to density readings.

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Density

Density = =

Weight
Volume

Weight

Volume

Density
The density of a material is defined as the ratio of a materials weight to the volume that it occupies. For
example, if a 1-gallon (volume) bucket is completely filled with water, it weighs 8.34 pounds (weight).
Therefore:
Density Of Water =

8.34 Pounds (Weight)


1 Gallon (Volume)

= 8.34

Pounds
Gallon

= 8.34

Lbs
= 8.34 PPG
Gallon

Units Of Measurement
For BJ Services US Operations, the units of measurement for density are usually expressed in pounds
per gallon, or PPG. For International Operations, the units of measurement for density are expressed in
kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3), or kilograms per cube.

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Types Of Density

Bulk Density
14.3 PPG

Absolute Density
22.1 PPG

Example: 20/40 Sand

Types Of Density
Density can be divided into 2 distinct categories:
Bulk Density
Absolute Density
Bulk Density
Some materials, such as sand, are granular, or powdered in nature. These materials have air pockets
between the grains, or particles. The total volume that the material and the air pockets occupy is referred
to as bulk volume. Bulk density can then be defined as the ratio of a materials weight to its bulk
volume.
Absolute Density
Other materials, such as liquids, are continuous in nature. That is to say, there is no air pockets, or voids,
in the material. The volume of space that a material occupies, without any air pockets, is referred to as
the absolute volume. Absolute density can then be defined as the ratio of a materials weight to its
absolute volume.
Bulk Density Versus Absolute Density
In its natural state, 20/40 sand is a granular material. If a 1-gallon bucket is completely filled with sand,
it would weigh 14.3 Pounds, so the bulk density would be 14.3 PPG. If the sand was heated until it
melted, it would occupy a smaller space because there are no air pockets present between the grains. If a
1-gallon bucket is completely filled with the melted sand, it would weigh 22.1 pounds, so the absolute
density would be 22.1 PPG. The absolute density of 20/40 sand is greater than its bulk density because
more of the melted sand can fit in a given volume (1 gallon), than granular sand.

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Absolute Density
Material
Type

Weight
(Pounds)

Volume
(Gals)

8.34 Pounds

1 Gallon

Density
(PPG)
8.34 PPG

Base Fluid

1.00 Pound

.045 Gallon
Absolute Volume, not Bulk

22.1 PPG
Absolute Density, not Bulk

20/40 Sand
9.34 Pounds

1.045 Gallons

Slurry

9.34 Pounds
1.045 Gallons

Slurry Density = Slurry = 8.93 PPG

Properties Of Mixtures
When a proppant, such as 20/40 sand, is mixed with a base fluid, such as water, the entire mixture may
be thought of as continuous. That is to say, the space between the grains of sand is no longer filled with
air, but is filled with fluid. In the case of proppant laden slurries, it is important to use the absolute
volume, rather than the bulk volume of the sand when computing the total volume and density of the
entire mixture.

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Proppant Concentration
Material
Type

Weight
(Pounds)

Volume
(Gals)

8.34 Pounds

1 Gallon

Density
(PPG)
8.34 PPG

Base Fluid

1.00 Pound

.045 Gallon
Absolute Volume, not Bulk

22.1 PPG
Absolute Density, not Bulk

20/40 Sand
9.34 Pounds

1.045 Gallon

Slurry

9.34 Pounds
1.045 Gallons

Proppant Concentration = 1 PSA


Slurry Density = 8.93 PPG
Proppant Concentration
Proppant concentration is a measurement of the amount of a material that is contained in a unit volume
of a mixture or solution. For BJ Services applications, the amount of sand added to 1-gallon of base
fluid is referred to as the proppant concentration. The units for proppant concentration are pounds of
sand added, or PSA.
Density/Proppant Concentration Relationship
As the above diagram shows, density is not the same as proppant concentration. Density is expressed in
units of pounds per gallon (PPG), while proppant concentration is expressed in units of pounds of sand
added to 1 gallon of base fluid (PSA). These two items, however, are directly related. The following
equation mathematically relates density to proppant concentration:

Proppant Concentration =

(Slurry Density - Base Fluid Density)

Slurry Density
1

Proppant Density
Keep in mind that the proppant concentration is in units of PSA, and all density measurements are in
units of PPG.

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Specific Gravity

Specific Gravity = =

Water =

Water
Water

Materials Density
Water Density

8.34 PPG
8.34 PPG

Material
Water

= 1.0 (No Units)

Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of a material is the ratio of the materials density to the density of water, which is
8.34 PPG. Since the units, PPG, are both in the numerator and in the denominator, they cancel, which
means that specific gravity does not have any units associated with it.
Specific Gravity Of Water, Water
To obtain the specific gravity of water, Water, take the density of water, 8.34 PPG, and ratio it with itself,
to obtain a result of 1.0, as mentioned before there are no units.

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Specific Gravity Of 20/40 Sand

20/40 Sand Density = 20/40 Sand = 22.1 PPG

Water Density = Water = 8.34 PPG

20/40 Sand
20/40 Sand =
Water

22.1 PPG
8.34 PPG

= 2.65 (No Units)

Specific Gravity Of 20/40 Sand, 20/40 Sand


To calculate the specific gravity of 20/40 sand, 20/40 Sand, take the absolute density of 20/40 sand, 22.1
PPG, and ratio it with the density of water, 8.34 PPG, to obtain a result of 2.65.

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Density Units For Various Applications


Stimulation Applications
Density
Pounds Per Gallon, or PPG

Proppant Concentration
Pounds Sand Added to 1 Gallon of clean fluid, or PSA
Pounds Proppant Added to 1 Gallon of clean fluid, or PPA

Cement Applications
Density
Pounds Per Gallon, or PPG

Sand Control Applications


Proppant Concentration
Pounds Sand Added to 1 Gallon of clean fluid, or PPG

Density Units For Various Applications


The items above list the units that are used to express density and proppant concentration for the various
applications within BJ Services. For both stimulation and cementing applications, the units used for
density and proppant concentration are consistent with the units described in this section. In Sand
Control applications, however, proppant concentration is expressed in units of PPG.

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Review Questions
Terminology, Densimeter Repair
1. The first step an Electronic Technician, or ET, must take toward learning Nuclear
Densimeter Operation is to understand the associated ____________________ used
by Operations Personnel.
2. The Density of a material is defined as the Ratio of a materials
____________________ to the ____________________ that it occupies.
3. For BJ Services U.S. Operations, the Units Of Measurement for Density are usually
expressed in ____________________. For International Operations, the Units Of
Measurement for Density are expressed in ____________________.
4.

The ____________________ can then be defined as the Ratio of a materials Weight


to its Bulk Volume.

5. The ____________________ can then be defined as the Ratio of a materials Weight


to its Absolute Volume.
6. In the case of Proppant Laden Slurries, it is important to use the
____________________, rather than the ____________________ of the sand when
computing the Total Volume and Density of the entire mixture.
7. In BJ Services, the amount of sand added to 1 unit volume of Base Fluid is referred to
as the ______________________________.
8. The units for Proppant Concentration are _________________________
9. The ____________________ of a material is the ratio of the materials density to the
density of water, which is 8.34 Pounds per Gallon.

Page 1 of 1

Nuclear Densimeter Theory Of Operation


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Theory Of Operation
Now that terminology has been covered, the ET is ready to learn how a Nuclear Densimeter Gauge
works. This section provides the ET a general overview of the operation of a Nuclear Gauge.

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Main Components
Transmitter

process fluid
pipe

radiation
source holder

Radiation
Energy

Detector
Assembly

Main Components
The drawing above shows the main components of the Nuclear Densimeter, which includes the:
Radiation Source Holder
Process Fluid Pipe
Detector Assembly
Transmitter
This section discusses the components in the order listed, since the radiation energy originates at the
radiation source holder and interacts with the remaining components in this sequence.

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Radiation Source Holder

Lead Filled
Housing

0-10VDC

Cesium 137
finished source

Radiation
Energy

Radiation Source Holder


The radiation source holder consists of a protective lead-filled housing and a small Cesium-137 finished
source pellet. The housing has a small window which serves to focus the radiation beam from the
finished source.
Radiation Strengths
Radiation strengths are available in:
50 mCi (millicuries) or 1.8 GBq (gigabequerels)
100 mCi (3.7 GBq)
200 mCi (7.5 GBq)
Radiation Window
Radiation energy is emitted from the finished source uniformly in all directions. Because the source is
mounted inside the lead-filled housing, the radiation energy is unable to penetrate the lead walls, and can
travel only through a cavity or window. The radiation energy collimates into a relatively narrow 12 13 beam that travels through the process fluid and pipe, which is then received by the Detector
Assembly.

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Radiation Source Holder


Lead Filled
Housing

Cesium 137
finished
source

shutter

Cavity

Radiation Source Holder


The photo above shows a cutout view of a radiation source holder, with a simulated radiation source
installed. Notice the lead-filled housing walls. The Cesium 137 finished source is mounted in the
cavity, as shown. The radiation energy can escape only through the cavity. A stainless steel disc, welded
in place, protects the cavity from external contamination.
Shutter
Notice also that this particular radiation source holder has a slide gate, or shutter associated with it.
When closed, the shutter places lead plates over the cavity, which blocks all radiation. This type of
source allows the radiation source holder to be removed by qualified personnel. Shutters are used with
radiation source holders that are mounted on process fluid pipes ranging from 5-8, typically low
pressure applications. Some 4 applications may also use a shuttered source, but this is not common.
NOTE
BJ Services personnel DO NOT have the authorization to open the radiation source holder, or to
remove a non-shuttered source from the pipe. Only TN Technologies personnel may do so.

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Shutter

OFF Position
ON Position

REF Position

Shutter Positions
The shutter, shown above, has three positions associated with it. These are:
The ON Position
The Off Position
The Reference, or REF Position
There are some older shutters that only have the ON and OFF Positions.
Safety Precautions
The shutter must be locked in the OFF position when:
Removing the radiation source holder from the process fluid pipe
Making repairs within close range of the radiation source holder (use long handled brushes and
scrapers for cleaning inside the pipe).
Transporting the Nuclear Densimeter
Additionally, when the shutter is in the ON position, keep others and yourself at least three feet away
from the gauge.

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Process Fluid Pipe


process fluid
pipe

Process
Fluid

0-10VDC
Radiation
Energy

Process Fluid Pipe


While the radiation energy travels across the process fluid pipe, its magnitude is attenuated, or
weakened, by the process fluid traveling through the pipe. As the density of the process fluid increases,
the magnitude of the radiation energy reaching the Detector Assembly decreases.
Empty Process Fluid Pipe
If the process fluid pipe is empty, the radiation energy effectively passes through unmolested (neglecting
the radiation attenuated by the process fluid pipe); and reaches the Detector Assembly at what is
considered to be full magnitude.
Light Fluid in the Process Fluid Pipe
A light fluid is a fluid with a relatively low density. Water, with a density of 8.34PPG, is a good
example. If water passes through the process fluid pipe, the magnitude of the radiation energy reaching
the Detector Assembly is inversely proportional to the water density.
Heavy Fluid in the Process Fluid Pipe
A heavy fluid is a fluid with a relatively high density. Cement and proppant laden slurries are good
examples. If a slurry passes through the process fluid pipe, the magnitude of the radiation energy
reaching the Detector Assembly is attenuated even further.
TIP
It is important to keep the inside walls of the process fluid pipe as clean as possible. Even a small
buildup of sand or cement within the pipe can significantly alter the readings of the Nuclear Densimeter.

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Detector Assembly

0-10VDC
Radiation
Energy

Detector
Assembly

Detector Assembly
The Detector Assembly consists of the following major subassemblies:
Ion Chamber
High Voltage Board
Preamplifier Board
Because there are a number of things that can be done to repair and maintain these components, both the
preamplifier board and high voltage board are discussed in detail in this manual. The ion chamber is
discussed, but is a sealed component that cannot be repaired by an Electronic Technician. A general
overview, however, will be given on all three components.
Role of the Detector Assembly
When properly powered, the ion chamber converts received radiation energy into a proportional current
signal that is sent to the preamplifier board; where it is converted and amplified to a proportional voltage
signal of 0 to 10VDC. This non-linear 0 to 10VDC voltage signal is then sent to the Transmitter through a
10-Pin connector.
Density of the Process Fluid
If the process fluid pipe is empty (density = 0.00PPG), then most of the radiation energy reaches the
detector assembly. This being the case, the voltage signal sent from the detector assembly is 10VDC.
This is referred to as the Open Pipe Voltage, or VOP. If water, with a density of 8.34 PPG, is circulated
through the process fluid pipe, the density increases from 0.00 to 8.34 PPG. Usually, water is used as the
base fluid, but other fluids such as brine or KCL may be used as well. The voltage signal generated
while water is circulating through the process fluid pipe is known as the reference voltage, or VREF. As
the density increases, the magnitude of the radiation energy reaching the Detector Assembly decreases.
As a result, the voltage signal sent from the Detector Assembly decreases as well.

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Ion Chamber
Positrons
Ion Chamber
Filled with Xenon
Gas

Anode
+ +
+
+

Radiation
Energy

+
-

Cathode
Current
Signal

+
+ +

R
Electrons

Ion Pair

Ion Chamber
The Ion Chamber is a cylinder that receives radiation energy and converts it into a proportional electrical
signal. The assembly consists of a stainless steel cylinder filled with xenon gas and an insulated center
wire. A stable +1400VDC from the high voltage board is applied to the wall (canister) of the ion
chamber. The TN Technologies Densimeter is configured so that the chamber wall acts as an anode and
the wire acts as a cathode. The principle is similar to that of a Geiger Counter, however most Geiger
Counters use polarity which is reversed from the above example.
Ion Chamber Operation
Ionization is the process of an atom becoming charged due to its losing or gaining an electron. When the
radiation energy enters the ion chamber, it ionizes with the xenon gas, creating ion pairs. Each ion pair
consists of:
A Negative Ion (also known as an Electron)
A Positive Ion (also known as a Positron)
The positrons are drawn to the wall of ion chamber, while the faster moving electrons are drawn to the
wire. A charge collects on the Anode, resulting in a voltage change in the circuit. The size of this
voltage change depends on the number of electrons collected from the ionizing process. This causes a
proportional current signal to flow to the preamplifier board, where it is then converted to a voltage
signal and amplified to 0 to 10VDC.
Radiation Energy/Ionizing Relationship
If the full magnitude of the radiation energy enters ion chamber, a greater number of ion pairs are
created, and more charge collects on the anode, resulting in a larger current signal. This larger current
signal results in a larger voltage signal sent to a transmitter, ideally 10VDC, or VOP. If the magnitude of
the radiation energy entering the ion chamber is attenuated, the number of ion pairs created is less, which
results in a smaller current signal, resulting in a smaller voltage signal sent to the transmitter.

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Detector Assembly
Ionization
Chamber

Lead Shield

high voltage
board

preamplifier
board

Detector Assembly
The photo above shows the detector assembly. The high voltage board is mounted above the ion
chamber. The lead shield, mounted on the top plate, blocks radiation from passing through the
signal/power connector. This shield might not be found on new units.

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Transmitter
Transmitter

0-10VDC
Radiation
Energy

15VDC

Transmitter
A transmitter provides four important functions:
Linearizes the 0-10VDC density signal
Displays the density
Supplies the Nuclear Densimeter with 15VDC
Transmits the density signal to a remote monitor via frequency signals, analog signals or digital
communication.
A transmitter linearizes the voltage signal from the Detector Assembly and produces a numerical value,
which is indicative of the density for the process fluid. Additionally, it provides a display of the density
for the Operator.
Proppant Concentration
In stimulation operations, the transmitter also calculates the proppant concentration in the fluid.
Proppant concentration is measured in units of PSA, or Pounds Sand Added.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

10

Transmitters

Analog Transmitter

3305 Mini Monitor

Digital Transmitter
TN Nuclear Transmitter

3600 Well Treatment Analyzer

Pendant Control System

Transmitters
There are a number of devices that may be utilized, in whole or part, as a Transmitter.
TN Analog Transmitter
TN Digital Transmitter
BJ Digital Transmitter
3305 Mini Monitor
3600/Isoplex36 Well Treatment Analyzer
Pendant Control System
MCM 1000 Series (Not shown)

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

11

Nuclear Densimeter Review


Transmitter

process fluid
pipe

radiation
source holder
0-10VDC
Radiation
Energy

Detector
Assembly

Nuclear Densimeter Review


The Nuclear Densimeter consists of four main components:
Radiation Source Holder
Process Fluid Pipe
Detector Assembly
Transmitter
The radiation source holder emits radiation energy through the process fluid pipe. Depending on the
density of the process fluid passing through the pipe, the proportional magnitude of the radiation energy
is received by the Detector Assembly, where it is converted to a 0-10VDC non-linear signal. This signal
is passed on to the transmitter, where the voltage signal is linearized, converted into a density reading,
displayed for the Operator, and made available for a remote monitor.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

12

Review Questions
Theory of Operation, Densimeter Repair
1. The Radiation Source Holder consists of a protective
______________________________ and a small ____________________ Finished
Source pellet. The housing has a small ____________________ which serves to
focus the radiation beam from Finished Source.
2. BJ Services Personnel ____________________ have the authorization to open the
Radiation Source Holder, or to remove a non-shuttered Source from the pipe.
3. Additionally, when the Shutter is in the ON position, stay at least
____________________ away and keep others away from the gauge.
4.

As the Density of the Process Fluid ____________________, the magnitude of the


radiation energy reaching the Detector Assembly ____________________.

5. It important to keep the _________________________of the Process Fluid Pipe as


clean as possible. Even a small buildup of sand or cement within the pipe can
significantly alter the readings of the Nuclear Densimeter.
6. When properly powered, the ____________________ converts received radiation
energy into a proportional Current Signal and sends it to the Preamplifier Board
7. If the Process Fluid Pipe is empty (Density = 0.00PPG), the ____________________
of the radiation energy reaches the Detector Assembly.
8. When the radiation energy enters the Ion Chamber, it ionizes with the Xenon Gas,
creating ____________________.
9. The ____________________ linearizes the Voltage Signal from the Detector
Assembly and produces a numerical value, which is indicative of the Density for the
Process Fluid. Additionally, it provides a display of the Density for the Operator.

Page 1 of 2

Review Questions
Theory of Operation, Densimeter Repair
This page intentionally left blank.

Page 2 of 2

Radiation Safety Review


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Radiation Safety Review


So far in this presentation, the Nuclear Densimeter has been discussed on a general level. In the sections
to follow, a more in depth discussion is given, which involves opening the Detector assembly, calibration
and troubleshooting. Whenever working around a device that is radioactive, safety must always be a top
priority for the ET and personnel in the area. Before going forward, a review of the Radiation Safety
Course is given in this section.
Radiation Safety Course
The purpose of the Radiation Safety Course, offered by TN Technologies, is to provide personnel with a
general understanding of the possible hazards associated with Nuclear Densimeters. Additionally, the
course explains how to work confidently and safely around this device.
A Prerequisite
This section is intended only as a supplement to the Radiation Safety Course offered by TN
Technologies. Before an Electronic Technician can handle/repair a Nuclear Densimeter, he must
successfully complete the Radiation Safety Course. This is necessary due to the potential hazards if the
Densimeter is handled incorrectly.
Topics of Discussion
The following topics are discussed in this section:
What is Radiation
Using Radiation Safely
BJ Services Radiation Protection Manual
Labels

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

What Is Radiation?

Alpha Radiation
Beta Radiation
Gamma Radiation
X-Ray Radiation
Neutron Radiation

What Is Radiation?
In order to work safely around Nuclear Gauges, one must first understand some basic facts about
radiation. Radiation originates from atoms, which are the building blocks of all matter. Certain atoms
are at excited states and release energy in the form of radiation. This energy is transferred as either
particles or electromagnetic waves.
Types Of Ionizing Radiation
There are 5 types of Ionizing Radiation:
Alpha Radiation
Beta Radiation
Gamma Radiation
X-Ray Radiation
Neutron Radiation
Each has a unique penetrating ability that needs to be considered when protecting oneself from
Radiation.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

What Is Radiation?

Alpha Radiation
Beta Radiation
Gamma Radiation
X-Ray Radiation
Neutron Radiation

Alpha Radiation
Alpha radiation occurs when the atom emits large atomic particles. These particles have very little
external penetrating power, and can be shielded with something as thin as a piece of paper. When
exposed externally to Alpha radiation, it poses no external hazard because it can be shielded by the dead
layer of skin covering the body. Alpha radiation, however, can be internally harmful if inhaled or
ingested.
Beta Radiation
Beta radiation occurs when the atom emits small, fast moving particles known as electrons. These
particles are more penetrating than Alpha particles, but are still considered to have relatively low
penetrating ability. Beta radiation can be easily shielded by materials such as cardboard or plastic. It
can, however, penetrate the dead layer of skin on the body.
Gamma Radiation
Gamma radiation occurs when electromagnetic waves are emitted from an atom as a result of radioactive
decay. This form of radiation has a high penetrating ability, and is considered an external threat.
Gamma radiation can be shielded by a dense material such as concrete or lead.
X-Ray Radiation
X-Ray radiation is similar to Gamma radiation in that it emits electromagnetic waves. X-Ray radiation,
however, is generally machine generated and is less penetrating than Gamma radiation.
Neutron Radiation
Neutron radiation results from the emission of a Neutron particle from the nuclei of an atom. This form
of radiation is extremely penetrating and poses a significant external threat.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

What Is Radiation?

Exposure vs. Contamination

Exposure vs. Contamination


Many people have the misconception that if they become exposed to radiation, that they will glow in the
dark, and become radioactive themselves. This, of course, is incorrect. A good way to explain what
actually occurs is through using the fire analogy.
Exposure
If an extremely intense fire is a very short distance away, the heat from the fire may result in burns to the
body. However, the farther the distance from the fire results in less heat exposure, which causes less
damage to the body. The same concept can be related to Exposure. The more time spent around a
radioactive source, and the closer the distance to the source, a greater Exposure results.
Contamination
After leaving the vicinity of a fire, the person does not emit heat unless he brings an amber from the fire.
Similar to contamination, a person must physically come in contact with, and take a portion of the
radioactive material to become contaminated, or radioactive.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Using Radiation Safely

As
L ow
As
R easonably
A chievable
Safety Factors
The different types of ionizing radiation are harmful, but there is a very little risk associated with the
low levels of radiation of a Nuclear Densimeter. Nevertheless, in practice a person should keep his
exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable, or ALARA. This can be done by following 3 simple
concepts:
Time
Distance
Shielding
Time
The more Time one remains in a radiation field, the larger the radiation dose. At times, especially during
emergencies, work must be performed in a strong radiation field. In this case, the work procedure should
be carefully planned outside the work area so that a minimum amount of Time is used to complete the
job. If the Time required for one man to complete the job would result in an exposure beyond prescribed
limits, then a team of workers should be employed. This would mean a small exposure for several
people instead of a large exposure for one person.
Distance
Radiation is emitted from a point source uniformly in all directions. The further one is from the
radiation source, the lower the exposure.
Shielding
A Shield is defined as a physical entity placed between the radiation source and the object to be
protected in order to reduce the radiation level at the objects location. An example would be the
radiation source holder. The radiation source is mounted within a lead-filled housing that prevents the
Radiation from traveling anywhere except in the specified direction. In this case, the physical entity is
the lead filled-housing, and the objects to be protected are BJS personnel.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

BJ Services Radiation Protection Manual

Emergency Instructions
Radiation Program Management Organization
Radioactive Materials Records Management
Radioactive Materials - Employee Notices and
Instructions
Use of Densimeters Having Nuclear Gauges
Transportation Procedures
Handling Procedures
Radiation Protection Program Review
Nuclear Gauge Procedures

BJ Services Radiation Protection Manual


The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and equivalent Agreement States have strict safety standards for
Nuclear Densimeters. These strict regulations for radioactive material provide a high degree of worker
and environmental safety when dealing with radiation. Each state, or country, operates under a specific
radioactive materials license or a manufacturers general license. Individuals operating Nuclear
Densimeters should be aware of the license conditions and follow them accordingly. There are,
however, BJ specific regulations that must be followed regardless of state, or country, which are listed in
the BJ Services Radiation Protection Manual. The topics in this manual include:
Emergency Instructions
Radiation Program Management Organization
Radioactive Materials Records Management
Radioactive Materials - Employee Notices and Instructions
Use of Densimeters having Nuclear Gauges
Transportation Procedures
Handling Procedures
Radiation Protection Program Review
Nuclear Gauge Procedures
A copy of the BJ Services Protection Manual is found in Appendix A.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Labels
CAUTION
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

MODEL
5190
SERIAL NO.
BXXX

ISOTOPE
Cs-137
AMOUNT
EMPTY
DATE MEAS.
09/97
TAG NO.

BJ DEMO
Texas Nuclear Products
TN Technologies
DO NOT REMOVE TAG
MADE IN USA

Radiation Source Holder Plaque


The Radiation Source Holder Plaque, which provides information about the finished source, is mounted
on the end of the Radiation Source Holder. When installing or removing a Nuclear Gauge, be careful
not to drag the Radiation Source Holder on the ground, as this could destroy the information on the
plaque, resulting in a loss of critical information.
Missing Or Illegible Plaque
Missing or illegible plaques must be replaced immediately. These plaques must be ordered through the
manufacturer. A missing or illegible plaque renders the device out of service until a replacement plaque
is mounted.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Labels

R
A
DI
C
O

ACNTE
TI NT
VI S
TY :
:

USA DOT 7A
TYPE A
RADIOACTIVE
MATERIAL

A
C
T
C IV
E
E

O
IN

EX
D

X
DE

IN

Marking Label

13
7

II

T
R

II

R
O

RAY II Label

Emergency RSO contact:


(281) 351-8131 24 hour

A
C
T
C IV
E
E
SI
U
M

SP

SP

13
7

Notify if found:
BJ SERVICES CO., USA
HOUSTON, TEXAS

AN

AN

ACNTE
TI NT
VI S
TY :
:
TR

TR

SI
U

SPECIAL FORM, N.O.S.,


UN 2974 (CS-137; SEALED)

R
A
DI
C
O

RAY II Label

Labels
To comply with the licensing agreement, every Nuclear Density Gauge must have two Radioactive
Yellow II Labels (RAY II Labels) and one Marking Label.
Radioactive Yellow II Labels (RAY II Labels)
The 2 Radiation Yellow II, RAY II, Labels must be placed on the Radiation Source Holder on opposite
sides. A RAY II Label displays the following information:
Contents (Always Cesium 137 for BJ Services)
Activity (In Gigabecquerels, GBq)
Transport Index
This activity can be obtained from the AMOUNT reading on the Radiation Source Holder Plaque. The
AMOUNT value is expressed in units of millicuries, so a unit conversion is necessary. (100mCi =
3.7GBq and 200mCi = 7.4 GBq).
Transport Index
When transporting the Nuclear Densimeter, the TRANSPORT INDEX must be filled in. This value is
determined by taking the highest radiation survey meter reading at any point 1 meter (39 inches) from
any surface of the Radiation Source Holder. The value must be less than 1.0 (no units necessary) to use
the RAY II Label. The Transport Index is written to the nearest tenth (Example: use 0.3, not 0.25).
Marking Label
The Marking Label must be placed between the RAY II Labels. A Marking Label displays the following
information:
USA DOT 7A type A Radioactive Material
Emergency phone number
Identifies BJ Services as the owner of the Nuclear Gauge

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Review Questions
Radiation Safety Review, Densimeter Repair
1. Radiation originates from ____________________, which are the building blocks of
all matter.
2. When exposed externally to _________________________, it poses no external
hazard because it can be shielded by the dead layer of skin covering the body.
3.

_________________________ can be easily shielded by materials such as cardboard


or plastic.

4.

____________________ Radiation has a high penetrating ability, and is considered


an external threat. Gamma Radiation can be shielded by a dense material such as
concrete or lead.

5. The more time spent around a radioactive source, and the closer the distance to the
source, a greater ____________________ results.
6. A person must physically come in contact with, and take a portion of the radioactive
material to become ____________________
7. A ____________________ is defined as a physical entity placed between the
Radiation Source and the object to be protected in order to reduce the Radiation Level
at the objects location.
8. The ______________________________, which provides information about the
Finished Source, is mounted on top of the Radiation Source Holder.
9. The 2 Radiation Yellow II, RAY II, Labels must be placed on the
_________________________ on opposite sides.
10. When transporting the Nuclear Densimeter, the ______________________________
must be filled in. This value is determined by taking the highest radiation survey
meter reading at any point 1 meter (39 inches) from any surface of the Radiation
Source Holder.

Page 1 of 2

Review Questions
Radiation Safety Review, Densimeter Repair
This page intentionally left blank.

Page 2 of 2

Detector Assembly
ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Radiation
Energy

Detector
Assembly

Nuclear Densimeter
The Fast Start Up (FSU) detector is an improved version of the early SGO detector. This section of the
presentation will deal with the theory of operation and maintenance of the FSU. The following will be
discussed in this section:
General theory of operation review
FSU and SGO Gauge comparisons
High Voltage and Preamplifier Board circuit detail
Calibration and adjustments
Maintenance and Troubleshooting Procedures
Note
Only personnel who have successfully completed an approved Nuclear Safety Course are permitted to
service nuclear densimeter systems.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Detector Assembly

Ionization
Chamber

High Voltage
Board

Preamplifier
Board

Densimeter Detector Assembly


The above photo shows a Detector Assembly, also known as an FSU Gauge. The primary subassemblies
that make up the FSU Gauge are:
Ionization Chamber, or Ion Chamber
High Voltage Board
Preamplifier Board
Types of Detector Assemblies
BJ has used two types of TN Technologies Gauges:
TN SGO Gauge (Obsolete)
TN FSU Gauge
NOTE
Several activities using a Detector Assembly and simulated nuclear sources will be performed in the
class. Because there may be residual high voltage present after power is removed, be careful not touch
the Ion Chamber when removing it from the housing. To discharge the residual voltage, first connect a
jumper to one of the grounded aluminum plates separating the boards. Next, touch the other end of the
jumper to the body of the Ion Chamber.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Nuclear Densimeter Block Diagram

+ 1400 V

Radiation
Energy

High Voltage
Board

Preamplifier
Board
Ion
Chamber

+15V
GND
-15V
+15V
GND
-15V
0-10V

Gain

Power
From
Transmitter
Density
Signal To
Transmitter

(For Analog Transmitter Only)

Nuclear Densimeter Block Diagram


The diagram above shows how the components of the Detector Assembly connect.
Ion Chamber
The Ion Chamber consists of a stainless steel canister filled with Xenon gas at eight atmospheres. An
insulated wire is inserted into the chamber, and high voltage potential is applied across the anode and
cathode. Radiation energy received from the radiation source causes a release of free electrons from the
gas. These electrons are attracted to the anode, which creates a small current flow into the preamplifier.
Preamplifier Board
The preamplifier board converts and amplifies this current flow into a voltage signal that is inversely
proportional to the density of the material in the path of the radiation energy.
High Voltage Board
The high voltage board supplies a highly regulated +1400VDC, which allows sufficient voltage difference
for the attraction of the free electrons.
Power Source
The Nuclear Densimeter is powered from an external 15VDC, which is supplied by a transmitter or other
suitable power supply.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Ion Chamber

Anode
+

+
+
Radiation
Energy

Current
Flow

Cathode

+
-

+
+

+ 1400 V

Ion Chamber
Gamma particles from the nuclear source striking xenon gas ions cause ionization to occur,
which results in a current flow. This extremely small current flow is converted by the
preamplifier board into a representative 0 to 10VDC density signal.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Ion Chamber
Adhesive From
Heater Wrapping

Modified Gauge
The adhesive residue in the above photo identifies this Ion Chamber as part of a former SGO assembly.
Due to the inherent sensitivity of the obsolete SGO Gauge to changes in temperature, a heater was taped
to the Ion Chamber in order to maintain a constant temperature inside the housing. Additionally, heater
resistors on the top plate kept the electronics warm. Because of this temperature sensitivity, the SGO
Gauge required long a warm up time before the density readings would stabilize, usually about an hour
or more in cold climates. Upgrading an SGO unit consists of replacing the two boards and removing the
heater.
The FSU Gauge
The improved FSU Gauge contains temperature stabilization circuitry that enables it to remain
remarkably stable over a wide range of temperatures. Additionally, the warm up time from initial
power up is dramatically reduced to 15 minutes or less.
High Voltage To Ion Chamber
There is a +1400VDC potential applied to the Ion Chamber. Although the actual measured voltage has a
100V tolerance, it must be well-regulated, because any fluctuation, no matter how slight, will cause a
corresponding change in the output signal voltage.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

FSU High Voltage Board


Drain Wire

Insulated
Collar

High Voltage Board


The high voltage board provides the potential necessary for ionization to occur. This voltage must be
well regulated, as any fluctuation will result in a corresponding signal output change. The board uses
15VDC, supplied by an external power source, for conversion to +1400VDC at approximately 20 A.
The output voltage may be within 100V of the specified voltage, but should have no measurable
fluctuation. In the photo shown, notice the Drain Wire, separated from the Ion Chamber by an Insulated
Collar. This combination is used to drain any static voltage, and to act as an electrostatic shield for the
signal current, thereby reducing noise pickup. The signal output current from the Ion Chamber is very
small, in the order of nano amps (nA), so even minimal electrical interference can cause large errors in
the output signal.
High Voltage Probe
A high voltage probe should ALWAYS be used to measure the potential on the Ion Chamber. Most
modern digital volt meters will read only to 1000V, but this is not the only reason to use a high voltage
probe. Because the high voltage board can supply only 20 A, if a conventional digital multimeter alone
were used for measurement the meters internal resistance (typically 10 M ) would drain much of the
available current from the power supply, resulting in a erroneous reading. An example of a suitable
probe for high voltage use is the Fluke model 80K-40 High Voltage Probe, which is useful for readings
up to 40 kV, at a 1000 to 1 division ratio. Using this or a similar probe, 1400VDC will be displayed as
1.400VDC on a DVM. These high voltage measurements are made from power ground to the Ion
Chamber Canister, with the aluminum plates separating the boards providing a convenient ground point.
NOTE
The Fluke 80K-40 is designed to work with meters that have 10M input impedance.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

High Voltage Board/Ion Chamber Connection


HV
Connection
Screws

High Voltage Board/Ion Chamber Connection


The three screws that secure the high voltage board to the Ion Chamber also provide the electrical path
for the 1400VDC to the Ion Chamber canister. It is important that these screws be properly tightened and
free from corrosion. Removable thread lock, such as Locktite Green or Red, is recommended.
Additionally, make sure that the star lock washers are in place.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

FSU High Voltage Board


HV Transformer
T1
CA3240

U-3
-12V Regulator

From Preamplifier
Board

U-2
MC-79L
12 ACP
CR-1
CR-2

Q-1

3
2

2N3906

Blue (-15V)
White/Gray Stripe (Ground)
White/Purple Stripe
(+15V)
Oscillator

High Voltage Board Layout


Some of the major components found on the high voltage board are illustrated in this drawing. They
include:
High Voltage Transformer, T1
Negative Voltage Regulator IC, U2
Oscillator Transistor, Q1
Control IC, U3
Rectifier and Voltage Doubler, CR1 and CR2
Also shown is the 15VDC hard-wired input connections from the preamplifier board.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

High Voltage Block Diagram

15V

Rectifier &
Voltage Doubler

Oscillator

+1400V
(To Ion Chamber)

Voltage Regulation & Filtering


U3B

U3A

-12V
Regulator

High Voltage Operational Block Diagram


The high voltage circuit consists of a DC/DC converter that uses active voltage feedback for both
regulation and dynamic filtering of the output voltage. Major circuits on this board include:
Free-running LC sine wave oscillator
Voltage regulator IC
Step-up power transformer
Voltage Doubler circuit
Active feedback voltage regulation
These circuits will be discussed shortly.
High Voltage Operation
High voltage for the ion chamber is generated by a free running oscillator circuit, using a step up
transformer, along with active feedback to maintain constant voltage under varying loads.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Fusible Resistors

High Voltage Board Power Input


The high voltage board power input is protected using 10, 1/4 watt resistors on the input power. If
found to be open, the cause of the short should be repaired and flame proof resistors installed.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

10

FSU High Voltage Board


Oscillator

Voltage Doubler

HV
Out

Active HV
Regulation

-12V Regulator

Oscillator Circuit
Components Q1, T1, C5, C6, R4, and R5 form an LC Hartley oscillator, utilizing positive feedback to
make up a frequency-selective network running at approximately 1.5 kHz. The two primary windings of
T1 act as the inductive portion of the sine wave oscillator. This loop is designed to have a gain of unity
at a single frequency as determined by the frequency-selective network. In this type of oscillator, sine
waves are generated essentially by a resonance phenomenon. Excitation voltage is supplied by the same
15VDC that powers the preamplifier board.
High Voltage
The AC voltage produced by the oscillator circuit is stepped up by transformer, T1, to approximately
500VAC (RMS). Half-wave rectification, via CR2, gives a DC voltage of +700VDC which is increased to
1400V using a voltage doubler circuit, consisting of C7 and CR1. Filtering is provided by an RC circuit
consisting of C8, R6, R7, C9 and C11. Active (dynamic) filtering is also provided in the feedback
circuit.
High Voltage Regulation
Regulation is developed from the voltage value derived from voltage divider R8, R11 and the regulated 12V from IC, U2. Any deviation is fed back to the oscillator for correction to its output. For this voltage
correction to occur, operational amplifier, U3A, must amplify any deviation between the voltage divider
and ground. The non-inverting buffer, U3B, feeds the error voltage to the primary supply voltage for Q1,
varying it to hold the output at a constant value. An RC circuit, consisting of R12 and C13, slows the
correction slightly in order to prevent overcorrecting, which will cause hunting.
Dynamic Filtering
Similarly, any ripple voltage is treated as deviation from the referenced voltage. Amplified ripple
voltage from the secondary is fed back through the low side of T1 to null the output ripple, thereby
providing dynamic filtering.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

11

Voltage Doubler
700V
C7

CR2

+
CR1
Fig 1

700V + 700V = 1400V


CR2
+

X
CR1
Fig 2

Voltage Doubler Circuit


Early SGO Detector Gauges used +700VDC to power the Ion Chamber. This high voltage was increased
to +1400VDC on the FSU Detector Gauge in order to achieve improved sensitivity and stability. In order
to achieve this higher potential with minimal component changes, a voltage doubler circuit, consisting of
only two extra components (a diode and capacitor), has been added.
Theory Of Operation
The output from the secondary winding of the step-up transformer is an AC sine wave providing
500VRMS. During the negative-going portion of this sine wave (Fig 1), CR1 conducts and charges C7
to +700V. When the sine wave begins going positive (Fig 2), its voltage is added to the +700V already
on C7 and then coupled through peak detector diode, CR2, to give an output of +1400V. This is
analogous to the way batteries in series add their voltage.
NOTES
1. Due to the high frequency of the oscillator circuit, when replacing the diodes in the power supply use
only fast-switching replacements, not general purpose rectifiers.
2. Loose lamination plates in the transformer may result in a high-pitched audible squeal. Although the
high voltage circuit may work, extra energy is used to make the laminations resonate. The transformer
should be replaced.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

12

FSU Preamplifier Board

Preamplifier Board
The preamplifier board converts the current flow from the Ion Chamber into a proportional non linear
voltage signal that represents actual density. It performs this task using a unique negative-going ramping
action, the slope of which varies in accordance with the incoming current. This ramp is then converted
into a DC voltage, inversely proportional to density.
FSU Preamplifier Board Features
Features of the FSU preamplifier board include:
Quick warm up using temperature compensation circuitry.
On-board regulation of input power supply voltage.
Output span adjustable via active gain set jumpers.
Gain fine adjust using trim pot.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

13

FSU Revision D & E Board Parts Layout


Signal
Gnd

+15V
-15V

-15V

U3

TP-8
Q5
AR6

W-3

W-2

+15
V

GND

Board notched for


compression
grommet

TL026
CP

W6
W4

CO4093BC
P

Gain
Jumpers
W2 & W4 In

LF-13006N

TP-3 TP-4
TP-7

U2
W-1
Q6

W1/R35

Reset Reed
Relay

R13
TP-1
R12

R1

Input From
Ion
Chamber

RELAY

Q4

R28

AR1
C13
TP-2

TP-6

Dual MOSFET
Q4

FSU Board Component Layout


The dotted line represents the shielded portion of the circuit. This will make a handy reference for
locating component parts and test points.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

14

Power Input
Fusible
resistors

Power Input
Fusible 10, 1/4 watt resistors are used on the preamplifier board for short-circuit protection. Because
an open resistor may be difficult to spot visually, supply voltage measurements should be taken not at the
connector, but at the test points on the board. Flame-proof resistors should be used for replacement after
the cause of the short is repaired.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

15

DC Differential Amplifier

Inverting Input

Non Inverting
Input

Amplified Ion
Chamber Signal

Reference
Voltage

DC Differential Amplifier
An IC operational amplifier (op amp) has two complementary inputs, inverting and non
inverting. This makes it useful for application as a differential amplifier, which produces
an output voltage that is proportional to the difference between two ground-referenced input
voltages.
Noise Rejection and Temperature Stability
An advantage of this circuit is its ability to reject common-mode (noise) signals, where
there may be a large picked-up interference signal. The differential amplifier rejects this
interference signal, because it is common to both inputs, therefore cancelled out. An
additional benefit of this circuit is temperature stability, because any voltage changes due
to temperature variance will be seen on both legs, and therefore canceled out.
FSU Gauge Application
Because the signal from the ion chamber is coupled to the inverting input of AR4, the
output will be a negative-going voltage. The non inverting input of differential amplifier,
AR4, is referenced to a set voltage (The reference side of a dual MOSFET). When there is
no current from the ion chamber, both inputs are equal and no output is seen. As current
begins to flow (the result of radiation into the ion chamber), this balance becomes unequal
and the voltage difference amplified.

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16

FSU Integration Mode

+7.5 V

Integration Mode
0V

-10 V

Integration And Resetting


During normal operation, the preamplifier will be in one of two modes:
Integration or
Resetting
Integration will be discussed first, after which the reset operation will be covered.
Conversion Of Signal From Ion Chamber
The signal from AR4 charges an RC circuit, which creates a negative-going sawtooth ramp, the speed
(slope) of which is proportional to the amount of radiation being received at the ion chamber. The above
drawing shows the critical components used to control this ramp:
Dual MOSFET
Operational Amplifier IC
Feedback Resistor Network
Precision Capacitor
How It Works
A dual MOSFET converts the current generated from the Ion Chamber into a voltage that is then
processed by an inverting differential amplifier IC. The output of this IC negatively charges a capacitor
through a resistor voltage divider network, with the resulting voltage fed back to the input of the
MOSFET in the form of negative feedback. In this way, a negative-going ramp is generated, the speed
(slope) of which is controlled primarily by the following variables:
Current from the Ion Chamber (which is dependent upon amount of radiation received at the Ion
Chamber and high voltage level)
Value of the feedback resistor
Value of the feedback capacitor
Increasing the resistance or capacitance will increase the RC time constant, thus slowing the ramp, and
vice versa.
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17

FSU Integrator Block Diagram


+12V
Reg

TP 6
AR4

+15V
Q4
U2
13

R28
-15V

C 13

14
+7.5 V

Zero Volt
Potential

330 pF

Integration Mode

0V

W1
(X2 Mult)

15

-10 V

Converts Current Signal Into Voltage Signal


Because of the extremely high input gate resistance of Q4, it is a perfect match for converting the very
small current generated by the Ion Chamber into a representative voltage.
Temperature Compensation
Semiconductor, Q4, is actually two MOSFETs in one package. The first MOSFET connected to the Ion
Chamber converts the current signal from the Ion Chamber into a representative voltage at the output
source leg, while the second MOSFET (along with resistor, R28) acts as a temperature dependent voltage
divider at the non-inverting leg of AR4.
RC Network
The slope of the ramp and resulting output signal level is a function of feedback through the electronic
resistor divider network, U2 and C13, which form an RC circuit. Because of its superior temperature
stability and high internal resistance, a polystyrene capacitor is used in the feedback circuit.
Zeroing Reference Voltage
Trim pot, R28, provides a means for zeroing, or nulling, the output from AR4 when no radiation is
present at the Ion Chamber. This pot is adjusted so that the voltage on the positive input of AR4 is the
same as the voltage on the negative input of AR4 when Q4 is receiving no signal from the ion chamber.
NOTE
Dual MOSFET, Q4, is hand-selected at the factory for matching characteristics, therefore replacements
should be purchased only from TN Technologies.

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18

Converting Ramp to Current


Summing Point
T2
TP 6

TP 1

C 12

AR4

+15V

C5
R7

Q4
Zero

U2
Mult

10 M

U2
13

T2
-15V
C 13

V sig

AR1
.33 F

Gain

R
14

330 pF
R
0V
Zero Volt
Potential

W1

15

(X2 Mult)
150 k

300 k

-15 V

Op Amp, AR1, Converts Ramp To DC Current


The negative-going ramping voltage is changed to a proportional current at the summing junction of C12
and R7. Voltage output from AR1 holds the summing point voltage at ground potential so that TP6 ramp
voltage also occurs across C12.
IC, U2, Sets The Overall Gain
The Electronic Gain Set IC, LF13006, is similar to a resistor network, however the resistance is
controlled using logic voltages.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

19

Preamplifier Circuit Detail

+12V
Regulator

Dual
MOSFET

Signal
Output

C13
Protection
FET / NE2
Ramp
Reset

Gain Set

Integration Review
During Integration, the voltage from MOSFET, Q4, through its source leg (Pin 7) is coupled to the
inverting input of AR4. The output is a negative-going signal at Pin 6 of AR4 that is coupled back to the
MOSFET through a resistor network and capacitor, C13. The voltage at the input of the Preamplifier is
amplified just enough to virtually cancel the change in voltage at pin 5 of Q4, so that all the current
flowing into the Preamplifier from the Ion Chamber is accumulated as charge voltage on C13. The rate
of voltage change, seen as a negative-going ramp at the output of AR4 (TP6), is proportional to the input
current from the Ion Chamber. The reference voltage for the IC is controlled by the second portion of the
dual MOSFET, thereby automatically compensating for voltage drift caused by changes in temperature.
Setting Gain
The slope, or gain, of the ramp is controlled by digital resistor network IC, U2, and by the value of C13.
The procedure for adjusting the gain will be discussed later in this presentation.
Input Protection
On early version boards, an NE-2 neon lamp is used to shunt voltage spikes and protect Q4. It is
connected from the junction of R12 and R13 to ground and triggers at approximately 50 V. This lamp
was replaced with a solid-state FET lamp on newer version boards, thereby reducing the possibility of
leakage through the neon lamp body due to impurities in glass manufacture.
Voltage Regulator
Because the 15V may not be stable, a +12V regulator IC, U5, provides VCC for Q4.

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20

Ramp Integration
Ramp
Converted to
Current

Summing
Point

Ramp Input
From Preamp

NULL
Adjustment
Potentiometer

Overvoltage
Protection

Ramp Converted To DC Voltage


The sawtooth ramp must be converted into a proportional DC voltage for use by a suitable transmitter.
This function is performed primarily via operational amplifier, AR1, which converts the ramp into a
current at the summing point, C12 & R7, by feeding back its output voltage through R7. This action
holds the summing point voltage at ground potential to ensure TP6 voltage change (ramp) rate also
occurs across C12. At the same time, capacitor, C5, is seeing the same potential, but at this point has no
ground return path. A return path will be provided for the low side of this capacitor during the reset
function in order to prevent the reset pulse from being seen on the output of AR1. Its operation will be
discussed later in the presentation.
AR1 Protection
Two back-to-back 15V zener diodes protect AR1 from external voltage spikes and prevent voltages in
excess of 15V from being seen on the signal output line, thereby protecting the external monitoring
devices.

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21

Reset Circuit (Part of Preamplifier Board)


T2
C 12
R6
AR1

AR4
.33 uF
C5
R7

U2
Mult

Q4
U2

T2

C 13
K1
330 pF

+10 V

T1
AR6

-10 V
T2
Reset Circuit
T2
K1

T2
T1

-15 V

Ramp Reset Circuit


So far, only the ramp has been discussed. Because the signal cannot continue its negative ramp
indefinitely, a reset must take place when the ramp reaches a preset voltage limit. The ramping action
can then then start again.
Sequence Of Events
In order to reset the ramp without causing an anomaly in the output signal, several events must occur
simultaneously:
The signal path from AR4 to the output, AR1, must be disabled to avoid a spike from being seen
on the output signal. This is accomplished using an FET as an electronic switch, or gate, to open
the ramp signal path to the output IC during reset mode.
A reed relay is activated to discharge ramping capacitor, C13, which causes the reset to occur.
Another FET gate and a capacitor (C5) are used as a version of a sample and hold circuit to keep
the output at its last voltage level during the reset action.
This entire reset activity starts at virtually the same time (the actual reset time for C13 is slowed
somewhat due to inherent mechanical delay of the reed switch), and takes approximately 80 milliseconds
to complete. In order to understand the dynamics of the circuit, the reset action will be looked at first,
then the FET gates controlling the output will be discussed.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

22

Ramp Reset
Ramp
Input
0V

+10V

-15 V

T1

-10V
+7.5 V

Integration Mode
0V

Reset Mode

To U3C

-10 V

Voltage Limits
When the ramp voltage from the preamplifier reaches a predetermined positive or negative voltage level,
an action will occur to reset the ramp. Voltage divider resistors, R27, R32, and R33 are connected to
15VDC to form the positive and negative 10V reference for voltage comparator IC, AR6A and AR6B.
This dual-package op amp senses the ramp voltage limits and triggers a positive output whenever the
input ramp from the preamplifier is equal to the reference voltage. In order to achieve a positive output
from either ramp extreme, AR6A is configured as a non-inverting output and AR6B is an inverter. The
+10VDC reference voltage limit is connected to pin 6 of AR6A, and the
-10V limit is tied to AR6B, pin 3.
Note
Under normal operation, the ramp resets to +7.5VDC, which is set by voltage divider circuit consisting of
R30 & R31 (not shown in this drawing). The +10VDC limit is not normally activated, and will only be
seen in the event of an abnormal condition, such as a saturated preamplifier input signal.
NAND Gates
When AR6 output goes high, NAND gates will be activated. (NAND gates are inverting AND gates,
therefore both inputs must be high for the output to go low.) An RC network makes these gates act
as as Monostable Multivibrators, or One-Shots, meaning the output will be a single pulse when both
inputs are equal.
Ramp Reset
When triggered, U3A & U3B develop a single positive-going square wave pulse at T1 (TP4), the duration
of which is stretched by C16, R16 and R19 to about 50ms. This pulse turns on transistor, Q5, which in
turn energizes a relay to provide a discharge path for reset feedback capacitor, C13.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

23

Output Signal During Reset

T2
TP 1
V sig

AR1
C5
U2
Mult

T2

Gain

From U3B

K1
+10 V
AR6

T1

-10 V
T2

T2
0V
-15 V

0V
-15 V

Pulse
Stretched

Output Must Be Stable During Reset


If no provision were made to hold the output signal from AR1 at a constant value during the reset portion
of the ramp, the output voltage would drop to near zero during the reset period, resulting in a large
density spikeseen at the transmitter and recorder. In order to avoid this situation, two additional
pulses, T2 and /T2, are used to isolate the output during reset in an analog version of a sample-andhold circuit.
Output Signal During Reset Function
When a reset action starts, the pulse from T1 is stretched to approximately 80 milliseconds by an RC
circuit on the input of NAND Gate, U3, starting at the same time as T1s pulse. (Stretching the hold
pulse allows time for the reed reset switch to complete its mechanical cycle.) Pulse T2 goes from -15V
to 0V and can be observed at TP3. This same pulse is inverted by U3D, and seen at TP2 as a negative
going pulse (/T2), from 0V to -15V. MOSFET, Q1, is used as an ultra low-resistance switch (gate),
which is turned off by the action of T2, thereby isolating the ramp signal. At the same time, another
MOSFET, Q2, is turned on by /T2 to provide a return (through a 10 M resistor) for the voltage charge
across C5, effectively holding the output at its present value until the reset action is completed.
Integration FET Q6
The pulse at /T2 also turns off FET, Q6. The purpose of this semiconductor is to provide a ground return
across the reed switch during integration operation to make any open switch leakage negligible, and to
act as anti-bounce protection for the reed switch during the reset action.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

24

Review of Reset and Output Circuit


T2
TP 6

C 12

AR4

AR1
C5

Q4
10 Meg
T2

Gain

C 13

@ 30 msec
K1

330 pF

+10 V
AR6

0V

T1

-15 V

T1

0V

-10 V

T2

T2

-15 V

Reset Circuit

0V
T2

T2

-15 V
@ 60 msec
TP 6 Signal VR
T2

300 K

+7.5 V
Reset

K1
-15 V

0
V

Slope Determines
Output Signal

Reset Start
-10 V

Key Sequence Summary


To summarize the sequence of events occurring during the reset mode:
T1 pulses high, turning on transistor, Q5, which activates reset relay.
T2 goes turns off Q1, to isolate the ramp signal.
/T2 turns off Q6 and turns on Q2 to provide return path for C5, effectively holding the output at
the latest voltage.
C13 discharges through reset reed switch.
T1 then goes low, turning off Q5 and opening reed switch.
30 ms later, T2 goes low and /T2 goes high.
The ramp starts and C13 begins to charge on its negative-going journey.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

25

Key Reset and Output Components


AR1, Output IC

C12, Summing
Capacitor

Q1, Off During


Reset

Q2, On During
Reset

R7, Summing
Resistor

Key Reset And Output Components


MOSFET gates, Q1 and Q2, are mounted on high resistance Teflon standoffs in order to prevent high
resistance leakage which could cause erratic output signals. It is recommended that only exact
replacement semiconductors be used to replace these components.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

26

Electronic Voltage Divider IC, LF13006


C13

TP6
C8

W1

14

13

15

Resistor Array
12

DECODER
LATCH

LATCH

LATCH

Digital 2

Digital 1

Output

Signal In
W3

W2

W6
15V

AR1

W4
15V

LF13006 Digital Gain Set IC


The IC, U2 is a precision laser-trimmed digital gain set IC. As part of the RC gain set in this
Preamplifier circuit, it is simply an electronic version of a multiple-resistance voltage divider, the value
of which is set by external jumper combinations that control internal latches. This circuit is used to set
the overall gain of the preamplifier for adjustment of open pipe signal voltage to 10V.
Setting The Gain of AR1
The gain of op amp, AR1, is varied by changing the voltage level of two inputs to U2: Digital 1 on pin 8
and Digital 2 on pin 9, which changes feedback resistance in the circuit. By placing a jumper in the
appropriate position, Digital inputs 1 and 2 can be latched on (15V) or off (ground). When the latch
is off, the digital resistor used for feedback is at its highest value, resulting in the lowest gain setting
for the system. Conversely, when the latch is on, the resistance is minimal and the circuit gain
increased. Digital 1 (least significant digit) function is identical to Digital 2 (middle significant digit).
Ramp Gain Set
Shorting pin 15 of U2 to ground puts a second precision voltage divider resistor into the ramp feedback
loop, thereby increasing gain by a factor of 2. In place of a jumper, a 50 k trim pot (R35) can be
installed at W1 to enable a fine adjustment of the integration gain circuit. The gain of the circuit is
inversely proportional to the resistance of the trim pot. This trim pot comes factory-installed on later
boards.
LF13006 Replaced
Because U2 has been discontinued by the manufacturer, Revision E boards use discrete resistors for gain
setting.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

27

REV C, D &E Gain Jumper Settings

GAIN

W2 / W3

W4 / W6

X-1
X-2
X-4
X-8

W3
W3
W2
W2

W4
W6
W4
W6

Jumper Gain Settings


The above chart gives approximate gain values for various jumper combinations, however actual gain
figures may vary due to component tolerances. On Revision C boards, jumper wires must be soldered to
individual components in order to set W4/W6, while Revision D & E boards have plated-through holes
for easier jumper installation. Because of this, Revision C boards should be replaced with newer
versions when servicing is needed.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

28

R35 Gain Settings


Resistance
0 (short)
2.2 k
4.7 k
10 k
15 k
22 k
33 k
47 k
Open

Gain
2.0
1.87
1.76
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.31
1.24
1.0

Variable Gain Set


On earlier revision boards, installing a 50 k trim pot (R35) in place of jumper W1 will provide a means
for setting the integration rate. The above chart lists the approximate gain at various resistance settings.
For best performance, R35 should initially be set for the lowest gain. Jumpers W2 through W6 can be
configured to set open pipe voltage close to, but not exceeding 9.9V, and R35 is then used for adjustment
to 9.9V. Revision D and newer boards will have this trim pot factory-installed.

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29

Rev F Gain Set

R35
W1 & W2

W3

New Style Preamplifier Board


Pictured is a portion of the new version Preamplifier Board, which uses discrete resistors in place of
Electronic Gain Set IC, U2. The board has different locations for jumpers W1, W2, and W3.
Additionally, notice that R35 is no longer in W1 position. Be careful when installing jumpers, as there is
a pad (marked in red in this photo) adjacent to W3 that can be mistaken for part of the gain set circuit.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

30

Rev F Jumper Location

GND

R35

-15V

+15
V

W2
W-3

W1

R35

Gain
Jumpers

TP-1

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31

Rev F Gain Set Components

Gain Set IC Replaced by Resistors


On Revision F and higher preamplifier boards, the obsolete Digital Gain Set IC, U2, has
been replaced with discrete resistors, R5, R37 and R36, which are low drift, 1% metal film
components. Soldered-in jumpers continue to be used for gain setting, however the
configuration of these jumpers and their effective gain values have changed. There are now
three jumpers, which enable a wider range of gain settings. Additionally, jumper W1 is
now part of the fixed gain set circuit. Trim pot, R35, (not pictured) is still used, but no
longer in W1 position.

In addition
to jumpers,
trim pot
R35 is
Proprietary and Confidential
Property
of BJ Services
Company

still used for fine adjustment.

32

Gain Jumpers
Rev F Boards With Resistor Feedback

Gain:
X-1
X-2
X-4
X-7
X-8

Jumper Positions
W1
W2
W3
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
Out
In
Out
In
Out
Out
In
In
Out
In

New Version Preamplifier Board


A fixed resistor voltage divider network replaces Gain Set IC, U2, in the Revision E Preamplifier Board
(with a subsequent jumper configuration change). The above gain settings are approximate.

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33

Gain Adjustment Via C13

Capacitor, C13
If the correct open pipe voltage cannot be obtained via jumper configurations, the value of feedback
capacitor, C13, can be changed to raise or lower the Preamplifier gain. Raising the capacitance will
decrease the gain, and vice versa.
Care When Replacing C13
It is important that latex surgical gloves be worn when handling the capacitor, as any contamination
deposited on the capacitor body will affect the performance of the gauge. It has been determined by TN
Technologies that even thoroughly washed hands will still leave trace oil and dirt deposits on the
capacitor. These contaminants can cause long term drifting and instability of the output voltage.
Additionally, the capacitor must be secured to the shield plate using non-corrosive RTV silicon
compound. Do not use acid-curing compound, as contamination can result, and do not let any compound
make contact with the capacitor leads. If contamination is suspected, the capacitor and surrounding area
can be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol. Other cleaning agents may dissolve the polystyrene body.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

34

Dont Forget!
Lower the value of C13 in
Preamplifier Board to raise
gain.Raise the value to lower
the gain.
Use non-corrosive silicon seal
to secure C13 to shield, and do
not let compound touch the
leads.
Nominal value of C13 is
330pF.
Dirt and oil from your hands
can contaminate C13

Cleanliness Is Critical
Even resistances in excess of 1x1013 will have a major impact upon the output signal. The
Preamplifier Board must be kept clean and free from corrosion and moisture! This is especially true of
polystyrene gain set capacitor, C13.
Expiration Date
Because polystyrene capacitors can absorb moisture, do not use any capacitors that have been sitting on
the shelf for a long time (over a year in humid climates). It is a good idea to store the capacitors in a
sealed container, and to keep a dated inventory list.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

35

Nuclear Source Simulator

Nuclear Source Simulator


An alternative to using a nuclear source for servicing and testing the FSU Gauge is a
Nuclear Source Simulator, such as the one pictured, which can be constructed by an
Electronic Technician, and will provide a very low adjustable current signal to the
Preamplifier input, thus simulating actual operation.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

36

Construction and Operation of


Nuclear Source Simulator

NOTE: Keep leads short.

Circuit
The Nuclear Source Simulator consists of:
2K ten-turn potentiometer
15G Resistor
8 RG174 coaxial cable
Additional components include a suitable plastic case, LED and clip leads. When building
the simulator, it is important to keep the leads as short as possible, especially the coaxial
cable.
Operation
The simulator works best with the complete assembly attached, but can be used with just
the preamplifier board, connected to 15V. To use the simulator, disconnect the 15V
connector on the preamplifier board that powers the HV board and connect the simulator
power connector in its place. Connect the coaxial lead from the simulator to the junction of
R12 & R13. Adjust the potentiometer fully CCW, apply power and slowly adjust the
potentiometer for desired output voltage at TP1 on the preamplifier board.
Note:
This simulator is a troubleshooting aid only; it is not suitable for use as a calibration device.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

37

Review Questions
Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
1. The three main component parts of the Detector Assembly are:
1. ________________________________________
2. ________________________________________
3. _________________________________________
2. Briefly explain why the Fluke 80K-40 High Voltage Probe is designed to work only
with meters that have 10M input impedance.

3. Components Q1, T1, C5, C6, R4, and R5, on the High Voltage Board, form a
____________oscillator. This oscillator uses _______________ feedback to
maintain a constant voltage.
4. Other than radiation strength, the four variables which affect the overall gain of the
preamplifier are:
1. __________________________
2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
5. The original NE-2 lamp was replaced with a solid-state FET lamp on newer version
boards to reduce the possibility of _________ due to variances in glass manufacture.
6. When powered up, The preamplifier will always be in one of two modes:
1. __________________________
2. ___________________________
7. IC, U2, used as part of the RC gain set in the Preamplifier circuit, is simply a
_____________________________________________________________.

Page 1 of 2

Review Questions
Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
8.

Increasing the capacitance of C13 will:


( ) raise
( ) lower
the output voltage from the Preamplifier. Increasing the value of the resistance in
the feedback will:
( ) raise
( ) lower
the output voltage from the Preamplifier.

9. When the voltage ramp applied to pins 5 and 2 of AR6 reaches the value set by
________________, one output will go ____________ and trigger the NAND gate U3A
and U3B.
10. Temperature stability is primarily provided by component _____________________.

Page 2 of 2

Activity One - Test Points


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Introduction
There are several Test Points on the FSU Preamplifier Board to aid the in troubleshooting
and calibration. Some Test Points are labeled as such (TP followed by a number), while
others are labeled as to their function, such as GND.

Prerequisites

None

Objective
The objective of this activity is to present a guide for locating and identifying Test Points
found on the FSU Preamplifier Board

Parts and/or Tools Required


FSU Densimeter Assembly
Densimeter Test Stand
15V Power Supply (May be provided by Analog or Digital Transmitter)
Power /Signal Wiring Harness
Digital Volt Meter
High Voltage Probe
Insulated Alignment Tool

Procedure
1. Mount FSU Nuclear Densimeter Assembly into Test Stand. Remove any test sticks
from tube.
2. Verify power supply is turned off. Connect Power/Signal Wiring Harness from J1 on
Preamplifier Board to 15V Power Supply.
3. Locate, on the FSU Preamplifier Board, The Test Point marked GND. Connect
common lead of DVM to this Test Point.
4. Turn on power.
5. Locate the following Test Points and measure the voltage at each:
+15 ________
-15 _________
TP1 (Signal Output) _________
TP6 (Ramp Signal) __________
6. Connect High Voltage Probe to DVM and measure voltage on the Ion Chamber,
through access hole in Test Stand. Record voltage ______________.
7. While measuring High Voltage, tap on High Voltage Board with insulated tool. Did
High Voltage change? ________.
8. This Activity is complete

Page 1 of 2

Activity One - Test Points


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Study Questions
1. What other voltage(s) can be found on the Preamplifier Board?

2. Why is it preferable to check 15V at the Test Points, rather than on the Molex
Connector?

3. Why must the High Voltage be stable and well regulated?

Page 2 of 2

Activity - Observing Ramping Action


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Introduction
The ramping action (slope) created in the first stage of the preamplifier affects the output
voltage of the Nuclear Densimeter. There are three main factors that determine the slope
of the ramp:
1. Radiation at Ion Chamber
2. High Voltage level
3. Value of R-C Feedback Circuit

Prerequisites

Test Points Activity


High Voltage Measurement Activity

Objective
The objective of this Activity is to demonstrate the ramping action of the Preamplifier,
and how it affects output signal voltage.

Parts and/or Tools Required


FSU Densimeter Assembly
Densimeter Test Stand or insulated mat
Analog or Digital Transmitter, or power supply capable of providing 15VDC at 1 amp
Power /Signal Wiring Harness
Nuclear Source Simulator
Oscilloscope
Clip lead, to discharge high voltage

Procedure
1. Place FSU Nuclear Densimeter Assembly into Test Stand
2. Connect Power/Signal Wiring Harness from J1 on Preamplifier Board to 15V power
supply. Connect the Nuclear Signal Simulator
3. Set up oscilloscope to measure voltage and display waveform (5V/Div, DC Scale,
100mS) and connect to Preamplifier Board:
Probe to TP6
Ground clip to GND test point
4. Apply power to Densimeter
5. Adjust the Source Simulator to maximum current (fully clockwise.)
6. Observe the ramping action on TP6.
7. Observe and record the voltage at which the ramp resets:
Upper voltage ramp limit_______
Lower voltage ramp limit_______
8. Decrease the input current from the simulator. The slope of the ramp:
A. Increases
B. Decreases
C. Stays the same

Page 1 of 2

Activity - Observing Ramping Action


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
9. Remove power.
10. This Activity is complete.

Study Questions
1. Why does the ramping action slow with reduced radiation exposure to the Ion
Chamber?

2. Referring to the FSU schematic, what purpose(s) does Q4 serve?

3. What function does AR4 serve?

Page 2 of 2

Activity - Zeroing Preamplifier


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Introduction
The Nuclear Densimeter will require periodic checks and adjustments to ensure that, with
no received radiation, the output signal at TP1 stays near zero volts. Otherwise, accuracy
of the unit may be compromised. TN Technologies recommends a slight offset voltage in
order to minimize disturbance in output signal caused by the ramp reset.

Prerequisites

Test Points Activity


High Voltage Measurement Activity
Ramp Observations Activity

Objective
The objective of this Activity is to instruct the technician in the proper procedure to
follow when zeroing the Nuclear Densimeter.

Parts and/or Tools Required


FSU Densimeter Assembly
Densimeter Test Stand or insulated mat
Analog or Digital Transmitter, or power supply capable of providing 15VDC at 1 amp
Power /Signal Wiring Harness
Alignment tool
Digital Volt Meter
Clip leads

Procedure
1. Place FSU Nuclear Densimeter Assembly into Test Stand.
2. Connect Power/Signal Wiring Harness from J1 on Preamplifier Board to 15V Power
Supply.
3. Place DVM to measure voltage at TP6
Positive lead to TP6
Negative lead to Gnd test point
4. Install jumper wire from resistor, R13 to TP6, to remove the effects of residual input
signal.
5. Apply power to Densimeter.
6. Adjust Trim Pot R28 for 0 V at TP6.
7. Leaving jumper wire in place, move meter lead to TP1.
8. Adjust Trim Pot R1 for 0 V at TP1.
9. Recheck TP6 and re adjust if necessary.
10. Remove jumper and note that voltage at TP1 does not increase significantly.
11. Power down and discharge high voltage.
12. This Activity is complete

Page 1 of 2

Activity - Zeroing Preamplifier


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair

Study Questions
1. Can the zeroing procedure be performed without the Ion Chamber or High Voltage
Board attached? ________. Explain:

2. Why is the voltage at TP6 re-checked after adjusting TP1?

3. What will be the slope of the ramp at TP6 with a properly zeroed system.

Page 2 of 2

Activity - Setting Preamplifier Gain


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Introduction
The Detector should be set for an open pipe signal output between 9.5 9.9VDC. This
is referred to as setting the gain, and a trim pot adjustment and several soldered-in
jumpers are provided on the preamplifier board for setting this voltage. This activity will
be similar to actual field practices, however a nuclear source simulator will be used and
the training preamplifier unit will have plug-in jumpers instead of soldered in jumpers
for setting the gain.

Prerequisites

Test Points Activity


High Voltage Measurement Activity
Ramp Observations Activity
Zeroing Preamplifier Activity

Objective
The objective of this activity is to familiarize the ET with gain-set adjustments and
jumpers on the FSU preamplifier board.

Parts and/or Tools Required


FSU Densimeter Assembly
Densimeter Test Stand or insulated mat
Analog or Digital Transmitter, or power supply capable of providing 15VDC at 1 amp
Power /Signal Wiring Harness
Nuclear Source Simulator
Digital Volt Meter
Alignment tool
Clip lead, to discharge high voltage

Page 1 of 3

Activity - Setting Preamplifier Gain


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Procedure
1. Place FSU Nuclear Densimeter assembly into test stand
2. Connect power/signal wiring harness from J1 on preamplifier board to 15V.
Connect the source simulator to the connector next to J1. Adjust the simulator knob
fully counterclockwise.
3. Connect DVM to measure DC voltage between TP1 and GND.
4. Adjust trim pot, R35, to mid scale (it is a 20-turn pot).

GAIN

W2 / W3

W4 / W6

X-1
X-2
X-4
X-8

W3
W3
W2
W2

W4
W6
W4
W6

Refer to the above gain-set chart for the next steps.


5. Configure the preamplifier for a gain of X1.
6. Apply power to Densimeter.
7. Turn the simulator knob clockwise just enough to give approximately 1 VDC at TP1.
Record X1 voltage: _________.
8. Do not change the setting of the simulator for steps 9 - 11.
9. Configure jumpers for a gain of X2.
Record X2 Voltage: _________.
10. Configure jumpers for a gain of X4.
Record X4 Voltage: ________.
11. Configure jumpers for a gain of X8.
Record X8 Voltage: ________.
12. Return to X1 setting and adjust the simulator to give approximately 8V at TP1.
13. Adjust trim pot, R35, at W1 to give approximately 9.9V open pipe voltage at TP1.
14. Remove power.
15. This Activity is complete.

Study Questions
1. In the above Activity, it is seen that the gain of the preamplifier can be adjusted by a
combination of jumper settings. What parameter is being changed with these jumpers?

Page 2 of 3

Activity - Setting Preamplifier Gain


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
2. What are your observations concerning the actual gain values set by the various
jumper configurations?

3. What other component value can be changed to vary the gain of the Preamplifier?

Page 3 of 3

Activity - Observing and Comparing Reset Pulses


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Introduction
Because the ramp cannot continue indefinitely, a voltage pulse is used to reset the ramp
when it reaches a predetermined level. Additional pulses prevent the reset action from
being seen on the output signal.

Prerequisites

Test Points Activity


High Voltage Measurement Activity
Ramp Observations Activity
Zeroing Preamplifier Activity
Gain Setting Activity

Objective
The objective of this activity is to observe and compare the operation of the three reset
pulses. By observing the time relationship between these pulses, an understanding of
their purpose should become apparent.

Parts and/or Tools Required


FSU Densimeter Assembly
Densimeter Test Stand or insulated mat
Analog or Digital Transmitter, or power supply capable of providing 15VDC at 1 amp
Power /Signal Wiring Harness
Nuclear Source Simulator
Oscilloscope
Clip lead, to discharge high voltage

Procedure
1. Place FSU Nuclear Densimeter Assembly into Test Stand
2. Connect Power/Signal Wiring Harness from J1 on Preamplifier Board to 15V.
Connect the Nuclear Signal Simulator.
3. Connect Oscilloscope to Reset Test Points:
Channel A to TP6
Channel B to TP4
Ground lead to GND
4. Set up Scopemeter for waveform measurements as follows
Sensitivity: 5V/Div
Sweep: 50 mS/Div (may vary with source strength and ramp speed)
DC Volts
5. Apply power to Densimeter
6. Adjust the Nuclear Source Simulator fully clockwise.

Page 1 of 3

Activity - Observing and Comparing Reset Pulses


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
7. Observe and compare the two waveforms.
Voltage range of TP6 (Ramp) from _________ to __________ V
Voltage range of TP4 (Reset Pulse) from ________ to _______V
8. Sketch the two wave forms atTP6 and TP4. Overlay the two signals to show their
time (period) relationship.

9. Leaving Channel B probe on TP4, move Channel A probe to TP3 and compare these
two pulses. For ease of observation, move the base line (zero point) of one channel,
thereby separating the two waveforms. Performing a waveform capture using
single sweep function will help in this effort. Sketch these two waveforms, again
showing the period relationship:

10. Move TP4 probe to TP2. Compare and sketch these two waveforms.

11. Remove power from Densimeter.


12. This Activity is complete.

Page 2 of 3

Activity - Observing and Comparing Reset Pulses


Detector Assembly, Densimeter Repair
Study Questions
1. Identify the function of each reset pulse:
T1 (TP4) __________________________________________________________
T2 (TP3) __________________________________________________________
/T2 (TP2) _________________________________________________________
2. What would be the observed result if pulse T1 was not present?

3. What would be the observed result of a failure of pulse T2 or /T2?

Page 3 of 3

This page intentionally left blank.

BJ Digital Transmitter
ET-205 Densimeter Repair

The BJ Digital Transmitter


Originally designed to interface with the 611C Computer Controlled Blender and provide Proppant
information, the BJ Digital Transmitter is an alternative to the TN Analog and Digital Transmitters.
Modified UCM-II
The BJ Digital Transmitter is a slightly-modified version of the popular Universal Control Module II, or
UCM-II. The differences are discussed later in the presentation.

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BJ Digital Transmitter Features

Features Of BJ Digital Transmitter


The features of the BJ Digital Transmitter include:
Stand Alone or System (611C Blender) Applications
Easy To Program via Function Keypad Entry
Firmware Easily Upgraded
Operational Voltage Range 10.5 to 15 VDC
Frequency, LAN and Local Bus Outputs
Built in 15 V Supply for Nuclear Densimeter
Supported by the Instrumentation Department
Stand Alone Or System (611C Blender)
The BJ Digital Transmitter is water and dust resistant. Although the BJ Digital Transmitter is water
resistant, it should not be exposed to high pressure water. Additionally, the photo above shows an
example of a custom enclosure that can be used for Stand Alone application.
Easy To Program Via Function Keypad Entry
Menu driven commands make the Transmitter user friendly.
Wide Operational Voltage Range (10.5 to 15 VDC)
The Transmitter requires approximately 10.5 to 15VDC @ 1 amp to operate.
Frequency And LAN Outputs
The Transmitter is fully compatible with the BJ LAN system. A self-powered high level frequency
output is also available for non-LAN monitors (i.e., 3305 Mini Monitor). When used with the 611C
Controller, a local serial bus line transmits serial data .

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Inputs/Outputs
12VDC Power

0-10VDC Signal
15VDC Power

LAN
Output

Local Frequency
Output
Bus
(611C)

Inputs
The BJ Digital Transmitter requires 10.5 - 15VDC power to operate. It receives a 0-10V signal from the
Nuclear Densimeter.
Outputs
The BJ Digital Transmitter has three data outputs available:
1 - Frequency Output
1 - LAN Output
1 - Local Bus
Frequency Output
The frequency output is self powered, which means it does not require external excitation voltage for its
high level (approx 10VP-P) output signal. It is scaled so that 1000 Hz = 10 Pounds Proppant Added
(PPA), which equates to a PPU = 6000.
LAN Communication
The BJ Digital Transmitter can communicate over the BJ Local Area Network via RS-422
communication. By assigning unique ID numbers, up to three BJ Digital Transmitters can send data to a
3600, Isoplex36 or Isoplex monitor. To view this data at the 3600 and Isoplex36 Monitoring Systems,
select >TEXAS NUCLEAR DETECTOR MODULES, reached by pressing the following sequence from
the Main Menu Screen of either the 3600 or Isoplex36:
>SELECT PARAMETERS
Choose the appropriate Parameter Number
>SELECT INPUT
>LAN SYSTEM
>TEXAS NUCLEAR DETECTOR MODULES
Local Bus
The two-wire Local Bus line is designed to transmit data only to the 611C Controller.
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611C Control Console

BJ Density
Transmitter

611C Installation
The above photos show a BJ Digital Transmitter in a typical 611C installation. Notice the location of the
transmitter. It is usually mounted in the lower, right hand, slot.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Rear View

Power/Signal
Connector

Contrast
Control

Contrast Control
The contrast control is a 10-turn potentiometer, located on the rear of the BJ Digital Transmitter. This
potentiometer adjusts the contrast of the display, which changes with the angle of view. If power for the
BJ Digital Transmitter is turned on, but nothing appears on the screen, check to insure that the contrast
control is properly adjusted.
Power/Signal Connector
Power and signals are routed through this single multi-pin connector.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Keypads
Main
Screen

Numerical
Keypads

BJ Digital Transmitter Keypads


Now that a general overview of the BJ Transmitter has been given, it is appropriate to take a closer look
at its software. Upon power up, a Firmware Revision screen briefly appears, then the Main Screen
displays operator-selected density information. The transmitter is programmed through menu driven
functions, which involve use of the keypads. The available keys are:
Numeric Keypads
Reference Key (REF)
Apparent Specific Gravity Key (ASG)
Fluid Weight Key (WT)
Corrected Specific Gravity Key (CSG)
Span Key (SPN)
Volts In Key (VIN)
Arrow Keys (
and )
Test Key (TST)
Exit Key (EXT)
Clear Key (CLR)
Enter Key (ENT)
Numerical Keypads
The right side of the keypad is for entering numbers into the system. Depending upon the screen, the BJ
Digital Transmitter may prompt the Operator for numerical information. To respond, the Operator
presses the number keys on the right half of the keypad.
Important Points About The Numerical Keypads
It is important to note that if a minus sign is used, it should be pressed after the number is entered. For
example, to enter the number -100, the Operator would press 1, 0, 0 and then .

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Reference (REF) Key

Reference
Key

Reference (REF) Key


The Reference key is used to zero the Nuclear Densimeter when base fluid is circulating through the
system. Pressing REF present two options:
1> Auto Reference
2> Manual Reference
Auto Reference
To automatically set the Reference Voltage, completely fill the pipe with fresh water or pad fluid and
press the REF key and select 1, for Automatic. From this screen, when the ENT key is pressed, the
current value of the Voltage Input, VTS IN, is copied and pasted as the Reference Voltage, VTS
REF.
Manual Reference
The VTS REF can be manually used to input a Reference Voltage, but is more typically used to simulate
a density signal and send it to a remote monitor for test purposes.

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Apparent Specific Gravity (ASG) Key

Specific
Gravity
Key

Apparent Specific Gravity (ASG) Key


The Apparent Specific Gravity of the base fluid is set by this key. The following list shows some
common base fluids and their Apparent Specific Gravity:
Fresh Water
1.00
KCL
1.01
Salt Water
1.02
To set the Base ASG, type in the desired value and press the ENT key to enter the value into the BJ
Digital Transmitter memory.
Calculating Specific Gravity
If the weight of the base fluid is known in pounds per gallon, divide the weight by 8.34 to obtain the
ASG. If the weight of the base fluid is in kilograms per cubic meter, divide the weight by 1000 to obtain
the ASG.

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Base Weight (WT) Key

Fluid
Weight
Key

Base Weight (WT) Key


This key allows the Operator to input the base weight of the base fluid, in Pounds Per Gallon, or PPG.
This parameter should be set to 8.34 and left there.
To set the Base Weight, type in the desired value and press the ENT key to enter the value into the BJ
Digital Transmitter memory.

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Carrier Specific Gravity (CSG) Key

Carrier
Specific
Gravity
Key

Corrected Specific Gravity (CSG) Key


The Corrected Specific Gravity is the specific gravity of the proppant used. This value enables the BJ
Digital Transmitter firmware to determine how much sand is in a given volume of slurry. The values for
three commonly used proppants are:
20/40 Sand
CSG = 2.65
Interprop
CSG = 3.15
Bauxite
CSG = 3.55
To set the Carrier Specific Gravity, type in the desired value and press the ENT key to enter the value
into the BJ Digital Transmitter memory.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

10

Span (SPN) Key

Span
Key

Span (SPN) Key


The Span Number is a value that defines the response of a Nuclear Densimeter to changes in density.
This number is usually written on the side of the Nuclear Gauge. The Span is a scalar that marries the
Nuclear Densimeter Gauge to the pipe on which it is mounted. Any modification to the Gauge will
require that a new calibration procedure be performed by a qualified Electronic Technician.
The Span Number For A Densimeter Is Not Known
If the Span Number for a densimeter is not known, the densimeter should not be used. A calibration
procedure must be performed prior to its use by a qualified Electronic Technician. If the densimeter
must be used, the following nominal values provide an approximate value:
2 Pipe
Span = 34.0
3 Pipe
Span = 25.0
4 Pipe
Span = 15.5
6 Pipe
Span = 10.0
8 Pipe
Span = 7.3
Set The Span Number
To set the Span Number, press the SPN key, enter the numerical value and press the ENT key to enter
the value into memory.
TIP
It is important to keep the inside of the pipe as clean as possible. Buildup of cement or proppant
significantly affects the Span Number.

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11

Volts In (VIN) Key

Volts In
Key

Volts In (VIN) Key


This key monitors the raw signal voltage from the Detector Gauge and is very useful as a
troubleshooting tool.
TIP
Without any fluid circulating through the Nuclear Densimeter, check to ensure that the Voltage Input
into the 3305 reads between 9.5VDC and 10VDC. This is referred to as the Open Pipe Voltage. If the
voltage is below this range, check to see if the Nuclear Densimeter has a shutter and, if so, that it is
open. Also, check that the Nuclear Densimeter cables are connected and not damaged. If these items
pass inspection and the Nuclear Densimeter is still not working properly, the Electronic Technician
should be notified.

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12

Arrow Up/Down Keys

Arrow
Keys

Arrow Key(s)
The Arrow Keys are used for two purposes:
Change Viewing Options on the Main Screen
Choose a Selection when in Test Mode
Change Viewing Options On The Main Screen
From the Main Screen, the two arrow keys allow the Operator to view the following parameters:
Density, in PPG
Proppant Concentration, in PPA
Both Density in PPG, and Proppant Concentration in PPA
Both Density in kg/m3, and Proppant Concentration in kgPA (Metric Units)
Density, in kg/m3 (Metric Units)
Proppant Concentration, in kgPA (Metric Units)
Choose a Selection When In Test Mode
In the Test Mode, the arrow keys scroll through various test choices.

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13

Test (TST) Key

Self Test

Test (TST) Key


The TST key enables the Electronic Technician to check the functionality of the entire module, and to
perform serial communication tests. Additionally, the ID number, used for LAN communication, is
located here. The tests are done by pressing the TST key and then stepping through the various menu
selections (using the and keys). The available tests are:
Fixed DAC Test (Not used with the BJ Digital Transmitter)
Ramp DAC Test (Not used with the BJ Digital Transmitter)
Frequency Test, tests the input voltage-to-frequency converter.
Display Test, automatically scrolls through all available characters on the screen. To exit this test,
press the EXT key.
Keypad Test, tests both keypads by displaying the selected key. To exit this test, press the EXT
key.
Serial Transmit Test
Serial Loop Test enables a LAN loop back test to be performed.
Unit ID ( The Unit ID must be between 1 and 3)

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14

Exit (EXT) Key

Exit Key

Exit (EXT) Key


The Exit Key is used to return the Operator to the Main Screen.

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15

Clear (CLR) Key

Clear

Clear (CLR) Key


If the Operator makes a mistake while entering a numerical value, he can press the CLR key can be
pressed to erase the value and start over. This key clears only the the data on the screen being viewed,
it does not clear system memory.
TIP
If the BJ Digital Transmitter locks up as soon as it is powered on, chances are that the memory needs to
be reset. The Memory Clear function may be performed as soon as the BJ Digital Transmitter is
powered on. To do so, press the key four times as soon as the title screen appears. When this action
is taken, all default values are restored and the transmitter must then be re-configured, including ID
number.

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16

Enter (ENT) Key

Data Entry

Data Entry (ENT) Key


When the Operator is required to input a value, he must press the ENT key to save the value to memory.
If he enters the value and presses the EXT key, the value will not be saved.

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17

Calibrate The BJ Digital Transmitter

Calibrate The BJ Digital Transmitter


Below is the procedure for calibration of the BJ Digital Transmitter with a Nuclear Densimeter attached:
Connect the Power/Signal Cable from the Nuclear Densimeter to the BJ Digital Transmitter.
If applicable, make sure the shutter is in the ON position and that the Process Fluid Pipe is empty.
Turn power on, and allow 15 minutes for the electronics to warm up.
Press the VIN key and observe the Open Pipe Voltage, which should be between 9 and 10V. If
correct, press the EXT key.
From the Main Screen, press the key until only the Proppant Concentration, in PPA is displayed
on the screen.
Press the SPN key and enter the Span Number, found on the Nuclear Densimeter.
Press the ASG key and enter the Specific Gravity of the base fluid.
Press the WT key and enter 8.34.
Press the CSG key and enter the Specific Gravity of the proppant.
Press the VIN key. Circulate, or fill the Process Fluid Pipe with the base fluid and verify that the
voltage drops.
Press the REF key, select the 1 key. From this screen, when the ENT key is pressed, the current
value of the Voltage Input, VTS IN, is copied and pasted as the Reference Voltage, VTS REF.
Remember, the Process Fluid Pipe must be completely filled with the base fluid.
Calibration of the BJ Digital Transmitter is complete.

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18

Universal Control Module II Conversion

Universal Control Module II

BJ Digital Module

Universal Control Module II Conversion


The material covered to this point is applicable to both an Operator and an ET. For the remainder of this
section, the electronics of the BJ Digital Transmitter will be covered, and is useful for only the ET.
Before the Universal Control Module II, or UCM II, can be used as a BJ Digital Transmitter, some
modifications are necessary. These modifications are:
Remove Manual/Automatic Switch
Remove Manual Control Potentiometer
Install On/Off Switch
Change Keypad nomenclature
Change Firmware
Convert Current Output to Frequency Output
Add Voltage Divider on Input
Install 15V Power Supply for Nuclear Densimeter power
Modify circuit board wiring
Switches & Potentiometer
The photo on the left shows a standard UCM II, while on the right is one that has been converted to a BJ
Digital Transmitter. Notice that the Manual/Automatic Switch has been replaced with a power on/off
switch, and the Control Potentiometer has been removed. Additionally, the Keypad configuration and
the firmware has changed to reflect the different commands available from the keypad. Wiring changes
and component additions will now be discussed.

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19

Frequency Output Modification


Install 2k

Resistor
Install
Jumper

REFDWG: 41696

Frequency Output Modification


The UCM-II current output was designed so that a current signal controls a servo valve. When used as a
BJ Digital Transmitter, firmware modifications convert this current output into a self-powered frequency
output. Modifications to the current output have been done, by adding a 2 k resistor in series with the
collector (drain) of output transistor (FET), Q2. This load resistor develops the voltage necessary to
output a high level pulse. A jumper is placed across what was the load resistor for Q2, and another
jumper run from the 2 k resistor to VCC, which provides the voltage needed to make the output self
powered, meaning no external power source is required for the frequency output. Finally, the EPROM
(not shown) has been programmed to deliver a frequency proportional to density, rather than the
formerly required current signal. This frequency is programmed for a PPU of 6000 Pulses per PPA.

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20

Voltage Divider Addition

Change to
1k

9.09k

Resistor
Added

REFDWG: 41696

Voltage Divider Added To Input


The basic UCM-II inputs were designed for two pulsed and one 4 to 20 mA current signal. Because the
Nuclear Densimeter signal output is 0 to 10VDC, the current input was modified by changing resistor, R9,
from 49.9 to 1k. Additionally, a 9.09k resistor in installed in series with R9, making up a voltage
divider to lower the signal voltage by a factor of 10. This 0 - 1VDC signal is fed to voltage-to-frequency
converter IC, U6. The output frequency signal from this converter is then sent to Three-Channel Timer
IC, U14, where it is converted to a digital signal for delivery to the Microprocessor.

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21

15V Supply

REFDWG: 41709

15V Power Supply


A 15VDC Power Supply is added to the BJ Digital Transmitter in order to supply power to the Nuclear
Densimeter. A regulated DC-DC converter operating on 12VDC input is used for this application. This
converter is mounted on a separate PC board, which electrically connects to the Main Board via
connector, J1.

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22

Key Power Components

15V
Power
Supply
Board

+5V
Regulator
(Behind Panel)

8V Power
Supply

REFDWG: 41692

BJ Density Transmitter Key Power Components


The drawing above shows the locations of the major power components of the BJ Transmitter. They
include:
15V Power Supply
+8V Power Supply
+5V Regulator
Power & Signal Connector
The power supply components and system interconnect will now be discussed.

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23

Power Block Diagram

12V IN

12V
Vicor Power
Supply
Trimmed To
8V

8V Out

LM7805
5V
Regulator

LM7805
5V
Regulator

12V IN

15V
DC/DC
Converter

5V Logic

5V

To
68VAC
Inverter LCD Back Light

15V Power To Nuclear Densimeter

Power Block Diagram


Nominal +12VDC unregulated power is trimmed to 8VDC by a Vicor DC-DC Converter and sent to two
5VDC regulator ICs. The first regulator supplies 5V power to the logic circuit and the second operates a
68VAC Inverter used to power the back light. The 15VDC Converter, runs on unregulated power and
supplies voltage to the Density Gauge.

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24

Power Diagram

Vicor
Converter
(PS1)

Connector
J1

REFDWG: 41697

Input Power
Primary +12VDC power is supplied through Connector J1. The power input portion of multi-function
connector J1 is:
Pin A = +12VDC
Pin B = +12VDC
Pin C = Ground
Pin D = Ground
UCM II Power Supply Requirements
Because the logic and backlight input circuits operate at 5VDC, and there are no other voltage
requirements, the UCM-II module is designed to operate more efficiently with +8VDC input to the
regulators. This voltage is typically supplied by a Vicor power supply (+12VDC supply, trimmed to
+8VDC), and is found externally mounted on multiple-module setups such as the Hydration Unit.
BJ Density Transmitter Power Requirements
Because the 15VDC Converter in the BJ Density Transmitter requires +12V input and the unit is
designed to be functional in a stand alone mode, the +8VDC power supply is installed inside the
Transmitter housing, and identified as PS1. This converter supplies power to the two 5V regulators
which operate the following:
Logic and main PC board circuits
68VAC Inverter for Backlight power
Because the 5VDC regulators only have to drop 3 Volts, power lost to heat is lowered.
In addition to power, the converter provides isolation for the circuit.
12V Vicor Converter Set To 8V
The nominal +12V DC-DC Converter is set to 8VDC via trim resistor R3. The Vicor Converter input also
sends +12VDC to the 15V DC/DC Converter on PC2 through Connector, P1, Pins 1 (+12V) and 2
(GND).
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25

Display Power Components


-5V
Converter
(U8)

+5V
Regulator
(VR1)

To Contrast
Control

68VAC
Inverter
(VR2)

REFDWG: 41696

Display Contrast Control


In order to make the display visible, a small negative voltage is required. The voltage conversion circuit,
consisting of ICL7660 (U8) and capacitor, C21, develops -5V for one side of the contrast control. The
voltage swing goes from +5V to -5V. Loss of the -5V side will cause the screen to appear blank.
Back Light
Immediately behind the display is an Electro-Luminescent panel, used for low ambient light viewing. A
5VDC regulator, VR1, provides regulated voltage for a 68VAC inverter, VR2. Resistor, R2, provides
current limiting and reduces the voltage to 4.2VDC at the input of VR2.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

26

Serial Communication

Standard 3600
LAN Connection

Tx

Rx

/Rx /Tx GND

Rx Tx

/Tx

Standard LAN
Node Connection

/Rx GND

Local Bus
Line to 611C

JP5
TX

/TX

GND

RX

/RX

5
JP4
1

REFDWG: 41697

Serial Communication
Serial communication over the Local Area Network (LAN) is possible with the BJ Digital Transmitter.
To enable communication to occur, an ID number must be entered at the Transmitter and that same ID
entered at the 3600/Isolplex36. Additionally, a Local Bus line provides one-way serial communication
to a 611C Blender Console. An ID number is not necessary for communication with the Local Bus line.
TIP
When wiring or servicing the LAN system, keep in mind that it is a null modem configuration. TX from
3600 is sent to the RX at the Module.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

27

Review Questions
BJ Digital Transmitter, Densimeter Repair
1. The nominal +12V DC-DC Converter used to power the BJ Digital Transmitter is set
to ___V via trim resistor _____.
2. The power supply voltages found in the BJ Digital Transmitter are:
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
3. The BJ Digital Transmitter has ______ Serial Ports. State the purpose of each.

4. What would be the observed symptom if +5V to the contrast were lost?

5. Describe the function of each of the 5V regulators, VR1 on the PC board and VR1 on
the front panel.

6. The analog output is a ( ) Pulse, ( ) Voltage, ( ) mA. The span is


_______________, which represents ___________ PSA.

Page 1 of 1

Controllers/Data Acquisition Systems


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Controllers & Data Acquisition Systems


The next type of Transmitters to be discussed are Data Acquisition Systems and Controllers. The BJ
Digital Transmitter is of the stand alone type, meaning that its only responsibility is to interface with
the Nuclear Densimeter. The transmitters in this section not only interface with the Nuclear Densimeter,
but also perform a number of other critical functions.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Density System With 3305 Mini Monitor

Sensor Cable
Lead Filled Housing
Containing Cesium-137
Source
NUC DENSITY

Energy
Beam

Ion Chamber
Detector And
Preamplifier
3305
J-Box

Interfacing Densimeter With 3305


The 3305 Mini Monitor supplies 15 VDC for the operation of the Nuclear Densimeter, and contains an
algorithm formula within its firmware that performs the slope correction necessary for linear density
readings. Because of these factors, the 3305 Min Monitor is designed to connect directly to the TN
Densimeter via its J-box and reads input voltages to 10VDC.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

3305 J-Box Density Input Pin Configuration

Pin B Signal In
Pin C -15V
Pin D Common
Pin E +15 V
Pin G Shield

F
K

C
E

D
Bulkhead Connector
Front View

An interface between Preamplifier and the 3305 J-box isnt needed

Densimeter Wiring
The J-box Nuclear Density Connector uses the standard BJS-specified connector PT02E-18-11P.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Density System With 3600 WTA

Nuclear Density
Interface J-Box

Lead Filled Housing


Containing Cesium-137
Source

Energy
Beam

Ion Chamber
Detector And
Preamplifier

3600 Interface
The 3600 can accept up to two Density Inputs, but each input can only read a maximum voltage of
5VDC. Because of this limitation, a Nuclear Density Interface J-box, consisting of an adjustable voltage
divider network, is required in order to keep the input voltage below its limit.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Nuclear Density Inputs

Density Inputs
1 and 2

Density Input
Two inputs are specific to Nuclear Densimeter. Even though the density connectors are different, the
input circuitry is identical to the six Analog Inputs. The 3600 program firmware corrects the non-linear
characteristics of the Nuclear Densimeter.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Density Input Pin Configuration

Pin B Signal In
Pin C -15V
Pin D Common
Pin E +15 V
Pin G Shield

G
H

B
C

F
E
D

PTO7E-12-8S (BJ P/N


22964) Bulkhead
Connector Front View

Densimeter Wiring
Shown above is the 3600 WTA pin configuration for Density #1 and #2 Inputs. In addition to slope
correction, these two inputs provide the 15VDC required to operate the densimeter.
NOTE
The 3600 density input connector is different from the connector used on the Nuclear Densimeter. It is
adapted to the standard BJ connector via the dDensity Interface J-box.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

3600 Density Interface J-box Schematic

13.3k

5k

J2-B

J1-B
J1-C
J1-D
J1-E

10k

-15V
COM
+15 V

To Densimeter

J2-C
J2-D
J2-E
To 3600 Density Input

Nuclear Density Interface J-Box


The Nuclear Density Interface J-box is used to lower the 10V open pipe voltage from the Nuclear
Densimeter. It consists of a voltage divider network with potentiometer which adjusts the open pipe
voltage to 4.85V. Additionally, the J-box adapts the standard Nuclear Densimeter connector to the
smaller 3600 connector. Resistors in series with the upper and lower limits of the potentiometer reduce
the range of adjustment, therefore it is important that the open pipe voltage be as close to 10V as possible
in order that 4.85V can be set.
NOTE
The 3600 cannot read voltages above 5 Volts.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Pendant System Density Input

Pendant System Density Inputs


Two density inputs are provided in the Pendant System, for high and low pressure densimeter inputs.
The primary densimeter choice is made from the Utility screen.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Select Utility Routine, Densimeter Source


SELECT NUCLEAR PSA SOURCE

<1>

HIGH PRESSURE PSA

<2>

LOW PRESSURE PSA

USING

(EXIT)

F1

F2

F3

F4

Select Source
The Pendant has two Nuclear Densimeter input choices:
High Pressure
Low Pressure.
To make the selection, use the numeric keypad to select <1> or <2>.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Calibrate Low Pressure PSA


CALIBRATE LOW PRESSURE PSA

<1> REFERNCE

= 0.00

<2> BASE ASG

= 0.00

<3> PROP CSG

= 0.00

<4> SPAN

= 0.00

LOW PRESSURE PSA = 0.00


SENSOR VOLTAGE

= 0.00
(EXIT)

F1

F2

F3

F4

Calibration Procedure
The Nuclear Densimeter setup on the Pendant consists of the following operator entries:
Reference, zeroing on base fluid.
Base ASG, specific gravity of the base fluid (water is 1.00).
Prop CSG, specific gravity of the proppant (20/40 sand is 2.65).
Span, the calibration number found on the Gauge housing.
The raw voltage input from the densimeter is displayed on this screen, and is a handy test point to ensure
voltage data is being sent from the Nuclear Densimeter. With current firmware, the value displayed will
be one-half of actual input voltage.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

10

Calibrate Base ASG


CALIBRATE LOW PRESSURE PSA

BASE ASG

= 0.00

NEW VALUE

LOW PRESSURE PSA = 0.00


SENSOR VOLTAGE

Fresh Water
1.00

= 0.00

(EXIT)

F1

F2

F3

F4

Base Absolute Specific Gravity


A numerical value, representing the specific gravity of the base fluid is entered here via the numeric
keypad.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

11

Setting Proppant CSG


CALIBRATE LOW PRESSURE SPAN

PROPPANT CSG

= 0.0

NEW VALUE

LOW PRESSURE PSA = 0.00


SENSOR VOLTAGE

Sand Typically
2.65

= 0.00

(EXIT)

F1

F2

F3

F4

Proppant Corrected Specific Gravity


The Proppant CSG is entered here via the numeric keypad.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

12

Setting Span
CALIBRATE LOW PRESSURE PSA

SPAN

= 0.0

NEW VALUE

LOW PRESSURE PSA = 0.00


SENSOR VOLTAGE

Enter Span Number


Found On Detector
Assembly

= 0.00

(EXIT)

F1

F2

F3

F4

Span
The Span number for the densimeter to be used is entered via the numeric keypad. This span number is
generally found on the Nuclear Densimeter housing. If unknown, a calibration procedure should be
performed by the Electronic Technician.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

13

Setting The Reference Voltage


CALIBRATE LOW PRESSURE PSA

REFERENCE

= 0.0

NEW VALUE

LOW PRESSURE PSA = 0.00


SENSOR VOLTAGE

= 0.00

Enters Detector
Voltage as Zero
PSA

(AUTO)

F1

F2

F3

(EXIT)

F4

Reference Entry
Auto (F1) key is pressed to automatically enter the current Gauge voltage as Zero PSA. This key should
only be pressed while on pad fluid (ie. No proppant).

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

14

DENSITY1

Pendant Density
Input
OPTO ISOLATED I/O

DENSITY2

CLOCK

ENABLE
DATA OUT

DATA IN
HIGH SPEED ANALOG-TODIGITAL CONVERTER

REFDWG: 56298 1/4

Pendant Density Inputs


Each Pendant density input has a separate internal 15VDC power supply, used exclusively to power the
Densimeter. These supplies isolate the signal and power ground of the Nuclear Densimeter from the
Pendant logic ground, which eliminates the possibility of ground loops and reduces the chance of
processor errors caused by Densimeter or cable failures. The density inputs utilize separate connectors
which go to connector JP5 on the Brain Board.
Density 1, on JP5 is:
Pin 1, Sig High
Pin 2, -15VDC
Pin 3, Sig/Pwr Common
Pin 4, +15VDC
Density 2 pin assignment is:
Pin 6, Sig High
Pin 7, -15VDC
Pin 8, Sig/Pwr Common
Pin 9, +15VDC
Both 0-10VDC density voltage inputs are reduced to 0-5VDC by a pair of 10k divider resistors. These
voltages are sent to high speed analog-to-digital converter, U86. The digital output from this IC is sent
in serial form to Opto-Coupler, U84, which provides isolation from dirty power ground. The resulting
isolated data is then sent directly to the processor.
NOTE
With the current firmware, the raw signal voltage on the display will read one-half of actual input. If in
doubt, measure actual voltage with a DVM.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

15

MCM-1000/ACC Series Controller


Density Input

MCM-1000 Series Controller


There are several versions of the MCM Series of Controllers, with each module EPROM determining the
controllers specific function. Regardless of the version, each has one density input, and includes a DCDC converter for powering the Detector Assembly. The various models include:
MCM-1000, used for Cyclone Blender
MCM-1002, used for Conventional Blender
MCM-1004, used for Titan 60 Blender
MCM-1006, used for W125 Blender
ACC-II Automatic Cement Control Module

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

16

MCM Density Input


Frequency to
Voltage Converter

Voltage Divider

REFDWG: 47569 3/3

MCM Density Input


Notated DB-IV input on the schematic the MCM-1000 series may accept either a DB-IV or Nuclear
Densimeter as its density input, depending upon its configuration. The MCM Density input pin
assignment on JP8 is:
Pin 10, +15VDC
Pin 11, Signal High
Pin 12, Signal Low/Power Common
Pin 16, -15VDC
NOTE
The -15VDC section of the power supply is not used with the DB-IV.
Input Detail
The 0-10VDC density input signal is reduced to approximately 0-1VDC via a resistor divider network
consisting of R6 & R36. This voltage is then converted to a frequency pulse by precision V-F Converter
IC, U10. The representative pulse is sent to the input of one section of Dual Opto-Coupler, U20. This
Opto-Coupler performs three important functions:
Isolation of logic common from dirty power ground
Common-Mode noise rejection
Pulse shaping via one-shot output
The isolated output is then sent directly to the processor where the firmware program performs slope
correction.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

17

Review Questions
Monitors & Controllers, Densimeter Repair
1. Using dedicated 15V supplies in the Pendant Controller isolates the signal and
power ground of the Nuclear Density Gauge from the Pendant _______ ground, to
eliminate the possibility of _____________and reduce the chance of processor errors
caused by Gauge or cable failures.
2. The 3600 WTA density interface J-box is used to lower the _____________voltage
from the Nuclear Density Gauge.
3. Discuss the two main differences between the 3305 and 3600 Density Inputs:

4. Nuclear Densimeter input isolation in the Pendant is provided by ________________.


5. Identify the function of each of the following MCM Controllers:
MCM-1000 ______________________
MCM-1002 ______________________
MCM-1004 ______________________
MCM-1006 ______________________

Page 1 of 1

Specifications & Conversions


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Introduction
With BJ Services acquisition of various Oilfield Service Companies throughout the years, the
problem of Standardization has become a major concern. The Instrumentation Engineering
Department has made an effort to incorporate the Plug N Play concept, so that if a district borrows
a Nuclear Densimeter or any other piece of instrumentation, re-wiring and re-scaling will not be
necessary in order to make it to work with their equipment.
Standardization Is The Goal
In an effort to implement the Plug N Play concept with each Nuclear Densimeter, regardless of
company origin, the ET should become familiar with the differences that may be found in Nuclear
Densimeters, and make it a point to convert any densimeter that does not meet BJ specifications.
This section provides the information necessary to convert nonstandard Nuclear Densimeter to BJ
Specifications, thus ensuring uniformity within the Company.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Specifications

Nuclear Densimeter Specifications - Generic


The following specifications are for a generic Nuclear Densimeter ordered from TN Technologies:
Cs-137 isotope, 200 millicurie (7.5 GBq) source
Shutter comes with ON-OFF-CAL positions
CAL position is 15.1 PPG (1809 kg/m3)
Connector mounted on the Nuclear Densimeter is MS3102E-18-1P (WIN P/N 174140)
Open pipe voltage varies, depending on size of pipe and Transmitter used
Nuclear Densimeter Specifications - BJ Services
The following specifications are for a BJ Services-configured Nuclear Densimeter ordered from TN
Technologies:
Cs-137 isotope, 200 millicurie (7.5 GBq) source
Shutter comes with ON-OFF-CAL position for five inch and larger low pressure applications
High pressure applications, for pipe diameters of four inches and smaller, have the source and
detector mounted directly on the pup joint. Mounting bolts are welded.
CAL position is 12.0 PSA (1.44 kg Sand Added per cubic meter) with water in pipe
Connector on gauge is PT02E-18-11P (P/N 43291X)
Gauge output voltage is set to +10VDC with empty pipe
The main difference between the the two specifications is the type of connector used on the Nuclear
Densimeter.
NOTE
Slide gate CAL positions for either specifications are approximate and are to be used for test
purposes only.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Conversion
Connector Specifications
Generic Detector Assy
MS3102E-18-1P P/N 174140

BJS Detector
PT02E-18-11P BJS P/N 43291X

Generic Bulkhead Conn


MS3102E-18-1S

BJS Bulkhead Connector


PT07E-18-11P BJS P/N 35817X

Generic Cable Connectors


MS3106E-18-1P
MS3106E-18-1S

Cable Connector, each end


PT06E-18-11S BJS P/N 35818X

Generic Wiring Assignment


Pin A
+15V
Pin B
- 15V
Pin C
Neg 10V (Analog Only)
Pin D
Signal & Power Ground
Pin E
Signal
Pin F
Gain

BJS Wiring Assignment


Pin A
N/A
Pin B
Signal
Pin C
- 15V
Pin D
Signal & Power Ground
Pin E
+ 15V
Pin F
Shield

Conversion
When converting a generic Nuclear Densimeter to BJ Specification, the following steps should be
taken:
Replace the connector mounted on the Detector Assembly with the BJ Connector, P/N 43291X.
Verify that the connector at the Transmitter is P/N 35817X, using the pin configuration listed
on the next page.
Replace the cable with P/N 35818X.
On Detector Assembly, install potentiometer on Preamplifier Board @ W1 for gain
adjustment..
Adjust the Preamplifier Gain between the range of +9 to +10 Volts with Open Pipe, using
procedure found in the Maintenance section of this manual.
Obtain a Span Number using the calibration procedure found in the Calibration section of this
manual.
Using indelible marker, write the Span Number on Nuclear Densimeter housing. A water proof
tag may also be used to attach the Span Number.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Nuclear Density Gauge Pin Assignment

Pin B Signal In
Pin C -15V
Pin D Common
Pin E +15 V
Pin G Shield

F
K

C
E

D
Bulkhead Connector
Front View

Transmitter Pin Assignment


For BJ Services, the above connector and pin assignment should be used for the Nuclear Densimeter
and transmitters. As seen on the next slide, the 3600 input uses a different connector, but the pin
assignment is the same.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

3600 Density Input Pin Assignment

Pin B Signal In
Pin C -15V
Pin D Common
Pin E +15 V
Pin G Shield

G
H

B
C

F
D

PTO7-12-8S (BJ P/N


22964) Bulkhead
Connector Front View

3600 Connector & Pin Assignment


An exception to the standard listed on the previous pages is the 3600 Well Treatment Analyzer
which uses a BJ PN 22964 connector on the Density 1 & 2 channels. The pin assignment, however,
is the same as the standard connector. This connector is converted back to the standard at the
Density Interface J-Box.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

This page intentionally left blank.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Nuclear Densimeter Calibration


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Nuclear Densimeter Calibration


At this point, the Operation and Standardization of the Nuclear Densimeter have been discussed. Once
the ET fully understands these topics, he is now ready to perform the required Calibration and
Maintenance for a Nuclear Densimeter.
Densimeter Calibration
The Nuclear Densimeter should be calibrated every 6 months, or as needed. If a Nuclear Densimeter is
taken off one pipe and mounted on another, it should be re-calibrated as well. Within BJ Services, there
are two methods acceptable for calibration of Nuclear Densimeters:
Air/Water/Simulation Calibration
Water/Calcium Bromide Calibration
Air/Water/Simulation Calibration
This method is used primarily for low pressure densimeters (5 and larger), and is discussed in the TN
Analog Transmitter Repair Manual and the TN Digital Transmitter Repair Manual.
Water/Calcium Bromide Calibration
The Water/Calcium Bromide Calibration Method is used for high pressure densimeters (4 and smaller).
The remainder of this section discusses this method of calibration when the Nuclear Densimeter is
connected to a:
3305 Mini Monitor
3600 Well Treatment Analyzer

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

BJ SERVICES COMPANY
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Subject:

Densimeter Calibration Using Chemical Method with 3305 Mini Monitor

Revision:

1.

Date:

March 25, 2004

Page:

of

Introduction
Portions of the following procedure were reprinted from Procedure Number 10006-tp,
Rev N/C. It outlines the calibration procedure using Calcium Bromide and a 3305
Mini Monitor. Substituting a 3600 Well Treatment Analyzer for the 3305 will yield
similar results.

2.

Material Requirements









3.

Calcium Bromide Kit P/N 37536 (with 5 gal.)


Additional Calcium Bromide P/N 37539 (5 gal.)
Density cable assembly P/N 35160-XX or equivalent
Thick rubber mat or plug if available
3305 Mini Monitor with J-Box
Sensor cable P/N 42214-XX
(2) Power cables P/N 39532-XX or equivalent
12 VDC, 10 amp power supply

Prerequisite
This procedure should only be performed by personnel that have been certified
in use and handling, safety and servicing of the nuclear gauges or under the
supervision of someone who has been certified by TN Technologies. Perform
an in-process inspection of the assembly and verify that a lock and a set of keys
were included with the unit.
Inspect the pipe saddles to insure that the
detector/source assembly is secure and that the nuts are welded. Following is a
procedure that is recommended to establish a Cal Factor (SPAN Number) for the
nuclear gauge.
After calibration, the Calibration Record Form is to be completed by the Electronic
Technician who performed the calibration. The Densimeter should be completely
checked out after calibration to verify that it is fully operational. If any difficulties are
encountered during calibration, the problems should be recorded on the Calibration
Record Form and Technical Services should be contacted for assistance. The
completed form should be retained by the Electronic Technician, for future reference.

BJ SERVICES COMPANY
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Subject:

Densimeter Calibration Using Chemical Method with 3305 Mini Monitor

Revision:

4.

Date:

March 25, 2004

Page:

of

Procedure
1. Plug the down end of the pipe of the gauge with a pipe plug or use a smooth
rubber mat in a container to capture the Calcium Bromide after use.
2. Connect cables to the 3305 monitor, J-Box, power, and the gauge.
3. Apply power to the 3305 monitor and J-Box. Allow 15 minutes for electronics to
thermally stabilize.
4. Go to the Calibration menu for Nuclear Density. Select option 1 for Reference
Voltage. The lower right hand portion of screen will display volts input. With the
shutter closed (if so equipped) Volts Input should read near zero.
5. Unlock the shutter and slide it to the On position. Monitor the voltage displayed
on the 3305. With the pipe open to air it should read approx. 9.95 0.15 VDC.
If the assembly reads in excess of 10.55 VDC, the gain on the preamp of the
gauge may need to be adjusted. Record this voltage on the Calibration Record
Form.
6. Fill the pipe with water just above the top clamp where the detector and source
are mounted. Monitor the voltage and verify that it drops to approximately the
voltage noted, based on pipe size. Record this voltage on the Calibration
Record Form.
8
2.55 VDC
6
3.4 VDC
5"
4.3 VDC
4
5.4 VDC
3
6.6 VDC
2
7.9 VDC
7. Verify that the Base ASG has a value of 1.00. Reference the water voltage by
pressing the F3 key (AUTO).

BJ SERVICES COMPANY
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Subject:

Densimeter Calibration Using Chemical Method with 3305 Mini Monitor

Revision:

Date:

March 25, 2004

8. Select 3 (SPAN) and enter


size.
8
6
5"
4
3
2
9.

Page:

of

one of the approximate SPAN values, based on pipe


7.3
9.0
11.5
15.5
23.0
39.0

to
to
to
to
to
to

7.5
9.5
12.0
16.0
25.0
45.0

Empty the pipe and dry it out as much as possible. Using the hydrometer from
the kit, float it in the Calcium Bromide solution. After it settles, obtain a density
reading, then remove the hydrometer. On the side of the hydrometer is a scale
in SGU readings. Multiply the density reading by 8.34 to obtain a PPG value and
record this value on the Calibration Record Form. After obtaining the PPG
number, fill the pipe with the Calcium Bromide solution just above the top
mounting brackets then, go to option 3 (SPAN) and adjust the initial reading up
or down until the correct PPG is displayed on the 3305. Document the final
SPAN number on the Calibration Record Form and on the gauge.

10. Drain and capture the Calcium Bromide for future use.
11. Rinse the pipe thoroughly and dry it out.
12. Add water again and verify that the PPG reading on the 3305 monitor comes up
to 8.34 0.1 PPG.
13. Empty the pipe. Slide the shutter to the OFF position and use the lock to
secure the device.
14. Document all the information on the Calibration Record Form.

Nuclear Densimeter Maintenance


ET-205 Densimeter Repair

Nuclear Densimeter Maintenance


Troubleshooting of the Nuclear Densimeter FSU Gauge should be attempted only after the theory and
operation of the Nuclear Densimeter is fully understood.
General Inspection
The radiation source holder should be free from cement or proppant build-up. Additionally, the shutter
should be inspected to make sure that it slides easily, and that the lock for the shutter is in good
condition. Under no circumstances, however, should the ET attempt to open the Radiation Source
Holder; only qualified TN personnel may do so.
Process Fluid Pipe
If possible, the inside walls of the process fluid pipe should be inspected for cement or proppant buildup. Even a small buildup of material in the process fluid pipe can affect the density reading.
Safety Tip
It is advisable that a DOSIMETER (Radiation Absorption Detector) be worn when working with
Nuclear Densimeters.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Detector Assembly

Detector Assembly
Some of the more common problems related to the Nuclear Densimeter include:
No density reading (The Nuclear Densimeter is locked up)
Erratic and unstable density readings
Density spikes
Density consistently high or low from actual
The possible causes of these problems are explained in this section, as well as suggested solutions.
Detector Assembly Calibration
Many of the problems mentioned above may be avoided if the Detector assembly is calibrated at routine
intervals. The calibration procedure is discussed in this section as well.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Calibration/Repair Materials

Materials List
A primary list of items needed to service the Detector Assembly includes:
3/16 Allen Socket Wrench, to remove lid
7/16 Deep Socket w/ Ratchet Wrench, to loosen the rubber grommet
2 Large 90 Allen Wrenches, for prying out electronics
4 Adjustable Wrench
Small Phillips Head Screwdriver and Small Flat Head Screwdriver
Clean White Eraser, to clean contacts
Trichlorethane 1,1,1 or Commercial Grade Everclear (95% ethyl alcohol)
Silicon Dielectric Grease, to lubricate the O-ring
Digital Voltmeter with 4 digit display (Fluke Model 8050-01 or equivalent)
High Voltage Probe
Test Clip Leads
Rubber Mallet
DC Power Supply (12V @1A)
Small Adjustment Screwdriver (tweaker)
Insulated mat
IDET Densimeter Training Video, TV-201
If repairs are to be made to boards, or if the open pipe voltage (gain) is to be set, additional tools include:
Soldering Iron and rosin-core Solder
Desoldering tool or Solder Wick
Assortment of polystyrene capacitors
Hemostats or needle nose pliers
Non-corrosive, non-flowing Silicon Seal
Latex surgical gloves

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

General Visual Examination

General Visual Examination


When servicing a nuclear gauge, remember that clean and dry is critical to proper operation.
Therefore, always look for general signs of moisture, corrosion and lead dust contamination inside the
detector housing. Inspect the foam inserts for dampness and deterioration. Corrosion, caused from
moisture and acid fumes entering the housing, generally leaves a white or rusty red deposit, while lead
dust is seen as a gray dust (actually, the epoxy paint coating the lead shield). Here are a few other
specific items to check out:
Inspect all screws and mounting spacers for tightness, and ensure lock washers are in place.
Check condition of connectors on each board.
Inspect each component on boards for evidence of corrosion.
Check all components held in place with silicon seal, especially capacitors on the High Voltage
Board. Re-seal any loose components or wires.
Check condition of component contacts for solid leads and good solder connections.
Inspect preamplifier coax cable that plugs into the Ion Chamber (use cotton swab and alcohol to
wipe out the socket and examine swab for signs of contamination).
Check both ends and jacket of the coax cable closely for evidence of damage.
Inspect foam inserts for clean and dry condition, and for deterioration. The foam should feel firm
and return to shape quickly. There should be no flaking of the material. Regardless of condition,
the foam inserts should be replaced each time the unit is serviced.
Inspect the rubber compression grommet, that secures the assembly in the housing, for signs of
deterioration or over tightening.
Inspect the three desiccant bags for integrity and dryness. Dry bags will have a loose, granular feel.
Inspect the nylon insulator for security and wear.
Inspect the lid, O-ring, and connector for signs of damage. Replace the O-ring, regardless of
condition.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

Foam Insert Kit

Foam Insert Kit


Because they deteriorate over time and may become contaminated without any outward appearance, the
foam inserts should be replaced each time the FSU gauge is removed for servicing. In an effort to
simplify the replacement procedure, a foam insert replacement kit (PN 79257) is now available from
Instrumentation department. The very reasonable cost of this kit makes it economically feasible to
replace all foam inserts each time the FSU gauge is removed. Also included in the kit is a replacement
o-ring seal for the lid, desiccant packs, compression grommet and locking nut, all of which should also
be replaced. Technicians are encouraged to keep several of these kits in stock at their district, as well as
one in their vehicle for field repairs.
Instrumentation Bulletin 81
Refer to Instrumentation Bulletin 00081 for more information and drawings.

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High Voltage Test Points

Oscillator, Q1

C7

Voltage Regulation

Fusible Resistors

-12V Regulator

High Voltage Checks


Measure the high voltage on Ion Chamber with a high voltage probe. It should read a steady +1400VDC,
100VDC. Tap on the high voltage board with an insulated tool and use the same probe on individual
components. Any voltage fluctuation indicates a problem. Likewise, heating or cooling the circuit
boards should have no affect on the high voltage.
TIP
When measuring for the +1400VDC, be sure not to touch the body of the Ion Chamber. Also, some
voltage may remain for a period of time after power is removed.
High Voltage Not Present
If high voltage is missing, 15VDC or -12VDC may be missing, or the oscillator may not be running.
Measure 15VDC on both sides of fusible resistors, R3 and R1. Look for loose wiring to the high voltage
transformer, T1, and for a broken leg on disc capacitor, C7. Poor regulation may indicate bad IC, U3, or
-12VDC regulator IC, U2.
An oscilloscope is handy for troubleshooting the oscillator circuit. Check transistor, Q1, and the primary
windings of T1 for a 1.5 kHz sine wave.

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Preamplifier Test Points


Ramp Test Point, TP6

Output, TP1

Preamplifier Test Points


Using a DVM, look for ramping action on TP6 with a radioactive source or source simulator. It should
ramp from about +8VDC to -10VDC, increasing in negative slope as radiation increases. If good ramping
action is found on TP6, look at the DC output voltage on TP1. It should be close to 0VDC with no
radioactive source, and increase proportionally to the radioactive strength, to a saturated level of
approximately 10.5VDC.

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Ramp Reset TP5

Reset Circuit Test Points

Ramp Sense Trigger

Ramp Reset/Hold TP

Reset Circuit Test Points


The negative ramp reset trigger pulse is seen on TP7, and the positive reset pulse is seen on TP8. Either
trigger will result in a positive voltage at the junction of CR3, CR4 and R21. Failure of a trigger voltage
at this point is indicative of defective AR6, CR3 or CR4. When either limit is reached, transistor, Q5,
should trigger and energize relay, K1. This action can be observed on TP5. The same ramp found on
TP6 should occur at Pin 2 & 5 of AR6. The reset pulses from U3 can be observed, with an oscilloscope,
on TP2, TP3 and TP4. Refer to Section 5, TN Detector Assembly for the correct waveforms.

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Ion Chamber Insulator/Guide


Ion Chamber

Nylon Insulator

Nylon Guide/Insulator
A nylon guide is used in the housing assembly to properly align the Ion Chamber with the radiation
beam, and to help prevent movement. The guide also provides electrical insulation of the Ion Chambers
high voltage. The guide is pressed into a bracket in the housing of the Gauge and has an indention on
one end that will mate with a pin welded onto the center of the Ion Chamber. When servicing the
assembly, care must be taken to prevent the guide from becoming dislodged. It should fit tightly in its
holder, as any play will allow the Ion Chamber to move and cause an erratic signal output when
vibration is present. Inspect the guide for wear and damage. If it is slightly loose, a small amount of
silicon seal applied to the base of the guide may prevent movement. Greater movement will usually
require replacement of the guide. Also, inspect the Ion Chamber tip for integrity. If the tip is damaged
or has fallen off, the guide may no longer prevent movement of the can. The tip can be replaced by TN
Technologies.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

FSU Connectors
15V To High
Voltage Board

Connector J1
15V Input
& Signal Output

Connector J1 And High Voltage Connector


Because these connectors are gold-plated, they should not be cleaned with any abrasive material. Use
only approved contact cleaner and use care when plugging in the mating connector, so that the pins are
correctly aligned.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

10

Density Spikes
20.0 PPA

20.0 PPA

20.0 PPA

20.0 PPA

Density Spikes Often Caused By Loose Components


Randomly-occurring density spikes are often caused by components on the high voltage board that have
broken or are loose. This is often a result of the stressful hammering effect experienced on the
treating line and equipment. Common vibration-related failures include:
Broken legs on High Voltage Disc capacitors
Broken wires from high voltage power transformer, T1
Internal windings of T1 breaking down
Lead dust on components
Loose or corroded coax connection plug on Ion Chamber
Corrosion or moisture on the high voltage board or preamplifier board
Loose screws, especially those connecting high voltage board to the Ion Chamber
Reset Reed Switch
Another possibility of intermittent density spikes may be a weak reset reed switch on the preamplifier
board. After thousands of cycles, the tensile strength of the reed switch can weaken and, under stress
from vibration, let the contacts makewhen they shouldnt, resulting in an errant reset condition
occurring during the ramp (integration) function. This situation can generate a ramp reset, without
engaging the hold action that occurs during a normal reset condition. This results in density spikes
randomly occurring. Gently tapping on the reed switch with an insulated tool will often expose a weak
switch.
Finding The Cause
Probing around suspect components with an insulated tool will often find intermittent fault conditions
caused by loose or broken components. Problems relating to the high voltage board are best traced by
measuring the high voltage while tapping on associated components. Preamplifier board intermittent
problems are best found by exposing the gauge to low radiation or simulated signals. Then, the signal
output is monitored while tapping on suspected components.
Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

11

Uniformly Occurring Density Spikes


20.0 PPA

20.0 PPA

20.0 PPA

20.0 PPA

Uniform Density Spikes


Density spikes occurring at regular time intervals are often the result of a component failure in the reset
portion of the the preamplifier board. During ramp reset, a defective component may continuously fail
to switch the signal voltage into its holdcondition, resulting in a ramp reset being seen on the signal
output. Common causes of this type of problem include:
Multivibrator, U3
FET, Q1 or Q2
Transistor, Q6
R7 or C5
The spikes can be negative or positive, depending upon which component fails, and how it fails.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

12

Density High/Low From Calculated


8 PPA
6 PPA

2 PPA

Density High/Low From Calculated


Inaccuracies in density measurement are often attributed to the Densimeter although, in fact, other
factors may have caused the error. When the problem cannot be determined by a thorough electrical test
of the Densimeter, other steps can be taken. A good check to determine that the Densimeter is within
operating specifications is to compare past air and water voltages with present readings. This is where
good record-keeping is important, because having accurate calibration records allows the ET to track
changes in voltage readings over time. For instance, if a water voltage reading recorded six weeks ago
of 2.35VDC were compared with the current verified reading of 2.31VDC, the Densimeter is probably
accurate and working correctly.
Other Causes Of Inaccuracies
There are many factors to be considered when dealing with Densimeter accuracy problems. For
example, some specific variables, other than the gauge, which could effect sand totals are:
Inaccuracies in base fluid measurement
Failure to properly reference (zero) the gauge
Wrong setup (span, ASG, CSG, etc) or programming error
Sand spillage
Inaccurate sand weight ticket
If the signal output of a recently calibrated Densimeter is found to have changed, a through bench test
should be performed to locate and repair any weak or intermittent components. Some causes of drifting
over a short period of time may be:
Moisture entry into the Detector Assembly
Contamination of Preamplifier Board by lead dust
Loose component or component failure
Bolts loose on pipe, allowing movement of densimeter
Buildup of material in pipe

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

13

Errors in Proppant Totals

Fluid Volume
If the flow meters are not accurately measuring base fluid, proppant totals will not be correct. Therefore,
the first step that should be taken when discrepancies in proppant volume are reported should be to verify
that the flow meter pulses per barrel (ppus) are correctly set. This can be done by taking strap volume
measurements of the fluid tanks before and after the job, and comparing the results with clean flow meter
totals. If volumes dont match, the next step should be to verify that the correct ppus are programmed
into the system and that no problem exists with the flow meter itself. If no problems are found, and the
error is small, a change in ppus can be made in order to correct the problem. Increasing ppus will
increase volume and vice versa. This holds true for Mass, Magnetic, Turbine, Encoders and 60-Tooth
Gear assemblies.
Proppant Volume from Encoders
Unlike flow meters, encoders do not give a direct volumetric measurement, therefore other factors, such
as auger wear and the resulting loss of product delivery must also be considered. Because there is no
delay, the density calculated from the encoders is called instant density.
Span Number
The low-pressure densimeter on a blender is typically used as a reference for the instant density
calculated from the sand augers. This procedure verifies that the screws are delivering the correct
proppant volume. Because adjustments to the sand auger ppus are made to keep instant density in line
with the nuclear densimeter, the Operator should keep in mind that theTransmitters span number has
an inverse effect on proppant delivery. For example, increasing the span number will give a higher
nuclear density reading, therefore the auger ppus (instant density) will have to be lowered so as to bring
the density reading down.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

14

Zeroing The Preamplifier

Preamplifier Zeroing
For best accuracy, no voltage should be seen at the output of the preamplifier with no received radiation
at the Ion Chamber. A zeroing adjustment of the preamplifier board can be performed with or without
the Ion Chamber or high voltage board connected.
Background Radiation Must Be Negated
Because it is constantly exposed to natural background radiation while out of its shielded enclosure, the
preamplifier input must be disabled prior to zeroing the unit. Even if the Ion Chamber is not connected,
stray noise pickup at the input will often prevent an accurate zeroing of the board. For this reason, the
input must be shorted to the output of the ramp generator.
Zeroing Procedure
Now that the necessary precautions have been taken, the zeroing procedure for the preamplifier board
can now performed:
Place a jumper from TP6 to input resistor R13 (or the junction of R12 and R13).
Adjust R28 for 0 V volts at TP6. TN Technologies now recommends this voltage be set slightly
negative in order to ensure no reset pulse is seen at the output, TP1.
Leaving the jumper in place, adjust the NULL potentiometer, R1, for 0 V volts at TP1.
Recheck the voltage at TP6 and repeat the above procedure if necessary.
NOTE
A Zeroing procedure must be performed whenever a board or component is replaced on the Gauge.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

15

High Pressure Gauge Mounting and Handling

Proper Nuclear Densimeter Handling procedure


It is important for the Electronic Technician to emphasize to field personnel that the Nuclear Densimeter
is sensitive electronic equipment and not be handled like a piece or iron. If necessary, enlist the
support of the Service Supervisors in this effort. Nuclear Densimeters should be mounted on a Line
Truck or any other appropriate vehicle. Dont allow the Gauges to remain loose during transport. A
densimeter should have its own secured storage area on the truck such as a saddle, box, or threaded
union.
Rig Up/Rig Down Guidelines
The following guidelines should be followed when installing a Nuclear Densimeter during rig-up or rigdown:
To reduce shock during line assembly, Nuclear Densimeters and Pressure Transducers should be
the last items rigged up on line and the first to be rigged down.
Personnel handling Nuclear Densimeters must successfully complete a Certified Radiation Safety
Course or be monitored by someone who has.
The densimeter should be mounted such that vibration on the densimeter electronics is minimized.
Avoid mounting the densimeter on Chicksan Swings, and do not let the Densimeter contact the
ground. If contact with the ground is unavoidable, use shock absorbing material, such as tires or
rubber mud flaps underneath.
The densimeter should be mounted on the line so that the connector cannot come in contact with
the ground.
The power/signal cable going to the Treating Van should be routed so that it is not tripped over or
pinched.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

16

Test Sticks

Test Sticks
BJ Services has test sticks available for simulating various proppant and slurry weights. These sticks
display the approximate weight marked on the end, but are not designed to be used as a calibration tool.
They are ideal as a quick check to determine if the system is functioning, and to look for intermittent
problems. To use the sticks, calibrate the Gauge in the usual manner, ensuring it is zeroed on water.
Remove fluid from the pipe and install the acrylic test stick. Observe the marked density (nominal 1.6
PSA). Remove the acrylic stick and install the magnesium stick. Note that the density increases to the
value marked (nominal 13.2 PSA). The density reading should remain constant unless the stick is
disturbed.
The part numbers and costs are as follows:
35172-1
2 Acrylic. $106.00
35172-2
2 Aluminum.$106.00
35172-3
2 Magnesium...$150.00
34955-1
3 Acrylic..$205.00
34955-3
3 Magnesium...$298.00
39721-1
4 Acrylic..$395.00
39721-3
4 Magnesium...$420.00
TIP
When servicing a high pressure Nuclear Densimeter not having a shutter, a magnesium test stick can be
inserted in the pup joint to reduce exposure to radiation from the source.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

17

Preventive Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance Tips


The following provides the ET with a list of tips that, if followed, will reduce the chances of a job
problem caused by a Nuclear Densimeter:
Burn-in all new and repaired boards received from TN Technologies.
Inspect all cables and connectors on a quarterly basis. All older or non-standard cables should be
replaced.
Replace any damaged or missing dust caps.
Verify the Nuclear Densimeter is fitted tightly on the pipe, and that the bolts are secure and, on
units without a shutter, are welded.
Examine the pipe for internal wear
Institute a scheduled preventive maintenance program to include inspections of the system for:
Tight fit of Detector assembly
Moisture, lead dust and corrosion inspection
O-ring seal
Cable and connector condition
Install two Nuclear Densimeters on each job
Train field personnel on proper handling of the Gauge:
Store and Transport properly
First on and last off the line
Mount for minimal vibration
Keep records of inspections and voltages.
TIP
To help the Electronic Technician institute a regular Preventative Maintenance Schedule for Nuclear
Densimeters, a Nuclear Densimeter Inspection Report is given at the end of this section.

Proprietary and Confidential Property of BJ Services Company

18

Nuclear Densimeter Inspection Report


District: _______________
Source Number: ____________________

Pipe Size: _____________


Source Strength: ____________

Date of Inspection/Calibration: _____________


Date of last Inspection: _____________
Check List:
_____ Assembly securely affixed to pipe
_____ Connector clean and undamaged, cables good
_____ Shutter (if available) is undamaged and operates freely
_____ Housing undamaged, no bolts damaged, loose or missing
_____ O-ring undamaged
_____ Compression grommet undamaged
_____ Foam inserts clean and dry. There is no evidence of corrosion or moisture
_____ Nylon Insulator in the Ion Chamber is in place
_____ No corrosion is present on any circuit board
_____ All capacitors on high voltage board secure, with no broken legs
_____ Connectors clean and in place, no damage to wires (including Ion
Chamber signal cable)
_____ High voltage on Ion Chamber = 1400VDC, +/-100V
_____ High voltage remains steady while tapping on circuit boards
_____ Perform the following procedure:
1. Place a jumper between TP6 and junction R12 & R13
2. Adjust R23 for 0V at TP6 to GND
3. With jumper in place, adjust R1 for 0V at TP1 to GND
_____ Perform Water and Calcium Bromide calibration
1. Span Number =______
2. Write the Span Number on the Nuclear Densimeter
Date completed____________
Technician Signature_________________________________

Review Questions
Densimeter Gauge Maintenance, Densimeter Repair
1.

The purpose of the nylon guide in the Densimeter Housing is


_______________________________ and _________________________________.

2.

List some causes, other than the Densimeter, that could cause inaccurate sand totals

3.

A zeoring procedure should always be performed with the Ion Chamber and High
Voltage connected.
A. True
B. False
4.

Test Sticks are suitable for use in calibration of the Nuclear Densimeter.
A. True
B. False

5. A jumper is placed between R13 and TP6 in order to _____________________


_________________________________________________.

Page 1 of 1

Tables
Densimeter Repair

Sand Densities and Volumes


Proppant Name
AcFrac Black
AcFrac CR
AcFrac CR-5000
AcFrac PR
AcFrac PR-5000
AcFrac SB
Arizona Silica
Bauxite
Bauxite HC
Brady Sand
Carbo Econolite
Carbolite
Carboprop
Colorado Silica
Interprop 1
Interprop Plus
ISP-1
LWP
Ottawa Sand
Super 100
Super DC
Super HS
Super LC
Tempered DC
Tempered LC
Ultraprop Plus
Z-Prop

Specific Gravity Proppant Coefficient


2.55
.04950
2.55
.04695
2.55
.04705
2.50
.04780
2.56
.04687
2.55
.04630
2.65
.04529
3.55
.03380
3.65
.03284
2.65
.04529
2.65
.04560
2.73
.04390
3.25
.03692
2.65
.04529
3.15
.03780
3.15
.03780
3.16
.03770
2.60
.04660
2.65
.04529
2.53
.04745
2.57
.04663
2.53
.04745
2.60
.04609
2.60
.04609
2.57
.04663
3.49
.03440
3.17
.03785

Density (lbs/gal)
21.08
21.25
21.25
20.84
21.33
21.25
22.08
29.58
30.45
22.08
22.08
22.75
27.08
22.08
26.25
26.25
26.33
21.67
22.08
21.08
21.42
21.08
21.67
21.67
21.42
29.08
26.42

Sand Sizes
The sizes of the particles are often expressed as a number, which corresponds to the mesh screen size of a
sieve. The screen size indicates the number of openings in the mesh screen per inch. For example, a # 40
sieve has 40 openings per inch in the screen mesh. Particles that can sift through that mesh are said to be
"40 mesh" size.
Below is a list of mesh sizes and the size of the mesh opening in millimeters (1/1000 of a meter) or microns
(1/1,000,000) of a meter. Of coarse there is a correlation between the size of the mesh opening and the
particle size of the sifted powder. As the opening becomes smaller, so will be resulting particle size. Most
of the particles of a sifted powder will have approximately the size as the mesh opening.
Mesh Opening Size
Mesh Size Number
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
100

millimeters
2.00
0.84
0.59
0.42
0.297
0.250
0.210
0.177
0.149

microns
2000
840
590
420
297
250
210
177
149

The USP 24/NF19 uses descriptive terms to define granular fineness. The table below shows the correlation
their classification.
Description Term
Very Coarse
Coarse
Moderately Coarse
Fine
Very Fine

Mesh Opening Size


(microns)
> 1000
355 -1000
180 355
125 180
90 - 125

Mesh Size Number


2 10
20 40
40 80
80 120
120 - 200

Sieve Distribution API specifications place the following limitations on sieve distribution for proppants
suitable for use in a fracture:
at least 90% of material must fall between the two mesh sizes
no more than 10% of the material may be coarser than the largest mesh size
no more than 0.1% of the material may be coarser than the next largest mesh size (e.g. for 20/40,
up to 10% of the proppant may be between 16 and 20 mesh, but no more than 0.1% can exceed 16
mesh)
no more than 1% of material is permitted to fall onto the pan
For gravel pack media, the suggested distribution is more tightly constrained:
at least 96% of material must fall between the two mesh sizes
no more than 2% of material is permitted to be finer than the specified size
no more than 0.1% of the material may be coarser than the next largest mesh size (e.g. for 20/40
media, no more than 0.1% can exceed 16 mesh, and no more than 2 percent may pass through the
40 mesh screen, and no more than 4% can be outside the range of 20/40.)

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Appendix B
Electrical Drawings

Density System Electrical Drawings


The following drawing is from TN Technologies:
D866709 Rev B (1 sheet) - Schematic, Detector, SGO, FSU
D866709 Rev E1 (1 sheet) - Schematic, Detector, SGO, FSU
The following are drawings for the BJ Density Module:
41692 (1 sheet) Module Assy, U.C. Module II, Density
41697 (1 sheet) Wiring Diagram, Univ. Controller II/Density
41696 (1 sheet) Schematic, U.C. II Module/Density Board
41709 (1 sheet) Schematic, Density Interface U.C. II

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