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DISSERTATION

USE OF BAMBOO AS HOUSING MATERIAL AND IN MAKING VARIOUS PRODUCTS

GUIDE: Mr. DEEPENDRA PRASAD


CO-ORDINATOR: PROF. JAYA KUMAR

RAHUL CHOUDHURY
A/2247/2010

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Ill take this opportunity to thank all those who helped encouraged and taught me from time to time and without whom this project
would not have been simple to deal with.
I must thank my guide Ar. Deependra Prasad for his excellent and patient guidance.
Thanks are due to Mr. S.P. Singh ,economist , FRI -Dehradun and Ar. Priyam B. Goswami ,for providing me with deep knowledge
of the study area and relevant matter collected from them .
Ill also acknowledge Chinmay Vijay Agashe for his timely help and valuabe inputs. Finally ,thanks to my mom and dad for always
being there for me.

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Chapter 1:

Introduction

1.1

Introduction.1

1.2

Scope and limitations...2

1.3

Research methodology...3

Chapter 2: Introduction to Bamboo

2.1 Bamboo4.

2.2 History of bamboo construction5

2.3 Geographical distribution of bamboos.6

2.4 Advantages of bamboo.8

2.5 Structural Characteristics of bamboo..9

2.6 Disadvantages of bamboo....9

2.7 Sustainability and carbon fixation..10

2.8 Bamboo and preservation and treatment methods.12

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Chapter 3:Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections

3.1 Aspects of bamboo connections....15.

3.2 Details for seismic resistance....16

3.3 Modern bamboo connections.19

Chapter 4:Markets for Bamboo

4.1 Main markets by Region.....20

4.2 Main Markets by products...21

4.3 Future market potential21

Chapter 5:Modern bamboo architecture


In this topic case studies of various bamboo structures are done . The following case studies will become the base of
the research.

5.1 Wind and water bar by VO TRONG NGHIA23

5.2 Venkateshpuram, kadugondanahalli, Bangalore, India Manasaram architects24

5.3 A forest for a moon dazzler. .26


5.4 Childrens activity & learning centre Six senses Soneva Kiri resort Koh Kood, Thailand.28

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Chapter 6: Famous bamboo architects and their work

6.1 Simon Velez.. .32

6.2 Timothy Ivory......33

6.3 Michael McDonough..34

6.4 Oscar Hidalgo.35

6.5 Jules Janssen.35

6.6 Renzo piano35

Chapter 7:Bamboo product statistics


In this modern day bamboo products which are used in building construction are discussed.

7.1

Bamboo Products

7.1.1 Bamboo flooring .37

7.1.2 Bamboo mat corrugated roofing sheet....39

7.1.3 Bamboo mat board 41

7.1.4 Crushed bamboo board43

7.2

Present status of bamboo based composites and their utilization in India

7.2.1 National Mission on Bamboo Applications46

7.2.2 Cost effective bamboo-based building system IPIRTI Bangalore..47

7.2.3 Initiatives in north eastern region.54

7.2.4 Bamboo markets in NCR region 55


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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

CHAPTER 8:Interview
8.1 Dr.D.N.Tiwari ,Member, Planning Commission ,Government of India...56
8.2 S.P. SINGH , Economist, Fri-Dehradun....56
8.3 Priyam B Goswami Architect ...57
8.4 Ms.Manju Arya ,National Mission On Bamboo Applications (NMBA)....57

CHAPTER 9:Conclusions
9.1 Answer to the research question.....58

Bibliography:..59

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.1:Guadua Angustifolia..4
fig.2,3:Cell Section.4
Fig.4: Geographical Distribution Of Bamboos6
Fig.5: Comparison of Energy Requirement Of Construction Materials.10
Fig.6: Teak Plantation11
Fig.7: Guadua Bamboo Plantation..11
Fig.8,9: non chemical treatment..13
Fig.10,11: Chemical treatment.14
Fig.12: bending and impact fractures....15
Fig.13: Traditional least-tech connection16
Fig.14: A modern steel connection by Shoei Yoh.16

Fig.15,16,17,18,19:: Details For Seismic Resistance.16,17,18


Fig.20,21: modern Connections ....19
Fig.22,23,24,25: view of Wind And Water Bar By Vo Trong Nghia..23
Fig.26,27,28,29,30,31,32 view of Venkateshpuram, Kadugondanahalli, Bangalore, India ..24,25
Fig.33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42: view of A Forest For A Moon Dazzler.26,27
Fig. 43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55 view of Childrens activity & learning centre
Six senses Soneva Kiri resort Koh Kood, Thailand.28,29,30
Fig.56: Tower in the Parque de la Cafetera in Montenegro/Colombia. Vlez/Villegas (1993)..32
Fig.57: sketch for a tower.32
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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Fig.58: 2000-square-meter bamboo pavilion for ZERI Foundation ..32


Fig.59: This interior view of the bridge ..33
Fig.60: bamboo structures made by Timothy Ivory..33
Fig.61: Laminated bamboo furniture...34

Fig.62: Isometric view of bamboo bridge34


Fig.63: Bamboo bridge detail..34
Fig.64: model house by Jules Janssen in Costa Rica.35
Fig.65: joint by Renzo Piano35
Fig.66: Tjibaou Cultural Center ..35
Fig.67: Bamboo flooring...37
Fig.68: Bamboo mat corrugated roofing sheet.38
Fig.69: BMCS at TERRACE CAF DFID ,NEW DELHI October, 2000..38
Fig.70:Corrugated Roofing Sheet of different Materials.39
Fig.71:Bamboo mat board..40
Fig.72,73,74,75 :bamboo mat board applications41
Fig. 76,77,78,79,80,81 :application of crushed bamboo board42,43
Fig.82: Bamboo Warehouse at Delhi..45
Fig.83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98 Bamboo Building System...47,48,49,50,51
Fig.99,100,101,102 :Bamboo Houses constructed at IPIRTI campus.52
:Fig.103: Bamboo Mat Production Centre's in North-eastern region53

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

LIST OF TABLES
Table1: Bamboo Resources in Asia..7
Table2: Bamboo Resources in Latin America....7
Table3: Bamboo Resources in Africa....7
Table4: The table shows a breakdown of the top exporters in 2005.20
Table5:comparision of bending strength.40

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Bamboo is a material of large potential which can be used to a great extent. It is an easily renewable, inexpensive, sustainable
resource as well as it is found in most of the parts of the world. And also due to its high flexibility, earthquake proof structures can be
made.
Bamboo is a unique building material. It is strong in both rigidity and density. While tensile strength remains the same throughout the
age of the bamboo plant, the plant fiber strength increases as it gets older.so it is a good building material and it can be used to make
large span structures.
Once thought of as the building material of the poor, bamboo is now being used more prominently in all types of architecture. From
dwelling houses to business buildings, there are many places where houses are being built with bamboo as a main material or at least
as an accenting material. Bamboo is being used to manufacture various products such as bamboo boards, furniture, and musical
instruments etc.
Bamboos rapid growth, easy harvesting, local availability, low costs, and good mechanical qualities make it a material with huge
potential for poverty alleviation and livelihood development in developing countries, as well as a promising substitute for wood
(products).

Can bamboo be used as a building material in contemporary urban context keeping in mind its current availability, product
development, technology, advantage, disadvantage and sustainability reference?

Introduction

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

1.2 SCOPE AND LIMITATION


SCOPE

The study will comprises of modern day bamboo products which are used in building construction. What are they? Present availability
of the products in the market and their costing per unit?

Market survey will be limited to NCR region only.

The study will be on various contemporary structures/buildings which are made from bamboo.

Study will cover mainly the bamboo growing areas.

The study will not be looking at traditional bamboo houses and traditional bamboo products.

LIMITATIONS

If there is something related to bamboo in NCR region , author will be doing primary case study and if it is outside NCR region, author
will be doing secondary case study.

Information on international bamboo trade is limited due to a lack of customs codes and information on national markets is often
incomplete (van der Lugt & Lobovikov, 2008).

Most of the economic activities related to bamboo are not recorded officially as it is often traded within a country and within the
informal economy (FAO, 2005).

Introduction

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction
Bamboo and bamboo
architecture

History of bamboo architecture


Geographical distribution

Characteristics of bamboo

DATA COLLECTION
Advantages and
Disadvantages

Structural
Environmental

CASE STUDIES
INFERENCES
FROM THE CASE
STUDIES

Famous bamboo architects and


their work
Contemporary
bamboo architecture

MEETING WITH
BAMBOO
SPECIALISTS IN
NCR REGION
FUTURE
TRENDS AND
POSSIBILITIES
IN BAMBOO
CONCLUSIONS

Introduction

Bamboo structures
Contemporary bamboo
construction technologies

Different products and their


relative quality
Bamboo products

present
status
of
bamboo
based
composites and their
utilization in India

Countries extensively using


bamboo products, why and
how??

Initiatives in north eastern


region
Bamboo markets in NCR
region
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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.1 BAMBOO

Cell Section

Giant grass: Bamboo is a non timber

divided in nodes and segments

evergreen plant. Bamboo grows fast and

strengthened by diaphragms at
the nodes

has a high regenerating rate. Once


planted, bamboo has new shoots every

year. Usually bamboo can be harvested

for culms purpose in the third and


following years. Bamboo is widest at

Fig.1:Guadua
Angustifolia

ground level, but is quite consistent in


diameter throughout its length.

all fibers orientated lengthwise:


softer at the inside
harder at the
outside

light

Tensile strength nearly as high


as steel!

Using Bamboo

The outside portion of the culm wall is

Bamboo is useful for different things at different ages:

dense, containing about 5% silica. It

<30 days it is good for eating

has an exterior waterproof film which

6-9 months for baskets

occurs on the softer interior portion as

2-3 years for bamboo boards or laminations

well. Bamboo is particularly strong at

3-6 years for construction

the node, where there is an inner disc

>6 years bamboo gradually loses strength up to 12 years old

called the septum which connects the

Bamboo for construction is best cut right after new shoots have

outside walls, strengthening the stalk

started to grow, as the plant will have given all its starch to the new

and separating in into compartments.

culm.

Introduction to Bamboo

fig.2:Cell Section

fig.3:Cell Section

Institute for Structural Design RWTH Aachen University

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.2 HISTORY OF BAMBOO CONSTRUCTION


Bamboo and culture
Bamboo is an important resource, which was discovered, adopted and developed by humans in ancient times. The first scripts were
written in China on strips of bamboo more than 6 000 years ago, during the Neolithic period. Bamboo pens, brushes and musical
instruments were invented 3 000 years ago. The first paper was produced from bamboo in China in the ninth century. Bamboo culture

is an essential part of human history and civilization, especially in Asia.


Bamboo also has a long history of use in buildings, being common to the vernacular architecture of china, southeast Asia and central
and south America. The Chinese could span up to ten meters with their corbelling technology, and bamboo has been used
extensively all over Indonesia, especially in the Celebes islands. in Hong Kong, all scaffolding for highways construction is built of
bamboo, and tied with bamboo strips only 1 mm thick. Although they have a great history of building with bamboo, today the
Japanese use it only for their traditional tea houses.
In the past, bamboo was not known as a premium building material. In most cultures that used it, from China to India, the poorest
people were the ones who used bamboo as building material for their homes.

Introduction to Bamboo

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.3 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BAMBOOS:


Bamboos occur as more or less prominent elements in the natural vegetation of many
parts of the tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate and few are even in sub-arctic
regions of the world from sea level to altitudes of more than 13,000 feet, wherever a
suitable combination of ecological factors prevails. (F.a. mc clure, 1953)
WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF BAMBOO

Fig.4: Geographical Distribution Of


Bamboos

From a global perspective, based on the geographical distribution of bamboo, three regions are divided - Asia-pacific bamboo area,
American bamboo area and the African bamboo area.
(A) ASIA-PACIFIC BAMBOO
This area is the world's largest bamboo area, south to south latitude 42 s, north to latitude 51 n, east to the pacific islands, west of
the southwest Indian ocean, the distribution of bamboo about 50 genera and 900 species, both bamboo species and bamboo forest
area accounts is about 80% of the world's. The south-east of this area is the world's bamboo center of origin, but also one of its
modern distribution center.
(B) AMERICAN BAMBOO
South to south latitude 47 s in southern Argentina, north to latitude 40 n the eastern united states, there are about 18 genera and

270 kinds.
(C) AFRICAN BAMBOO
This area has small bamboo range, south to south latitude 22 s in southern Mozambique, north to latitude 16 n in eastern Sudan,
a total of about 13 genera and more than 40 kinds . The east coast of Madagascar, which is the center of Africa bamboo distribution
from northwest to southeast across the tropical rainforests of Africa and the plagioclase zone of evergreen and deciduous forest.
Introduction to Bamboo

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Bamboo Resources Worldwide


Most bamboo harvested for commercial use is from naturally growing, wild stands, although more attention has been given in recent
years to the establishment of planted bamboo (FAO, 2005). Although bamboo species differ in wood characteristics, they do not differ
as much as different species of trees in this regard (Hunter, 2003).

Asia
Table 1: Source: FAO (2005)
Country

Area of Bamboo
(1,000ha)

India

11,361

China

5,444

Indonesia

2,081

Laos

1,612

Myanmar

859

Vietnam

813

Malaysia

677

Other

340

Thailand

261

Philippines

172

Total Asia

23,620

India accounts for roughly half the total area of


bamboo reported for Asia and, together with
China, approximately 70 percent. Over the last
15 years, the bamboo area in Asia has
increased by 10 percent, primarily due to
large-scale planting of bamboo in China and,
to a lesser extent, in India. (FAO, 2005).
Introduction to Bamboo

Africa

Latin America

Table3: Source: FAO (2005)

Table2: Source: FAO (2005).


Country

Area of Bamboo
(1,000ha)

Brazil

9,300

Chile

900

Peru

190

Ecuador

Total Latin America

10,399

Bamboo resources in Latin


America mainly consist of native
G. angustifolia species. One
source identifies Mexico and
Colombia as the main exporters
of bamboo products in Latin
America (Parker, 2005). Colombia
certainly appears to be one of the
most developed producers of
bamboo,
in
particular
G.
angustifolia, in Latin America.
(FAO, 2005).

Country

Area of Bamboo
(1,000ha)

Nigeria

1,590

Ethiopia

849

Tanzania

128

Kenya

124

Uganda

67

Total Africa

2,758

The total area of bamboo


reported by the five African
countries makes up over 2.7
million hectares. This equals 4.1
percent of their total forest area.
Bamboo
has
not
been
commercialized
in
Africa,
although INBAR and other
organizations have done research
on the bamboo production in East
Africa
and
implemented
community based initiatives to
start building a market.
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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.4 ADVANTAGES
Bamboo grows fast and has a high regenerating rate. Once planted, bamboo has new shoots every year. Usually bamboo can be
harvested for culms purpose in the third and following years.
Moreover, bamboo as a plant, is because of its rapid growth and extensive root network, a very good carbon fixator, erosion
controller and water table preserver. Therefore bamboo is an ideal reforesting crop.
Helps mitigate water pollution due to its high nitrogen consumption

It also makes for excellent support because of its inherent stiffness owing to the natural subdivisions.

Bamboo has a slick waterproof coating, it cannot be painted. However, this coating allows bamboo to be used as water pipes.

Bamboo a potential environmental friendly material for housing and construction


High tensile strength compared to that of mild steel
High strength to weight ratio and high specific load bearing capacity
Requires less energy for production
Service life of bamboo can be enhanced by suitable preservative treatment.
Can be converted into panel and composite material possessing enhanced strength properties suitable for structural applications.
Bamboo also possesses high residual strength to absorb shocks and impacts -highly suitable material for construction of houses to
resist seismic and high wind forces.
Bamboo is very efficient in sequestering carbon and contributes to the reduction of green house effect.

Introduction to Bamboo

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.5 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BAMBOO


Bamboo is unique in that it is strong in both tension and compression. While tensile strength remains the same throughout the age
of the bamboo plant, compressive strength increases as it gets older .
The tensile strength of bamboo fibers can be up to 12 kg/cm. almost twice that of steel. The weight to strength ratio of bamboo is
far better that most modern material. It also makes for excellent support because o its inherent stiffness owing to the natural
subdivisions. The engineering qualities of bamboo and its intrinsic structure anticipate the principles of many high-tech materialsmaking it an excellent value for money, with its attractive appearance an added bonus.
As bamboo is extremely flexible from 6-12 months of age, it can be used to create a number of curving forms. In India, curving
roofs called chocals were developed, and bamboo domes have been built in new guinea.
Bamboo is a unique building material in that it is strong in both rigidity and density.

2.6 DISADVANTAGES
Though it is a natural product, the presence of large amount of hemi cellulose, starch and abundance of moisture makes it highly
susceptible to biodegrading agent like white-rot, soft-rot, brown rot, group of decay fungi and stain fungi and insects like borers

and termites.
One factor is that bamboo grown on slopes is stronger than bamboo grown in valleys, and that bamboos that grow in poor dry soils
are usually more solid than those grown in rich soils. Bamboo also shrinks diametrically, and that should be taken into
consideration.
In addition, because bamboo has a slick waterproof coating, it cannot be painted very easily.
Introduction to Bamboo

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.7 SUSTAINABILITY AND CARBON FIXATION


Generally speaking, bamboo produces 35% more oxygen than conventional tree species.
Bamboo has several advantages over tree species in terms of sustainability and carbon fixing capacity. Available studies conclude
that bamboo biomass and carbon production may be 7-30% higher compared to the fast growing wood species. For instance
Guadua bamboo has been measured at a total above ground biomass 287 t/ha with a mean annual production of around 47.8
t/ha/year, almost twice that of the Eucalyptus clones. Interestingly, the total biomass of mature Guadua at 6 years is in fact higher
than that of teak at 40 years: 149 t C/ha versus only 126 t C/ha for teak. In other word Guadua produces 7 times more biomass and
carbon fixation over a period of 40 years, compared to teak under the same conditions.

Besides higher biomass, bamboo has other advantages over wood as a carbon stock. Unlike woody crops bamboo offers the
possibility of annual selective harvesting and removal of about 15-20% of the total stock without damaging the environment and stock
productivity. Over 90% of bamboo carbon can be sequestered in durable products such as boards, panels, floors, furniture, buildings,
cloth, paper and activated charcoal. These products have a very long life span and may retain carbon for several decades.

ENERGY REQUIREMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


Energy Consumption in Different
materials during Fabrication in
MJ/M3 per N/MM2
Source: Prof.J.A.Janssen, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands

Fig.5: Comparison of Energy Requirement Of


Construction Materials
Introduction to Bamboo

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

COMPETITION WITH TIMBER


Bamboo products are particularly hard and durable, which is why bamboo represents a good substitute for
hardwood products (Hunter, 2003). Traditional sources of timber are a significant contributor to global
greenhouse gas emissions, while sustainable plantations of bamboo can be managed to reduce
significant quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and therefore contribute to the fight against
global climate change.
Due to new developments in the industrial bamboo sector, virtually any wood product can be produced
from bamboo. Given the stable global demand for wood combined with increasing interest in sustainably

Fig.6: Teak Plantation

produced timber, the market for industrial bamboo products is expected to grow. .Industrial bamboo can
target high-volume markets, such as the construction industry, where bamboo might be able to substitute

hardwoods. (van der Lugt & Lobovikov, 2008).


Studies have shown that giant or timber bamboo species, such as G. angustifolia, are able to produce
more cubic metres of semi-finished material per hectare than any plantation grown hardwoods and most
softwoods. Only the fastest growing softwood species such as Eucalyptus and Pine achieve similar
productivity, but these species have less aesthetic qualities (van der Lugt, 2008).

Fig.7: Guadua Bamboo


Plantation

Introduction to Bamboo

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2.8 BAMBOO PRESERVATION AND TREATMENT METHODS

In rural areas people are using bamboo without treatment. So it doesn't long last and this has created a myth in the minds of the
people that bamboo is not a durable construction material. But with a simple treatment on bamboo the strength and duration of

bamboo could be as long as 25 -30 years. For longer lasting structures it is important to treat bamboo against rot and insects.
Bamboo preservation methods can be divided into non-chemical (traditional) and chemical methods. The selection of the
appropriate treatment method depends on various factors:
State of bamboo; green or dry.
Form of the bamboo: round bamboo or splits.

End applications; in ground contact, exposed to atmosphere, undercover, structural/non-structural.


Scale; quantity to be treated and available time.
Potential causes of decay; biotic (fungus/insects) and abiotic (cracks/weathering).

SOURCE Institute for Structural Design RWTH Aachen University


Website: www.habitat.org/ap
http://www.guaduabamboo.com/bamboo-preservation.html

Introduction to Bamboo

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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

1)

Non-Chemical, Traditional Bamboo Treatment Methods: These are ancient methods which have been practiced in
areas where bamboo commonly grows. They are simple and cost-effective without the use of chemicals or supporting
equipment. However, these methods are in general not appropriate for long-term protection of bamboo.

Traditionally the following treatment methods are adopted :


a) LEACHING ( Water immersion treatment )
b) Smoking
c) Using diesel (Source: National Building Code-1994)

A) WATER IMMERSION

B) SMOKING:

TREATMENT:

This

Normal practice followed in

effective .In this, bamboo are kept

many bamboo producing areas

in a temporary smoking chamber

is to immerse freshly cut

to

bamboos in running water for

smoking until they have a slightly

about three to six weeks and

dark color on its surface.

method

destroy

is

starch

simple

by

and

allowing

keep it them for at least one


week. By this treatment starch
from bamboo is leached out
making the culms immune to
insect attack.
Introduction to Bamboo

C) USING DIESEL:
Fig.8:
For
round
bamboo , nodes should
be
punctured
if
possible
before
leaching

Dry bamboos, both whole and split

Fig.9: Natural
treatment by smoke

could be treated with light diesel oil


by dipping in to.
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Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2. CHEMICAL TREATMENT:
Several permanent treatment method are available to protect bamboos and from insect attack and fungal attack. These methods are
both preventive and remedial. For such kind of treatment many kind of chemicals are in use like creosote oil, Borax and Boric Acid.

a)

INTERNODES INJECTION :

b) DIFFUSION PROCESS:

Internodes injection for whole bamboo (poles

In diffusion process freshly felled culms or bamboos having moisture content

and columns) 20-25ml Creosote oil poured

of above 50% are kept submerged in preservative solutions for 1-2 days

through 6mm hole in each inter node, the hole is

followed by stacking under shade for 10 15 days. Split bamboos are also

closed with wax or putty. It is rolled once in two

could be treated in this way and this way this treatment is more effective in

days for a week before it is put to use. The oil

split bamboos and slivers. By puncturing or drilling holes near the internodes

gets absorbed through the inner walls through

before submerging them in preservative solution, treatments could be carried

the cross structural area, this treatment is used

out for whole bamboos.

for dry bamboo.

The hole thus made can plugged with


putty after taking the bamboos from
the treating solution before they are
stacked. Preservatives which could
be included Boron, compounds,
Copper chrome Arsenic (CCA),
Copper chrome Boric (CCB), Acid

copper chrome (ACC).

Fig.10: Chemical treatment- Injecting


Introduction to Bamboo

Fig.11: preparing preservative


solutions to treat dry bamboo culms
14

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

3 Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections


3.1 Aspects of bamboo connections
The connections are the difficult structures in bamboo
constructions. Here are a few reasons:

Bamboo has got a round profile. Creating connections with round profiles are leading to difficult
geometric structures at the knot.

Bamboo fibres only grow in the longitudinal direction.

Bamboo is hollow. There is no material to tighten the bamboo in the middle of the cane.

The face of the cane is very slippery and hard.

Bamboo is not suitable for loads in cross direction, because there are no cross fibers.

Bamboo is a natural material, that varies in diameters, length and quality according to the

climate.

Fig.12: bending and


impact fractures

Different criteria's for selecting a bamboo pole:

Do not use bamboo when it is less then 3 years of age. Only use mature bamboo of 4-6 years.

Do not use bamboo infected by insects (powder beetle for example). Bamboo has to be properly cured with a boron mix immediately
after harvesting.

Do not use bamboo that has flourished. Rest assured bamboo only flourishes once in a lifetime (80-100 years).

Do not use bamboo poles with profound vertical cracks.

Use appropriate cuts and joints when building with bamboo.

Use bamboo with the right diameter and wall thickness for your project.
Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections

15

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

LEAST-TECH VERSUS HIGH-TECH


There seem to be two parties in modern bamboo
architecture:

those who use bamboo as an alternative material


connected with industrial standard elements like

steel plates, nuts and bolts .

and those who try to find a modern least-tech


connection which can be produced very cheap
and assembled by unskilled workers.

Fig.13: Traditional least-tech


connection

Fig.14: A modern steel connection by


Shoei Yoh

Note: This paper is especially about connecting full bamboo canes. If you use
splitted bamboo, there are of course far more possibilities.

3.2 DETAILS FOR SEISMIC RESISTANCE


(SOURCE: Habitat for Humanity International)

1) In bamboo house the columns are constructed from


whole bamboo poles. The poles are fixed at the level of
foundations/plinth. For this purpose the end 500 mm of
the pole is injected with cement based mortar and

reinforced with a steel bar. The bamboo should be


reinforced in this way before mounting them in the
Fig.15: Detail 1 For Seismic Resistance

foundations.
Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections

16

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

2) All bamboo columns are connected at the top to


a timber or bamboo with some steel plate. This
beam has a rectangular cross section for timber and
hooking

arrangement

of

reinforcement

from

bamboo. The bamboo pole column is connected to


this beam through an anchor bolt. The anchor bolt is

embedded in the pole where cement based mortar


Fig.16: Detail 2 For Seismic Resistance

is injected.

3) The main roof support structure consists of


bamboo trusses. The load from the bamboo truss is
transmitted to the bamboo columns through the top
ring beam. The roof trusses are connected to the
top ring beam by steel clamps
1)Bamboo pole column diameter min 100 mm
2)Anchor bolt concreted inside the bamboo pole column min
12 mm
3)Top ring timber beam 140x170 mm
4)Truss rafter made from bamboo poles diameter 100 mm
5)Bamboo mat board gusset plates thickness 14 mm with
openings
Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections

Fig.17: Detail 3 For Seismic Resistance


6)L-clamps of size 150x150 mm of width 40 mm and
thickness of 6 mm
7)Mild steel through bolts 8 mm of length min 160 mm
8)Mild steel bolts 8 mm of length min 160 mm for fixing to ring
beam
17

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

4) The connection detail between the top ring beam and

5) Bamboo mat corrugated sheets (BMCS) are used for roof

bamboo columns

cladding. The sheets are anchored to purlins by means of J bolts

Fig.19: Detail 5 For Seismic Resistance


Fig.18: Detail 4 For Seismic Resistance

Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections

18

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

3.3 MODERN BAMBOO CONNECTION


MODERN CONNECTION
BY SHOEI YOH IN 1989.

MODERN CONNECTION BY
RENZO PIANO ,BUILDING
WORKSHOP IN 1997.

For his bamboo roofs in Fukuoka, Shoei Yoh used a steel tube
put into the bamboo and which is connected to the cane with

The canes are connected to a special designed steel

bolts. The steel tube is strong enough to withstand the pressure

element via binding wire. Instead of a bolt driven

of the tightened bolts. In addition there are two bolts in vertical

through bar and cane, a wire is tied through the holes

direction. For the connection to the knot a steel bar is welded into

and tied around the bamboo. A fine artwork but because

the tube and again it is screwed to the knot. Because of the

of the fine wire seemingly only for

numerous bolts the connection is also suitable for greater loads.

small forces.

The result is a very technical but strangely over styled looking


connection.

Fig.20:
Connection
with steel
tube and bolts

Construction with Bamboo - Bamboo Connections

Fig.21:
Connection
with steel
wire

19

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

4 MARKETS FOR BAMBOO


Since the early 1990s new industrially manufactured bamboo products entered world markets, mainly supplied from India and China,
and have seen moderated but steady growth. Given the attractive prices obtained, more countries are planning to develop bamboo
industries to produce bamboo for panels, paper, fabrics, charcoal and shoots. Most of the bamboo traded internationally is exported by
China (Hunter, 2003; Parker, 2005; van der Lugt, 2005). Figures quoted range from 75% to 95% of total bamboo world trade.

The main importers of Chinese bamboo products are the USA (32%), Japan
(22.5%), Hong Kong (15.1%) and European countries (Xuhe, 2003).
Latin America currently represents an insignificant part of world bamboo
trade, although represents excellent opportunities for growth due to its
proximity to the United States.

Region of Origin

Value (USD 000)

% of World

Asia

53,707

95.27

China

42,477

83.16

Europe

2,485

4.41

Latin America

182

0.32

Table4: The table shows a breakdown of the top exporters

4.1 MAIN MARKETS BY REGION

in 2005: Source: Parker (2005

Most sources agree that the US and Europe are the main markets for bamboo products, taking around 80% of world trade
(Hunter, 2003; van der Lugt & Lobovikov, 2008).
The US is the largest Western consumer of bamboo products with annual imports of USD 300 million, almost entirely from
China. Between 2000 and 2003, imports to the US grew by 98% in volume and 127% in value (van der Lugt & Lobovikov,
2008). Most of the bamboo comes in the form of flooring (4.2 million sqm) and baskets. The market for bamboo poles in the
US is estimated at USD 15 million (with 90% coming from China).
In the EU, consumption of bamboo flooring has increased from 0.67 million sqm in 2003 to 0.9 million sqm in 2005 and is
expected to continue growing.

Markets for bamboo

20

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

4.2 MAIN MARKETS BY PRODUCT

Bamboo flooring is considered to have the highest potential, with major retail chains like IKEA and Home Depot increasingly
interested in this product. The demand for bamboo veneer is also expected to grow (van der Lugt & Lobovikov, 2008).
The demand for bamboo poles and culm based products is expected to be higher in the US than in the EU (van der Lugt &
Lobovikov, 2008).

4.3 FUTURE MARKET POTENTIAL

With the growth of demand for environmentally friendly green products, the world bamboo market is expected to double by 2015
(from USD 10 billion to USD 20 billion) (Xuhe, 2003).

Bamboo is generally perceived as a green commodity, but the fact that China is the main producer is damaging its reputation from a
sustainability perspective. The opportunity for forest managers and producers growing certified bamboo (e.g. under the Forest
Stewardship Council, (FSC) for sustainable forest management) is significant. An advantage for Latin American producers is that G.
angustifolia is well known as one of the strongest bamboos in the world and that they may be able to use their role as an alternative
supplier to China as a point of differentiation (van der Lugt, 2006).

Markets for bamboo

21

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

5 MODERN BAMBOO ARCHITECTURE

Because of the global demand for non-polluting, sustainable, and earthquake resistant building materials,
the interest in bamboo construction among western innovative architects is now growing rapidly. Bamboo not only
offers optimal solutions for communities with smaller resources, it is also a popular resource and study subject for
professionals and institutions of a high economic level which translated itself in high scale residential houses,
schools, offices, hotels, etc.

This collection of buildings showcases the natural aesthetic beauty of bamboo architecture. But bamboo, to
architects and designers, is much more than just a material with which to decorate and embellish. This ecofriendly material has the same technical performance as most timber, concrete, and steel constructions -- but with
a much smaller carbon footprint.
http://www.dezeen.com/architecture/public-and-leisure/

Modern Bamboo Architecture

22

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

5.1 WIND AND WATER BAR BY VO TRONG NGHIA


Vietnamese architects Vo Trong Nghia have constructed a thatched bamboo
dome at the centre of a lake in Binh Duong Province
Stepping stones lead across the water and inside the Wind and Water Bar,
which is used as a venue for music performances, local meetings and other
events.
On the top of the roof there is a hole
with a diameter of 1.5m for the
evacuation of hot air from the
inside.
Fig.23: interior view

Fig.22: construction phot


ograph is by Phan Quang
A structural bamboo arch system
was designed for this dome; 10m
high and spanning 15m across. The
main frame is made by 48
prefabricated units, each of them is
made of several bamboo elements
bound together. The building uses
natural wind energy and the cool
water from the lake to create natural
air-ventilation.

As a new architectural element, the style


of the two buildings of wNw becomes the
focus of the landscape and work in
harmony with the surrounding residential
area. Although the function of the
buildings is a bar, it has its own
uniqueness and has become a landmark of
urban landscape. It represents not only
modernism but also traditions. The
building gives a luxurious feeling but at the
same time remains gentle in its
atmosphere. The bar is now also used for
town meetings and other social activities.
The two buildings originated from nature.
They now merge in harmony with nature.
With time they will return to nature.

Fig.24: exterior view


Above: photograph is by Phan Quang

Fig.25: Structural detail


Modern Bamboo Architecture

23

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

5.2 VENKATESHPURAM,
KADUGONDANAHALLI, BANGALORE, INDIA
,MANASARAM ARCHITECTS
A Zero Energy Development with a closed loop for the Building Materials, Processes and
Technologies. The STRUCTURE of the building is its most unique feature. It is based on the
structure of the fishermans net, a structure in Synergy, where total load is distributed to the

Fig.26 exterior view

system ,i.e. To all the Bamboo elements. THESE STRUCTURES ARE HIGHLY EFFICIENT
WITH MINIMAL ENERGY & MATERIAL USAGE.
The reason for their efficiency is homogeneous load distribution , which efficiently leads to
global synchronization. Interestingly, the tensile strength of spider silk is greater than the
same weight of steel and has much greater elasticity, just like bamboo. model of
SYNERGETIC AND TENSIGRITY structures It has been designed as a hybrid of the two
systems and was physically tested before concreting the roof. These types of structures are

Fig.27 exterior view

being made across the world with modern materials with high energy balance. Bamboo is
the only Natural building material with lowest energy balance that can be used for these
structures.
The columns in bamboo symphony though look haphazardly placed have definite position,
size and inclinations, i.e. are structurally relevant, just like the highly evolved technological

logic we find in nature!!! the roof was allowed to define its own shape as per the flow of the
forces -- naturally, like a fabric assuming it's shape. these structures are highly efficient with
minimal energy & material usage.
Modern Bamboo Architecture

Fig.28 interior view


Photo Courtesy of Manasaram Architects

24

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Fig.30: Partitions with


cut bamboo rings and
strips
Fig.29: Roof pattern showing
bamboo beams

structure design--drawing Courtesy


of Manasaram Architects

Fig.31: Earth excavated from the


RWH pond is used for mud
plastering of the bamboo Crete
walls in reception.

crafted interiorsdrawing Courtesy


of Manasaram
Architects

Fig.32:
sectional
elevation
sectional
elevations-drawing
Courtesy
of Manasara
m Architects

Modern Bamboo Architecture

25

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

5.3 A FOREST FOR A MOON DAZZLER


(Source: DESIGNBOOM.com)

'A FOREST FOR A MOON DAZZLER' by UK-based architect benjamin garcia saxe has won first prize
in the private house category at this year's world architecture festival held in Barcelona.
The small bamboo structure in costa Rica was designed for the architect's mother to provide
a simple dwelling with a view of the moon. At night, the cone-like surface of the bamboo
house opens up to allow the inhabitant to look up to the sky.
Fig.36: 3d -view

Fig.33: view from the bedroom

Fig.34: l(inside terrace)


r(detail of bamboo and burlap)

Fig.35: Detail of bamboo pieces

With a poured-concrete base, steel structure, and more


than four thousand pieces of burlap-covered bamboo,
Saxe constructed the two-room home for forty thousand
dollars. The living and bedroom spaces are on either end
of the house, connected by an internal courtyard/patio.
The latter space can be completely opened to the
outdoors with shutter doors. There, hammocks hanging
from the side walls structural beams complete a feeling of
serenity and relaxation. The structures openness brings
the forest inside, according to the architect.

Fig.37: roof structure

Fig.38: main entrance


Modern Bamboo Architecture

26

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

The simple layout features a bedroom on one end, a kitchen on the


other and an internal courtyard/garden in between with a bordering
wooden deck. constructed out of over 4000 pieces of bamboo, the
house is largely open to the air with the option of complete exposure
with shutter doors.
The architect addressed the practical and emotional needs of his
mother's security by creating a home for her to occupy alone, while
also satisfying his inventive curiosity with a new form
of bamboo moucharabieh screen that responds to movement and light.
Fig.41: ventilation
and movement
diagram (section
view)
Fig.39:
exploded axo

Fig.40: sightlines and


circulations diagram

Modern Bamboo Architecture

Fig.42: ventilation
and movement
diagram (plan
view)

27

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

5.4 Childrens activity & learning


centre
Six senses Soneva Kiri resort Koh Kood,
Thailand
Inspired by Nature
Working with ingredients from nature, the theme of Art

Project data
Architect: 24H-architecture
Program: Auditorium/Cinema, Library, Art room,
Music room, Fashion room, Chill balcony and slide
Bamboo consultant: Jorg Stamm , Colombia
Local architect: Habita architects, Thailand

deco has been developed as one of the main design

philosophies of the office.


With this the ambition is to support the environment as
well as to
create beauty: this makes the art of ecology.
Others themes developed over the years within the
office that form a base for inspiration are:
Evolution: adaptable structures in time providing multi
Fig.43: Concept

program use in a single space.


Natrufled : Abstract interpretation of nature petrifled
into building materials.
Organism:

Growing additions

transform

existing

buildings into new compositions.


Sensibility: to arouse the senses, a building should
age beautifully by using materials with a natural ability
to transform during its lifetime.
Modern Bamboo Architecture

Fig.44music room with sheet music


wrapping the outer structure over the
bamboo reed frame

Fig.45: interior is an open plan


under an umbrella-like canopy

28

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Bamboo
The aim of the project is to chance the bad reputation of bamboo and inspire people and architects by showing that it is an amazingly
beautiful material which is also suited for making modern architecture.
The main structure has been made using Pai Tong bamboo (Dendracolamus asper) in lengths up to 9m and a diametre of 10-13 cm
.the secondary roof and belly structure is made from pai Liang bamboo (Bambusa multiplex) in 4m lengths and a diametre around 5
cm. Both types of bamboo come from plantations in the neighboring Thai province of Prachinburi.

Construction
For making the curved beams, the individual bamboos have been heated 1 hour in a specially
developed steam oven, after which they were assembled in an adjustable formwork with a
coordinate system, forming each of the more than 70 individually curved beams. The structure
uses a mix of modern and traditional joining techniques. Due to the heavy loads in the 12 m
high and 28 m wide.
structure, bolted joints were used for the main structure. At these joints, the bamboo has been
filled with a cement injection to prevent the bamboo from splitting. For the secondary roof- and
belly-structure, bamboo dowels were mainly used in combination with rattan which was winded
around the bamboo bundles. The roof consists of a ceiling of split bamboo with a waterproof
membrane on top, covered with bamboo shingles.

Fig.46: bamboo connection detail

Fig.47: concrete footing and column detail

Modern Bamboo Architecture

Fig.48: grouped members create


flexible composite beams

Fig.49: pinned together with


nut, bolt and washer

29

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

The construction uses all sizes of bamboo reeds,


taking full advantage its versatile characteristics.
larger poles are used for the two anchoring
columns that end directly into a large concrete
pylon. As the column base transitions into the roof
structure the size of the members diminishes,
instead creating beams out of grouped members
on perpendicular grids. The canopy tiles are made
from split and flattened pole sections.

Fig.52:
bamboo
structural
diagram

Fig.53: roof and internal


structure construction details

Fig.50: Long section

Fig.54: roof tiles

Fig.55:
ventilation
diagram

Fig.51: two bamboo columns anchor the


structure
Modern Bamboo Architecture

30

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

6 FAMOUS BAMBOO ARCHITECTS AND


THEIR WORK

These are but a few examples of famous architects that were, and are, inspired by the simplicity and
extraordinary strength of bamboo as a building component. Today, rising concern about rapidly depleting
resources is fueling a bamboo revolution of sorts as this simple species of grass is being used in all sorts of
products from bamboo floors to bamboo houses to bamboo timber and many more innovative products. One
can only hope that mankind takes a closer look at the designs and principles that these architects espoused
and pursues a more sustainable path for the future. Bamboo may not be the answer to all our concerns but it
certainly looks like a viable alternative to some of them.

file://D:\www.bambus\new\eng\reports\modern_architecture\referat.html

Famous Bamboo Architects and their work

31

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

6.1 SIMN VLEZ


Simn Vlez is a prize-winning architect, and the most eminent proponent of bamboo as an
essential building component.
Simon Velez, an architect who mostly practices in Colombia, has built a number of
extraordinary bamboo structures. These projects have ranged from a horse stable,
residences, a observation tower and a country club. His structures feature massive
cantilevers and he was the first to use multi-culm beams.

Fig.56: Tower in the Parque de la Cafetera in


Montenegro/Colombia. Vlez/Villegas (1993)
height= 19m

Vlez has created joinery systems that utilize bamboo as a permanent structural element in
both residential and commercial structures. For four consecutive years, he has been invited
by the Vitra Design Museum and the George Pompidou Center to conduct workshops in
France in which structures of bamboo- guadua were built as an instructive exercise .
With Marcelo Villegas, he developed a mortar-filled joinery system that allows long-span and
cantilevered structures to be built out of bamboo. Very often bamboo only was tested on
compression, but the real quality exists in its capability to compense shear tension. Vlez
used this in his framework constructions, which were able to cantilever more than 9 meters
and to strain about 27 meters.
For Expo Hanover 2000, he designed and constructed a 2000square-meter bamboo pavilion for ZERI Foundation (Zero
Emissions Research and Initiative). The structure utilized bamboo,
recycled cement, copper, and a mixture of terracotta, cement and
bamboo fiber panels. His partner and financier, Gunter Pauli in this
project committed to convert bamboo as the symbol of poverty into the
symbol of sustainability. With 6.4 million visitors it did become the most
popular pavilion of the World Expo.

Famous Bamboo Architects and their work

Fig.57: sketch for a tower

Fig.58: 2000-square-meter bamboo pavilion for ZERI


Foundation
32

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Crosswaters Ecolodge
It the largest project in the world to the use bamboo in a commercial project, and the
first project of this scale in Asia to use bamboo as a structural element in a dwelling.
The centerpiece of the resort is this commanding bamboo bridge that leads its
visitors over the Gangken River to the lobby and main building of the ecolodge, hence
the name Crosswaters.

Fig.59: This interior view of the bridge shows well


its sturdy structure with the 12 cm diameter
concrete-filled bamboo poles.

6.2 TIMOTHY IVORY


Timothy Ivory is the Director of Design for BambooFurniture.com and trained originally as a theatrical designer at the University of
Michigan and New York University, receiving his MA in Design from University of Michigan. He is now designing and building original
pieces by commission and developing a line of Bamboo furniture. His past work has included creating theatrical environments
mixing six foot masks on bamboo poles with fabric as wings, staging performance pieces mixing circus, theatre and bamboo

sculpture and

creating

green/sustainable material.

temporary or transitional structures to educate as to the benefits of building with bamboo as a


In 1995 he created a Bamboo Pool Bar and also a Massage Spa Shade Structure using Tonkin Cane

Bamboo at the Delano Hotel. He also designed and built a pool house using Guaduas Angustifolia from Colombia.

Fig.60: bamboo
structures made
by Timothy Ivory

Famous Bamboo Architects and their work

33

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

6.3 MICHAEL MCDONOUGH


Michael McDonough designed the worlds first commercial collection of engineered bamboo
furniture in 1997, and the worlds first tensegrity principle bamboo bridge in 2000. He
continues to work with the material in furniture, object, and architecture applications. In
cooperation with the Environmental Bamboo Foundation (Bali, Indonesia), he co-founded the
Bamboo Research Initiative at Rhode Island School of Design, and teaches bamboo design
Fig.61: Laminated bamboo
furniture

seminars at architecture and design schools internationally.

Bamboo Bridge the first of its kind anywhere on earth comprises a onehundred-feet long (33 meters) polyten truss capable of supporting up to sixty
times its own weight, and constructed of a unique high-strength Asian solid
bamboo, steel cables, and connectors. Designed by Michael McDonough
Architect using the principles of tensegrity , it is a essentially a tensegrity

hack of experimental models developed in the 1960s by Buckminster Fuller


and Robert Le Ricolais . Located in a temperate redwood rainforest near
Mendocino, California, it is being built to demonstrate the structural and
aesthetic capabilities of bamboo as an engineered, high-tech material.

Fig.62: Isometric
view of bamboo
bridge

Fig.63: Bamboo
bridge detail

Michael McDonough keeps finding new ways to use the grass that is stronger than steel.
Famous Bamboo Architects and their work

34

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

6.4 OSCAR HIDALGO

6.5 JULES JANSSEN

The most exciting technology hidalgo has

Dr. Jules J.A. Janssen is a well-

developed is to deform the bamboo plant as it

known expert in the field of bamboo

grows to create incredibly strong pre-stressed

as

arches. A form of wood and plywood with a

material. Further

predetermined arc is placed over a bamboo

member of committees for Ph.D.

shoot. as the bamboo grows, it assumes the

studies at several Universities and

shape of the arc, permanently.

has been the supervisor of the

A bamboo plant is fully formed as it starts up

National Bamboo Project in Costa

from

Rica from 1987 till 1995.

the

ground,

its

future

chambers

building

and

engineering

he has acted as

6.6 RENZO PIANO


The qualities of bamboo are also appreciated
by Renzo Piano. He was interested in
combining light metal elements [tubes /slabs]
with bamboo.

Fig.65: joint
by Renzo
Piano
Probably the best example of bamboo in his
architecture

compressed against one another like an

is

the

Tjibaou

Cultural

Center on the island of New Caledonia in

accordion. As the plant matures, the shoot

the south Pacific islands of Melanesia.

expands and these chambers spread out,


Fig.66: Tjibaou
Cultural
Center

beginning from the lowest internode. and if the


shoot is deformed on the way up, it assumes
its new shape permanently.
"the most expensive thing is the form," hidalgo
says. "but once you have a form you can grow
many of the same arches for a very low price.
FROM DESIGNER/builder, SEPTEMBER 1997

Famous Bamboo Architects and their work

Fig.64: model house by Jules


Janssen in Costa Rica

Operable roof skylights and use of laminated


bamboo wood allows penetration of abundant
natural sunlight. Bamboo also helps in
ventilating the pavilion by pushing hot air up
to the top.

35

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

7 BAMBOO PRODUCT STATISTICS


OVERVIEW
During the last 1520 years, bamboo has developed as an exceptionally valuable and often superior substitute for wood. Bamboobased panels and boards are hard and durable and may successfully substitute for hardwood products. Bamboo may replace wood
in many industrial applications and there by contribute to the saving and restoration of the worlds forests.

Bamboo raw materials


Its use in exposed conditions requires prior treatment (Liese and Kumar, 2003), while its use can be further enhanced through the
application of modern engineering techniques. Bamboo can be processed into modern products (engineered bamboo) that may
successfully compete with wood products in price and performance. Use of bamboo in composite panels and boards overcomes
differences in quality related to the culms and allows the production of homogeneous products. Engineered bamboo may well replace
wood, steel and concrete in many uses.

Bamboo panels
China started producing bamboo panels in the early 19th century. At present more than 20 different types of panels are produced in
Asia. Bamboo fibre is longer than wood fibre, which gives bamboo some technological advantages. The panels are widely used in
modern construction as structural elements or as forms for concrete moldings. They are also used for flooring, roofing, partitions,
doors and window frames. Bamboo panels have some advantages over wooden boards due to their rigidity and durability. Various
types of bamboo veneers, panels and boards can be broadly classified as follows: veneers, stripboards, matboards, fibreboards,
particle boards, medium density boards, combinations of these, and combinations of these with wood and other ligno-cellulose
materials and inorganic substances.
Bamboo Product Statistics

36

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

MODERN BAMBOO
CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT

THEIR RELATIVE BENEFITS

THE DRAWBACKS OF
BAMBOO FLOORING

Why choose Bamboo flooring.....

7.1.1 FLOOR:
Bamboo flooring and bamboo board are
newly developed interior designing
material made using modern scientific
methods from superior quality bamboo.
Bamboo flooring is an attractive
alternative to wood or laminate flooring.
The majority of today's bamboo flooring
products originate in China
and other portions of Asia.
Moso bamboo is the species most
commonly used for flooring.

Fig.67:
Bamboo
flooring
Plank Size:
130mm
1830mm
The estimated annual production of
bamboo flooring in China was 17.5 million
m2 in 2004. Exports account for some 65
percent of total production (Customs
General Administration of China, 2004).
Bamboo Product Statistics

Aesthetic Beauty: Bamboo is a trendy


flooring material that can elevate the
elegance of a space almost instantly.
Durability: There are certain types of
bamboo that can be extremely strong,
hard, and durable. Natural, uncarbonized bamboo that was properly
harvested and manufactured can be as
durable as red oak.
Moisture resistance: This material is
slightly more resistant to water damage,
stains, and warping than hardwood
materials, although it is still a concern.

Environmentally Ambiguous: There are


a number of environmental concerns
regarding bamboo. The adhesive used in
its construction can contribute to the
toxicity of an interior space.
Water Damage: As bamboo is more
resistant to water damage than the
average hardwood. However it is still a
natural material made of organic
elements, and as such excessive
moisture will cause it to warp or will
allow mold to grow.

Easy to install and maintain

Scratches: While a bamboo floor is


relatively easy to maintain it is nearly
impossible to keep it perfect if it is used
regularly. There are a wide variety of
things that can cause nasty scratches in
the surface of a bamboo floor.

Natural Material: The use of natural


materials is an important trend in the
construction industry right now.

Lack of a Grading System: There is no


independent system that is used to rate
the quality of bamboo materials.

Eco- Friendly

THEIR RELATIVE COST


This material is priced at about the same level as most hardwood floors. You will often find
bamboo ranging from about two dollars to eight dollars per square foot.
Bamboo Products

37

Use Of Bamboo As Housing Material And In Making Various Products

Comparing Flooring Materials


The following study compares the mechanical properties and performance differences between the seven different materials:
carpet,stone,ceramic,laminate,wood,bamboo and vinyl.

Bamboo

Pros

More Quickly
Renewable
Resource Than
Wood,
Strong,
Clean,
Contemporary,
Sensibility

Cost( Rs.)

120-900

Stone
Extremely
Durable,
Timeless And
Classic Design
Beautiful,
Natural,
Aesthetic

500-3000

Ceramic
Durable,
Water And Stain
Resistant,
Wide Choice Of
Colors, Textures,
And Shapes,
Porcelain Color
Through Tile
Body-scratches
Or Damage Less

250-750

Laminate
Durable,
Affordable ,
Easy To Clean And
Maintain,
Resists Stains ,
Wide Range Of
Colors And
Designs,
Resembles Natural
Materials

200-400

Wood
Wearresistant,
Longlasting,
Provides A
Warm
Look,
Can Be
Refinished

350-1800

Vinyl

Carpet

Durable,
Waterresistant In
Sheet Form,
Easy To Clean,
Comfortable,
Less
Expensive

Soft, Quiet,
Warm
Underfoot,
Easiest And
Most Costeffective Floor
Covering To
Replace And
Upgrade
Brings In Color
And Texture,
Stain-resistant
Fibers available.

250-500

50-400

(per square feet)

Bamboo Product Statistics

Bamboo Products

38

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

MODERN BAMBOO
CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT
7.1.2 BAMBOO MAT
CORRUGATED ROOFING
SHEETS:
Corrugated bamboo roofing sheets
(CBRS) are an excellent alternative to
corrugated metal, plastic or asbestos
roofing sheets. They are produced from
a natural and sustainable resource and
can be used to cover homes, storage
facilities, animal pens and many other
temporary or permanent structures.

The BMTPC in collaboration with


IPIRTI,BANGLORE ,have developed a
technology for manufacturing of
bamboo mat corrugated roofing
sheet(BMCS)

Fig.68:
Bamboo mat
corrugated
roofing
sheet

Bamboo Product Statistics

THEIR RELATIVE BENEFITS


Why choose Bamboo mat corrugated roofing
sheet.....
environmentally friendly and a safe
alternative to plastic, zinc or corrugated
asbestos roofing panels.
They
have
the
same
standard
measurements as conventional corrugated
roofing sheets.
Bamboo roofs are quieter in the rain and
cooler in the sun than conventional metal
or plastic sheets. A study has shown that
cows in sheds roofed with bamboo yield
more milk than those under corrugated
zinc sheets because of the cooler
environment
Bamboo sheets are durable and strong
with excellent internal bond strengths and
a high resistance to weathering, fire or
insect attacks.

Fig.69: BMCS at TERRACE CAF


DFID ,NEW DELHI
October, 2000

They have an attractive and natural


appearance and are easy to work with
(cutting, drilling,..)

Bamboo Products

39

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Comparing Corrugated Roofing Sheet Materials


The following study compares the mechanical properties and performance differences between the four different materials: zinc, plastic , asbestos and bamboo
corrugated roofing sheets.

http://www.guaduabamboo.com/corrugated-bamboo-roofing-sheets.html
Fig.70:Corrugated Roofing Sheet of different Materials

1. Thermal Transmission Performance


Bamboo has the highest thermal resistance and the lowest thermal transmission coefficient, therefore, bamboo has the best thermal isolation
properties compared to the other three materials.
2. Noise Transmission Performance
Corrugated bamboo sheets have good noise insulating properties. Its sound obstructing data is 9 dB higher than that of the plastic sheet and therefore better than
the zinc sheet (which is only 4 dB better than the plastic sheet). The asbestos corrugated sheets have the best sound insulating performance.
3.Bending Strength
Because zinc and plastic sheets are too thin to determine its strength properties, the
determination was done with bamboo and asbestos sheets only.
4. Combustion Proof Performance
Only bamboo and plastic corrugated sheets were tested as zinc and asbestos are nonburning materials.
The total heat release of bamboo is higher than that of plastic because it is much thicker
(the thickness of corrugated bamboo sheets is 3 mm and that of the plastic sheet is 0.5
mm).The
corrugated bamboo roofing sheets have better combustion-proof
properties. They show a slower burning speed, smaller combustion heat and lower
heat release rate compared to the plastic corrugated sheet.

Material

Flexural strength (MPa)

Bamboo

39.72

Asbestos

31.91

Table5:comparision of bending strength

5. Density and Water Absorption Properties


Bamboo has the lowest density and the highest water absorption ratio compared to plastic and asbestos which may influence its durability in exterior use.
However, this characteristic is easy to overcome by using better resins or by applying a coated outer layer.
6. Impact strength
Corrugated bamboo roofing sheets have an excellent impact strength. They bare a much higher instant striking force compared to asbestos sheets.
Bamboo Product Statistics

Bamboo Products

40

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

MODERN BAMBOO
CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT
7.1.3 BAMBOO MAT BOARD:
Application of Bamboo Mat board(BMB)
In house construction & house-hold: BMB
has been found especially useful as
sheathing material in structural and semi
structural uses such as:
Walls
Doors
Paneling
Partitions
Flush doors
Furniture
cupboards

Fig.71:Bam
boo mat
board

The species of bamboo which have been


found appropriate for use in bamboo
board are:
a) Bambusa Vulgaris
b) Bambusa Arundiacear
c) Dendrocalamus Strictus
Bamboo Product Statistics

THEIR RELATIVE BENEFITS

THEIR RELATIVE COST

Why choose Bamboo mat board.....


Bamboo mat board is better than
common wood board for its good
strength, longer durability and
better dimensional stability.
The board has perfect waterproof
function for its shrinking rate and
expanding rate.
Water absorbing rate is better than
wood texture and the board is never
rusted.
It is humidity resistant and smooth
in texture.
Resistant to decay, insects and
termite attack.
Thinner panel to replace thin
plywood.
It has high in-plane rigidity and
hence high racking strength and is
more flexible than equivalent
plywood.
Modulus of rupture of BMB far
exceeds that of both structural
plywood and wood.

Economical compared to higher


grade thin plywood.
TYPICAL STRENGTH PROPERTIES
OF BMB

Size & Thickness : Thickness and size


depends on customers choice
Moisture content : 8%
Specific Gravity : 790 kg/m3
Internal bond strength N/mm2
i) Dry state :1.97
ii) Wet State : 1.73
Surface strength N/mm2
i) Dry State : 9.47
ii) Wet State : 9.10
Tensile strength N/mm2 : 29.54
Compressive strength N/mm2 : 35.30
Modulus of Rupture N/mm2 : 59.35

Modulus of Elasticity N/mm2 : 3174


However their mechanical properties depend
upon the material used for making mats
i.e. bamboo slivers, the weaving pattern
and the adhesive used for bonding
Bamboo Products

Modulus of rigidity N/mm2 : 6066

41

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

BMB APPLICATIONS
Fig.75: Furniture

Fig.72: Housing
Fig.73: Door And Window Shutters

Fig.74Partition
Wall/Ceiling

Bamboo Product Statistics

Bamboo Products

42

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

MODERN BAMBOO
CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT

Fig.77: Crushed Bamboo Ceiling Panels


It
is frequently used as
bamboo ceiling panels in
tropical architecture.

7.1.4 CRUSHED BAMBOO BOARD


Crushed bamboo can be used for numerous
applications. Although it could be used in its
normal form, more often than not, certain
manipulations such as sanding, shredding,
pressing are performed to make it more
suitable for its specific end use.
Flattened bamboo is also cheaper to transport
than round poles, which makes it a very
attractive resource for manufacturers of value
added bamboo products (flooring, furniture,
particle boards, composite beams, etc.)

Fig.76: Crushed Bamboo Board


Bamboo Product Statistics

Staining or painting the


bamboo can also add extra
color and character to the
interior as shown in the
example
above.

Fig.78:Crushed Bamboo Wall Panels


It can also be used as bamboo
wall covering or cladding, or as
an
integrated
wall
support
system.
Because
of Guadua bamboo's strength
and
flexibility,
integrated
crushed bamboo wall panels
plastered with adobe provide
an affordable alternative to
drywall or brick.
The combination of bamboo and natural plasters make these walls earthquake resistant,
extremely durable yet non-toxic and biodegradable, very effective for sound and temperature
insulation, fire retardant and water resistant.
Bamboo Products

43

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Fig.79: Crushed Bamboo Beams

Fig.80: Crushed Bamboo Furniture

Fig.81: Crushed Bamboo Flooring

Crushed bamboo beams are an

The picture

furniture

Crushed bamboo flooring is another

innovative way to produce strong

experiments with flattened bamboo and

popular application, either is a crude

load bearing beams or thick

locally sourced tropical hardwoods.

(with

boards.

flattened

Playing with the direction of the grain

Obviously the smoother the finish,

bamboo panels are glued and

gave a pleasant aesthetic effect to the

the more work will be involved. The

pressed to each other and sawn

bamboo table top, especially with the

top layer could be sanded and

into specific dimensions.

darker contrast of the wooden frame.

finished with a polyurethane finish

Laboratory test have proven that

Crushed bamboo furniture also provides

and glued together or to a backing.

the

Several

mechanical

these

bamboo

properties

of

beams

are

more

opposed

to

above show a

contemporary
traditional

bamboo

nodes)

or

sanded

look
log

furniture.

astonishing.
Bamboo Product Statistics

Bamboo Products

44

finish.

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

BAMBOO
IN HOUSING & BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

BMTPC
Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council
Ministry of Urban Development & Poverty Alleviation
Government of India

7.2 PRESENT STATUS OF BAMBOO BASED COMPOSITES AND THEIR UTILISATION IN INDIA
In India, although several products have been developed, bamboo mat board (BMB), Bamboo Mat Veneer Composites (BMVC)
and Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets (BMCS) developed at IPIRTI have already attracted entrepreneurs and gained user
acceptance as alternate to wood, plywood and corrugated ACC and GI Sheets.
R&D efforts at IPIRTI in collaboration with BMTPC for the development of bamboo mat corrugated sheets (BMCS) have established
the technical feasibility and these are being commercially produced and marketed.
Several manufacturing units are already engaged in production and marketing of bamboo based building materials (boards, panels,
composites, laminates, roofing sheets) Variety of industrially produced products and elements are being used in building
construction besides hundreds of traditional systems and types where bamboo is predominantly used for house/building

construction.
The BMTPC in collaboration with Indian Plywood Industries Research & Training Institute (IPIRTI), Bangalore, have jointly
developed a technology for manufacturing of Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet (BMCS). The commercial production has been started at
Byrnihat, Meghalaya. The product has been accepted by the consumers and is becoming increasing popular as a roofing option in
the north east part of the country.

List of Indian Standards related to Bamboo as Construction Material


IS 13958:1994 Specification for Bamboo Mat Board for general purposes.
IS 14588:1999 Specification for Bamboo Mat Veneer Composite for general purposes.
Indian Standards on Specification for Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet has been finalized under CED 20 - yet to be printed.
Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

45

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

7.2.1 National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA)


The Mission supports application oriented research and developmental activity, utilizing bamboo for constructional
applications. It promotes the use of bamboo and bamboo based composite material and innovation with different construction
techniques. It sets benchmarks of quality of construction, functionality, strength and safety and aesthetics.
The principal objectives of the National Bamboo Mission are to :
(i) use bamboo development as an instrument of poverty alleviation and employment generation, particularly in the rural sector;

(ii) diversify, modernize and expand bamboo based industries through the application of modern technology and financial
support
(iii) use bamboo as a means to achieve ecological security through plantation of quality species needed by the industry and the
handicrafts sector.

Bamboo Warehouse at Delhi


For promoting sales of products of supported units at Delhi and nearby area, NMBA is stocking products at warehouse located at Alipur,
Delhi. The warehouse of area 1000 sq. ft. was operational from August, 2010. Currently the warehouse is stocking bamboo Venetian
blinds, bamboo mat boards (4mm, 9mm, 12mm and 16mm), bamboo flooring tiles and bamboo charcoal briquettes.
Warehouse is managed by National Collateral Management Services Limited (NCMSL). NCMSL is providing services like security
arrangements, daily reporting, treatments etc.

Fig.82: Bamboo
Warehouse at Delhi

Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

46

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

7.2.2 Cost Effective Bamboo-Based Building System


IPIRTI Bangalore
In collaboration with TRADA Technology of UK and funding by DFID, IPIRTI has developed a building system using round and split
bamboo, BMB for walling, door and window shutters and BMCS roofing. The system is based on 1.2m module with bamboo posts and
bamboo sliver reinforced cement mortar wall panels of 5 cms thick only.
The experience on the development of housing system has shown that the systems developed are cost effective, attractive and are
expected to withstand normal weather and wind conditions.
Being light it can be suitably utilised by adopting appropriate design for earthquake prone regions. The system developed and
study of prototypes already constructed have shown high potential for wider propagation particularly in North-Eastern and
other bamboo growing regions where traditional building practices already exist but need to be improved for longevity of
buildings.

The IPIRTI -TRADA Bamboo Housing system differs significantly from other established bamboo construction practices

(a)Use of round bamboo columns and trussed rafters as main load bearing element,
(b) Use of split bamboo grids/chicken mesh and plastered with cement mortar to act as shear walls for transmitting wind loads and to
provide overall stability to the structure,
(c) Application of appropriate preservative treatment of bamboo de-pending on the degree of hazard and service conditions,
(d) Use of BMB gussets in combination with mild steel bolts for load bearing joints in roofing structure, and
(e) Use of BMCS as roof claddings.

Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

47

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

BAMBOO BUILDING SYSTEM

Fig.83: Wall in fill:


non-load-bearing,
comprising a grid of
split
bamboo covered in
wire mesh
and cement mortar

Fig.85: Roof structure: bamboo


rafters or trusses
supporting bamboo purlins

Fig.86: Roof covering:


corrugated
bamboo mat board

Fig.84: Doors and windows: frames of sawn


plantation timber with bamboo mat board infill
panels.
Fig.87: Foundations: individual
column footings
Columns: bamboo culms set in
(or on) concrete
footings
Floor: raised by two or three
brick courses, filled with rubble
and secreeded

Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

48

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Recommended sizes for different


structural members
and their
standard length.

Treatment

1.Rafters & purlins


Dip diffusion
2.Grid
Dip diffusion

Fig.88:frame
work of a
bamboo
house

3.Columns
Internodal injection
or Boucherie
Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

3
49

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

BAMBOO HOUSE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

Fig.89: Treated Bamboo Columns 75-100 mm Diameter spaced at 1.2 M interval and set in Cement Concrete Footing

Fig.90: Foundation of Stone Masonry and Basement of Cement


Concrete Blocks
Bamboo Product Statistics

Fig.91: Grid Preparation

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

50

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Fig.92: Plastering

fig.93: Flooring
Bamboo Product Statistics

Fig.94:Fixing of Truss

Fig.95: Fixing of Purlins

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

51

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Fig.96: Fixing of BMCS

Fig.97: Inner View of House


Bamboo Product Statistics

Fig.98: Finished House

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

52

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

Bamboo Houses constructed at IPIRTI campus

Fig.99: Prefabricated BMB Wood Shelter

Fig.101:Two Bedroom Guest House

Fig.100: Security Shed

Fig.102: Two Bedroom Guest


House

Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

53

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

7.2.3 Initiatives in North Eastern region


BMTPC is actively involved in developing bamboo based technologies and to promote these technologies in
the North-Eastern Region and other bamboo growing areas, by setting up of Bamboo Mat Production Centres
for processing of bamboo, encouraging commercial production of bamboo based products, construction of
demonstration houses etc. The Council is also engaged in providing training to the local artisans in
processing of bamboo.

Bamboo Mat Production Centre's


BMTPC, in cooperation with Cane & Bamboo Technology Centre (CBTC), Guwahati and State
Governments, is establishing two Bamboo Mat Production Centres each in the States of Assam, Tripura,
Mizoram and Meghalaya. The main objectives of Bamboo Mat Production Centres are to provide
uninterrupted supply of bamboo mats to the manufacturing units of bamboo based building components
for increasing the productivity, quality, to provide training in mat production process and to create
employment opportunities in the North Eastern region.
In the first phase, the Council is setting up Bamboo Mat Product Centres at Kowaifung, Tripura;
Sairang and Bualpui, Mizoram and Sokhar Nongtluh Village, Meghalaya. The Council has already
completed establishment of Bamboo Mat Production Centres at Kowaifung, Tripura and Sairang,
Mizoram.

The production capacity of each production Centre will be 300 mats per day. It is estimated that the
each Centre will be able to produce the mat at the rate of Rs.35 per mat and would be able to sell
at the rate of Rs.45 per mat.
The mats produced by Bamboo Mat Production Centres are likely to utilized by various manufacturers
who are producing Bamboo Mat Corrugated Roofing Sheets, Bamboo Mat Boards etc.

Fig.103: Bamboo Mat


Production Centre's in
North-eastern region

Bamboo Product Statistics

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

54

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

7.2.4 Bamboo markets in NCR region

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Mr. Kailash Sharma,9-A Timber Market Azadpur


Ashu ,9-A Timber Market Azadpur
Vicky Gupta,9-A Timber Market Azadpur
Suresh Kumar,9-A Timber Market Azadpur
Mohar Singh,9-A Timber Market Azadpur
Dinesh Kumar, Samaypur Badli
Rakesh kumar, Samaypur Badli
Durgesh Singh, Samaypur Badli
Prem Kumar,Sahabad
Durgesh Sabbarwal, Sahabad
Sajjan Kumar Sharma , Sahabad
Durgesh Prakash Brijmohan , Sahabad
Pawan and company, 70,Church Road , Bhogal
Sunil,668-5,Temple Road,Bhogal
Prem Singh,B-111 ,W.H.S. New Timber Market , kirti Nagar
Surjit Singh Sachdeva ,B-111 ,W.H.S. New Timber Market
,kirti Nagar
17. Gurdeep Singh,B-111 ,W.H.S. New Timber Market , kirti Nagar
18. Arun Kumar,Qutab Road

Bamboo Product Statistics

19. Amit Trivedi,H-11, Green Park Extension


20. Arun Kumar , Sadar Timber Market
21. Rakesh Pal ,21/731 , Bakshi house , Faiz Road ,Karol Bagh
22. Noor Ali ,BE-137, DDA Flats , Janakpuri
23. Gurubaksh Singh ,Amrit Kaur Market,Pahar Ganj
24. Basudev Chowdhary,D.B. Gupta Road ,pahar Ganj
25. Bidhyaram,19/8 1st Floor , Kalkaji
26. Md. Ramzan ,1st Floor B-65,Arya Samaj Mandir , Lajpat
Nagar-2
27.Lachman Das ,Sadar Bazar,2803-Timber Market Opp.
Teliwara Fire Station

In these
markets we get bamboo only for
structural or shuttering purposes and out of these
Arun Kumar , Qutab Road and Amit Trivedi,H-11,
Green Park Extension markets have only
handicrafts products made of bamboo.

Present status of Bamboo based Composites and their Utilization in India

55

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

8 INTERVIEW
8.1 Dr.D.N.Tiwari
Member, Planning Commission
Government of India
What is the future potential of bamboo markets in India ?
Recognizing the potential of bamboo and the fact that it has been subjected to neglect, and thus remain disorganized with poor market

linkage and sub optimal level technology application for manufacture of value added products in the industrial and artisanal sector.
As the market for environment friendly green products is growing, India must try to secure her due share in the world bamboo market
which is expected to grow from the present size of US$10 Billion to over US$20 Billion by 2015.
I am confident that the Mission will realize the full potential of bamboo to benefit the socio-economic development and environmental
sustainability of the country.

8.2 S.P. SINGH


Economist, FRI-Dehradun
Are there any Bamboo markets in NCR region ?
Bamboo in NCR region is mostly used only for scaffolding purpose and in some places it is used for making handicrafts.
In NCR region bamboo products are not commercially produced as the cost of final product is multifold because bamboo products near
Delhi is not sustainable as the transportation cost and retailer profit makes up the major portion of the cost of the final product in todays
scenario.
Bamboo industry is feasible in North Eastern region or bamboo growing regions only as the people of that place are familiar with

bamboo and know its implementation.

Bamboo Product Statistics

56

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

8.3 PRIYAM B GOSWAMI


ARCHITECT
Can the species of bamboo grown in NCR region be used for making bamboo products?
There are various species of bamboo and each species of bamboo has its unique properties so first we have to identify the
species and then we have to implement it for the proper purpose.
Bamboo grown in NCR region or near NCR region does not have the structural strength needed for building construction or making
bamboo products such as bamboo boards, bamboo corrogated roofing sheets etc.
The bamboo grown in North-Eastern region is suitable for making bamboo products .

8.4 Ms.MANJU ARYA


NATIONAL MISSION ON BAMBOO APPLICATIONS (NMBA)
NMBA has a ware house in Alipur ,Delhi. From where are the products manufactured and how does the whole process function?

Bamboo is produced in a large scale in the north-eastern regions of India . NMBA has marketing links with these regions getting
bamboo with the help of vendors. Bamboo is very much affordable to the common man, though polished bamboo is priced
relatively higher. As a promotional initiative NMBA has supplied Partition Boards to Delhi University, IIT-Delhi etc. Bamboo is used
for Flooring, Partition , Venetian Blinds, Mat Boards. NMBA is a government organization where it only facilitates the usage of
bamboo by selling it directly from the vendors in north-east and adding the minimal transportation costs and no other additional
costs . For bulk orders, orders need to be placed in advance to NMBA , vendors are mostly stationed in Guwahati, Kolkata .
Samples are available at the warehouse in Alipur, run by NMBA.
Bamboo Product Statistics

57

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

9 CONCLUSION
There are various organizations in India such as Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) , Indian
Plywood Industries Research & Training Institute (IPIRTI), Bangalore , National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA)
which are working on bamboo technology and have developed various modern bamboo products which can be used in contemporary
building construction sector. But the commercial production of these materials have been limited or till now it is restricted to only north
eastern or bamboo growing regions only.

In most part of India it is only available as raw material used for structural purposes such as shuttering. The reason due to which it has
been restricted to only bamboo growing area is that The domestic bamboo sector is faced with many constraints, such as:

Transportation cost

Lack of consumer i.e. market

Lack of scientific methods for propagation and cultivation.

Lack of post harvest treatment and technology for product development.

Inadequate trained manpower

Inadequate infrastructure for large scale harvesting in the event of gregarious flowering.

So , finally I would like to conclude that keeping in mind its advantage, disadvantage and sustainability reference ,it has huge potential

which can be exploited to use bamboo as a building in contemporary urban context and it has the potential to replace wood products
in the market but its present poor market linkage and sub optimal level technology application for manufacture of value added products in
the industrial and cottage sector, has restricted its commercial production in contemporary world .

58

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARTICLES:
Bamboo: a green material for housing and buildings ,By: Dr.shailesh kr. Agarwal, executive director, BMTPC
Dr.Amit Rai, development officer, BM and PD, BMTPC
Bamboo as an Alternative Housing Material-The CBTCs Experience ,By: Kamesh Salam
Bamboo Based Building Materials and their Properties ,By: Anand Nandanwar, C.N.Pandey
Risd Bamboo Initiative, May 2000 ,By: Bruce sterling, Michael McDonough and Professor Robert ONeal
Density, storage and spatial distribution of carbon in phyllostachy pubescent forest. Sciatica salvage since, vol.40, no.6, pp.2024, (November 2004.) ,By: G.M. Zhou and P.K. jean.
Bamboo and bamboo composites green building materials for housing/construction ,By: K.shyamasundar IPIRTI, Bangalore

Bamboo reinforced concrete construction, February 1966 ,By: Francis e. brink and Paul j. rush
DESIGNER/builder magazine, copyright 1998
Institute for Structural Design RWTH Aachen University

59

Use of Bamboo as housing material and in making various products

BOOKS:
The Use of Bamboo and Reeds in building Construction, UNITED NATIONS (New York, 1972)
F.a. mc clure, bamboo as a building material, united states department of agriculture Washington, d.c.1953

WEBSITES:
http://www.dicea.unifi.it/gianni.bartoli
www.caneanbamboo.org
http://www.bambooindustry.com/bamboo resources.html
Website: www.habitat.org/ap
http://www.bamboo-inspiration.com
http://www.guaduabamboo.com
http://www.dezeen.com/architecture/public-and-leisure

www.designboom.com
file://D:\www.bambus\new\eng\reports\modern_architecture\referat.html

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