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DRAINAGE BASIN MANAGEMENT

AND
MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES

Shyamala B Subramaniam

LN8102 Hydrology

The Drainage Basin System


What is a drainage basin?
How does the drainage basin system operate?
Factors affecting run-off and infiltration in a drainage
basin.
Drainage Basin Management.
Stream Order.
Laminar and Turbulent flow.

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What is a drainage basin?


Mouth
Where the river
flows into the sea,
or sometimes a
lake.

Tributary
A river which joins a larger river.

Watershed
The boundary
dividing one
drainage basin
from another- a
ridge of high
land.
Confluence
The point at which two rivers join.

Catchment
The area from
which water drains
into a particular
drainage basin.

Source
The upland area
where the river
begins.

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Drainage Basin Terminologies


Drainage Basin

An area of land drained by a river and its


tributaries

Watershed

The boundary between 2 drainage basins

Interfluve

High lying area between 2 stream in the same


drainage basin

Water table

Level at which saturation occurs in the soil

Groundwater

Water stored in rocks following percolation

Confluence

Where two tributaries join

Consequent
stream

Main stream

Subsequent
stream

Main tributary

Watershed
The drainage basin of the Afon Caerfanell, a tributary of
the River Usk, South Wales.

the watershed can


be clearly seen on
this photograph

The confluence of two rivers

Learning objectives

The Drainage Basin System


What is a drainage basin?
How does the drainage basin system operate?
Factors affecting run-off and infiltration in a drainage
basin.
Drainage Basin Management.
Stream Ordering.
Laminar and Turbulent flow.

All rain falling within a drainage


basin ends up in the river
system.
How does it get there?

OVERGROUND

Raindrops might fall directly into a river


or stream CHANNEL FLOW

Water runs downhill over


the ground towards a
river or stream SURFACE RUNOFF

UNDERGROUND
Raindrops
INFILTRATE soil
and rock. The
water then moves
underground
towards a stream
or river

(uppermost
level of
saturated

Which route to the river is quicker


- surface runoff or infiltration / groundwater flow?

ANSWER:
Rain travelling as surface runoff
will get to rivers and streams much more quickly, reaching
a river or stream with little delay,within a short time-span.
Water that infiltrates and travels underground travels
much more slowly, finally reaching a river or stream
bit by bit over a much longer period of time.
Which situation is a river more likely to be able to cope
with, without flooding?

How does the drainage basin system operate?


A drainage basin system is a part of the worlds
hydrological (water) cycle:
The hydrological cycle is a closed system.
The drainage basin is an open system.
You should be able to explain why once you have seen
the following slides!
Water Cycle an
imation

Drainage basin system


precipitation

interception

evapotranspiration
infiltration
percolation
water table

s ur fa
throu
g

ce ru

nof f

hflow

river
groundwater flow

Drainage basin system


inputs
precipitation

stores and flows


interception

outputs
river runoff

surface water storage

evaporation

surface runoff

transpiration

infiltration
soil water storage
throughflow
percolation
groundwater storage
groundwater flow

Page 114

Click for video

Learning objectives

The Drainage Basin System


What is a Drainage Basin?
How does the drainage basin system operate?
Factors affecting run-off and infiltration in a Drainage
Basin.
Laminar and Turbulent flow.
Drainage Basin Management.
Stream order.
What is a flood hydrograph?
What factors influence the shape of a flood hydrograph?

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Factors influencing Drainage Density

Low density
Factors
affecting
(Coarse
drainage
texture)
density are:

gradient,
Medium
vegetation,
density (Medium
rock type,
texture)
soil type,
evaporation, amount of rainfall, type of rainfall and
High density (Fine texture)
man.
Very high density (Superfine texture)
How do the above factors influence drainage
density?

Factors affecting Drainage Density

Drainage Density and Texture


Schuters pg 145

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Factors affecting Drainage Density


What is:
a)Porosity
b)Permeability?

Which rock will cause the most overland flow and why?
Which rock might slow down the passage of water the
most?

Factors affecting
Drainage Density
Which one might
be pervious?

Which one would


slow down the
passage of water
the most?

Which one would


be most likely to
flood?

A number of factors will effect how quickly water gets


to a river.
If water returns to a river too quickly it may result in
flooding.
Look at the following slides (35-39)
How do you think they affect how quickly water
returns to the river?
Explain how each of these factors will affect drainage
density. Insert you answer in a textbox.

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Flood Controls
Reduce run-off in the upper areas of the
river by ensuring that the slopes are
covered with vegetation.

Use terraces and contour ploughing in


farmlands to help control surface runoff.
Build dams to control the flow of water
through an area.

Dont build
settlements in areas
below the floodline.

Flooding in Australia

Build levees that can withstand the


pressure and high water levels.
Build larger channels and divert water
away from certain areas.
Powerpoint

Coastal flooding

Activity 4: Causes and impacts of floods

Factors Influencing Infiltration Schuters Pg 144

Activity 1: Direct and indirect run-off

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Oxford
Pg.116

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Learning objectives

What is a drainage basin?


How does the drainage basin system operate?
Factors affecting run-off and infiltration in a drainage
basin.
Drainage Basin Management.
Stream Order.
Laminar and Turbulent flow.
What is a flood hydrograph?
What factors influence the shape of a flood hydrograph?

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Mgeni Drainage Basin

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Schuters pg 182 and 183

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Learning objectives

What is a Drainage Basin?


How does the drainage basin system operate?
Factors affecting run-off and infiltration in a Drainage
Basin.
Drainage Basin Management.
Stream Order.
Laminar and Turbulent flow.
What is a flood hydrograph?
What factors influence the shape of a flood hydrograph?

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Stream order
A method of classifying or ordering the
hierarchy of natural channels.
Strahler (1957) is the most widely used
system.
See GIS stream
ordering
www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/chap1.html

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Law of Stream Numbers and Law of Basin areas.

The law
There
is of
a fairly
stream
fixed
numbers
regularity
states
withthat
which
the the
higher
areathe
of stream
a drainage
order
basin
the fewer
increases
the number
from one
of
stream order
tributaries
e.g.tothere
the next
will always
this is known
be more
as stream
the laworder
of basin
ones
areas.
than [twos
The fixed
in a given
regularity
drainage
is 4,7
times]
basin.
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Calculation of area according to the squares method


Count the number of WHOLE squares
that fall within the outline

1 cm
1cm

Number of squares fully


covered = 18
Count the number of squares covered
by + half
Number of squares covered
by +half = 7
Total number of square covered =25
Area of one square = LXB
= 1cm x 1cm
= ,5 km X ,5 Km = ,25 square Km
Area of 25 squares
= ,25 X ,25 = 6,25 square Km

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Calculation of Drainage Density


Stream order at X = 4
1 cm
1 cm

Number of squares
fully covered = 42

Number of squares cove


by more
than half = 13
Total number of
Squares = 55
Area of 1 square
=LXB
= 1cm X 1cm
= ,5 km X ,5 km
= ,25 square km
Area of 55 squares
= 55 x ,25 sq. km
= 14 sq. km
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Learning objectives

What is a drainage basin?


How does the drainage basin system operate?
Factors affecting run-off and infiltration in a drainage
basin.
Drainage Basin Management.
Stream Ordering.
Laminar and Turbulent Flow.

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Laminar Flow

River-bed is level and even

Turbulent Flow

Water flows in layers

Water in contact with the bed and banks flows slowly due
to friction
Successive layers achieve greater speeds. Fastest
speeds occur in the middle just below the surface
Water travels faster, but there is less erosion since
the lower layers protect the river channel.

River-bed is uneven and steep


Water continually changes levels and flows with a
bubbling action
Lots of erosion takes place, because the sand
particles are lifted by water.

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What do you know about drainage basins?

Source:
Source:http://www.boardworks.co.uk/
http://www.boardworks.co.uk/
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