You are on page 1of 52

RADIATION AND WASTE SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE

PROFILE (RaWaSIP)

Mongolia

Prepared by:
The Regulatory Infrastructure and Transport Safety Section
Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety Division

For Internal Use Only

Radiation and Waste Safety Infrastructure Profiles (RaWaSIPs) provide a summary of


information on the radiation and waste safety infrastructure in Member States receiving
Agency assistance for which the International Basic Safety Standards and other related
standards are therefore to be applied. This document has been prepared using various
available resources such as end-of-mission reports, internal travel reports, peer review
missions, Radiation Safety and Security Infrastructure Appraisal Missions, IRRS reports,
Member States' inputs and other relevant information made available through official
correspondence and Agency databases.
RaWaSIPs are, for the time being, prepared for confidential use only, and are intended as
basic reference material for the Agency's Staff as a tool for proactively identifying needs
and prioritising assistance to a Member State in conjunction with the Action Plan for that
country and also for briefing material. Although great care has been taken to maintain the
accuracy of information contained in the manuscript, the views expressed do not
necessarily reflect those of the Agency.
Formal periodic updating is foreseen once new relevant sources of information are
available, in particular when an Appraisal mission has taken place. Thus, depending on
the date of preparation or update of the current profile, the information contained
therein does not necessarily reflect the latest status.

DETAILS SECTION
TSA1 - Regulatory Infrastructure
Legislation
The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (hereafter
referred to as the law), was enacted on 16 July 2009, that supersedes the Law on Radiation Protection
and Safety of 2001 . The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Law. The
Law assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). From 2003 to 31 December 2008,
the regulatory body was part of the State Specialized Inspection Agency (is changed General Agency for
State Inspection). The potential for uranium mining and nuclear power production are two issues that
precipitated the passing of this law.
The Nuclear Energy Commission of Mongolia has the responsibility to regulate and coordinate
activities on exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy, introduction of nuclear technology,
development of research and ensuring nuclear and radiation safety. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is
the Chairman of the Commission. The head of the state administrative authority in charge of nuclear
energy affairs is the Deputy Chairman of the Commission which has 15 members represented from
different ministries and competent authorities.
The NEA assumes the role of the State Administrative Agency specified in the Law. The team was
informed that this is based on:

Governmental Decision no.64 (2008) on establishment of the governmental regulatory and


implementation agencies, which lists NEA as the regulatory body for radiation and nuclear
safety under the Prime Minister.
Governmental Decision no.138 (2009) adopted Rule on State Control on Nuclear and
Radiation which detailed regulatory functions and responsibilities of NEA as the regulatory
body.
Parliament Decision no.45 (2009) which assigns the role of implementing the State Policy to
NEA.

The Nuclear Energy Law also has provisions relating to monitoring radioactivity in foodstuffs,
environment, consumer products, etc. which are not directly related to the regulation of practices. The
Nuclear Energy Law has a provision on full rights of Government, which adopt general rules,
procedures and instructions on exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy, introduction of
nuclear technology and ensuring radiation safety.
The Law of Mongolia on State Inspection (2003) and the Law on License for Commercial Activity
(2001), which are general laws for licensing and inspection, are applicable to the SSIA (is changed
General Agency for State Inspection). Accordingly, the SSIA is the overall NRRA for many activities
with the NRRA being the regulatory unit with respect to radiation safety. The Law also has provisions
relating to monitoring radioactivity in foodstuffs, environment, consumer products, etc. which are not

directly related to the regulation of practices. These are important support activities for the regulatory
functions.
Also, the Law on Mongolias Nuclear-Weapon-Free Status (2000), the Law on Toxic and Hazardous
Chemicals (2000) and Criminal Code (2001) have articles concerning ionizing radiation sources. The
United Nations General Assembly adopted its Resolution on Mongolia's international security and
nuclear weapon - free status.
In May, 2011, Mongolia hosted the Workshop on the Legal Framework for Nuclear Safety, Security,
Safeguards and Civil Liability jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the
Nuclear Energy Agency of Mongolia. The IAEA suggested that Mongolia should review and revise, as
necessary, its Law on Nuclear Energy, as well as other subordinate legislation considering Mongolia
plans to increase its nuclear activities (i.e., uranium mining and milling). The IAEA can provide
additional assistance in the development of Mongolias legal and regulatory framework for nuclear
safety, security, and safeguards.
The current organizational structure of NEA is shown in Fig.1 below.

Fig.1 NEA organizational structure


Conclusions:
The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (hereafter
referred to as the law), was enacted on 16 July 2009, that supersedes the Law on Radiation Protection
and Safety 2001. The potential for uranium mining and nuclear power production are two issues that

precipitated the passing of the Nuclear Energy Law. It assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy
Agency (NEA). The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Law.
Governmental Decision no.138 (2009) adopted Rule on State Control on Nuclear and Radiation
which detailed regulatory functions and responsibilities of NEA as the regulatory body.
The Nuclear Energy Law also has provisions relating to monitoring radioactivity in foodstuffs,
environment, consumer products, etc.
Parliament Decision no.45 (2009) which assigns the role of implementing the State Policy to NEA.
Additionally, the NEA Director General has issued two Decisions: One on the categorization on the
radioactive sources, and another one on the prohibition of storing disused radioactive sources in the
premises of the licensees. This decision states that all such disused sources have to be stored at NEA`s
waste storage facility in the Isotope Centre.
Regulations and Guidance
The radiation protection regulations that are in force are:

The Radiation Safety Standard (1983),


Basic Regulation on Radiation Sanitation (1983), and
Transport Regulation for Radioactive Sources (1987).

Transport Regulation for Radioactive Sources is in a draft stage awaiting approval.


These regulations are still in force and pre-dates the Nuclear Energy Law. The drafts of 5 updated
regulations for IAEA BSS conformity have been prepared.
A Code of Practice for Diagnostic radiology was approved in 2010.
In addition to the regulations, the Licensing Procedures for Exploration and Mining-Related Practices
for Radioactive Ore were adopted by the General Agency for State Inspection Chairmans Decree No/
203, dated 6 June 2005.
The Radiation Safety Regulations for Radioactive Waste with a high content of naturally occurring
radionuclides from Gas-Oil production is in a draft stage awaiting approval. The following regulations
and codes of practice are in draft form:

National Radiation Safety Standards,


Basic Regulations on Radiation Protection and Safety,
Waste Management Regulation,
Regulation on Radiation Safe Transport,
Regulation on Packaging and Labeling of Radioactive Material, and

A Code of practice for moisture and density gauge and a Code of practice for X-ray for customs are
respectively in 2011 and 2013. There is a Code of Practice for industrial radiography.

A Regulation of Licensing Procedure for related practices of Radioactive Sources was approved by the
Nuclear Energy Agency for General inspector`s Decree No/115, dated 21 August 2014.
A Guidance of Workplace Monitoring Inspection for Radioactive Sources and X-ray equipments is in
draft stage awaiting approval.
A Code of practice for teletherapy and brachytherapy also exists; however, there are no specific
regulatory requirements that apply to these modalities.
NEA recognizes that they have to be updated in order to comply with the BSS.
It was mentioned in chapter 1 that several clauses in the Law require compliance with national and
international standards. International standards are interpreted as to include IAEA safety standards only,
and in case of conflicts, the international standards have over national standards.
A set of standards relating to ionizing radiation exists in Mongolia. These standards are issued by the
National Standardization and Measurement Agency, though several organizations may be involved in
their preparation.
The following list of standards was provided to the team by the counterpart:
-

Radiation protection: Radiation dose limits MNS 5631:2006


Surface contamination limit MNS 5630:2006
Permissible concentration of radon indoors MNS 5627:2006
Method of quality control for diagnostic radiology MNS 5391:2004
Ceramic bricks and stones. Technical requirements MNS 138:99
Drinking water, hygienic requirements and quality control /Radiation safety requirements for
water MNS 900:2005/
Determination of Radioactive elements content in plant (content in food (meat and milk)
products of animals by Gamma Spectrometer`s method MNS 5076:2001
Determination of Radioactive elements content in plant (grain, crops, potatoes, vegetable crops,
orchard) products Gamma spectrometer`s method MNS 5069:2001
Radioactive elements content in building materials, soil, coal and earth crust by Gamma
spectrometer`s method MNS 5626:2006
Gamma spectrometry method for determination of radon concentration in water MNS
5632:2006
Nuclear track solid state detector method for determination of radon concentration in water
MNS 5629:2006
Liquid scintillation method for determination of radon concentration in water MNS 5628:2006
Radiation protection. Charcoal canister method for determination of radon concentration in
indoors MNS 5625:2006
Radiation protection. Method of thermo-luminescent dosimetry. MNS 5518:2005
Individual thermo-luminescence dosimetry method for the eyes and the extremities organ MNS
ISO 12794:2002
Radiation protection-clothing for protection against radioactive contamination-design selection,
testing and use MNS ISO 8194:2001
Basic ionizing radiation symbol MNS ISO 361:2001
General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. MNS ISO/IES
17025:2002

Conclusions:
A Code of Conduct for Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources is renewed with regard Basic Safety
Standards of IAEA. This Code of Conduct is in draft stage awaiting approval.
Regulatory Body Establishment and Independence
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) regulatory agency of the Government of Mongolia was
established by the Law on Nuclear Energy, promulgated on 16 July 2009, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
The Government of Mongolia established the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) under the competence of
the Prime Minister by the governmental decision no.64 (24 December 2008). The previous regulatory
body (NRA) has been restructured and transferred from SSIA (is changed General Agency for State
Inspection) into NEA as the Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Authority (NRRA) by the governmental
decision no.64 (January 2009) on Strategy for activities and establishment of NEA structure.
NRRA consists of three organizational departments: Radiation Regulatory Department, Nuclear
Regulatory Department, Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory.
The Radiation Regulatory Department regulates all radiation activities with the exception of activities
associated with the exploration and mining of radioactive ores, which is the responsibility of the
Nuclear Regulatory Department. The Radiation Control Laboratory (RCL) undertakes environmental
and food sampling on behalf of the Government, and undertakes some technical services work for
private companies and radiation users. The team was informed that the dosimetry and calibration
laboratory was moved to the RCL recently.
Looking back at the regulatory body history, the team recognized that frequent organizational changes
have taken place over the last years. The regulatory functions were assigned to NRA under NEC in
1997. NRA was moved in 2003 to SSIA (is changed General Agency for State Inspection), and again in
2009 to the newly established NEA. Internally NEA has been going through several organizational
changes and reassignment of staff in key positions since its establishment. The team noticed also that an
organizational change has taken place just before the mission through which the dosimetry and
calibration laboratory was moved to NRRA and merged with the radiation control laboratory.
The current organizational structure of NRRA is shown in Fig.2 below.
Fig.2 NRRA organizational structure
The NEA is the regulatory agency for nuclear policy and for providing radiation protection and
inspection, control and waste safety and prepares documents and issues approvals or licenses for
activities with ionizing radiation sources and uranium mining for the country.
The Law addresses such issues as license applications, issuance of authorizations, inspections, import
and export controls, transportation of radioactive material, occupational monitoring requirements,
medical exposures, and occupational exposures. However, the NRRA does not have the ability to issue
regulations or a direct link with the Government, a Minister or the Prime Minister with the appropriate
power to make regulations.

The lack of an effectively independent regulatory body was identified during the 2007 RaSIA Mission.
The bases for this finding as described in para. 1.49 of the 2007 RaSIA report and in this report, have
not been addressed. Furthermore, the situation regarding regulatory independence has potentially been
worsened by the incorporation of the NRRA into the NEA, an organization that has, both promotional
and regulatory responsibilities concerning radiation and radiation sources.
The Nuclear Energy Law also has provisions relating to monitoring radioactivity in foodstuffs,
environment, consumer products, etc.
Parliament Decision no.45 (2009) adopted the State Policy of Mongolia on the Exploitation of
Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy.
The Nuclear Energy Law assigned responsibility to the NEA and the State Administrative Authority in
charge of nuclear energy affairs shall fulfill functions such as :

To implement State Policy on Exploitation of Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy,


utilization of nuclear technology and development of nuclear research,
To ensure nuclear and radiation protection and safety,
To implement professional control and inspection,
To take measures to have revealed violations eliminated,
To supervise implementation of international treaties of Mongolia,
To grant, suspend and invalidate special licenses,
To approve rules of safe operation of nuclear material, radiation sources, radioactive minerals,
and radiation generator,
To prepare jointly with relevant competent authorities and put control over execution of the
contingency plan for preventing probable nuclear and radiation accident, eliminating accident
consequences and undertaking measures during accident,
To obtain information and documents required for execution of function specified in law from a
relevant person and, if need, involve professional institution and experts for inspection
To keep state register of nuclear material and radiation generators, provide occupational
exposure control and maintain database of occupational dose,
To keep control in cooperation with relevant organizations over nuclear material, radiation
generating instrument, equipment, transport means to cross state frontiers and undertake
measures for ensuring their protection and safety,
To implement jointly with relevant professional organization works on inspection-analysis of
radiation level of environment, consumer goods, material, foodstuff, drinking water and
construction material, and determine whether they negatively influence human health and
undertake measures on securing quality assurance, and
To cooperate with foreign states and international organizations in accordance with legislation.

Conclusions:
The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Nuclear Energy Law was enacted
on 16 July 2009, that superseded the Law of Mongolia on Radiation Protection and Safety. The Law
assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA).

The Law addresses such issues as license applications, issuance of authorizations, inspections, import
and export controls, transportation of radioactive material, occupational monitoring requirements,
medical exposures, and occupational exposures. However, the NRRA does not have the ability to issue
regulations or a direct link with the Government, a Minister or the Prime Minister with the appropriate
power to make regulations.
The lack of an effectively independent regulatory body has potentially been worsened by the
incorporation of the NRRA into the NEA, an organization that has both promotional and regulatory
responsibilities concerning radiation and radiation sources.
Regulatory Body Staffing and Training
At the time, NRRA has approximately 35 staff members. 16 staff members are working in the Radiation
Regulatory Department and 7 staff members are working in the Nuclear Regulatory Department. NRRA
does not use the services of consultants to undertake any of its functions. The staff qualifications are
described in the NEA job descriptions. The regulatory staff must pass qualification and legal exams
including trustworthiness checks in accordance with the Mongolian Law on Civil Servants.
The NRRA in-house training program is not sufficiently comprehensive or structured and neither does it
ensure that staff members are kept aware of technological developments and new principles and
concepts, in particular in the areas of internal exposure and uranium mining. There is a heavy reliance
on IAEA training programs and training material for the training of regulatory staff. Most of the staff
has attended internal and external training.
Conclusions:
The NRRA does not employ sufficient staff to properly fulfill its regulatory obligations.
Regulatory Body Funding
The state shall finance the NEA from its budget and ensure economic guarantee of its operation. The
budget of the NEA shall meet requirements for full implementation of duties and purposes assumed by
the law.
The funds received from licensing fees and other technical services are not provided to the NRRA nor
are they related to the annual budgetary needs of the NRRA. The license and technical service fees are
paid directly to the Government, which in turn funds the NEA.
The NEA finance department prepares a draft budget with input from NRRA. However, the NRRAs
resource needs are not adequately met by the NEA and this has an impact on staffing and the ability of
the NRRA to carry out its regulatory functions, particularly outside of the capital city.
The building (personnel, administrative and library) provisions are not adequately suited for the current
requirements of the NRRA. The NRRA does not have sufficient radiation monitoring instruments to
adequately detect, characterize and measure all the types of radiation nor does it have the access to
appropriate and accredited laboratory facilities to assist in this regard.
Conclusions:

The funding provided to the NRRA is independent of fees collected (authorization and inspection) and
other technical service charges. NRRA is not appropriately resourced with respect to the radiation
monitoring and survey instruments to adequately detect, characterize and measure all the types of
radiation and calibration and the full suite of monitoring and testing equipment including related
services.
Funding of the regulatory functions seems generally adequate. The team was informed that NRRA has
enough equipment for its inspections. These equipments were partially funded through governmental
funds and partly through US and IAEA donations. The availability of maintenance services for this
equipment in Mongolia is limited.
Coordination and Cooperation at the National Level
The NRRA advises and cooperates with other relevant national authorities in relation to the
implementation of its regulatory program Ministry of the Nature and Green development, Ministry of
Health, Customs, Border Protection Agency, General Agency for State Inspection, National Emergency
Management Agency, Mineral Resource Authority and other relevant agencies.
The relationship with the GASI`s Border Specialized Inspection Department is also good. We have
arrangements are in place for information exchange on the import and export of radiation sources.
The NEA has cooperated with Cabinet Secretariat of Prime Minister and National Security Committee,
which is headed by the President of Mongolia.
The NRRA has optimised resources and used the services of other General Agency for State
Inspection`s inspectors to carry out some simple tasks such as sampling or follow-up inspections.
Further, the NRRA has made the following efforts to ensure national coordination and cooperation:

In August 2007, a draft Waste Management Program for Mongolia was developed in cooperation
with NEA of the Isotope Centre and an IAEA external expert.
The license for import issued by the NRRA specifies which port of entry will be used for entry
into Mongolia and the Customs Officer checks this at the point of entry.
A national emergency management plan articulates the roles and responsibilities of the different
agencies including the NRRA. Examples of management of radiological incidents in Mongolia
have revealed that current arrangements are working.

The NEA signed Memorandum of Understanding with National Emergency Management Agency
(NEMA) in 2013. All hazards disaster or emergency responses in Mongolia coordinated by the NEMA.
The NEA has the responsibility to ensure that emergency preparedness and response arrangements are
in place for Nuclear and radiation related facilities/practices.
Conclusions:
The NRRA has established mechanisms for cooperation and coordination with many relevant national
bodies.
The NRRA advises and cooperates with other relevant national authorities in relation to the
implementation of its regulatory program with the Ministry of the Nature and Green development,

Ministry of Health, Customs, Border Protection Agency, General Agency for State Inspection, National
Emergency Management Agency and other relevant agencies.
International Cooperation
The State of Mongolia, with the assistance of the NRRA, does have some arrangements for the
exchange of safety related information with China and Russia through the respective Border
Professional Inspectorate and Customs Offices. The NRRA participates in the Regional Cooperation
Agreement. However, there do not appear to be international agreements with other countries.
The State of Mongolia has been an IAEA Member State since 1973 and is part of the following:
IAEA Multilateral Agreements
Title

In Force Status

P&I

Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of 1976-01- acceptance: 1976-01-12


the IAEA
12

VC

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for


Nuclear Damage

Non-Party

VC/OP

Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory


Settlement of Disputes

Non-Party

CPPNM

Convention on the Physical Protection of1987-02- Signature: 1986-01-23


Nuclear Material
08
ratification: 1986-05-28

CPPNME

Amendment to the Convention on the Physical


Protection of Nuclear Material

NOT

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear1987-07- Signature: 1987-01-08


Accident
12
ratification: 1987-06-11

ASSIST

Convention on Assistance in the Case of a 1987-07- Signature: 1987-01-08


Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency 12
ratification: 1987-06-11

JP

Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the


Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

Non-Party

NS

Convention on Nuclear Safety

Non-Party

RADW

Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel


Management and on the Safety of Radioactive
Waste Management

Non-Party

PVC

Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on


Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

Non-Party

SUPP

Convention on Supplementary Compensation


for Nuclear Damage

Non-Party

RSA

Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning1980-07- Signature: 1980-07-24


the Provision of Technical Assistance by the24
IAEA (RSA)

RCA

Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional2002-05-

Non-Party

Co-operative
Agreement
for
Research,22
Development and Training Related to Nuclear
Science and Technology (RCA)

acceptance: 2002-05-22

AFRA

African Regional Co-operative Agreement for


Research, Development and Training Related to
Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) Third Extension

Non-Party

ARCAL

Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of


Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin
America and the Caribbean (ARCAL)

Non-Party

ARASIA

Co-operative Agreement for Arab States in Asia


for Research, Development and Training
Related to Nuclear Science and Technology
(ARASIA)

Non-Party

Safeguards Agreements
Reg.No

Title

In Force Status

941

Application of safeguards in connection with1972-09- Signature: 1972-07-17


the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear 05
Weapons (with Protocol)

1752

Protocol Additional to the Agreement between2003-05- Signature: 2001-12-05


Mongolia and the International Atomic Energy12
Agency for the Application of Safeguards in
Connection with the Treaty on the NonProliferation of Nuclear Weapons

Country name

Organization name

International
organization

Joint institute for Nuclear


Research

International
organization

IAEA

International
organization

Region of Asian, Pacific


ocean Nuclear science,
technology research, training
centre

Russian federation

Title

In Force

Agreement

26 March 1956

Program

20 September
1973

Treaty

19 October 1992

Government

Agreement

14 November
2000

Russian federation

Government

Agreement

25 August 2009

French Republic

Government

Agreement

14 October 2010

United States of
America

Government

Memorandum of
Understanding

22 September
2010

European Union

European Union

Agreement

30 April 2013

Russian federation

Rosatom corporation

Agreement

17 March 2009

Russian federation

Rosatom corporation

Memorandum of
Understanding

13 May 2009

Russian federation

Rosatom corporation

Agreement

Russian federation

Rosatom corporation

Memorandum of
Understanding

06 June 2012

Ministry of Economy, trade


and industrial
Natural resources and Energy
agency

Memorandum of
Understanding

14 December
2010

Republic of India

Atomic energy agency of


Governmental of India

Memorandum of
Understanding

14 September
2009

French Republic

Areva group

Memorandum of
Understanding

05 October 2009

People's Republic of
China

National nuclear corporation


of China

Memorandum of
Understanding

01 June 2010

Republic of Korea

Ministry of Education and


Science technology

Memorandum of
Understanding

24 March 2011

Republic of Korea

Atomic Energy Research


Centre of Korea

Memorandum of
Understanding

30 December
2010

Republic of Korea

Ministry of Education and


Economy

Memorandum of
Understanding

22 August 2011

Republic of Korea

Nuclear Transmutation
Energy Research centre,
University of Seoul

Memorandum of
Understanding

Czech Republic

Ministry of Trade and


industrial

Memorandum of
Understanding

French Republic

French Republic of Atomic


and Renewable Energy

10
11
12

13

14
15
16
17
18
19

Japan

20
21
22

Treaty

14 December
2010

28 November
2011
19 December
2012
02 September

Mongolia is not party to the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Joint Convention on the Safety of
Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. However, the team was
informed that internal discussions and preparations are ongoing for Mongolia to join these two
instruments.
In 2011, Mongolia has joined the Fifth Agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement
for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology.
Conclusions:
In the recent years, Mongolia has intensified its participation in bilateral and regional agreements on the
peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive material.
Mongolia is party to several international conventions and treaties and is considering joining the
Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and
on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.
Mongolia has not yet expressed its support to the code of conduct on Safety and security of radioactive
sources, and its associated Guidance on Import and Export of Radioactive Sources.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
The Government of Mongolia should consider expressing support to the Code of conduct on safety and
security of radioactive sources, and the supplementary guidance on import and export of radioactive
sources.
The Government of Mongolia should pursue the process of becoming party to the Convention on
Nuclear Safety and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of
Radioactive Waste Management.
Notification and National Register of Radiation Sources
NRRA has established a system of notification linked to its authorization procedures. An user has to
inform NRRA before importing, exporting, transporting and using a radiation source. However, the
team observed in discussions with GASI officials at Ulaanbaatar airport that no information on actual
import or export is sent back to NRRA by GASI or the RaSIA report, this observation demonstrates an
example of deteriorations that occurred after the establishment of NEA.
For the notification on the actual import or export, NRRA relies on feedback from the importer/exporter.
It is not clear whether or not this feedback is consistently taking place and how the notification occurs if
the import or export does not take place within the validity of the respective authorization.
When a source was to be moved within the country, the licensee had to inform the designated officer of
the General Intelligence Agency (GIA), and that officer was to notify the regulatory authority (NRA).
Team discussions with GIA officials couldn`t confirm that this continues to be the case after the
establishment of NEA.
The NRRA used to have a complete inventory of radiation sources in hard copies versions in parallel. At
that time, work was going to enter the inventory in the Regulatory Authority Information System
(version RAIS 3.1).
The NEA has organized Advanced training course on the application of RAIS 3.3 Web for
Management of Regulatory Program training course with IAEA in 18-22 August 2014, in Ulaanbaatar,
Mongolia. The training course has participated 22 participants, 12 Member states of IAEA.
The uses of radiation sources in Mongolia include:

Medical uses:279 x-ray units in 118 diagnostic and interventional radiology practices; 32 X-ray
units in 24 dental radiology practices; 2 teletherapy sources, 12 manual and 12 remote control
brachytherapy sources in 3 radiotherapy practices; and 1 nuclear medicine practice (diagnostic
only).
Industrial and research uses; 27 sources (27 x 593 Ci 60Co) in 1 irradiator facility; 1 gamma
source and 2 X-ray sources in 2 industrial radiography practices ; 120 fixed and 13
portable/mobile industrial gauges in 13 practices; 37 well logging devices in 3 practices; 5 X-ray
diffraction units in 9 practices using, 11 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy units and 23 other
sources used for analysis; 111 sealed sources and generators used in 15 practices involving
research activities; 53 mineral extraction and processing facilities involving significant exposure
to natural radiation; 3 veterinary radiology practices using 4 sources for diagnostic purposes;
There are also reported to be a total of 2667 disused souces: 180 radiotherapy sources, 2
industrial radiography sources, 67 sources used for well logging, 387 industrial gauge sources,
68 sources used foe calibration, 63 sources used in analytical techniques, 41 sources that have
been collected but not identified and 1859 other sources (smoke detectors).

There are also reported to be a total of 2599 disused sources: 180 radiotherapy sources, 2 industrial
radiography sources, 67 sources used for well logging, 387 industrial gauge sources, 63 sources used in
analytical techniques, 41 sources that have been collected but not identified and 1859 other sources
(smoke detectors).
The irradiator at the Institute of Physics which was established in 1977 with 27 x 593 Ci 60Co sources is
no longer being used due a mechanical system failure. The sources are stored in a facility in a manner
which is unsafe and un-secure. Board of the Institute is trying to find the best way to maintain this
problem and to reuse this irradiator for research purposes. The Waste Storage Facility contains an
assortment of radioactive sources (755 sources and 1844 smoke detectors) and contaminated soil. There
are some uranium tailing and legacy issues associated with previous mining for uranium, operated by
the Russians from 1988 to 1995.
There are some legacy issues associated with previous mining for uranium, operated by the Russians
from 1988 to 1995.
At present, there are no nuclear power plants or other nuclear cycle facilities in Mongolia. However, the
Government is exploring this possibility quite strongly including the recommencing uranium mining.
There is a national register of radiation facilities and sources. RAIS is being made operational.
However, a complete list of radiation sources in the State (including category 1 and 2 sources) is
maintained in hard copy by the NRRA.
Authorization
The NRRA uses a risk based approach for licensing and registration. All sources that meet the
exemption requirements are registered and all other sources are licensed. The NRRA uses exemption
levels from the BSS and Radiation Safety Standard (1983). The NRRA has not established a specific
program of authorization for the import, export and transshipment of radioactive sources consistent with
the Code of Conducts Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources; it requires export
and import licenses based on the Law.

Application forms have been developed for different practices. Guidance documents have also been
prepared for common radiation practices and are being placed on the NRRA website. However, specific
written guidance has not been developed for the less common practices and for these the NRRA
provides oral guidance.
Application forms are assessed using a check list developed by the NRRA. This assessment is reviewed
by a senior inspector before a license is issued. License applications for complex practices are discussed
and assessed by a team of inspectors. The assessment is typically done well within the specified time
frame.
A Country Report (Myanmar RCM 2007) states that the NRA has established procedures for the
authorization of practices using radiation sources. All institutions using radiation sources have been
licensed.
The NRRA has implemented an authorization system that is inconsistent with the Law. However, to a
large measure, the authorization system complies with international standards.
Whilst not comprehensive, the NRRA has implemented an authorization program that covers all
practices and applies a risk based approach to authorization commensurate with the potential magnitude
and nature of the hazard presented by the practices, including separate requirements for registration and
licensing.
Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources
The NRRA has established a graded approach to safety, including additional requirements for high risk
sources, although there is not a formal system of categorization such as that provided in the Code of
Conduct.
Radiation Portal monitors have been installed at eight border crossings. They installed at the Altanbulag
(the main rain border crossing between Mongolia and the Russian Federation) control point, Zamiin
Uud (the main rain border crossing between Mongolia and the Republic of China) control point, Chingis
Khaan International Airport and western Bulgan, Tsagaannuur, Borshoo, Arts Suuri control point and
northern Khankh control point in 2009.
There is strict Customs control over the import of radiation sources. Some steps have been taken in
order to comply with the Code of Conduct, and the regulatory body has written agreements with the
Customs Authorities in order to control import and export.
Scrap metal dealers lack radiation monitors. It cannot be assured that the NRRA will always be able to
detect radioactive sources in railcars.
The NRA has established a graded approach to safety, including additional requirements for high risk
sources, although there is not a formal system of categorization such as that provided in the Code of
Conduct.
The NRA undertakes some activities with respect to safety of radioactive sources although the program
is not comprehensive.

There appears to be a well-established National Emergency Plan with involvement of NRA which
addresses incidents and accidents involving radioactive sources.
Inspection
The NRRA has established a planned and systematic inspection program. The inspection frequency
depends on the risks. There are planned, unplanned and unannounced inspections.
A monthly inspection program exists and is signed by the Director of NRRA. The team was informed
that the implementation rate of the inspection program is from 70 to 90 percent in average. The
inspectors have to report their implementation of the inspection programme quartly. In addition, the
implementation is monitored by NEA on an annual basis.
In addition to following the GASI General Inspection Procedure No.199 (2003), the NRRA has
additional requirements, e.g. identification of the kind of source, selection of appropriate equipment,
and a checklist according to the practice The inspectors are required to report their findings within a
specified time frame in accordance with the GASI procedure.
Inspection findings are fed back into the regulatory process as an aid to future development through
discussions at technical meetings among the inspectors and review of checklists based on experience
from inspections.
The Institute of Physics (under the Academy of Science) has an irradiator which was established in 1977
with 27 x 593 Ci 60Co sources. Following a breakdown of the lift for raising samples into the irradiator
in 1980, the irradiator was no longer used. Similarly the Waste Storage Facility contains an assortment
of radioactive sources (755 units and 1844 smoke detectors) and contaminated soil. Despite inspecting
and making recommendations in relation to the irradiator and the Waste Storage facility, the actions
specified by the NRA have not been able to be enforced as the licensees did not have the resources to
implement the regulatory actions.
The NRRA has a well-established planned and systematic inspection program that appears to be
consistent with international standards.
Enforcement
The authority for enforcement is specified in the Nuclear Energy Law and the Law of Mongolia on State
Inspection. The Nuclear energy Law has a provision on responsibility to be assumed by violator of
nuclear energy legislation. The enforcement policy has been established in the SSIA procedure, General
Inspection Procedure No. 199 (2003). This policy provides for a range of sanctions commensurate with
the seriousness of the non-compliance. The NRA has also established formal arrangements with relevant
government agencies where enforcement requires the involvement of the police, justice ministry or
other authorities.
The Nuclear Energy Law and the Law on Inspection empower inspectors to take on-the-spot
enforcement actions. Inspectors can issue prescribed monetary fines on the spot. Cancellation of
licenses and cessation of activities can both be invoked

A Country Report (Myanmar RCM 2007) states that enforcement actions are being implemented in
Mongolia. Inspectors can issue prescribed monetary fines on the spot. Cancellation of licenses and
cessation of activities can both be invoked.
The GASI also has established an enforcement policy that takes into account the seriousness of the noncompliance. The inspectors of NRRA do undertake enforcement actions although they are not always
able to ensure that the necessary corrective actions are made. This is evident in their dealing with
radioactive sources at the Institute of Physics and Isotope Centre radioactive waste store.
Information Management
The NRRA disseminates information through its website, publications and newspapers as well as
through the training courses it provides to users, Customs, and General Intelligence Agency`s officers.
There is an internal GASI procedure for dissemination of information in the case of accident or incident.
The NRRA has established and implemented procedures for the assessment of information related to an
actual incident or accident prior to its dissemination. The NRRA promotes awareness among industry,
health professionals, the public, and government bodies of the safety hazards associated with orphan
sources in accordance with the National Emergency Plan.
The NRRA has an internal procedure for management of source location information and prevents
unauthorized access to the source register through password protection in the RAIS and locking the hard
copy of the register in a safe. Backup of RAIS and a duplicate copy of the hard copy of the register and
other sensitive information are stored in a locked safe.
The NRRA undertakes activities to disseminate information although there are few written procedures.
The NRRA prevents unauthorized access to sensitive information in accordance with written
procedures.
Quality Management
The NRRA does not have comprehensive procedures, including procedures for quality management and
analysis of programme data, to ensure that it maintains an effective and efficient regulatory programme
for radiation safety.
There is no quality management system in place for regulatory activities.
RADIATION AND WASTE SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE
PROFILE (RaWaSIP)

Mongolia

Prepared by:

The Regulatory Infrastructure and Transport Safety Section


Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety Division

For Internal Use Only

Radiation and Waste Safety Infrastructure Profiles (RaWaSIPs) provide a summary of


information on the radiation and waste safety infrastructure in Member States receiving
Agency assistance for which the International Basic Safety Standards and other related
standards are therefore to be applied. This document has been prepared using various
available resources such as end-of-mission reports, internal travel reports, peer review
missions, Radiation Safety and Security Infrastructure Appraisal Missions, IRRS reports,
Member States' inputs and other relevant information made available through official
correspondence and Agency databases.
RaWaSIPs are, for the time being, prepared for confidential use only, and are intended as
basic reference material for the Agency's Staff as a tool for proactively identifying needs
and prioritising assistance to a Member State in conjunction with the Action Plan for that
country and also for briefing material. Although great care has been taken to maintain the
accuracy of information contained in the manuscript, the views expressed do not
necessarily reflect those of the Agency.
Formal periodic updating is foreseen once new relevant sources of information are
available, in particular when an Appraisal mission has taken place. Thus, depending on
the date of preparation or update of the current profile, the information contained
therein does not necessarily reflect the latest status.

DETAILS SECTION
TSA2 - Radiological Protection in Occupational Exposure

Regulatory infrastructure for occupational radiation protection


The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (hereafter
referred to as the law), was enacted on 16 July 2009, that supersedes the Law on Radiation Protection
and Safety of 2001 . The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Law. The
Law assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA).
The basic requirements for occupational exposure in the Nuclear Energy Law were in Articles 43.1-43.8
and were fully compatible with the BSS.
The Radiation Safety Standard (1983), Basic Regulation on Radiation Sanitation (1983) and Transport
Regulation for Radioactive Sources (1987) are still in force, but need updating for BSS conformity.
These regulations are to be supplemented by specific codes of practice, to be issued by the regulatory
authority. Several standards related to ORP were issued between 2002 and 2006. The allocation of
responsibilities between employees and registrant or licensee has been established and is defined in
local rules and personal working instructions.
The Law of Mongolia on State Inspection (2003) and the Law of Mongolia on Licensing (2001), which
are general laws for licensing and inspection of radioactive sources are applicable for the NRRA of
NEA. NRRA consists of three organizational departments: Radiation Regulatory Department (RRD),
Nuclear Regulatory Department (NRD), Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory (RCCL).
The radiation protection regulations that are in force are:

The Radiation Safety Standard (1983)


Basic Regulation on Radiation Sanitation (1983),
Transport Regulation for Radioactive Sources (1987).

These however, pre-date the Law. The dose limits in the Radiation Safety Standard (1983) have been
superseded by the Mongolian National Standard MNS 5631:2006 and MNS 5630:2006.
Standards are mandatory in the Mongolian legal system. Following standards that may also be
applicable in the occupational radiation protection context are available.

Surface contamination limit MNS 5630:2006

Permissible concentration of radon indoors MNS 5627:2006

Laboratory gamma spectrometers method MNS 5626:2006

Radiation protection. Method of termoluminescent dosimetry. MNS 5518:2005

Individual termoluminescence dosimetry method for the eyes and the extremities organ
MNS ISO 12794:2002

Radiation protection-clothing for protection against radioactive contamination-design


selection, testing and use MNS ISO 8194:2001

General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. MNS
ISO/IES 17025:2002

The findings indicate that basic requirements for occupational exposure were fully compatible with the
BSS under the repealed law on Radiation Protection and Safety (2001). It is unclear if the new Nuclear
Energy Law (2009) has fully adopted the occupational radiation protection requirements and continues
to be compatible with BSS and GSR Part 1. It is also not clear if the dose limits in the Mongolian
National Standard MNS 5631:2006 and MNS 5630:2006 are compatible with BSS 115. If It would
appear that an occupational radiation protection framework is in place in the Country however, its
compatibility with International Standards is not able to be confirmed.

Individual monitoring for external radiation sources


The centralized dosimetry service is provided by the Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of the
Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Authority (NRRA) of the NEA.
The monitoring program currently only takes beta, X-ray and gamma-radiation into account. About 98
% of the radiation workers are registered 178 organizations. At September 2014, radiation workers are
of 145 organizations. Exposure from neutron sources is not currently monitored.
The NRRA has 21 inspectors and 2 radiation officers for regulatory control plus 15 staff for technical
services, individual dosimetry (3), and food & environmental monitoring. The dosimetry service was reestablished in 1993 with assistance of an IAEA TC project and started to use Vinten TLD Equipment
(TLD reader TOLEDO) and two element LiF-100 teflon pellet cards for monitoring occupational
exposure. The IAEA supplied a Harshaw 4500 TLD system in 1999 together with accessories such as an
annealing oven, a control beta source of 90Sr-Y type and additional dosimeter cards for whole body and
extremity dosimetry. Both systems are now operational. Additionally, electronic dosimeters of various
types are available. The RML participated in 2 IAEA-organized photon dosimetry intercomparisons in
1996, and 2004 and 2013, Algeria /SSDL/ in 2013, Malaysia Nuclear Agency /SSDL/ in 2013 with
satisfactory results. A type test has been performed but no approval test, and performance tests are
carried out irregularly.
A QA program has not been introduced yet.
The calibration facility (working space, secondary standards, standard radiation types and qualities,
other equipment, procedures) is basic and needs to be updated and expanded. There are limitations to

both dosimetry and the technical capability for checking instruments used in most areas of radiation
practices.
The monitoring interval is usually one month for radiation workers. Insufficient information is available
on the reference levels and the actions taken when these levels are exceeded.
The NRRA maintains dose information and personal data for 50 years after the employees have ceased
working with ionizing radiation. Dose records are being maintained by the NRRA on a computer
spreadsheet that is backed up on floppy disks or CDs. The Regulatory Authority Information System
(RAIS-III version) has been used for dose record keeping of radiation workers since 2005. The NRRA
evaluates the individual dose monthly and sends the results to the employers. Additionally, once per
year, the workers receive a full report containing the dose results for one calendar year.
Neither the dosimetry service nor the dose record keeping have been approved by appropriate
governmental departments.
The regulatory requirements and infrastructure for occupational radiation protection are in place and
appear to have considered some requirements specified in RS-G- 1.3 Assessment of Occupational
Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation in the provision of external monitoring service. 98% of
workers are reported to be monitored for gamma, X-rays and Beta radiation. Neutron dosimetry is not
available. However, full information about monitoring programme, operational aspects, etc. of the
dosimetry service have not been provided.
The country has also reported limitations in terms of dosimetry and technical capabilities. Further, a
QA program has not yet been introduced and the dosimetry service and record keeping systems have not
been approved by appropriate governmental departments.
It is unclear if the merging of the dosimetry and calibration laboratory with the radiation control
laboratory has addressed some of the reported limitations and improved performance capability of the
dosimetry service in Mongolia.
Individual monitoring for intake radionuclides
There is no service or laboratory providing measurement of doses due to internal exposure in Mongolia.
Given the development of nuclear technology, uranium exploration and other mining activities in
Mongolia, a service for individual monitoring for the intake of radionuclides and the control of internal
exposure needs to be established, especially in mining and the processing of ores.
There is little available in the way of manpower and staff training, expert service and laboratory and
equipment.
Mongolia participated in the regional activities; Workshop of the Asia Region ALARA Network,
October 2010, Australia. Regional training course on occupational radiation protection in medical
applications, November 2010, Jordan.
There is no service or laboratory providing measurement of doses due to internal exposure in Mongolia.
It would appear that due to current uranium exploration and other mining activities in Mongolia, this
service should be established.

Workplace monitoring
Working areas have been identified and dose levels to identify supervised and controlled areas exist.
The RL of the NRA has the capacity to measure photon, beat and thermal neutron dose rates, as well as
alpha, beta and photon contamination.
The NRA has established a workplace monitoring programme which complies with IAEA standards.
The required workplace monitoring is not carried out in all practices.
The testing and calibration of measuring equipments is not in place. The service has not been approved
by appropriate governmental departments. A QA program has not been introduced yet.
No further information is available on the topic.
A program of workplace monitoring for occupational protection of workers appears to be in place.
Radiation levels appear to have been established to identify supervised and controlled. While the
Country has reported that appropriate equipment and expertise appears to exist with the regulatory body,
there appears to be deficiency in terms of testing and calibration of measuring equipment. Workplace
monitoring is provided during the inspection procedure from NRRA inspection procedure. The rationale
has not been provided. There is also insufficient information about the adherence or the capability of the
licensees in terms of workplace monitoring. It is also unclear if other service providers besides RML is
available to provide the service.
Services providers
The Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and radiation Regulatory Authority
(NRRA) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in Mongolia is the centralized dosimetry service
provider and covers about 99 % of the exposed workers (total ~; 1200 out of the 1268, mainly in
diagnostic radiology) usually on a one month basis. The dosimetry service was re-established in 1993
with assistance of an IAEA TC project and started to use Vinten TLD Equipment (TLD reader
TOLEDO) and two element LiF-100 teflon pellet cards for monitoring occupational exposure. The
IAEA supplied a Harshaw 4500 TLD system in 1999 together with accessories such as an annealing
oven, a control beta source of 90Sr-Y type and additional dosimeter cards for whole body and extremity
dosimetry. Both systems are now operational. Additionally, electronic dosimeters of various types and
extremity are available. The RL participated in 2 IAEA-organized photon dosimetry intercomparisons in
1996, 2004 and 2013 with satisfactory results. A type test has been performed but no approval test, and
performance tests are carried out irregularly.
The calibration facility (working space, secondary standards, standard radiation types and qualities,
other equipment, procedures) is basic and needs to be updated and expanded.
The Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory (RCCL) is part of the Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory
Authority (NRRA) of NEA. The RCCL undertakes environmental and food sampling on behalf of the
government, and undertakes some technical services work for private companies and radiation. The
objective of the Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory (RCCL) is to confirm that the public and
occupational exposure is within the acceptable levels. Basic facilities are available for alpha, beta, and
gamma monitoring using a variety of equipment, including high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The

main activities of the RCCL is to determine the radioactivity concentration of natural and artificial
radionuclides in different species of environmental samples (foodstuff, sediment, soil, water, dairy
products, building materials, rocks, effluent waste produced by mining industry and mining samples), in
addition to the measurement of radon concentration in workplaces. The RCCL performs various
analysis for state and private organizations throughout the country.
Staff of RCCL

Head of the laboratory


Quality manager
Technical manager
Senior specialist
Radiation specialists - 11

Facilities and equipment


Measuring equipment is scattered in two laboratories (first and second floor of the NEA old building).
Table 1 shows a list of the detection systems.
System

In use Since

Type of analysis

2011

Determination of natural and artificial isotopes in


Food stuffs, building materials, water, soil, coal,
ash, ore, enriched samples.

2013

Determination of natural and artificial isotopes in


Food stuffs, building materials, water, soil, coal,
ash, ore, enriched samples.

2014

Determination of natural and artificial isotopes in


Food stuffs, building materials, water, soil, coal,
ash, ore, enriched samples.

1989

Determination of natural and artificial isotopes in


Food stuffs

Alpha spectrometry
(4 alpha chamber)

2010

NA sample preparation

LB 200 Gross Gamma


Counter

1988

Gross Gamma of foodstuff and water samples

Radon Measurement
System RAD-7

2010

Radon in Air, Water and Soil

HARSHAW TLD 4500

2000

Personal monitoring

UNIFORS XI (X-ray
detection equipments)

2009

Quality Assurance and Quality Control in


Diagnostic X-Ray equipments

EPSILON 5
PANALYTICAL

2013

High-performance trace element analysis for


water, soil, coal, ash, ore, enriched samples.

Alpha, Beta counting

Now installing

Determination of natural and artificial isotopes in

Gamma spectrometry
Ultra Low background
HPGe (P-type, 40% Effrel)
Gamma spectrometry
Ultra Low background
HPGe (P-type, 40% Effrel)
Gamma spectrometry
Ultra Low background
HPGe (P-type, 40% Effrel)
Gamma spectrometry
NaI (3x3)

system

building materials,

Following organizational restructure in 2012, dosimetry and calibration laboratory was moved to NRRA
and merged with the radiation control laboratory and is part of NRRA.
The findings indicate that the technical infrastructure and support services exist in Mongolia. the
Country has reported that the calibration facility (working space, secondary standards, standard
radiation types and qualities, other equipment, procedures) is basic and needs to be updated and
expanded. Recent organizational restructure appears to have consolidated the dosimetry, calibration,
environmental and sampling services under the NRRA. It is unclear if this has improved the capability
of dosimetry laboratory which has reported significant limitations in terms of facilities, equipment and
expertise. Information about authorization and/ accreditation of the services have not been provided.
Further, information full information about operational aspects, monitoring programs, etc. of both the
laboratories have not been provided. Information about service providing advisory and
education/training have also not been provided.
Implementation of the requirements by end users
Most of the not-exempted end-users are licensed by the NRRA.
A prior radiological evaluation is not a condition for licensing, although a formally structured RPP is
required. It must contain: a safety assessment, emergency plan, contingency plan, management
structure, responsibilities, commitment to radiation safety and ALARA, well defined job descriptions
and requirements for qualification and designated RPOs. However, no appropriate training program is in
place. The RPP should contain also the WMP and IMP for external exposure.
The end-user practice should consider the up-to-date accountability of radiation sources, to achieve
protection by means of good, engineered design and instrumental and administrative controls,
supervising system, to provide protective equipment and medical services. Cooperation with other
organizations is not well functioning.
No more information is available on this topic.
The end-users are required to establish a radiation protection measures such as safety assessment,
emergency plan, contingency plan, management structure, responsibilities, commitment to radiation
safety and ALARA, well defined job descriptions and requirements for qualification and designated
RPOs. Although not reported in the above findings the regulatory body conducts inspections to verify
compliance including enforcement actions as appropriate.
It would appear there is an adequate program for establishment and monitoring of occupational
radiation protection requirements by the end-users in Mongolia.
Occupational exposure to natural sources
In the next few years it is possible that current uranium exploration and development will move to
operational uranium mining. This might include re-establishment of open cut and underground mining,
and the development of new in-situ recovery (ISR) acid leach mines.

Workplace exposure to natural sources of radiation is interpreted as occupational exposure. The


permissible concentration of 1110 Bq/m3 was established for radon, but the NRRA only surveys
external exposure in mining and processing of ores. There should be radiation control of internal
exposure in mining and processing of ores.
The Country has reported that workplace exposure to natural sources of radiation is interpreted as
occupational exposure. The permissible concentration limits for radon appear to have been established.
However only external monitoring appears to have been established for exposure to natural sources of
radiation.
It would also appear that program are underway to establish uranium mining in Mongolia. While there
is a recognition of the hazards and technical expertise and facilities appear to be available in the
Country, radiation protection from natural sources of radiation is in a developmental stage.
Thematic Safety Area (TSA )-3
Radiological Protection in Medical Exposure
1. Regulations
Code of practice for Diagnostic radiology was adopted in 2010. It was in compliance with the BSS
requirements on radiological protection in medical exposure.
Radiation protection. Method of Quality control in Diagnostic Radiology Mongolian National
Standards 5391:2010 has been updated in 2010.
In the present 2014, there are 170 hospitals and medical centers including 270 units general
radiography, 49 dental, 20 mammography, 8 angiography, 27 computed tomography, 2 Co-60
teletherapy, 1 gamma camera, 2 brachytheraphy and 1 simulator.
2. Diagnostic radiology-qualified experts available to implement radiation protection
programmes, and appropriately qualified medical and paramedical staff with appropriate
radiation protection training
The National Training Course on Radiation Protection and Quality control in Medicine was held in
Ulaanbaatar, 14-15 November 2013, (46 radiologist and technician) organized by Nuclear Energy
Agency.
3. Diagnostic radiology-optimization
In the present almost in 170 hospitals are used about 374 X-Ray equipments including mobile X-Ray
units.

About 545 radiation workers from Medical Diagnostic Radiology are currently covered personal
dosimetry service and being monitored monthly.
5.Optimization in mammography
Totally 20 are registered mammography in Mongolia. QC and QA program, mammography facilities
not in place . Lack of technical staffs and tools for QC and QA program.
6.Optimization in computed tomography
There are registered 27 computed tomography machines in Mongolia. In 2014 was registered and
installed Computed Tomography machines in countryside area totally in 7. There was getting to
approved license for use in the end of March.
9. Nuclear Medicine-qualified experts available to implement radiation protection programmes,
and appropriately qualified medical and paramedical staff with appropriate radiation training
Nuclear Medicine Department is the sole institution in Mongolia, which responsible for the application
of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The department annualy receives
over 2500 patients for nuclear diagnostic imaging, 200 patients for I-131 therapy, and 5800 patients for
radioimmunology assay tests.
Since 2009, Nuclear medicine department of the National Central Hospital is implementing national
project MON 6016 Upgrading and improving the quality of nuclear medicine practice under the TC
project. Under TC program financing to this department to supply for double headed SPECT.
Upgraded and improved the quality of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Mongolia through installing of new
state art equipment SPECT camera.
Expanded the clinical applications of both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine through
introduction of new techniques, procedures and radiopharmaceuticals. Further, specific importance will
be given to their use in oncology and cardiology, where molecular imaging and therapy are more and
more widely used in modern medicine practice. As the next step in our expansion process, through this
TC project we are working to introduce SPECT/CT imaging in our department.
Professional staff from the department of nuclear medicine benefited from the project in the form of
receiving training and upgradation of their skills.
The ultimate beneficiaries of the project are the patients from all over Mongolia, who will receive
improved health care services as a result of the upgraded nuclear medicine facility.
12. Radiotherapy-optimization

GWGP80 Teletherapy machine is installed in 1995. The teletherapy machine has been disused. New
teletherapy machine (activity about 10000Ci) and simulator will be installed in October 2014.
RADIATION AND WASTE SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE
PROFILE (RaWaSIP)

Mongolia

Prepared by:
The Regulatory Infrastructure and Transport Safety Section
Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety Division

For Internal Use Only

Radiation and Waste Safety Infrastructure Profiles (RaWaSIPs) provide a summary of


information on the radiation and waste safety infrastructure in Member States receiving
Agency assistance for which the International Basic Safety Standards and other related
standards are therefore to be applied. This document has been prepared using various
available resources such as end-of-mission reports, internal travel reports, peer review
missions, Radiation Safety and Security Infrastructure Appraisal Missions, IRRS reports,
Member States' inputs and other relevant information made available through official
correspondence and Agency databases.
RaWaSIPs are, for the time being, prepared for confidential use only, and are intended as
basic reference material for the Agency's Staff as a tool for proactively identifying needs
and prioritising assistance to a Member State in conjunction with the Action Plan for that
country and also for briefing material. Although great care has been taken to maintain the
accuracy of information contained in the manuscript, the views expressed do not
necessarily reflect those of the Agency.
Formal periodic updating is foreseen once new relevant sources of information are
available, in particular when an Appraisal mission has taken place. Thus, depending on
the date of preparation or update of the current profile, the information contained
therein does not necessarily reflect the latest status.

DETAILS SECTION
TSA4 - Public and Environmental Radiological Protection

Regulatory Framework for the Control of Public exposure Non-associated with Radioactive
Waste Management or Decommissioning Activities;
The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (hereafter
referred to as the law), was enacted on 16 July 2009, that supersedes the Law on Radiation Protection
and Safety of 2001 . The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Law. The
Law assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). From 2003 to 31 December 2008,
the regulatory body was part of the State Specialized Inspection Agency (is changed General Agency for
State Inspection). The potential for uranium mining and nuclear power production are two issues that
precipitated the passing of this law.
The Nuclear Energy Commission of Mongolia has the responsibility to regulate and coordinate
activities on exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy, introduction of nuclear technology,
development of research and ensuring nuclear and radiation safety. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is
the Chairman of the Commission. The head of the state administrative authority in charge of nuclear
energy affairs is the Deputy Chairman of the Commission which has 15 members represented from
different ministries and competent authorities.
The NEA assumes the role of the State Administrative Agency specified in the Law. The team was
informed that this is based on:

Governmental Decision no.64 (2008) on establishment of the governmental regulatory and


implementation agencies, which lists NEA as the regulatory body for radiation and nuclear
safety under the Prime Minister.
Governmental Decision no.138 (2009) adopted Rule on State Control on Nuclear and
Radiation which detailed regulatory functions and responsibilities of NEA as the regulatory
body.
Parliament Decision no.45 (2009) which assigns the role of implementing the State Policy to
NEA.

The Nuclear Energy Law also has provisions relating to monitoring radioactivity in foodstuffs,
environment, consumer products, etc. which are not directly related to the regulation of practices. The
Nuclear Energy Law has a provision on full rights of Government, which adopt general rules,
procedures and instructions on exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy, introduction of
nuclear technology and ensuring radiation safety.
There is interest in exploiting Mongolias uranium resources. The Agency has had several discussions
with authorities regarding regulating the uranium industry. In May 2008, an Agency multi-disciplinary
team met in Mongolia with policy makers from relevant ministries and government agencies to discuss

the uranium production cycle. In January 2010, there was training in Mongolia on safety issues related
also to uranium mining.
The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (the Law),
enacted 16 July 2009. Government Resolution No. 138 of 2009 adopted Rule on State Control on
Nuclear and Radiation which detailed regulatory functions and responsibilities of NEA as the
regulatory body. Parliament Decision No. 45 of 2009 adopted the State Policy of Mongolia on the
Exploitation of Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy.
Regulations, which are in still in force, pre-date the Law and are not based on current international
standards and the Code of Conduct.
There is interest in exploiting Mongolias uranium resources. The Agency has had several discussions
with authorities regarding regulating the uranium industry. In May 2008, an Agency multi-disciplinary
team met in Mongolia with policy makers from relevant ministries and government agencies to discuss
the uranium production cycle. In January 2010, there was training in Mongolia on safety issues related
also to uranium mining.
Conclusions:
The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (hereafter
referred to as the law), was enacted on 16 July 2009, that supersedes the Law on Radiation Protection
and Safety 2001. The potential for uranium mining and nuclear power production are two issues that
precipitated the passing of the Nuclear Energy Law. It assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy
Agency (NEA). The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Law.
Governmental Decision no.138 (2009) adopted Rule on State Control on Nuclear and Radiation
which detailed regulatory functions and responsibilities of NEA as the regulatory body.
The Nuclear Energy Law also has provisions relating to monitoring radioactivity in foodstuffs,
environment, consumer products, etc.
Parliament Decision no.45 (2009) which assigns the role of implementing the State Policy to NEA.
Additionally, the NEA Director General has issued two Decisions: One on the categorization on the
radioactive sources, and another one on the prohibition of storing disused radioactive sources in the
premises of the licensees. This decision states that all such disused sources have to be stored at NEA`s
waste storage facility in the Isotope Centre.
Control of Discharges;
There are no established criteria for discharges in Mongolia.
Provisions in place to prevent unplanned or uncontrolled releases, as well as compliance with the
discharge criteria, are only enforced through licensing procedure and conditions of the licence issued to
the licensee.

Environmental Monitoring Associated With Authorised Practices For Public Radiation Protection
Purposes;
Environmental monitoring is carried out by the Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of the NRRA
using the environmental monitoring network of the Ministry of Environmental and Green development.
It appears that the monitoring programs may be sufficient for ensuring that the requirements of the BSS
regarding public exposure are satisfied, taking into account the magnitude of the sources of public
exposure existing in the country.
35 meteorological stations are located in 21 different provinces in Mongolia including 11 stations in
Ulaanbaatar city.
In addition, at more than 23 meteorological stations, ambient gamma dose rates are measured 3 times a
day with portable dose rate meters and transmitted to the meteorological centre in Ulaanbaatar twice a
week. Natural background of radiation measurement is undertaken at every 2 hours at meteorological
stations.
Basic facilities are available for alpha, beta, and gamma monitoring using a variety of equipment,
including high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Environmental and food monitoring is routinely carried
out.
Air fallout samples for gross beta measurement are collected in 23 local stations. Aerosol gross beta
activity measurement, on filter samples of typically 100-130 m 3 of air daily, is completed by four
different places in the country. The continuous radiation monitoring is conducted at two stations with
devices supplied by Berthold, Germany, one in the capital city Ulaanbaatar and the other in Bayan Ulgii
province (the western part of the country near the Kazakhstan border) and the data are collected with an
on-line network system. In addition, at more than 23 meteorological stations, ambient gamma dose rates
are measured 3 times a day with portable dose rate meters and transmitted to the meteorological centre
in Ulaanbaatar twice a week.
It appears that there are 35 stations for soil sampling across the country .

Air monitoring
- Air fallout samples for gross beta measurement collects on a 0.6 m2 for 10 days in 23 local stations.
( Fig.1) the samples are mailed to the Central Radiological Laboratory.
- Aerosol gross beta activity measurement, on filter samples of typically 100-130 m3 of air daily,
completes by four different places in the country. (Including 1 sampling and measuring point in
Ulaanbaatar city)
Environmental dose rate measurement
- The continuous radiation monitoring is conducted with (Berthold) devices at 2 stations (Ulaanbaatar)
and Bayan-Ulgii province (near the Kazakhstan border) and the data are collected with on-line network
system.
Specific radiation survey meters for air monitoring is needed. 35 meteorological stations are not
provided in use.
Water monitoring
The Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Authority is carried
out daily measurements for tap water of Ulaanbaatar city and also carry out measurements for water
samples from 8 sites in different region.
Soil monitoring
Soil-grass-animal pathway is considered as a most important radionuclides transport pathway to
population of Mongolia because meat and milk etc. produced by the pastured animals is the staple food
in Mongolia. Soil monitoring activity can be improved using in-situ gamma spectrometry system. To
obtain the background level of radionuclide activity in soil the samples are taken at 180 sampling points
(Fig. 1) covering all the country every 2-3 years. A gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector is used to
analyze radionuclides in soil samples in the Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory.
Due to the large scale nuclear weapons testing programmes in 1970, especially plutonium bomb tests
near Mongolias borders; the environmental monitoring program in these regions was focused to the
analysis of air, water and soil samples. However, a country report (2007) stated that there was an urgent
need for more enhanced measurements for alpha and beta contamination.
Control of Foodstuffs And Selected Commodities;
A national system (logistics and/or technical capabilities) for monitoring the levels of radioactivity in
foodstuffs and selected commodities before they go for trading exists and controls appear to have been
established by the Regulatory Body.
The Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of the NRRA, using the environmental monitoring
network of the Ministry of Environment and Green Development, routinely carries out food and
environmental monitoring. Basic facilities are available for beta and gamma monitoring using a variety
of equipment, including high-resolution gamma spectrometry. More than 1000 imported food samples
per year are monitored in Mongolia. The food samples are initially screened with a food contamination

monitor (Berthold LB200) measuring gross gamma activity. Food samples showing unreasonably high
gross gamma activity (compared with an investigation radiation level for different kinds of foodstuff)
are carefully measured again with a high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector.
In addition to that, there is a daily monitor of tap water in Ulaanbaatar city, and regular monitoring of
water samples from 8 different regions.
NEA has registry of smoke detectors containing radionuclides used in industry and other organizations
in collaboration with Fire Fighting Department. There is no domestic use of smoke detectors containing
radionuclide registered. Replaced or not used smoke detectors are stored in the Isotope Centre.
Conclusions:
More than 1,000 imported food samples a year are monitored in Mongolia. The food samples are
screened at first step with a food contamination monitor (Berthold) measuring gross gamma activity.
The food samples showing unreasonably high gross gamma activity are carefully measured again with
high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector.
Control of Chronic Exposures (Radon, Norm And Past Practices);
In the present September 2014, Mongolia has 44 mines of mineral resources and 144 building material
factories.
Existing legislation concerning NORM activities:

Nuclear Energy Law /2009/


Basic Regulation on Radiation Sanitation /1983/
National standard on permissible level of radon/thoron indoors /2006/
National standard for radiological requirements of drinking water /2005/
Draft NORM regulation for gas and oil industry/

Potential chronic exposure scenarios have been identified in the country but they are not characterised
sufficiently. No information is available on plans for characterising them completely. NORM generating
industries have been identified in the country.
Important workplace types with possibly increased natural radiation exposure:

Uranium exploration /no uranium mining activity at present but expecting will be start in the
near future/
Underground non-uranium mining /mining of other minerals near the Uranium site/
Production of building materials using fly ash from the Electric Power stations
Coal mining and oil industry
The Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of the NRRA performs environmental monitoring
measurements in order to assess the exposure level around uranium and other mines.

Under the Regulatory Control:

15 companies for uranium exploration /authorization and inspection/


44 non-uranium mines /sampling/
144 companies producing building materials /sampling/

Data are available for the advanced uranium project are:

External gamma radiation levels


Dust levels
Workplace monitoring
Radon thoron levels
Discharges
Environmental contamination levels (ground water leakage soil food)
Dose estimation

Mongolia has not established a formal indoor radon program. The NRRA is starting to establish radon
survey of possible exposure to radon at workplaces and home. A special guidance for measurement of
radon in air exists since 1991 in the form of National Standard. A country report (2007) stated that there
was an urgent need for continuing indoor radon measurements due to the extensive use of coal ash as a
building material.
Presently a large number of further activities for geological investigations and the exploitation of
uranium deposits are under way in Mongolia mainly by Canadian, French, Russian and Chinese
companies. Mongolia has 3 abandoned uranium mines which are likely to be re-opened in the near
future by foreign companies: Gurvan bulag, Dornod & Mardain go
Dornod area, Gurvanbulag site
Also known as the Uranium Hills Project operated by a Canadian Company Western Prospector.
Estimated 20-25,000 t U3O8 resource at 0.1-0.3% grades anticipated in an underground mine developed
by the Russians but never exploited. 22 km of underground workings. Currently being pumped out
(2006) and revaluated by the Canadian company. The company was seeking finance after a bankable
feasibility study had been completed in 2007/8. Development plan is unclear although new
infrastructure such as mains power was reported as being laid to the siteImage shows the shaft, remnant
buildings etc. But these are not all seen in the ground level shots as these images precede the field work
by the Canadians.
Dornod (Mardai) mine
Major features are the waste dumps and the open pit But significantly there is no tailings storage. Ore
from this mine was transported 600 km to Russia for processing. The lines of an extensive rail network
can be seen but in fact the rails are gone. A waste heap to the south of the site and various smaller
dumps directly south of the pit, these may indicate other workings e.g. shafts separate from the main
open pit The pit is water filled, the residue/waste heaps are obviously un-shaped and rest at angle of
repose with no apparent remediation
Control of Radioactivity in Materials For Recycling;

In 2014, Mongolia has one iron manufacturing factory in Darkhan city which also processed scrap
metals. Portal monitors control the presence of significant amounts of radioactive substances in
materials going for recycling.
Scrap metal dealers do not have their own monitoring equipment. Scrap metal goes to China. The
recipient requires a Radiation Certificate for exporting scrap metals transported by rail and requested
that NRRA provide this. NRRA measures the scrap metal with monitors when it is loaded onto railcars.
NEA is carried out radiation detection measurement and issue certification before exportation of waste
metal to China for some private companies who are exporting limited amount of waste metal.
National Waste Management and Decommissioning Legislative and Regulatory Framework;
Current regulations and codes do not appear to adequately cover radioactive waste. There is no
complete legislative and regulatory framework, but a Regulatory Body exists and its ad hoc activities in
the fields of licensing and enforcement ensure a reasonable standard of protection. Some actions have
been planned that could contribute towards achieving compliance with the criterion.
Management and disposal of radioactive waste are specifically dealt with under articles 5.1, 5.6, 5.7,
6.1.3, 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 15.1.1, 15.1.2, 20.1.1, 20.1.2 and 20.2 of the Law on Radiation Protection and Safety
enacted in June 2001 and amended in January 2003. The important requirements in this law are
summarized as follows:

the Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC) shall be responsible for the development of policy and
regulatory control for activities relating to the development of nuclear research and technology,
use of radiation sources, and to ensure radiation protection and safety (5.1);
the NEC shall have a special waste storage facility and be responsible for safe storage,
transportation and unused radiation sources and radioactive waste within the country (5.6);
the special facility is to receive state protection (5.7);
the NEC shall exercise the power to charge for the activities of mobilizing, depositing,
transporting and storing unused radiation sources and radioactive waste within the country
(6.1.3);
licenses shall be granted, to a person, business entities, and organizations that satisfy the
requirements stipulated in this law and other relevant legislation, for the following activities
relating to radiation: to order, import, export, receive, distribute, construct, allocate, use, keep in
possession or use, keep in repairing or transferring period, sale, rent, produce, process,
reprocess, exploring, acquire, compose project for use, discard, deplete, transport, store,
decontaminate and to bury radiation sources (8.1.1);
licenses are required for exploration, mining, processing, enrichment, import, export,
transportation of radioactive ore, to bury waste and for land rehabilitating activities after mining
radioactive ore (8.1.2);
Citizens, business entities and organizations shall comply with the following requirements to
store radiation sources:

15.1.1. to store, in compliance with respective rules and regulation for radiation protection and safety,
in special waste storage site recommended by the
Commission taking into consideration the specific characteristics of the radiation sources;

15.1.2. to transfer radiation sources, which do not meet technological or safety requirements, or unused
sources, to the state centralized waste storage facility stipulated in the article 5.6 of this law.
Citizens, business entities and organizations shall comply with the following requirements for the
disposal of radioactive waste: to have agreement of the state radiation inspector and required permits
from the NEC and other relevant authorities (20.1.1).
In January 2003 the NRA, previously established in 1997 under the NEC, came under the umbrella of
the SSIA, and became the regulatory authority in Mongolia. No information is available on whether the
above-mentioned Law has been revised.
It appears that the Radiation Safety Regulations for Radioactive Waste with a High Content of Naturally
Occurring Radionuclides from Gas-Oil Production is in the revision stage for approval by the
Regulatory Body. No further information is available on this topic.
The organization responsible for establishing and upgrading the national radioactive waste management
system is the Isotope Centre of the NEC. The Isotope Centre coordinates the collection, safe handling,
characterization, treatment, storage, conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste.
National Waste Management Policy and Strategy;
The country reported that no national radioactive waste management policy or strategy appeared to
exist. It appears that a draft Waste Management Program for Mongolia exists but no further information
is available.
The Radiation protection and safety law enacted in June 2001 and amended in January 2003. In 2009
the abovementioned Law has been terminated and the Nuclear Energy Law has been enacted. The Law
on Nuclear energy Law assigns requirements/measures for storage and disposing of radioactive waste,
and requirements for mining of radioactive ore. It is not clear if the Law assigns responsibilities for
regulatory control or allocates responsibilities for all aspects of radioactive waste management.
General Safety Provisions for Radioactive Waste and Decommissioning;
An appropriate waste classification scheme has been established based on the IAEA waste classification
scheme. It would appear that safety provisions and criteria for all radioactive waste management
facilities and activities are not in compliance with established safety criteria.
It also appears that all radioactive waste is collected. However, adequate provisions are not in place for
ensuring that all existing radioactive waste, including disused sealed sources, is kept to a minimum,
adequately processed, stored or disposed of under regulatory control.
The NEA has a dedicated secured and fenced-off long-term storage facility about 20 km from
Ulaanbaatar. The facility consists of a large building with several storage pits. Scattered around the
compound are other concrete pits with concrete lids for storing disused or orphaned sources. The
compound also has a small burial area where contaminated material from a 90Sr incident has been
buried.
Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste (Clearance and Storage dealt in separate
sections);

There are only small quantities of radioactive waste in Mongolia; therefore, processing is not carried out
on a regular basis. There is also no procedure in place for the characterization and segregation of
radioactive waste.
There is no procedure in place for processing radioactive waste in order to ensure that acceptance
requirements for disposal are fulfilled, as well as the requirements for handling, transport and storage of
waste packages, taking into account interdependency in all steps.
In 2017 there seems not to be equipment and facilities for conditioning radioactive waste. The
radioactive waste storage capacity comes to its limit in the view of future storage and, the government is
going to establish a disposal unit for radioactive waste. Support is required for waste management in
order to develop a National Radioactive Waste Management Programme with the assistance of IAEA.
Clearance Regime for Radioactive Waste;
It appears that limits and conditions for the removal of regulatory control over materials containing
radionuclides exist and are in agreement with international recommendations. They appear to be
enforced by the Regulatory Body.
Liquid waste, generated from nuclear medicine hospitals, has a very short half-life. When the activity of
liquid waste falls below the IAEA clearance level, it is discharged into the sewerage system
Storage of Radioactive Waste;
The NEA shall have a special Waste storage facility (Isotope Center) that responsible for safe storage,
transportation and, disused and used radiation sources and radioactive wastes within the country.
The special facility shall be an object of the state protection.
The Isotope Center of the NEA has a national long term waste storage facility in Mongolia. The Isotope
Center is located about 20 km from Ulaanbaatar. It appears that the Isotope Centre does not meet the
current international standards for radioactive waste storage but no further information is available.
The Isotope Center is responsible for the safe storage of radiation sources and radioactive wastes, for
conditioning and disposal of radioactive wastes and safe transport of radioactive materials in Mongolia.
To take the appropriate steps to ensure that radiation protection, physical protection and technical
support of the radioactive waste management facility /Isotope center/,
To store, process and dispose nuclear materials, disused radioactive sources and radioactive wastes, To
organize safe and secure storage, processing, disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear waste and
radioactive wastes from mining and milling of ores
To maintain nuclear and radioactive waste management.
To prepare relevant procedure, regulation, standard and to ensure their implementation
Several disused irradiators are stored in the Institute of Physics. Once more, the storage conditions
appear to be unsafe and not secure for prolonged periods (in this case, 27 years).

Radionuclides use in nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay assays (I-131, Tc-99m, Ca-32 and I-125)
are decayed in storage.
The NRRA has access to equipment and facilities for the handling and temporary storage of radioactive
sources, including following recovery of orphan or vulnerable sources through the Isotope Centre of the
NEC.
Special Cemetery of contaminated soil by Sr-90
In 1993 it was found the contaminated area by Sr-90 in Ulaanbaatar city and removed the soil and
decontaminated it. This incident and decontamination was reported to the IAEA.
The soil waste was placed in industrial drums. The drums had capacities of 200 l and had corrosion
resistant internal surfaces coated with bitumen. The waste required in total 93 drums and after sealing
was placed in the waste storage site. For this reason, special 6 storage cabins (each cabin is 1.73m long,
1.58m wide and 2,78 high) made of concrete walls were built at storage site at the Isotope Center. The
concrete wall was 10 cm thick and the concrete base and cover were 20cm thick. In order to protect
from water effects covered them with plastic sheets. This burial is located in the fence of the Isotope
Center near the 2nd storage facility.
Disposal of Radioactive Waste;
Currently, there is no waste management policy and strategy with respect to disposal in Mongolia. It
would appear that plans are underway to create a disposal facility within the Isotope Centre of the NEC.
A country report (2007) stated that the Isotope Centre had a small burial area where contaminated
material from a Sr-90 incident was buried but no further information is available.
Mongolia has no disposal facilities. It is understood that the NEC has long-term plan to convert the
storage facility into a disposal facility. A detailed inventory exists of all sources stored or buried at the
facility.
The Isotope Centre has the following policy on spent sealed sources:
Return spent sealed sources to the supplier,
Strengthening the facility of wastes store in the Isotope Centre,
Conditioning some spent sealed sources (Ra-226, Pu-Be, Am-241 etc.) in the Isotope Centre.
There are no equipments and facilities for conditioning radioactive wastes in Isotope center currently.
Nowadays, the capacity of radioactive wastes getting not
enough for future storage and government is going to establish disposal unit for radioactive wastes
Decommissioning of Nuclear and other Facilities Containing Radioactive Materials;
There is no national waste management policy and strategy, so that funding mechanisms for
decommissioning need to be addressed.
There are no plans for the shut-down and decommissioning of nuclear and other facilities. The country
reported (2007) that the wastes that might arise from decommissioning procedures would be stored in
the Isotope Centre.

Recently, the Nuclear Research Centre of the National University of Mongolia requested assistance in
decommissioning a neutron generator. The neutron generator, being out of use for 15 years, was made in
the former USSR and was used for research and training.
Remediation
Mongolia carries out uranium ore remediation near the former Mardai Uranium Mine which is located
in the Dornod province and in the eastern part of Mongolia. The amount of the uranium ore amounts to
157,000 tons and 35,000 tons.
The Radiation Control, Calibration Laboratory of the NRRA performs environmental monitoring
measurements in order to assess the potential risk in the tailings pile of former uranium ore and former
mines.
There is an on-going IAEA TC Project on Environmental Impact Assessment and Remediation of the
Uranium Mining Legacy MON/9/005 (since 2005). The project is being implemented by the Ministry of
Environment Green Development and the GASI.
RADIATION AND WASTE SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE
PROFILE (RaWaSIP)

Mongolia

Prepared by:
The Regulatory Infrastructure and Transport Safety Section
Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety Division

For Internal Use Only

Radiation and Waste Safety Infrastructure Profiles (RaWaSIPs) provide a summary of


information on the radiation and waste safety infrastructure in Member States receiving
Agency assistance for which the International Basic Safety Standards and other related
standards are therefore to be applied. This document has been prepared using various
available resources such as end-of-mission reports, internal travel reports, peer review
missions, Radiation Safety and Security Infrastructure Appraisal Missions, IRRS reports,
Member States' inputs and other relevant information made available through official
correspondence and Agency databases.

RaWaSIPs are, for the time being, prepared for confidential use only, and are intended as
basic reference material for the Agency's Staff as a tool for proactively identifying needs
and prioritising assistance to a Member State in conjunction with the Action Plan for that
country and also for briefing material. Although great care has been taken to maintain the
accuracy of information contained in the manuscript, the views expressed do not
necessarily reflect those of the Agency.
Formal periodic updating is foreseen once new relevant sources of information are
available, in particular when an Appraisal mission has taken place. Thus, depending on
the date of preparation or update of the current profile, the information contained
therein does not necessarily reflect the latest status.

DETAILS SECTION
TSA5 - Emergency Preparedness and Response

Basic responsibilities.
The legislative basis for nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia is the Nuclear Energy Law (hereafter
referred to as the law), was enacted on 16 July 2009, that supersedes the Law on Radiation Protection
and Safety of 2001 . The functions and powers of the regulatory body are described in the Law. The
Law assigned responsibility to the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). From 2003 to 31 December 2008,
the regulatory body was part of the State Specialized Inspection Agency (is changed General Agency for
State Inspection). The potential for uranium mining and nuclear power production are two issues that
precipitated the passing of this law.
The Nuclear Energy Commission of Mongolia has the responsibility to regulate and coordinate
activities on exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy, introduction of nuclear technology,
development of research and ensuring nuclear and radiation safety. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is
the Chairman of the Commission. The head of the state administrative authority in charge of nuclear
energy affairs is the Deputy Chairman of the Commission which has 15 members represented from
different ministries and competent authorities.
The NEA assumes the role of the State Administrative Agency specified in the Law. The team was
informed that this is based on:

Governmental Decision no.64 (2008) on establishment of the governmental regulatory and


implementation agencies, which lists NEA as the regulatory body for radiation and nuclear
safety under the Prime Minister.
Governmental Decision no.138 (2009) adopted Rule on State Control on Nuclear and
Radiation which detailed regulatory functions and responsibilities of NEA as the regulatory
body.
Parliament Decision no.45 (2009) which assigns the role of implementing the State Policy to
NEA.

The legislative basis of regulatory control for radiological emergency preparedness is the Nuclear
Energy Law, was enacted on 15th July 2009. The Article 11.6.3 of the Law specified the responsibility
of NEA for regulatory control for ensuring radiation safety.
National emergency plan of Protection from Radiological Hazards was established in 2010 by Director
general of NEA. The NEA signed Memorandum of understanding with NEMA and General Agency of
State Inspection in 2013.
National emergency plan of Protection from Radiological Hazards was established in 2010 by Director
general of NEA. However it needs improvements.

Conclusions:
The NEMA has the responsibility to ensure that emergency preparedness and response arrangements are
in place for all facilities/practices. The NEA has the responsibility to ensure that emergency
preparedness and response arrangements are in place for all Nuclear and radiation related
facilities/practices. The legislative basis for radiation safety is the Nuclear Energy Law, enacted in 15th
July 2009. The Article 11.6.9 of the Law specified the responsibility of NEA to prevent radiological
accident, to rehabilitate hazards of accidents, to prepare emergency plan, to control implementation of
this plan through cooperation with other related organization and to implement this plan.
Assessment of threats.
There is not a threat categorization system in place, however actions are under way to make
improvements.
1 - Appraisal criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements, but these will not
achieve full compliance with the criterion.
Establishing emergency management and operations.
National Emergency Management Agency /NEMA/ was established in 09 March 2005. Nuclear and
Radiation Regulatory Authority /NRRA/ of the Nuclear Energy Agency /NEA/ was established in 2009.
The Article 28.2.3 of the Law specified the responsibility of Licensee to prevent radiological accident
and to ensure radiation safety. The Article 36.1.4 of the Law specified requirements that use of radiation
sources that all licensee has to follow emergency plan of radiological accident which approved by state
Inspector of NEA. The Article 36.1.6 of the Law specified that licensee has to inform radiological
accident during use of radiation sources to regulatory body, emergency agency, Intelligence agency and
police office, to rehability consequence of accidents according to the laws. Article 45.1 of the Law
specified that the special license holder shall have the plan for prevention from nuclear and radiation
accident, elimination of accident harmful aftermath and implementation of measures to ensure safety at
their expenses. Article 45.2 of the Law specified that Regulatory body and related agencies shall
organize the activities to determine level and cause of radiological accident, and rehabilitate hazards
thereof under the direction of the Nation Emergency Commission. Article 45.3 of the Law specified that
the Government has responsible to rehabilitate large radiological consequences.
There is not enough arrangements to ensure the safety of all persons on the site in the event of a nuclear
or radiological emergency
Identifying, notifying and activating.
The contact point 24/7 has not been established, however actions are under way to make improvements.
The on-site managers of scrap metal processing facilities are not aware of the indicators of a potential
emergency. Responsible officials at 15 national borders aware of radiation portal monitors /RPM/ of
radiation emergency and are able to take immediate actions.
There is no arrangements for staff to be aware of the medical symptoms of radiation exposure and
notification procedures, however actions are under way to make improvements.

There is not a system in place yet to promptly initiate an offsite response in the event of an emergency
in accordance with GS-R-2; however actions are under way to make improvements.
Did not perform threat assessments of the facilities and activities in the State and there are no
categorizing systems in place.
The response organization does not have sufficient qualified personnel to perform assigned initial
response actions, however some personnel has been assigned to this tasks
The NEA and Director of the NEA has been established as warning point.
Criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements, but these will not achieve full
compliance with the criterion.
Taking mitigating action.
The NRRA of the NEA has been assigned to provide expertise and services in radiation protection.
The training for radiation users are organized due to the special program on radiation protection and
safety. The program include theoretical and practical exercises on radiological accident.
There are not arrangements to initiate a prompt search and to issue a warning to the public in the event
of a dangerous source being lost or illicitly removed and possibly being in the public domain, however
actions are under way to make improvements by USA Government support.
The operators of facilities have in place the emergency plans and procedures and guidance for the
operator on mitigating actions for severe conditions, for the full range of postulated emergencies
including accidents beyond the design basis.
The National emergency plan consider the arrangements for mitigating actions, however there is not a
system in place.
2 - Appraisal criteria is partially met and an action plan is implemented to fully meet the criterion within
a defined time scale.
Taking urgent protective action.
The country does not adopt national intervention levels for taking urgent protective actions in
accordance with international standards, however actions are under way to make improvements.
There is not in place arrangements for effectively making and implementing decisions on urgent
protective actions to be taken off the site within the emergency zones, however actions are under way to
make improvements.
First responders are aware of the RPMs of a radiation emergency and they are familiar with the
appropriate notification procedures and other immediate actions warranted if an emergency is suspected.
There is not enough arrangements to provide warning and instructions to the different groups, however
this is the NEA and NEMAs duties, according to the National Emergency Plan.

Criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements. Actions are under way to make
improvements.
Providing information and issuing instructions and warnings to the public.
NEMA and NEAs duties, according to the National Emergency Plan.
1 - Appraisal criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements, but these will not
achieve full compliance with the criterion.
Protecting emergency workers.
The arrangements have not been established yet, however actions are under way to make improvements.
Radiation workers have the information of the risks of radiation exposure and basic training to deal with
an emergency in severe accident conditions.
1 - Appraisal criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements, but these will not
achieve full compliance with the criterion.
Assessing the initial phase.
There are not established operational intervention levels for radiological emergencies. Actions are under
way to make improvements.
1 - Appraisal criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements, but these will not
achieve full compliance with the criterion.
Managing the medical response.
There is not arrangements for staff to be aware of the medical symptoms of radiation exposure and
notification procedures, however actions are under way to make improvements. The high authorities in
medical assistance have been invited to participate in the National emergency courses.
There are not arrangements to provide initial treatments of people exposed or contaminated. However
some actions are underway to make improvements.
The National cancer center and The Central hospital with nuclear medicine are able to provide initial
treatment for people who have been exposed or contaminated.
1 - Appraisal criteria is not met and actions are under way to make improvements, but these will not
achieve full compliance with the criterion.
Keeping the Public Informed
No Performance Indicator
Taking Agricultural Countermeasures against Ingestion and Longer Term Protective Actions

No Performance Indicator
Mitigating the Non-Radiological Consequences of the Emergency and the Response
No Performance Indicator
Requirements for Infrastructure
No Performance Indicator
TSA6-Education and Training in Radiological Protection
1. National requirements for Education and Training in Radiation Protection and Safety
Findings:
- The Parliament of Mongolia approved the State Policy of Mongolia on exploitation of radioactive
minerals and nuclear energy, June 25, 2009. The purpose of the State Policy of Mongolia on
exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy to deeply explore radioactive mineral resources,
to become one of the leading country of exploitation, processing and exporting for peaceful purposes,
further the utilization of nuclear energy in the economy and social sector in extensive ranges and
producing power through the introduction of technology friendly to human health and the environment.
The Chapter No.6 of the State Policy is related to Research, training, human resource.
- The Government of Mongolia approved the Implementation of State Policy on the Exploitation of
Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy action plan by Government Resolution No.222, July 22,
2009.
- The Parliament of Mongolia approved the, July 16, 2009. The law on Nuclear Energy generally
regulating to the exploitation of radioactive minerals and nuclear energy, nuclear and radiation safety
and the protection of the population, society and the environment from negative impacts of ionizing
radiation.
- In Mongolian there is no specific training programme for employees of the regulatory body and
radiation protection officers of the operator. The Nuclear Research Center of National University of
Mongolia, University of Education, University Science and Technology prepare advanced physics,
nuclear physics and nuclear technology.
- Mongolia prepares national staffs for implemented projects by IAEA, EU, RCA and FNCA and for
short-term and long-term training course, seminar, fellowship, master and doctorate programme in
radiation protection and safety in the foreign countries within MoU.
- There is not enough facilities and laboratories to develop human resource in national level.
- The Nuclear research center of National University of Mongolia carried out some research projects in
2010-2013 under the NEA's funding such as Human resource studies for Nuclear power plants use in
Mongolia, Human resource development programme and plan and To create national training
system and develop human resource plan for Nuclear energy engineering.

Conclusions:
- It is necessary to develop a national human resource programme for improving a inspection in uranium
mining, for use of nuclear energy in national level.
- Developing human resources the following results are achieved.
1. Legal framework will be integrated
2. Regulation framework could be strengthened
3. Provided security
4. Improved cooperation
Recommendation:
- Mongolia should to expand international cooperation and research experience of other countries.
- Mongolia should design and implementation of a national human resource development plan
- NEA Mongolia should to improve legislation framework in radiation protection and safety.
- Mongolia should to prepare radiation protection and safety specialists in some Universities.
- Mongolia should to improve capacity of research institute, laboratory and facilities
- Mongolia should to organize nuclear education programme for public
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following projects:
- Developing human resource programme,
- Improve legislation framework in radiation protection and safety.
- Design nuclear education programme for public
- Improve capacity of research institute, laboratory and facilities
Good Practice:
2. Education and training of Workers
Findings:
Operating NRRA is operating in accordance with international standards and implementing and
strengthening the control of infrastructure and legal framework.

NRRA has Nuclear Regulatory Division, Radiation Regulatory Division and Radiation Control
Laboratory. Total 37 inspector and technical staffs.
State inspectors and technical staffs are learning through training course, seminar, workshops,
implement projects and instruction on nuclear and radiation safety which is hold with international
organizations /IAEA, FNCA, RCA, EU/ and foreign countries within MoU.
There are 20 radiation source users in research, 28 in industry, 165 in the health sector, 16 in well
logging sectors and 14 company exploration radioactive minerals. 145 organizations with 1017 radiation
workers sector are registered in occupational exposure control.
However there are some seminars held in NEA to educate these workers it is not enough trainers in
NEA.
Conclusions:
- There are no internal training programme for inspectors and technical staffs on nuclear and radiation
safety.
- Increasing number of radiation source users and other relevant activities of involved under the control.
Recommendation:
- NEA should develop an internal training programme for inspectors and technical staffs.
- NEA should develop a training programme on radiation protection and safety for radiation source
users and licensees of other relevant activities.
- NEA should to prepares inspectors and technical staffs for international training in radiation protection
and safety.
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:
- Technical visits
- Training course, fellowships
- Projects
- Experts
Good Practice:
3. Recognition of Qualified Experts and Designation of Radiation Protection Officers
Findings:
- There are not criteria to determine for qualified experts.
- NRRA requires for radiation protection officers of operators pass the training course of radiation
protection and safety organized by the NEA.

- There are not training center/facilities for qualified experts and radiation protection officers.
Conclusions:
- Mongolia should to determine the criteria for qualified experts.
- Mongolia should to establish a training center for qualified experts and radiation protection officers.
Recommendation:
- Research experience of other countries.
- Mongolia should to establish a training center
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:
- Technical visits
- Training course, fellowships
- Projects
Good Practice:
4. National Policy and Strategy
Findings:
The State Policy following issues is included in the research, training, human resource.
- To define priority objectives for research and development in order to meet the needs of
study, research, technology development and practical demands of nuclear energy and
radioactive minerals.
- To ensure integrated activities of radioactive minerals and nuclear research and
technology scientific research institutions, universities and business sector.
- To establish National nuclear research and technology institute responsible for
radioactive minerals exploration, exploitation and processing and conduct of research for nuclear
power plant, nuclear high technology and creation of information data network and training of
specialists.
- Scientific research institutions and universities will be responsible in conducting
fundamental and applied study and development activities in the field of radioactive minerals
and nuclear physics, financed by science and technology fund.
- To study the possibility of obtaining nuclear research reactor in order to conduct nuclear
physics fundamental and applied researches and to develop high technology and prepare experts.

- To train national specialists in foreign countries in the field of radioactive minerals,


nuclear energy and high technology, in accordance to specific national program.
- To increase the involvement of national scientists and experts in the international and
foreign projects designed for radioactive minerals and nuclear energy.
The Government of Mongolia approved the Implementation of State Policy on the Exploitation of
Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy action plan by Government Resolution No.222, July 22,
2009.
The action plan including following issues:
- To develop the nuclear and radiation regulatory system and bring regulatory and
legislation framework in international standards;
- To strengthen radiation and monitoring laboratories and develop human resources;
- To implement a preparatory work to join international conventions and agreements in
terms of strengthening national radiation protection and nuclear safety as well uranium
production.
The action plan provides to prepare students and specialists the following countries.
- Russia: 43 students (nuclear energy, uranium mining and radiation protection, etc.), 15
experts, since 2009,
- South Korea: 3 graduate students and 5 short-term training, since 2010
- France: 5 Master's degree programs, since 2010
- Malaysia: 6 postgraduate training, since 2009
- Japan: 10 short and 10 medium-term training, since 2010
- Ukraine:, 5 students, since 2012
- Romania: 2 graduate students, since 2012
Conclusions:
State Policy and Action Plan approved by Government, but implementation is imperfect, some issues
are currently under research.
Studying specialist from knowledge and skills of abroad are not fully used.
Recommendation:
- Mongolia should to increase the number of specialists who study abroad.
- Design and implementation of a national human resource development plan
- Mongolia should to prepare radiation protection and safety specialists in some Universities.
- Mongolia should to improve capacity of research institute, laboratory and facilities

Suggestion:
- Increase the number of students studying abroad
- Design and implementation of a national human resource development plan
- IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:
- Technical visits
- Training course, fellowships
- Projects
- Experts
Good Practice:
5. Analysis of education and Training needs
Findings:
Inspectors and technical staffs are prepared to training organized by international organizations /IAEA,
FNCA, RCA/ under the MoU.
Number of training course for radiation source users and licensees of other relevant activities is small
amount in national level.
Conclusions:
- There are no internal training for inspectors and technical staffs on nuclear and radiation safety.
- There are no training on radiation protection and safety for radiation source users and licensees of
other relevant activities.
Recommendation:
Training in the following areas:
- Legislation, standards, guidelines
- Radiation safety,
- Occupational health
- Environment
- Waste management
- Transport
- Physical protection
- Safeguards
- Security
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:

- Technical visits
- Training course, fellowships
- Projects
Good Practice:
6. Design of a national education and training programme
Findings:
The Nuclear research center of National University of Mongolia carried out some research projects in
2010-2013 under the NEA's funding such as Human resource studies for Nuclear power plants use in
Mongolia, Human resource development programme and plan and To create national training
system and develop human resource plan for Nuclear energy engineering.
Conclusions:
- To prepare radiation protection and safety specialists in some Universities.
- Design and implementation of a national human resource development plan
Recommendation:
It is necessary to train specialist in following fields:
- Nuclear engineering (reactor physics, reactor theory, design)
- Nuclear analytic
- Nuclear and radiation chemist
- Radiation protection
- Radiobiology
- Nuclear instrumentation engineer,
- Nuclear electronic,
- Radiation protection in uranium mining
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:
- Projects
- Experts
Good Practice:
7. Development and implementation of national education and training programme
Findings:
- In Mongolian there is no specific training programme for employees of the regulatory body and
radiation protection officers of the operator. The Nuclear Research Center of National University of

Mongolia, University of Education, University Science and Technology prepare advanced physics,
nuclear physics and nuclear technology.
- There is not enough facilities and laboratories to develop human resource in national level.
Conclusions:
- To implement the State Policy and Action Plan approved by Government
- Design and implementation of a national human resource development plan
Recommendation:
- Mongolia should to prepare radiation protection and safety specialists in some Universities.
- Design and implementation of a national human resource development plan
- Mongolia should to improve capacity of research institute, laboratory and facilities
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:
- Technical visits
- Training course, fellowships
- Projects
Good Practice:
8. Evaluation of the national education and training programme
Findings:
- In Mongolian there is no specific training programme for employees of the regulatory body and
radiation protection officers of the operator. The Nuclear Research Center of National University of
Mongolia, University of Education, University Science and Technology prepare advanced physics,
nuclear physics and nuclear technology.
- Inspectors and technical staffs are prepared to training organized by international organizations /IAEA,
FNCA, RCA/ under the MoU.
Conclusions:
- There are no internal training for inspectors and technical staffs on nuclear and radiation safety.
- There are no training on radiation protection and safety for radiation source users and licensees of
other relevant activities.
- Studying specialist from knowledge and skills of abroad are not fully used.

Recommendation:
- Mongolia should to organize nuclear education programme for public
- NEA should develop a training programme on radiation protection and safety for radiation source
users and licensees of other relevant activities.
Suggestion:
IAEA's technical cooperation program for the following issues:
- Technical visits
- Training course, fellowships
- Projects
Good Practice: