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1973 1 857
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1966

1987 349-362

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2009

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2006 11 49-54
John Fitzgerald, Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution
(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996), pp. 287-288.
Joseph Fewsmith, Party, State, and Local Elites in Republican China: Merchant Organizations and
Politics in Shanghai, 1890-1930 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985), pp. 88-166.
(1927-1930)
5981989 10 19-49
61 22002 9
108-1381992 3 40-53
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(1921-1925)1989 230
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338

(1920-1925)
1997 507538575
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490
1381925 12 10
1963 3 1256

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1911-1914
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1963 7 92-94
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2004 6 87
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2009 214
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2 606-612

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42

1924 1 7 6
1924 2 21 3
1924 3 17 6
1924 1 7 6
1923 5

(1924-1930) 20

1924 6 19

1954 76-77
2 2
1983 422-423
2 1-2
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1924 3 28 3

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1 3-4
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1 4
1 865

1924-1925

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(1920-1925) 4121924 8

(1920-1925) 525

50
. 1 883-884

1983 1 57
51
1975 638
52
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1924 3 26-31
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267-271
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30-31
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420-421
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(1921-1926)1983
39-4149
S.Y.(1921-1926) 85

1924-1925

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3 1
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38-65 S.Y.
(1921-1926) 7484-85
(1921-1926) 279

1981 156
17-21
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1989 49

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2002 5 43-45
1924
1963 2
131-132
347-348
1996 248

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8 7
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74
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76

Daniel N. Jacobs, Borodin: Stalins Man in China (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), pp.
158-159.
92-96
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3
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107

1924 8 21 7 8 29 8 9 1 7
2 38-39

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(1926-1927)1998 106
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1978 2 4 1372
1924 10 9
8 8-9Jacobs
(Daniel N. Jacobs, Borodin:
Stalins Man in China, p. 160.)
1924 10 7
8
28-24

1924-1925

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1926 2
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639
45 1983 11 89-90

1989 169-170

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1 81

8 15
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1978 309
8 5
7 76-77
10 15

(1920-1925) 564
Daniel N. Jacobs, Borodin: Stalins Man in China, p. 163.

1924-1925

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1923 6

92
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(1920-1925) 419-420435-445

1923

1924

1979 24
83-84
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1928 3 5

1928 3 7 8
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1922

31-33
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1968 129-130 1924


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1924 6 2 6 1924 6 1

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1981 127
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(1924-1930) 30-31
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1994 404
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John Fitzgerald, Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution, p. 319.
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Daniel N. Jacobs, Borodin: Stalins Man in China, p. 177.
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1926 2

(1926-1927) 105-106

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(1924-1927)1975 206
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1924-1925
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1966
1994
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2004
1996
(1924-1930)2004
1978
Fewsmith, Joseph. Party, State, and Local Elites in Republican China: Merchant Organizations and
Politics in Shanghai, 1890-1930. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.
Fitzgerald, John. Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution. Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1996.
Jacobs, Daniel N. Borodin: Stalins Man in China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.

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1987
1911-1914
231994 6 237-282

2002 2
53-66

2003 5 89-96
2004 6
81-89

2009
1992 3 40-53
2003
4 177-248
1492002 6
46-68
2007 3
111-118

140 2009

22002 5 1-21
2006 11 49-54
(1927-1930)
5981989 10 19-49

61 22002 9 108-138

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1924-1925

Between the Left and the Right: The Guomindang and


Guangdong Merchants during the First United Front, 1924-1925

Li Ta-chia

Abstract
As a result of the repeated failure of his revolutionary efforts, Sun
Yat-sen decided to borrow from the Soviet Unions successful experience.
But his advocacy of a total revolution by the whole people was essentially
contradictory to the proletarian revolution of Soviet Union. After the
Guomindang (KMT) reorganized and began to admit members of the
Chinese Communist Party, they gained considerable power within the KMT
and were able to influence its political line, which gave rise to an eruption of
ideological contradiction. Within the KMT, controversies erupted between
the left and the right, and in society conflicts emerged between merchants
and workers. By this time Guangdong merchants were already in a state of
discontent with the revolutionary government, because they had been
subjected to a range of severe harassments stemming from levies imposed by
both the government and visiting armies. After its reorganization, the KMT
headquarters established peasants and workers bureaus, but lacked any
corresponding merchants bureau. Its propaganda and policy were biased
toward the peasantry and workers to the neglect of merchants, which caused
the latter to suspect the KMT of promoting communism. As far this point is
concerned, the conflict between merchant militia and the government was
based on both ideological differences and practical fears. As well the left
and the right within the KMT and the CCP all engaged actively in the
conflict, in a struggle for revolutionary leadership. The right cultivated the
*

Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica

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power of merchants and promoted party organizational reform, while the left
established an additional bureau of merchants in its fight against the right.
The establishment of this bureau by the KMT headquarters was on the one
hand a measure to pacify merchants in the wake of the conflict with
merchant militia, while on the other hand it implied a conflict of
revolutionary line. However, although the left established a merchants
bureau, it had no clear plan as to how to define the status of merchants in a
revolutionary program based primarily on the peasantry and workers. Not
until the second plenary conference of national representatives of the KMT,
was a merchants movement adopted as party policy. But owing to the
fundamental contradictions between the two ideologies and revolutionary
lines of the KMT and the CCP, the issues surrounding merchants were to
constantly reappear without resolution.
Keywords: Sun Yat-sen, Guomindang, Chinese Communist Party,
merchants, merchant militia

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