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Proportional - Integral - Derivative

Dr. Matt Stables

Dr. James Taylor

23/02/2010

MARINE

Introduction

History of Control

Been used since antiquity for

control of Mechanical systems.

Babylonian and Greek

development of Water Clock

Feedback Control;

Such as a float valve, controlling

temperature, speed or fluid levels

Sensor output can be compared with

desired output, input adjusted

accordingly.

Example :

Temperature control can be achieved

through use of a heater or a fan

Challenge comes

when deciding

level of control

input for desired

results !

MARINE

Introduction

Proportional-Integral-Derivative

(PID) control accounts for more than 90% of

In this lecture;

control

Primarily because;

Effective and simple to implement.

Originally intended for linear, time-invariant

systems

The influences of

Proportional, Integral and

Derivative aspects

systems with more complex dynamics.

methods

Concentrate on Continuous

Time control ( s operator )

MARINE

Introduction

A common actuator is a DC motor

Provides

Direct rotary motion or, via

drums and cables, translational

motion

The Stationary magnetic field

provides a force on a current

carrying conductor

For control purposes, there is

Input - voltage - u

Output - rotational velocity - y

MARINE

Introduction

Characteristics

RPM

Voltage

RPM

Time

MARINE

Proportional Control

Desired Output D

Motor Speed

Controller

Input U

Voltage

System

Output Y

Motor Speed

Controller is an electronic amplifier, determines input voltage

Actual motor speed depends on motor dynamics and load disturbances

MARINE

Proportional Control

Desired Output D

Input U

Output Y

Controller

System

Sensor

Controller compares desired output with actual output

An electronic amplifier produces a voltage

Reduces Sensitivity to disturbance

Proportional Control

MARINE

Desired Output D

Output Y

G1 (s)

Imaginary

G2 (s)

Y = G1 (s) G1 (s) D

G1 (s)

Desired Output D

Stable

Unstable

Output Y

G2 (s)

Y = G1 (s) + G1 (s) D

Real

Desired Output D

Output Y

+_

G1 (s)

G2 (s)

determine stability

Y=

G1 (s)

1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)

xD

Proportional Control

MARINE

Desired Output D

Motor Speed

+_

Complex

Stable

Input U

Voltage

Output Y

Motor Speed

6.5

K=2

12s + 1

Unstable

K 6.5

Real

12s + 1

Y=

1+

determine stability

xD

K 6.5

12s + 1

K 6.5

xD

=

12s + K 6.5 +1

=

13

12s + 14

xD

Proportional Control

MARINE

Desired Output D

Ventilation rate

+_

Input U

Voltage

10s + 1

K 1.5

m3/s

K 1.5 +1

state error !!

Time

1.5

Output Y

Ventilation Rate

Y = K 1.5

xD

10s + K 1.5 +1

MARINE

Integral Control

Desired

Output D

+_

Input U

G (s)

Output Y

duration

Summing error over time gives an

Y=

1+ K

Greater complexity in closed loop Transfer

Y=

G (s)

1

S

xD

G (s)

K G (s)

s + K G (s)

xD

Integral Control

MARINE

Desired Output D

Ventilation rate

+_

Input U

Voltage

10s + 1

K 1.5

m3/s

K 1.5

Time

1.5

Output Y

Ventilation Rate

Y = K 1.5

xD

10s2 + s +K 1.5

MARINE

Derivative Control

Desired

Output D

+_

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Ks

Used to reduce magnitude of overshoot

Used in combination with Proportional

Greater complexity in closed loop Transfer

Function may become unstable due to

sensitivity to noise

Y=

K s G (s)

1 + K s G (s)

xD

MARINE

Control Requirements

Proportional Gain

Applicable to Error between setpoint & output

Larger values

faster response

Very large values

process instability and oscillation.

Results in Steady State Error

Integral Gain

Proportional to integral of Error between setpoint & output

Larger values

steady state errors rapidly eliminated.

Overshoot may lead to instability

Zero Steady State Error

Derivative Gain

Proportional to derivative of Error between setpoint & output

Larger values

decreased overshoot, but slower transient response

May lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the error

Important considerations;

Does system have restraints on input or output?

How rapidly can change be achieved?

How rapidly does change NEED to be achieved?

Control Combinations

MARINE

Proportional

Derivative Control

Desired

Output D

+_

Destabilising nature of Integral action

Reduces overshoot effects

However; Susceptible to noise, acts to amplify it

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Kp +Kd s

Used;

Avoids;

Y=

G( Kp +Kd s)

xD

m3/s

1 +G( Kp +Kd s)

Desired

Output D

+_

Kp

+_

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Time

Alternative Form;

Control

Kd s

Control Combinations

MARINE

Proportional

Integral Control

Used;

Ensures;

.

However;

.

predominantly 1ST

Desired

Output D

Order

Zero Steady State Error (if closed loop transfer

.

function is stable )

Increased setpoint tracking speed

Increased complexity introduces a Phase Lag ; reducing

stability

+_

Kp + KI

Output Y

G (s)

Y=

G( s Kp +KI )

xD

m3/s

s +G( s Kp +KI)

Desired

Output D

+_

Time

Alternative Form;

Control

KI

1

S

+_

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Kp

Control Combinations

MARINE

Proportional Integral

Derivative Control

Output Y

Desired

Output D

Used:

Where system is 2ND or high order

Ensures;

Setpoint tracking with zero steady state error

Allows;

Faster response without oscillatory nature of PI control

Greater influence of error response, degree of overshoot

and oscillation

+_

Kp + KI

1

S

Input U

+ Kd s

Y=

G(s2 Kd + s Kp + KI)

m3/s

Time

G (s)

xD

MARINE

Manually :

Set KI & KD to zero, increase KP until

response begins to oscillate, then halve it

Increase KI until steady state error is

eliminated, (but not too much! )

Increase KD until system responds

sufficiently rapidly (but not too much! )

ZieglerNichols method

Set KI & KD to zero, increase KP until

response begins to oscillate;

Defined as Critical Gain KC with an

Oscillation Period PC

Type

Kp

KI

Kd

0.50Kc

PI

0.45Kc

1.2Kp / Pc

PID

0.60Kc

2Kp / Pc

KpPc / 8

MARINE

Conclusions

mechanistically for millennia!

Development of electronics in

early 20th Century paved the way

for feedback amplifiers and

feedback control

Control response is changeable

based on feedback gains used.

Electronic control systems using

PID structure used in 90% of

industrial controllers

Applicable to LINEAR Systems

Linearization by Feedback : Nonlinearities are cancelled by feeding back

inverse of system dynamics

order systems. Requires more control

gains Proportional Integral PLUS (PIP)

Gain scheduling for time varying

systems: Control gains are updated

throughout operation

State Dependant Parameter (SDP)

control; Gains are updated based on

current state of system

MARINE

Any Questions ?

Classical Control Theory

Proportional - Integral - Derivative

Dr. James Taylor

23/02/2010

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