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Original Title: Satellite Communications

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Agrawal

SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

MODUL

E

1.

2.

3.

CONTENTS

Introduction:

General Background,

Frequency Allocations For Satellite

Services,

Basic Satellite System,

System Design Considerations,

Applications.

Satellite Orbits:

Introduction,

Laws Governing Satellite Motion,

Antenna Look Angles,

Antenna Mount,

Limits Of Visibility,

Earth Eclipse Of Satellite,

Inclined Orbits,

Sun-Synchronous Orbit,

Launching Of Geostationary Satellites.

Wave Propagation And Polarization:

Introduction,

Atmospheric Losses,

Ionospheric Effects,

Rain Attenuation,

Other Impairments,

Antenna Polarization,

Polarization of Satellite Signals,

Cross Polarization Discrimination,

Ionospheric Depolarization,

Rain Depolarization,

Ice Depolarization.

Communication Satellites:

Introduction,

Design Considerations,

Lifetime and Reliability,

Spacecraft Sub Systems,

Spacecraft

Mass

and

Power

Estimations,

Space Segment Cost Estimates.

Satellite Antenna:

Antenna Basics,

Aperture Antennas,

BOOKS

1.1

1.2

Roddy

1.3

1.4

1.5

Richharia

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.8

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

4.2

6.11

Roddy

Richharia

Roddy

Richharia

4.

5.

6.

Parabolic Reflectors,

Offset Feed,

Double Reflector Antenna Shaped

Reflector Systems.

Link Design:

Introduction,

Transmission Losses,

Link Power Budget Equation,

System Noise,

Carrier to Noise Ratio For Uplink and

Downlink,

Combined Uplink and Downlink

Carrier to Noise Ratio,

Intermodulation Noise.

Earth Stations:

Introduction,

Design Considerations,

General

Configuration

and

Characteristics.

Multiple Access Techniques:

Introduction,

FDMA,

TDMA,

FDMA/TDMA Operation In A

Multiple Beam Environment,

CDMA,

Multiple Access Examples

6.13

6.14

6.15

12.1

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.6

12.7

12.8

12.10

12.11

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.7

Roddy

Roddy

Richharia

Richharia

MODULE 1:

INTRODUCTION:

General Background:

Satellites offer a number of features because very large areas of the earth are

visible at a time. Because of this reason, satellite links many users at the same

time who are widely separated geographically.

The same feature enables satellites to reach to the places which are difficult to

reach due to harsh weather or has difficult terrain.

However, satellite signals ignore political boundaries as well as geographic

ones, which may create some issues.

To give some idea of cost, the construction and launch cost of the Canadian

Anik-E1 satellite (in 1994 Canadian dollars) was $281.2 million, and that of

the Anik-E2, $290.5 million.

The combined launch insurance for both satellites was $95.5 million.

However, the huge cost can be ignored if the distance between transmission

and reception point is relatively large, or if the satellite is used to communicate

with billions of users at any given time.

Satellites are also used for remote sensing, examples being the detection of

water pollution and the monitoring and reporting of weather conditions.

Some of these remote sensing satellites also form a vital link in search and

rescue operations for downed aircraft and the like.

Requires international coordination and planning as the process is very

complicated. Wide range of frequencies has to be divided accordingly among

various countries.

If same frequency is used for communication between two countries,

interference can take place if the distance between countries is not large.

This process is carried out by International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

World is divided among three regions viz.

Region 1: Europe, Africa, what was formerly the Soviet Union, and

Mongolia,

Region 2: North and South America and Greenland,

Region 3: Asia (excluding region 1 areas), Australia, and the southwest

Pacific

services, although, some of the same services may work on different

frequency in different regions.

Some of the services provided by satellites are:

Fixed satellite service (FSS)

transmission of television signals to cable companies for distribution

over cable systems.

For Direct to Home (DTH) service.

Mobile satellite services

Rendering services to land mobile, maritime mobile, and aeronautical

mobile.

For Global Positioning Systems (GPS).

Meteorological satellite services

For Search and Rescue (SAR).

In the Fig. 1, the frequency band under K band is termed as Ku band, which is

used for DBS and certain FSS. In this band, the range of frequency is 12 14

GHz, denoted by 14/12 GHz, out of which, higher one is the uplink frequency

and lower one is the downlink frequency.

C band is used only for FSS. DBS operation is not allowed in this band. In this

band, the most widely used frequency band is 6/4 GHz.

VHF band is used for certain mobile, navigational services and to transfer data

from weather satellites.

specific ground segment. The characteristics of GS depends on whether

the system is for fixed, mobile or direct broadcast applications.

The block diagram is shown in Fig. 2. Ground stations or Earth stations

transmit RF signals to operating satellite. The received signals are,

Processed,

Down-converted,

Amplified,

Up-converted,

Retransmitted to desired location on Earth.

Tracking and Command (TT&C) station.

Communication can be established easily between all earth stations located

within the coverage region through the satellite.

The primary role of a satellite is to relay electronic signals.

Usually, a back-up satellite is present for each main functioning satellite.

Area of coverage (single antenna is visible to of the earth surface)

Spacecraft power and allocated bandwidth

Satellite - satellite versus satellite - earth station (time-invariant vs. timevariant)

Transmission is cost independent of distance (within coverage)

Broadcast, multicast, point-point apps

Very high bandwidth, data rates available to user

High quality of transmission

Earth-satellite-earth propagation delay (~ s)

Applications:

Weather Forecasting

To monitor the climatic conditions of earth.

To monitor the assigned areas of earth and predict the weather

conditions of that region by taking images.

To predict disasters like hurricanes, and monitor the changes in the

Earth's vegetation, sea state, ocean colour, and ice fields

Radio and TV Broadcast

To make available hundreds of channels across the globe.

To broadcast live matches, news, and world-wide radio services.

Military Satellites

To gather intelligence for military purposes, or as a military weapon.

Navigation Satellites

For precise localization world-wide in the range of some meters.

Ships and aircraft rely on GPS as an addition to traditional navigation

systems.

For fleet management of trucks or for vehicle localization in case of

theft.

Global Telephone

Long distance communication replacing wires, however this results in

delayed signal, since the signal has to travel approximately 72000 km.

Connecting Remote Areas

Due to their geographical location many places all over the world do

not have direct wired connection to the telephone network or the

internet (e.g., researchers on Antarctica) or because of the current state

of the infrastructure of a country.

Here the satellite provides a complete coverage and (generally) there is

one satellite always present across a horizon.

Global Mobile Communication

replacing AMPS and GSM. This reduces the cost of installation of base

stations and switching centres.

Certain area falling under a particular satellite is termed is footprint of

that satellite.

Communication between different footprints can be done by providing

communication link between two or more satellites.

SATELLITE ORBITS

Introduction

Satellites (spacecraft) orbiting the earth follow the same laws that govern the

motion of the planets around the sun.

From early times much has been learned about planetary motion through careful

observations.

Johannes Kepler (15711630) was able to derive empirically three laws describing

planetary motion.

Keplers laws apply quite generally to any two bodies in space which interact

through gravitation.

The more massive of the two bodies is referred to as the primary, the other, the

secondary or satellite.

Keplers First Law:

Keplers first law states that, the path followed by a satellite around the

primary body will be an ellipse.

An ellipse has two focal points shown as F1 and F2 in Fig. 3.

The centre of mass of the two-body system, termed the barycentre, is

always centered on one of the foci.

When we consider primary body as earth and secondary body as satellite,

since the mass difference between earth and satellite is enormous, the

centre of mass coincides approximately with the centre of earth, placing

centre of earth on one of the foci.

Semi-major axis is termed as a and semi-minor axis is termed as b. The

eccentricity is given as

a2b 2

e=

( ab)

Figure 3: The foci F1 and F2, the semi-major axis a, and the semi-minor axis b of an ellipse

The eccentricity and the semi-major axis are two of the orbital parameters

specified for satellites (spacecraft) orbiting the earth.

For an elliptical orbit, 0 < e < 1.

Keplers second law states that, for equal time intervals, a satellite will

sweep out equal areas in its orbital plane, focused at the barycenter.

With respect to the laws governing the planetary motion around the sun,

this law could be stated as A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps our

equal area during equal intervals of time.

From Fig. 4 and considering the law stated above, if satellite travels

distances S1 and S2 meters in 1 second, then areas A1 and A2 will be

equal.

The same area will be covered everyday regardless of where in its orbit a

satellite is. As the first Keplerian law states that the satellite follows an

elliptical orbit around the primary, then the satellite is at different distances

from the planet at different parts of the orbit. Hence the satellite has to

move faster when it is closer to the Earth so that it sweeps an equal area on

the Earth.

centripetal acceleration due to rotation of earth which is nothing but a

circular motion. When a body experiences centripetal force from a rotating

body, it tends to move towards the centre of the rotating body. This acting

force, adds up with present velocity of the satellite resulting in increased

speed when the satellite is in the vicinity of earth.

As the satellite moves away from earth, centripetal force decreases and

hence velocity of satellite decreases, resulting it to move slower.

Keplers third law states that the square of the periodic time of orbit is

proportional to the cube of the mean distance between the two bodies.

The mean distance is equal to the semi-major axis a. For the artificial

satellites orbiting the earth, Keplers third law can be written in the form:

a3 =

2

n

Where n is the mean motion of the satellite in radians per second and

is the earths geocentric gravitational constant. Its value is

= 3.986005 1014 m3/s2

However, the above equation is true only when perfectly spherical earth is

taken into account. Also, satellite should not be affected by any other

forces like atmospheric drag. But these conditions are not true, and hence

one more factor will be added later on.

With n in radians per second, the orbital period in seconds is given by

P=

2

n

relationship between period and semi-major axis.

Definitions:

Apogee: Point farthest from earth.

Perigee: Point closest to earth.

Line of APsides: Line joining apogee and perigee through the centre of earth.

Ascending Node: Point where satellite orbit crosses equatorial plane going from

south to north.

Descending Node: Point where satellite orbit crosses equatorial plane going from

north to south.

Line of Nodes: Line joining ascending and descending node through the centre of

earth.

Inclination: Angle between orbital plane and equatorial plane, measured at

ascending node from equator to orbit, going from east to north.

Prograde Orbit: Orbit in which satellite moves in the same direction as the earths

rotation. Also known as Direct Orbit. Most satellites are launched in this orbit,

since earths rotational velocity provides orbital velocity thereby saving the fuel.

Retrograde Orbit: Orbit in which satellite moves in opposite direction as the

earths rotation.

Argument of Perigee: Angle from ascending node to perigee measured in orbital

plane at the earths centre, in the direction of satellite motion.

Right Ascension of the Ascending Node: As the earth spins, the longitude of

ascending node keeps on changing since orbital plane is constant in its location.

Thus, it cannot be used to determine to true orbital position. Hence, for practical

determination of an orbit, the longitude and time of crossing of the ascending node

are frequently used. As a reference point, line of Aries is used. Line of Aries is an

imaginary line joining equatorial plane and centre of sun. The right ascension of

the ascending node is then the angle measured eastward, in the equatorial plane,

from the line of Aries to the ascending node.

Mean Anamoly: Average value of angular position of the satellite with reference

to the perigee.

True Anamoly: Angle from perigee to the satellite position measured from earths

centre.

Ascending Node

Orbital Perturbations:

Theoretically, an orbit described by Kepler is ideal as Earth is considered to be

a perfect sphere and the force acting around the Earth is the centrifugal force.

This force is supposed to balance the gravitational pull of the earth.

In reality, other forces also play an important role and affect the motion of the

satellite. These forces are the gravitational forces of Sun and Moon along with

the atmospheric drag.

Effects of Sun and Moon is more pronounced on geostationary earth satellites

whereas the atmospheric drag effect is more pronounced for low earth orbit

satellites.

As the shape of Earth is not a perfect sphere, it causes some variations

in the path followed by the satellites around the primary.

As the Earth is bulging from the equatorial belt, and keeping in mind

that an orbit is not a physical entity, and it is the forces resulting from

an oblate Earth which act on the satellite produce a change in the

orbital parameters.

The parameter which get affected is mean motion of satellite. Under

the condition that earth is perfect sphere, the nominal mean motion of

the satellite is given as

n0= 3

a

above equation changes to

2

1e

a2

K 1 ( 11.5 sin2 i )

1+

n=n0

K1 is a constant which evaluates to 66,063.1704 km2.

The earths oblateness has negligible effect on the semi-major axis a,

and if a is known, the mean motion is readily calculated.

The orbital period taking into account the earths oblateness is termed

the anomalistic period (e.g., from perigee to perigee).

The oblateness of the earth also produces two rotations of the orbital

plane.

The first of these, known as regression of the nodes, is where the nodes

appear to slide along the equator.

about the centre of the earth. Thus , the right ascension of the

ascending node, shifts its position.

If the orbit is prograde, the nodes slide westward, and if retrograde,

they slide eastward. As seen from the ascending node, a satellite in

prograde orbit moves eastward, and in a retrograde orbit, westward.

The nodes therefore move in a direction opposite to the direction of

satellite motion, hence the term regression of the nodes. For a polar

orbit (i = 90), the regression is zero. An approximate expression for

the rate of change of with respect to time is

d

=Kcosi

dt

When the rate of change given by Eq. (2.12) is negative, the regression

is westward, and when the rate is positive, the regression is eastward. It

will be seen, therefore that for eastward regression, i must be greater

than 90o, or the orbit must be retrograde.

The other major effect produced by the equatorial bulge is a rotation of

the line of apsides. This line rotates in the orbital plane, resulting in the

argument of perigee changing with time. The rate of change is given by

d

=K ( 22.5 sin 2 i )

dt

Again, the units for the rate of rotation of the line of apsides will be the

same as those for n (incorporated in K). When the inclination i is

equal to 63.435, the term within the parentheses is equal to zero, and

hence no rotation takes place. Use is made of this fact in the orbit

chosen for the Russian Molniya satellites.

Also, earth is slightly elliptical in shape having eccentricity of 10 -5.

This is referred to the equatorial ellipticity.

Due to this, the satellite in geostationary orbit is no longer in the

circular orbit but in elliptical orbit, and when it is on minor axis of the

orbit, it is closest to earth.

This gives rise to gravity gradient and because of this, a drift is

observed in satellite at this point, i.e. at the minor axis of the orbit.

These two points are separated by 180 on the equator and are at

approximately 75 E longitude and 105 W longitude.

Satellites in service are prevented from drifting to these points through

station-keeping maneuvers. Because old, out-of-service satellites

eventually do drift to these points, they are referred to as satellite

graveyards.

Atmospheric Drag:

The satellites which are orbiting closer to earth, experiences the effect

of atmospheric drag especially when satellite is crossing perigee point.

This results in decrement of the satellite velocity, with the result that

the satellite does not reach the same apogee height on successive

revolutions.

The result is that the semi-major axis and the eccentricity are both

reduced. Drag does not noticeably change the other orbital parameters,

including perigee height.

The satellite appears to be stationary in this orbit, since it is rotating around

earth, matching the rotational velocity of earth, hence the name geostationary.

Orbit must satisfy following three conditions to become stationary:

The satellite must travel eastward at the same rotational speed as the

earth.

The orbit must be circular.

The inclination of the orbit must be zero.

From Keplers third law, radius of geostationary orbit can be calculated. The

orbital period of the satellite will be same as earth i.e. 1 day. From this, we can

find n using

2

P=

n

Where P = 1 day = 86400 seconds

Which gives n = 7.272 10-5 rad/sec

And hence from Keplers third law, using

a3 = 2

n

a=42,241 km

This is radius of geostationary orbit. Denoting it by aGSO, it can also be written

as

P 1 /3

aGSO =

4 2

( )

Here, we have taken the rotation period of earth to be 1 day i.e. 24 hours. In

reality it is 23 hour 56 minutes and 4 seconds. When this value of rotation is

taken, the value of aGSO changes to 42,164 km.

This distance is from the centre of earth. If we want to find height of satellite

from the surface of earth, we have to subtract the value of radius of earth

(6378 km) from this value of aGSO which turns out to be 35786 km.

In practice, a precise geostationary orbit cannot be attained because of

disturbance forces in space and the effects of the earths equatorial bulge.

Hence station keeping maneuvers are required to keep a track on satellite and

correct their position from time to time.

Antenna Look Angles:

To point directly at the satellite, antenna on earth station requires two

look angles viz. azimuth angle and elevation angle.

In case of elliptical orbit, the look angles changes each time the

satellite changes its course.

But in geostationary orbit, the case is much simpler since the distance

between satellite and the surface is constant.

In case of applications where point to point communication is required

(e.g. military base), antenna beamwidth has to be very narrow, and in

case of application where one point to many point or broadcast

communication is required (e.g. TV or radio transmission), antenna

beamwidth becomes broad.

When beamwidth is narrow, tracking system is required and it is not

required when beamwidth is broad.

The three pieces of information that are needed to determine the look

angles for the geostationary orbit are

1. The earth-station latitude, denoted here by l

2. The earth-station longitude, denoted here by L

3. The longitude of the subsatellite point, denoted here by S (often this

is just referred to as the satellite longitude) as shown in Fig. 6.

Here, latitudes north will be taken as positive angles, and latitudes

south, as negative angles. Longitudes east of the Greenwich meridian

will be taken as positive angles, and longitudes west, as negative

angles. For example, if a latitude of 40S is specified, this will be taken

as -40, and if a longitude of 35W is specified, this will be taken as

-35.

Figure 6: The geometry used in determining the look angles for a geostationary satellite

The azimuth angle is defined as the angle measured clockwise from the

true north to the intersection of the local horizontal plane TMP and the

plane TSO (passing through the earth station, the satellite, and the

earth's centre). The azimuth angle A is between 0 and 360. Depending

on the location of the earth station with respect to the sub-satellite

point, the azimuth angle A is given by:

a. When ES is south and east, A = A

b. When ES is south and west, A = 360 A

c. When ES is north and east, A = 180 A

d. When ES is north and west, A = 180 + A

Where A is the true azimuth angle and A is the reference angle shown

in Fig. 6. Pictorial depiction of azimuth angle for different locations is

shown in Fig 7.

intersection of the local horizontal plane TMP and the plane TSO with

the line of sight between the earth station and the satellite. Of course

we assume that the earth is a perfect sphere with radius R e = 6378km.

From Fig. 6 we have,

'

A =tan

MT

1 MO| s L|

1

=tan

=tan

MP

Re tan l

( )

Re

tan | s L|

cos l

( )

R e tan l

= tan

tan | s L|

sin l

6 and redrawn in Fig. 8, we have,

E= + 90=( 90 ) + 90 =

=cos1

( OPR )

e

Re

MO

Since, OP= cos| s L|= cos l cos cos |s L| as seen from triangle TMO and MPO, we

have,

1

=cos

To evaluate , we have,

1

=tan

cos

=tan

( TBSB )=tan ( r R

R sin )

e

R e sin cos

E=tan 1

Re sin cos

global coverage antenna if the station is in the footprint of the satellite,

which is a function of time except for a geostationary satellite.

Consider Fig. 9 where the earth coverage angle 2 max is the total angle

subtended by the earth as seen from the satellite. This angle is

important in the design of a global coverage antenna and depends on

the satellite altitude. The communication coverage angle 2 is similarly

defined, except that the minimum elevation angle Emin, of the earth

station antenna must be taken into account. For an elevation angle E of

the earth station antenna, the communication coverage angle 2 is

given by the relation

=

=

Re

Re + H

R e+ H

Where a spherical earth with radius Re is assumed and H is the altitude

of the satellite orbit and is a function of time except for a geostationary

satellite where H = 35,786 km. Thus,

2 =2sin

Re

cos E

Re + H

2 max =2 sin1

Re

R e+ H

17.3.

The central angle is given as,

=90E

For a geostationary orbit, the central angle corresponding to the earth

coverage angle max is obtained by setting = max and E = 0, which

yields = 81.3. If a minimum elevation angle of 5 is required for the

earth station antenna, then = 76.3. Thus it is seen that the polar

regions above these northern and southern latitudes of 76.3 will not be

covered by the footprint of the satellite.

For a geostationary satellite that utilizes solar energy, the duration and

periodicity of solar eclipses are important because no solar energy is

available during eclipses.

Figure 10: (a) Sinusoidal variation of earth's inclination angle; (b) Apparent movement of the sun

i e ( t )=23.4 sin

the direction of the sun. This annual sinusoidal variation is given in

degrees (Fig. 10) by,

2 t

T

Where the annual period T = 365 days and the maximum inclination is

iemax = 23.4. The time tA and tS when the inclination angle ie is zero are

called the autumn equinox and the spring equinox and occur about

September 21 and March 21; respectively. The times t W and tSU when

the inclination angle ie is at its maximum are called the winter solstice

and the summer solstice and occur about December 21 and June 21;

respectively.

To find the eclipse duration consider Fig. 11 where the finite diameter

of the sun is ignored (the sun is assumed to be at infinity with respect

to the earth), hence the earth's shadow is considered to be a cylinder of

constant diameter. The maximum shadow angle occurs at the

equinoxes and is given by

Re

6378.155

= 180 cos1

=17.4

a

42164.2

max =180 cos1

( )

angle is equivalent to a maximum daily eclipse duration,

17.4

T max=

24=1.16 h

360

Thus for time period of 1.16 h, satellite will not receive solar energy

and have to function totally on the battery backup power.

Inclined Orbits

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