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NSN Smart Scheduler

for LTE and TD-LTE

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Technology introduction
Scheduling in LTE (FDD) and TD-LTE

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Scheduler = Software in the base station, which allocates spectrum to users

Interference

Frequency

QoS

Fading
Time
180kHz

Resource block
1ms

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A scheduler needs to mitigate physical


effects like interference and fading,
which can severely impact the
throughput.
It also needs to assure QoS.

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

The scheduler implementation allows for differentiation

What is a scheduler?

The scheduler is the software within an eNodeB,


which allocates the spectrum resources each
millisecond to the users in a cell
As the scheduler implementation is not defined in
3GPP, a smart scheduler implementation is

Why is it relevant?
The scheduler has a direct

impact on
throughput and latency

This impact has been documented in the analyses and


benchmark tests of Signals Research Group

innovation beyond the standard

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Scheduler introduction
What does it take to achieve consistently high data rates and low latency?
User Equipment

eNodeB scheduler
Radio resource
allocation per UE

Channel quality
information (CQI)

assignment

Modulation and coding

MIMO recommendation
(MIMO rank indicator)

MIMO vs. TX diversity

Data to send
(UE buffer status)

Frequency-selective
scheduling

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reporting
Power available
(power headroom)

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

NSN Smart Scheduler


Continuous innovation
Long track record in delivering superior
performance

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High throughput low latency - consistently


Continuous innovation for superior performance
Capacity
increase

Smart
Scheduler

Continuous
innovation

Cell edge
performance
boost

Extended QoS

Baseline
efficiency

Higher average
throughput

Consistently
lower latency

Channel
awareness
Interference
awareness

Defineable
quality classes

CoMP

eICIC

Fast Link
Adaptation

Interference
shaping

Interference
aware power
control

Intra-frequency
load balancing

Nominal bitrate

Robustness

Foundation: Frequency Selective Scheduling in UL and DL

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September 2010
First independent analysis of LTE scheduler performance
Downlink

Uplink
frequency

Full utilization of resources

Full utilization of resources


Smart
Scheduler

20 MHz

time

One colour = one scheduled subscriber


frequency

Only half of the bandwidth


Only one subscriber per timeslot

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Low resource utilization


Only one subscriber per timeslot
20 MHz

Performed measurements in the LTE network of Telia, Sweden in NSN and Ericsson supplied network areas. Published a detailed
analysis. Full report available from: www.signalsresearch.com

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

October 2011: Performance benchmark in multivendor network


Consistently lower latency and higher throughput
Throughput

Latency

Drive test measurements


10 MHz bandwidth LTE-FDD, commercial network

Drive test measurements


10 MHz bandwidth LTE-FDD, commercial network

Mbps

average latency:
27ms
worst measurement: 51ms

+ 24%
72

+ 88%
18

25

61

58

34

Average throughput

Peak throughput

NSN

Vendor B
Vendor C

Vendor B
average latency:
38ms
worst measurement: 322ms
Vendor C
average latency:
53ms
worst measurement: 360ms

Drive tests in a commercial network performed by NSN in October 2011


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2012
Smart Scheduler becomes interference aware in uplink
Interference Aware Scheduling
Allocation of medium /
high interference
frequency blocks to
users close to the
eNodeB
Allocation of low
interference frequency
blocks to users at cell
edge

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Up to 10% gain for cell edge users in


low and medium loaded networks

Interference
Signal

MWC 2012
Interference

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November 2012: Commercial networks throughput benchmark


NSN outperforms Ericsson and Huawei
Optimum downlink throughput in good conditions

Highest DL throughput in challenging conditions

Low interference
Cell center

High interference
Cell edge

Theoretical maximum throughput of 1.48-1.5 Mbps / PRB in good


radio conditions only reached by NSN.

Measurements taken by NSN in two commercial LTE networks in APAC, supplied by NSN
(RL30), Ericsson and Huawei
Presenting results per PRB reduces the effect of network load

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Throughput per PRB in challenging radio conditions almost 100%


higher with NSN.

PRB = Physical Resource Block = 180kHz (smallest spectrum resource for LTE)
SNR = Signal to Noise Ratio (noise = interference)

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January 2013
(remember the September 2010 benchmark test)
We also knew and validated once again that with the
current implementation of the Ericsson scheduler that
it only assigned downlink resources to one mobile
device within a sub-frame (e.g., it was limited to
timebased scheduling and it didnt support frequencybased scheduling).
Signals Research Group
Full report (January 22, 2013) available from: www.signalsresearch.com

The NSN Smart Scheduler has been assigning both


downlink and uplink resources to multiple devices within
a sub-frame already since 2010.

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Best LTE network quality in South Korea (Spring 2013)


Korean LTE audit confirms best LTE network quality for NSN
LTE quality issues vendor results
(in percent of affected population)

The worlds first government


conducted LTE network
quality assessment

All networks in all major cities and


provinces (end 2012 early 2013)
Quality measure = Call Success Rate
(CSR)
Call setup success, call drops
Throughput levels
Voice and data quality

Excellent if CSR > 97.5%


5.8 mn people in cities and provinces
with networks with deteriorated
quality (CSR <97.5%)

The best LTE


network quality

Uplink

Downlink
33%

67%

40%

49%

NSN
Samsung
Ericsson

All NSN-supplied networks in the cities rated Excellent


Both Samsung and Ericsson supplied networks in cities
experiencing quality problems
In one mountainous province, the NSN-supplied network is
rated Excellent in uplink, while the networks provided in the
same province by Ericsson showed degraded quality in both
uplink and downlink
In all other provinces, the networks supplied by NSN are rated
Excellent

Note: KCC has assessed the quality of the networks by geographic area. Mapping of geographic areas to LTE radio suppliers done by NSN.
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11%

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

2013
Smart Scheduler becomes channel aware in uplink
Channel quality varies dynamically

Channel Aware Scheduling

Up to 25% uplink capacity gain

E.g. by changes in destructive


interference of different paths with
smallest movements of users
(fading)
Depending on exact frequency of
the channel (consisting of physical
resource blocks (PRB))

Channel Awareness in uplink

MWC 2013

Optimized frequency-selective
scheduling
Best allocation of PRBs to users
Best usage of each PRB (smart
selection of modulation / coding)
Multi-parameter calculation of
channel state information

Complements the existing channel


awareness in downlink

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August 2013, In-depth LTE radio performance comparison


LTE 1800MHz, European capital city
An in-depth performance
comparison confirms the
results from 2012
benchmark tests against
Ericsson.

File Transfer, upload

Mobility

Peak rate 8% higher . Also lower Radio


requirements on signal strength (RSRP) and
signal-to-noise ratio (CINR) for achieving
identical average layer 1 throughput

17% shorter handover interruption of data


transfer during LTE radio resource
connection handover . Maximum value
(worst case) comparison. 100 ms difference.

+8%

17% Faster

File Transfer, download

Latency

Average layer 1 throughput on cells with


similar signal strength (RSRP) and 50%
lower signal-to-noise (CINR) on NSN side

Average round trip time 50% faster.


Ping on 32bit. The difference 20 ms.

+77%
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50% Faster

Cell
capacity
+50% dual stream
MIMO usage at
SNR 1015 dB.

More
efficient

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

LTE from
NSN
Faster
and more
efficient

Smart Scheduler track record (1/2)


Continuous innovation, delivering superior performance
October 2011, Korea

February 2012

What: 50% lower average latency


Why: Proactive resource allocation and fewer
retransmissions

What: Up to 10% higher cell edge


data rates in uplink
Why: Interference awareness

Other vendor

Sept. 2010, Sweden

Oct. 2011, Korea

What: More simultaneous users,


higher data rates
Why: More effective radio resource allocation
to multiple users

What: 88% higher average throughput


Why: Efficient adaptation to good
and bad radio conditions

Other vendor

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Other vendor

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Smart Scheduler track record (2/2)


Continuous innovation, delivering superior performance
February 2013

August 2013, Europe

What: Up to 25% cell capacity gain in uplink


Why: Channel awareness

What: - 50% shorter average latency


- 77% faster downlink
- 8% faster uplink
Why: Efficient adaptation to signal strength
and signal to noise conditions

shortlisted nominee
in category 6e:

Outstanding LTE
Contribution

November 2012, APAC

Spring 2013, Korea

What: - Highest throughput in good radio


conditions
- 100% higher throughput in poor radio
conditions
Why: Efficient adaptation to good
and bad radio conditions

What: - Highest LTE network quality, including


throughput measures
Why: - Smart Scheduler adaptation to realnetwork load and radio conditions

Low interference
Cell center

High interference
Cell edge

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The worlds first government conducted


LTE network quality assessment

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

1st half 2014, further uplink scheduling innovations in Smart Scheduler


Up to 50% gain in uplink cell edge and up to 20% gain in uplink cell capacity
Network scenario specific optimizations in LTE(FDD) and TD-LTE
Interference aware UL power control
Across homogeneous networks
Unique and IPR protected

Uplink intra eNode B CoMP


Works with Rel.8 devices
Turns interference at sector borders
into useful signal

FDD+TDD

+
FDD+TDD

64QAM in UL
Increased peak data rates and

Fast uplink link adaptation

efficiency for serving users in


good radio link conditions
TDD

Accelerated MCS adaptation


for fast moving users

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FDD

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Further downlink innovation in Smart Scheduler


Up to 25% gain in downlink cell capacity with downlink interference shaping

Downlink Interference Shaping


Load-triggered, dynamic sub-band
blanking for short periods of time
Implicit coordination, without X2
Efficiency gain by limiting potential
interference
Depending on load situation, up to
25% gain in downlink cell capacity

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Nominal bitrate

Establishes nominal (target) data rates for non-guaranteed bit rate bearers
Reduces the cell-edge data rate disadvantage
Optimizes the overall resource utilization

Platinum
Gold

Similar non-GBR
throughput

Consistent experience across the cell

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Bronce

Similar experience for all users

Speed experience per quality class

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Intra-frequency load balancing


For macro-small cell and macro-macro balancing
Balance cell load
Increase average user data rates

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The three dimensional task to reduce interference


Smart Scheduler feature mapping
Interference
awareness

Frequency

Channel
awareness

Interference
shaping

Avoid noisy PRBs

Power (and location)


Adapt power levels
Use multiple antennas
Focus transmission and reception
Optimize user to cell mapping

Interference
aware
power
control

CoMP

Intrafrequency
load
balancing

Higher MIMO
schemes

Beamforming

eICIC

Time
Avoid noisy timeslots
But respect delay budgets
UL

DL

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UL +DL

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QoS

Scheduler gains by functionality


Frequency Selective Scheduling delivers highest gains
Inter-cell interference

Liquidity of traffic
distribution
Small cell capacity
Cell edge performance
degradation

Coordinated
scheduling

All LTE networks


Intra-frequency
Load balancing

Performance challenge
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Implicit, lean inter-cell


coordination

HetNet deployments

eICIC

All LTE networks


QoS differentiation

No need for inter-eNB


coordination
Working with Rel.8
devices
Field-proven

60% of achievable gain

Inter-cell interference
Fading

Multi-cell scheduling in LTE


networks with dark fiber

Frequency Selective Scheduling (FSS)


incl. Interference and Channel Awareness
Achievable gain

Application scenario

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Wrap-up
NSN Smart Scheduler performance in LTE networks
Smart frequency selection in UL and DL
Low interference
Cell center

High interference
Cell edge

Successfully
avoiding interference

Excellent cell edge


performance

Successfully
avoiding fading

Superior average data


rates in UL and DL

Successfully
avoiding retransmissions

Consistently short
latency times

Realistic PRB quality estimation


Other vendor

Smart Scheduler
Proven in highly-loaded networks

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Successfully proven in
diverse network conditions

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Beyond macro networks


HetNets
Ultra-dense deployments

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Deployments show different interference patterns

Heterogeneous networks

Macro networks

Interference with small cells

Focused capacity
expansion of macro with
small cells
Co-channel interference
macro small cell

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Densified deployments

Cell edge, neighbor cell interference

Large coverage areas


Mobility also for highspeed users
Interference with direct
neighbor cells

Massive cell cluster interference (UL)

Dimensioned for highest


traffic, especially in uplink
Fiber available
Interference across whole
cell clusters

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

NSN Smart Scheduler ensure superior performance in all deployments


Enhanced cell edge data rates and overall capacity
Heterogeneous networks

Macro-small cell
interference coordination
Common SW for Flexi
Multiradio and Flexi Zone
Dynamic eICIC

Macro networks

Inter-cell interference avoidance


Continuous innovation
Superior performance
proven in many
benchmark tests

Smart Scheduler
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Densified deployments

Multi-cell coordination
Centralized RAN
Unique interconnection
and collaboration of
baseband modules

Interference management by software


Running on existing network element

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NSN Smart Scheduler


Remember this

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NSN Smart Scheduler


Smarter algorithms continuously delivering better performance
Track record in delivering
superior throughput and latency

4 years
Making early experience from
advanced networks available
for all our customers

LTE (FDD) and


TD-LTE
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Spring 2013, Korea:


Analysis of LTE network audit
by KCC

Best network
quality
Unique algorithms making a
performance difference

Innovation

August 2013, Europe


50% shorter average latency in
in-depth performance tests

50% faster
latency
August 2013, Europe:
77% faster average downlink
data rates in in-depth analysis

77% faster
Downlink

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Further information about the Smart Scheduler

For further information


have a look at our
Smart Scheduler
whitepaper

Available together with whitepapers on LTE-A on

www.nsn.com/lte

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Thank you

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Backup

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Some more details


about the
Smart Scheduler

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Consistently high throughput and low latency with NSN Smart Scheduler

Effective usage of high modulation


and coding schemes

high
throughput

Effective usage of MIMO

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Minimized retransmissions in good


radio conditions

low

Smart
latency
Scheduler

Pro-active UL resource allocation

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Consistently high throughput and low latency with NSN Smart Scheduler

Effective usage of high modulation and coding


schemes
Frequency-selective scheduling
low variance in throughput for each MCS up to 64QAM
and 5/6 coding High Spectral Efficiency
Validation of channel quality (CQI)
reported by UE Robustness

high
throughput
Effective usage of MIMO
Intelligent use of UE MIMO rank
indication (MIMO / TX-diversity switching)
Optimum data rate

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Minimized retransmissions at good radio conditions

Stable block error rate (BLER = 10%)


in medium to bad radio conditions
Minimized (BLER) at good radio
conditions Reduced
retransmissions

low

Smart
latency
Scheduler

Pro-active UL resource allocation


Load-adaptive, pro-active resource allocation
Immediate radio resource availability

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Further benchmarks proving


superior performance

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Best LTE network quality in Korea (Autumn 2012)


Superior performance and stability even under highest load
Autumn 2012: The worlds first LTE-mega-event
One of the largest
firework festivals
Estimated 300,000
LTE users
Extremely heavy
LTE traffic

The most advanced LTE


market in the world
Worlds first country with
commercial LTE by all operators
Worlds first country with nationwide
LTE coverage
Worlds first country with >40% LTE
population penetration

The NSN LTE network outperformed the other LTE networks


by a wide margin*
Ensuring downlink throuphput remained above 34Mbps
2-3 times faster downlink speeds than the two non-NSN LTE
networks
The only network maintaining 100% data call completion rate
(CCR) at all times
* note: according to an independent test by an operator,

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NSNs LTE outperforming Huaweis Measurements in Middle East (Dec. 2012)


In Middle East NSN swapped Huawei LTE sites
Nov.-Dec.2012
The performance was measured prior and after the
swap, average results for 9 sites below:

70
60
50

DL Avg Rate (Mbps)


UL Avg Rate (Mbps)
Latency (ms)

49.44
21.16
30.88

On average:
NSN DL throughput 148% higher
NSN UL throughput 100% higher
NSN latency 52% lower

19.9
10.57
64.4

64,40

49,44

40
30,88
30
19,90

21,16

20
10,57
10

NSN
Huawei

0
DL Avg Rate
(Mbps)
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UL Avg Rate
(Mbps)

Latency (ms)

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Descriptions of selected
Smart Scheduler features

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Interference Aware Scheduler (UL)


Optimize the cell edge performance

Frequency domain scheduler assigns cell


edge users to frequency sub-bands with low
measured inter-cell interference in order to
improve the cell edge performance

eNode B
measured
interference

Sub-band
low
interference

Self-tuning algorithm, i.e. no planning


needed

Sub-band
with medium
interference

No X2 needed
Up to 10% gain for cell edge users in low
and medium loaded networks

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PRBs

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Operator Specific QCI


QCI based user differentiation

21 non GBR operator specific QCI profiles


S-GW MME

to allow for:

User differentiation

Service and user differentiation for MOCN

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User class:

Gold

Silver

Bronze

QCI range:

150155

160165

170175

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Channel Aware Scheduler (UL)


Up to 25 % capacity gain over channel unaware

Assignment of PRBs (physical resource blocks) in the frequency domain based on CSI
(channel state indicator)

UE specific CSI is based on filtered measurements from the UL reference signal and
sounding reference signal
Channel
aware

CSI table

PRBs

UE A

UE B

UE C

Resulting
weight: 12

Channel
unaware

Resulting
weight: 2

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GBR QoS Package (1/3): Support of QCI 2, 3 and 4


Video and gaming services for LTE

Support of GBR QCI (QoS Class


Identifier) 2, 3 and 4
Scheduler takes target delay and GBR
rate into account
Bearer combinations:
SRB1+SRB2+
2, 3 or 4 x AM DRB +
1 x UM DRB

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GBR QoS Package (2/3): ARP at Admission Control


Prioritized user access

Bearer pre-emption at admission control


based on:
Priority
Pre-emption capability
Pre-emption vulnerability

ARP=6

may trigger pre-emption

not pre-empted as
higher ARP
ARP=4
ARP=8

pre-empted

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GBR QoS Package (3/3): Smart Admission Control


Efficient resource usage

Radio admission control based on:


Current resource usage and
Estimated additional resource usage

admission control
threshold
estimated additional
usage

current usage
PDSCH

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PUSCH

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Interference aware uplink power control


Improved uplink cell edge & cell capacity

Advanced uplink power control algorithm


balancing
gain in own cell and
interference introduced to other
cells
based on eNode B measurements
no X2 needed

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UL intra eNodeB CoMP


Improved uplink cell edge performance

eNode B combines uplink signals from


multiple cells

Automatic selection of suitable Rx paths

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eICIC- macro
Dynamic hotspot capacity

Dynamic assignment of ABS (Almost Blank Subframes) by macro eNode B


Load triggered algorithm
eICIC and FeICIC (Further enhanced ICIC) support
Macro eNode B subframe
Micro eNode B subframe

ABS

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Subframes to be used
primarily by the Micro eNode B

Micro eNode B subframe


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Nominal bitrate
Ensure consistent end user experience per user class even at cell edge

Operator configurable nominal bitrate per


QCI for uplink and downlink

S-GW

MME

Allows to control end user experience for


non GBR bearers

Non GBR resources are allocated first to


achieve the nominal bit rate

Remaining resources distributed according


to scheduling weights

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Gold

nominal rate = 1000 kbit/s

Silver

nominal rate =

100 kbit/s

Bronze

nominal rate =

10 kbit/s

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Intra-frequency load balancing


Enhanced capacity for micro co-channel deployment or macro-macro deployments

Adapt handover borders between cells


based on load

Load exchange between cells via X2


Handover threshold change coordination via X2

Cell scenarios
Macro Macro
Macro Micro
Micro Micro

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expanded micro

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.