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ARTICLEIV

CITIZENSHIP
Section1.ThefollowingarecitizensofthePhilippines:
[1]ThosewhoarecitizensofthePhilippinesatthetimeoftheadoptionofthisConstitution;
[2]ThosewhosefathersormothersarecitizensofthePhilippines;
[3] Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon
reachingtheageofmajority;and
[4]Thosewhoarenaturalizedinaccordancewithlaw.
Section2.NaturalborncitizensarethosewhoarecitizensofthePhilippinesfrombirthwithouthavingto
performanyacttoacquireorperfecttheirPhilippinecitizenship.ThosewhoelectPhilippinecitizenshipin
accordancewithparagraph(3),Section1hereofshallbedeemednaturalborncitizens.
Section3.Philippinecitizenshipmaybelostorreacquiredinthemannerprovidedbylaw.
Section4.CitizensofthePhilippineswhomarryaliensshallretaintheircitizenship,unlessbytheiractor
omission,theyaredeemed,underthelaw,tohaverenouncedit.
Section5.Dualallegianceofcitizensisinimicaltothenationalinterestandshallbedealtwithbylaw.
RepublicActNo.9225August29,2003
ANACTMAKINGTHECITIZENSHIPOFPHILIPPINECITIZENSWHOACQUIREFOREIGN
CITIZENSHIPPERMANENT.AMENDINGFORTHEPURPOSECOMMONWEALTHACT.NO.
63,ASAMENDEDANDFOROTHERPURPOSES
BeitenactedbytheSenateandHouseofRepresentativesofthePhilippinesinCongressassembled:
Section1.ShortTitlethisactshallbeknownasthe"CitizenshipRetentionandReacquisitionActof
2003."
Section2.DeclarationofPolicyItisherebydeclaredthepolicyoftheStatethatallPhilippinecitizensof
anothercountryshallbedeemednottohavelosttheirPhilippinecitizenshipundertheconditionsofthis
Act.
Section3. RetentionofPhilippineCitizenship Anyprovisionoflawtothecontrarynotwithstanding,
naturalborncitizenshipbyreasonoftheirnaturalizationascitizensofaforeigncountryareherebydeemed
tohavereacquiredPhilippinecitizenshipupontakingthefollowingoathofallegiancetotheRepublic:
"I_____________________,solemnyswear(oraffrim)thatIwillsupportanddefendtheConstitutionof
theRepublicofthePhilippinesandobeythelawsandlegalorderspromulgatedbythedulyconstituted

authoritiesofthePhilippines;andIherebydeclarethatIrecognizeandacceptthesupremeauthorityofthe
Philippinesandwillmaintaintruefaithandallegiancethereto;andthatIimposedthisobligationupon
myselfvoluntarilywithoutmentalreservationorpurposeofevasion."
NaturalborncitizensofthePhilippineswho,aftertheeffectivityofthisAct,becomecitizensofaforeign
countryshallretaintheirPhilippinecitizenshipupontakingtheaforesaidoath.
Section4.DerivativeCitizenshipTheunmarriedchild,whetherlegitimate,illegitimateoradopted,below
eighteen(18)yearsofage,ofthosewhoreacquirePhilippinecitizenshipuponeffectivityofthisActshall
bedeemedcitizenshipofthePhilippines.
Section5.CivilandPoliticalRightsandLiabilitiesThosewhoretainorreacquirePhilippinecitizenship
under this Act shall enjoy full civil and political rights and be subject to all attendant liabilities and
responsibilitiesunderexistinglawsofthePhilippinesandthefollowingconditions:
(1)ThoseintendingtoexercisetheirrightofsurffragemustMeettherequirementsunderSection1,Article
VoftheConstitution,RepublicActNo.9189,otherwiseknownas"TheOverseasAbsenteeVotingActof
2003"andotherexistinglaws;
(2)ThoseseekingelectivepublicinthePhilippinesshallmeetthequalificationforholdingsuchpublic
officeasrequiredbytheConstitutionandexistinglawsand,atthetimeofthefilingofthecertificateof
candidacy,makeapersonalandswornrenunciationofanyandallforeigncitizenshipbeforeanypublic
officerauthorizedtoadministeranoath;
(3)ThoseappointedtoanypublicofficeshallsubscribeandsweartoanoathofallegiancetotheRepublic
ofthePhilippinesanditsdulyconstitutedauthoritiespriortotheirassumptionofoffice: Provided,That
theyrenouncetheiroathofallegiancetothecountrywheretheytookthatoath;
(4)ThoseintendingtopracticetheirprofessioninthePhilippinesshallapplywiththeproperauthorityfora
licenseorpermittoengageinsuchpractice;and
(5)ThatrighttovoteorbeelectedorappointedtoanypublicofficeinthePhilippinescannotbeexercised
by,orextendedto,thosewho:
(a)arecandidatesfororareoccupyinganypublicofficeinthecountryofwhichtheyarenaturalized
citizens;and/or
(b)areinactiveserviceascommissionedornoncommissionedofficersinthearmedforcesofthecountry
whichtheyarenaturalizedcitizens.
Section6.SeparabilityClauseIfanysectionorprovisionofthisActisheldunconstitutionalorinvalid,
anyothersectionorprovisionnotaffectedtherebyshallremainvalidandeffective.
Section 7. Repealing Clause All laws, decrees, orders, rules and regulations inconsistent with the
provisionsofthisActareherebyrepealedormodifiedaccordingly.
Section8.EffectivityClauseThisActshalltakeeffectafterfifteen(15)daysfollowingitspublicationin
theOfficialGazetteortwo(2)newspaperofgeneralcirculation.

WhatistheCitizenshipRetentionandReacquisitionActof2003?

RepublicActNo.9225ortheCitizenshipRetentionandReacquisitionActof2003isalawsignedbythe
PhilippinePresidentlast29August2003whichgrantsnaturalbornFilipinoswhohavelosttheirFilipino
citizenshipthroughnaturalizationinaforeigncountry,theopportunitytoreacquiretheirFilipino
citizenship.
WhoarenaturalborncitizensofthePhilippines?
NaturalborncitizensofthePhilippinesarethosewhoarecitizensofthePhilippinesfrombirthwithout
havingtoperformanyacttoacquireorperfecttheirPhilippinecitizenship.
Theseare:

ThosewhosefathersormothersarecitizensofthePhilippinesatthetimeoftheirbirth,and

ThosebornbeforeJanuary17,1973,ofFilipinomothers,whoelectPhilippinecitizenship
uponreachingtheageofmajority.
IsitpossibleforFilipinostoholddualcitizenshipormorethanonecitizenshipatthesametime?
HoldingmorethanonecitizenshipispossibleforFilipinosespeciallywhenconflictofnationality
lawsisconcerned.Forexample,achildbornintheUnitedStatesofAmericaofFilipinoparentsis
anAmericancitizenunderUSlawandaFilipinocitizenunderPhilippinelaw.Thisisbecause
AmericancitizenshipisderivedfromtheterritoryinwhichthepersonwasbornwhilePhilippine
citizenshipisderivedfromtheparentscitizenship.
HowdoesonereacquireFilipinocitizenship?
UnderRepublicActNo.9225,anaturalbornFilipinowholosthis/herFilipinocitizenshipthrough
naturalizationinaforeigncountrymayreacquireFilipinocitizenshipbytakingthePhilippine
OathofAllegiancebeforeadulyauthorizedPhilippineofficial.ThePhilippineOathofAllegiance
doesnotrequireapersontorenouncehisallegiancetoanyothercountry.
DoesonewhoreacquiresFilipinocitizenshipneedtoresideinthePhilippines?
ResidencyinthePhilippinesisnotrequiredofthosewhowishtoreacquireorhavereacquired
Filipinocitizenship.Thosewhointendtovoteinlocalelections,however,mustestablish
residenceinthelocalitywheretheywishtovote.
WhatrightsandprivilegesisoneentitledtoonreacquiringFilipinocitizenship?
FilipinoswhohavereacquiredtheirFilipinocitizenshipunderthisActmayonceagainenjoyfull
civilandpoliticalrightsunderexistinglawsofthePhilippines.Theseinclude:

righttovoteinPhilippinenationalelections

righttoownlandandpropertyinthePhilippines

righttoengageinbusinessorcommerceasaFilipino

righttotravelbearingaFilipinopassport

otherrightsandprivilegesenjoyedbyFilipinocitizens
CanonewhoreacquiresFilipinocitizenshipvoteinthePhilippines?
Yes.Apersonwhoreacquireshis/herFilipinocitizenshipmayvoteinelectionsinthePhilippines
providedthathe/shecomplieswiththeresidencyrequirementunderexistingPhilippineelection
law.He/She,however,mayvoteabroadinPhilippinenationalelections(President,VicePresident,
Senatorsandsectoralrepresentatives)undertheOverseasAbsenteeVotingActof2003.
HavingreacquiredFilipinocitizenshipcanoneholdorrunpublicofficeinthePhilippines?
Yes,providedthathe/shemeetsthequalificationsforholdingsuchofficeasrequiredbythe1987
Constitutionandexistinglaws.Theprospectivecandidatemust,atthetimeofthefilingofthe
certificateofcandidacy,makeapersonalandswornrenunciationofanyandallforeigncitizenship
beforeauthorizedpublicofficers.Thesamerequirementisimposedtothosewhoareabouttobe
appointedtoanypublicofficeinthePhilippines.

Whatistheeffectofdualcitizenshiponthepaymentofincometaxes?
UnderRepublicActNo.8424,onlyincomederivedfromthePhilippinesaretaxedbythePhilippine
government.In1976,however,thePhilippinesandUnitedStatesofAmericasignedatreatyontaxationin
ordertoavoiddoubletaxationforFilipinoswhoderiveincomefromtheUnitedStatesandforAmericans
whoderiveincomefromthePhilippines.Underthistreaty,taxespaidinthePhilippinesmaybecreditedin
theUnitedStatesandviceversa.ThePhilippinegovernmentisexpectedtoforgesimilararrangementswith
othercountriesinthelightoftheenactmentoftheCitizenshipRetentionandReacquisitionActof2003.
AfterreacquiringFilipinocitizenship,canonepracticehisorherprofessioninthePhilippines?
DespitehavingreacquiredFilipinocitizenship,onedoesnotautomaticallygaintherighttopracticehis/her
professioninthePhilippines.Tobeabletodoso,he/shemustapplywiththeproperPhilippineauthority
(ProfessionalRegulationsCommissionandotheraccreditingbodies)foralicenseorpermittoengagein
suchpractice.
DothesamelimitationsonformerFilipinosconcerninglandownershipstillapplytothosewhohavere
acquiredtheirFilipinocitizenship?
HavingreacquiredFilipinocitizenshipunderthisAct,oneisdeemedtohavereacquiredhis/herrightto
ownlandasaFilipinocitizenwithoutprejudicetohis/hercitizenshipinaforeigncountry.Thelimitations
imposedonformerFilipinosnolongerappliestohim/her.
AsaFilipinocitizen,canonesspousewhoisaforeignnationalliveinthePhilippines?
AnimmigrantvisamaybeissuedtoaFilipinocitizensforeignspousewhichentitleshim/herto
permanentlyresideinthePhilippines.SaidvisamaybeobtainedbyapplyingatPhilippine
Embassies/ConsulatesGeneral.Theeffectivityofthevisa,however,iscontingentupontheFilipino
citizensretentionofhis/herFilipinocitizenship.
Whatisthecitizenshipstatusoneschildrenafterhe/shereacquiresFilipinocitizenship?

Ifhis/herchildrenareunmarriedandbelow18yearsofageuponreacquisitionofFilipinocitizenship,
his/herchildrenarerecognizedasFilipinocitizensunderPhilippinelawsandareentitledtotherightsand
privilegesattendantthereto.
IfaFilipinocitizenchoosestotraveltothePhilippineswithhis/herforeignspouseandchildren,dothe
spouseandchildrenneedtosecureadditionaltraveldocumentsfromthePhilippineEmbassy/Consulate
Generalbeforeleaving?
UndertheBalikbayanLaw,aFilipinocitizensforeignspouseandchildrendonotneedtosecureother
traveldocuments.His/HerfamilyisentitledtoavisafreeentrytothePhilippinesforaperiodofone(1)
yearamongotherprivileges,providedtheyhavearoundtrip/returnticketandthattheytravelwiththe
Filipinospouse/parent.
IsthereafeeinvolvedinreacquiringonesFilipinocitizenshipunderthisAct?
Unlikethepreviousmeansofreacquiringcitizenshipwhereonemustpayadocketingandoathtakingfee,
thereisnofeeinvolvedinreacquiringonesFilipinocitizenshipunderthisAct,exceptfortheusual
notarialandadministrativefeesprescribedbyPhilippineEmbassiesandConsulatesGeneral.Thenotarial
feefortheadministrationoftheOathofAllegiancefordualcitizensis$50.00.COMMONWEALTH
ACTNO.473
(RevisedNaturalizationLaw)
ANACTTOPROVIDEFORTHEACQUISITIONOFPHILIPPINECITIZENSHIPBY
NATURALIZATION,ANDTOREPEALACTSNUMBEREDTWENTYNINEHUNDREDAND
TWENTYSEVENANDTHIRTYFOURHUNDREDANDFORTYEIGHT.
Sec.1.TitleofAct.ThisActshallbeknownandmaybecitedasthe"RevisedNaturalizationLaw."
Sec.2.Qualifications.SubjecttoSectionfourofthisAct,anypersonhavingthefollowingqualifications
maybecomeacitizenofthePhilippinesbynaturalization:
First.Hemustbenotlessthantwentyoneyearsofageonthedayofthehearingofthepetition;
Second.HemusthaveresidedinthePhilippinesforacontinuousperiodofnotlessthantenyears;
Third.HemustbeofgoodmoralcharacterandbelievesintheprinciplesunderlyingthePhilippine
Constitution,andmusthaveconductedhimselfinaproperandirreproachablemannerduringtheentire
periodofhisresidenceinthePhilippinesinhisrelationwiththeconstitutedgovernmentaswellaswiththe
communityinwhichheisliving.
Fourth.HemustownrealestateinthePhilippinesworthnotlessthanfivethousandpesos,Philippine
currency,ormusthavesomeknownlucrativetrade,profession,orlawfuloccupation;
Fifth.HemustbeabletospeakandwriteEnglishorSpanishandanyoneoftheprincipalPhilippine
languages;andcbanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Sixth.Hemusthaveenrolledhisminorchildrenofschoolage,inanyofthepublicschoolsorprivate
schoolsrecognizedbytheOfficeofPrivateEducationofthePhilippines,wherethePhilippinehistory,
governmentandcivicsaretaughtorprescribedaspartoftheschoolcurriculum,duringtheentireperiodof

theresidenceinthePhilippinesrequiredofhimpriortothehearingofhispetitionfornaturalizationas
Philippinecitizen.cbanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Sec.3.Specialqualifications.Thetenyearsofcontinuousresidencerequiredunderthesecondconditionof
thelastprecedingSec.shallbeunderstoodasreducedtofiveyearsforanypetitionerhavinganyofthe
followingqualifications:
1.HavinghonorablyheldofficeundertheGovernmentofthePhilippinesorunderthatofanyofthe
provinces,cities,municipalities,orpoliticalsubdivisionsthereof;
2.HavingestablishedanewindustryorintroducedausefulinventioninthePhilippines;
3.BeingmarriedtoaFilipinowoman;
4.HavingbeenengagedasateacherinthePhilippinesinapublicorrecognizedprivateschoolnot
establishedfortheexclusiveinstructionofchildrenofpersonsofaparticularnationalityorrace,inanyof
thebranchesofeducationorindustryforaperiodofnotlessthantwoyears;

5.HavingbeenborninthePhilippines.
Sec.4.Whoaredisqualified.ThefollowingcannotbenaturalizedasPhilippinecitizens:
1.Personsopposedtoorganizedgovernmentoraffiliatedwithanyassociationorgroupofpersonswho
upholdandteachdoctrinesopposingallorganizedgovernments;
2.Personsdefendingorteachingthenecessityorproprietyofviolence,personalassault,orassassination
forthesuccessandpredominanceoftheirideas;
3.Polygamistsorbelieversinthepracticeofpolygamy;
4.Personsconvictedofcrimesinvolvingmoralturpitude;
5.Personssufferingfrommentalalienationorincurablecontagiousdiseases;
6.Personswho,duringtheperiodoftheirresidenceinthePhilippines,havenotmingledsociallywith
theFilipinos,orwhohavenotevincedasinceredesiretolearnandembracethecustoms,traditions,and
idealsoftheFilipinos;
7.CitizensorsubjectsofnationswithwhomtheUnitedStatesandthePhilippinesareatwar,duringthe
periodofsuchwar;
8.CitizensorsubjectsofaforeigncountryotherthantheUnitedStateswhoselawsdonotgrant
Filipinostherighttobecomenaturalizedcitizensorsubjectsthereof.
Sec.5.Declarationofintention.OneyearpriortothefilingofhispetitionforadmissiontoPhilippine
citizenship,theapplicantforPhilippinecitizenshipshallfilewiththeBureauofJustice,adeclarationunder
oaththatitisbonafidehisintentiontobecomeacitizenofthePhilippines.Suchdeclarationshallsetforth
name,age,occupation,personaldescription,placeofbirth,lastforeignresidenceandallegiance,thedateof
arrival,thenameofthevesseloraircraft,ifany,inwhichhecametothePhilippines,andtheplaceof

residenceinthePhilippinesatthetimeofmakingthedeclaration.Nodeclarationshallbevaliduntillawful
entryforpermanentresidencehasbeenestablishedandacertificateshowingthedate,place,andmannerof
hisarrivalhasbeenissued.Thedeclarantmustalsostatethathehasenrolledhisminorchildren,ifany,in
anyofthepublicschoolsorprivateschoolsrecognizedbytheOfficeofPrivateEducationofthe
Philippines,wherePhilippinehistory,government,andcivicsaretaughtorprescribedaspartoftheschool
curriculum,duringtheentireperiodoftheresidenceinthePhilippinesrequiredofhimpriortothehearing
ofhispetitionfornaturalizationasPhilippinecitizen.Eachdeclarantmustfurnishtwophotographsof
himself.cbanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Sec.6.Personsexemptfromrequirementtomakeadeclarationofintention.Personsborninthe
Philippinesandhavereceivedtheirprimaryandsecondaryeducationinpublicschoolsorthoserecognized
bytheGovernmentandnotlimitedtoanyraceornationality,andthosewhohaveresidedcontinuouslyin
thePhilippinesforaperiodofthirtyyearsormorebeforefilingtheirapplication,maybenaturalized
withouthavingtomakeadeclarationofintentionuponcomplyingwiththeotherrequirementsofthisAct.
Tosuchrequirementsshallbeaddedthatwhichestablishesthattheapplicanthasgivenprimaryand
secondaryeducationtoallhischildreninthepublicschoolsorinprivateschoolsrecognizedbythe
Governmentandnotlimitedtoanyraceornationality.Thesameshallbeunderstoodtobeapplicablewith
respecttothewidowandminorchildrenofanalienwhohasdeclaredhisintentiontobecomeacitizenof
thePhilippines,anddiesbeforeheisactuallynaturalized.
Sec.7.Petitionforcitizenship.AnypersondesiringtoacquirePhilippinecitizenshipshallfilewiththe
competentcourt,apetitionintriplicate,accompaniedbytwophotographsofthepetitioner,settingforthhis
nameandsurname;hispresentandformerplacesofresidence;hisoccupation;theplaceanddateofhis
birth;whethersingleormarriedandthefatherofchildren,thename,age,birthplaceandresidenceofthe
wifeandofeachofthechildren;theapproximatedateofhisorherarrivalinthePhilippines,thenameof
theportofdebarkation,and,ifheremembersit,thenameoftheshiponwhichhecame;adeclarationthat
hehasthequalificationsrequiredbythisAct,specifyingthesame,andthatheisnotdisqualifiedfor
naturalizationundertheprovisionsofthisAct;thathehascompliedwiththerequirementsofSec.fiveof
thisAct;andthathewillresidecontinuouslyinthePhilippinesfromthedateofthefilingofthepetitionup
tothetimeofhisadmissiontoPhilippinecitizenship.Thepetitionmustbesignedbytheapplicantinhis
ownhandwritingandbesupportedbytheaffidavitofatleasttwocrediblepersons,statingthattheyare
citizensofthePhilippinesandpersonallyknowthepetitionertobearesidentofthePhilippinesforthe
periodoftimerequiredbythisActandapersonofgoodreputeandmorallyirreproachable,andthatsaid
petitionerhasintheiropinionallthequalificationsnecessarytobecomeacitizenofthePhilippinesandis
notinanywaydisqualifiedundertheprovisionsofthisAct.Thepetitionshallalsosetforththenamesand
postofficeaddressesofsuchwitnessesasthepetitionermaydesiretointroduceatthehearingofthecase.
Thecertificateofarrival,andthedeclarationofintentionmustbemadepartofthepetition.
Sec.8.Competentcourt.TheCourtofFirstInstanceoftheprovinceinwhichthepetitionerhasresidedat
leastoneyearimmediatelyprecedingthefilingofthepetitionshallhaveexclusiveoriginaljurisdictionto
hearthepetition.cbanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Sec.9.Notificationandappearance.Immediatelyuponthefilingofapetition,itshallbethedutyofthe
clerkofthecourttopublishthesameatpetitioner'sexpense,onceaweekforthreeconsecutiveweeks,in
theOfficialGazette,andinoneofthenewspapersofgeneralcirculationintheprovincewherethe
petitionerresides,andtohavecopiesofsaidpetitionandageneralnoticeofthehearingpostedinapublic
andconspicuousplaceinhisofficeorinthebuildingwheresaidofficeislocated,settingforthinsuch
noticethename,birthplaceandresidenceofthepetitioner,thedateandplaceofhisarrivalinthe
Philippines,thenamesofthewitnesseswhomthepetitionerproposestointroduceinsupportofhispetition,
andthedateofthehearingofthepetition,whichhearingshallnotbeheldwithinninetydaysfromthedate
ofthelastpublicationofthenotice.Theclerkshall,assoonaspossible,forwardcopiesofthepetition,the
sentence,thenaturalizationcertificate,andotherpertinentdatatotheDepartmentoftheInterior,the

BureauofJustice,theProvincialInspectorofthePhilippineConstabularyoftheprovinceandtheJusticeof
thePeaceofthemunicipalitywhereinthepetitionerresides.
Sec.10.Hearingofthepetition.Nopetitionshallbeheardwithinthirtydaysprecedinganyelection.The
hearingshallbepublic,andtheSolicitorGeneral,eitherhimselforthroughhisdelegateortheprovincial
fiscalconcerned,shallappearonbehalfoftheCommonwealthofthePhilippinesatalltheproceedingsand
atthehearing.If,afterthehearing,thecourtbelieves,inviewoftheevidencetaken,thatthepetitionerhas
allthequalificationsrequiredby,andnoneofthedisqualificationsspecifiedinthisActandhascomplied
withallrequisiteshereinestablished,itshallorderthepropernaturalizationcertificatetobeissuedandthe
registrationofthesaidnaturalizationcertificateinthepropercivilregistryasrequiredinSectionTenof
ActNumberedThreethousandsevenhundredandfiftythree.
Sec.11.Appeal.Thefinalsentencemay,attheinstanceofeitheroftheparties,beappealedtothe
SupremeCourt.

Sec.12.IssuanceoftheCertificateofNaturalization.If,afterthelapseofthirtydaysfromandafterthe
dateonwhichthepartieswerenotifiedoftheCourt,noappealhasbeenfiled,orif,uponappeal,the
decisionofthecourthasbeenconfirmedbytheSupremeCourt,andthesaiddecisionhasbecomefinal,the
clerkofthecourtwhichheardthepetitionshallissuetothepetitioneranaturalizationcertificatewhich
shall,amongotherthings,statethefollowing:Thefilenumberofthepetition,thenumberofthe
naturalizationcertificate,thesignatureofthepersonnaturalizedaffixedinthepresenceoftheclerkofthe
court,thepersonalcircumstancesofthepersonnaturalized,thedatesonwhichhisdeclarationofintention
andpetitionwerefiled,thedateofthedecisiongrantingthepetition,andthenameofthejudgewho
renderedthedecision.Aphotographofthepetitionerwiththedrysealaffixedtheretoofthecourtwhich
grantedthepetition,mustbeaffixedtothecertificate.

Beforethenaturalizationcertificateisissued,thepetitionershall,inopencourt,takethefollowingoath:
"I,______________________________________,solemnlyswearthatIrenounceabsolutelyandforever
allallegianceandfidelitytoanyforeignprince,potentate,stateorsovereignty,andparticularlytothe
____________________.ofwhichatthistimeIamasubjectorcitizen;thatIwillsupportanddefendthe
ConstitutionofthePhilippinesandthatIwillobeythelaws,legalordersanddecreespromulgatedbythe
dulyconstitutedauthoritiesoftheCommonwealthofthePhilippines;[andIherebydeclarethatIrecognize
andacceptthesupremeauthorityoftheUnitedStatesofAmericainthePhilippinesandwillmaintaintrue
faithandallegiancethereto;andthatIimposethisobligationuponmyselfvoluntarilywithoutmental
reservationorpurposeofevasion.
"SohelpmeGod."
Sec.13.Recordbooks.Theclerkofthecourtshallkeeptwobooks;oneinwhichthepetitionand
declarationsofintentionshallberecordedinchronologicalorder,notingallproceedingsthereoffromthe
filingofthepetitiontothefinalissuanceofthenaturalizationcertificate;andanother,whichshallbea
recordofnaturalizationcertificateseachpageofwhichshallhaveaduplicatewhichshallbedulyattested
bytheclerkofthecourtanddeliveredtothepetitioner.cbanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
Sec.14.Fees.TheclerkoftheCourtofFirstInstanceshallchargeasfeesforrecordingapetitionfor
naturalizationandfortheproceedingsinconnectiontherewith,includingtheissuanceofthecertificate,the
sumofthirtypesos.

TheClerkoftheSupremeCourtshallcollectforeachappealandfortheservicesrenderedbyhimin
connectiontherewith,thesumoftwentyfourpesos.
Sec.15.Effectofthenaturalizationonwifeandchildren.Anywomanwhoisnowormayhereafterbe
marriedtoacitizenofthePhilippines,andwhomightherselfbelawfullynaturalizedshallbedeemeda
citizenofthePhilippines.
MinorchildrenofpersonsnaturalizedunderthislawwhohavebeenborninthePhilippinesshallbe
consideredcitizensthereof.
Aforeignbornminorchild,ifdwellinginthePhilippinesatthetimeofthenaturalizationoftheparent,
shallautomaticallybecomeaPhilippinecitizen,andaforeignbornminorchild,whoisnotinthe
Philippinesatthetimetheparentisnaturalized,shallbedeemedaPhilippinecitizenonlyduringhis
minority,unlesshebeginstoresidepermanentlyinthePhilippineswhenstillaminor,inwhichcase,he
willcontinuetobeaPhilippinecitizenevenafterbecomingofage.
AchildbornoutsideofthePhilippinesafterthenaturalizationofhisparent,shallbeconsidereda
Philippinecitizen,unlesswithinoneyearafterreachingtheageofmajority,hefailstoregisterhimselfasa
PhilippinecitizenattheAmericanConsulateofthecountrywhereheresides,andtotakethenecessaryoath
ofallegiance.
Sec.16.RightofWidowandChildrenofPetitionerswhohaveDied.Incaseapetitionershoulddiebefore
thefinaldecisionhasbeenrendered,hiswidowandminorchildrenmaycontinuetheproceedings.The
decisionrenderedinthecaseshall,sofarasthewidowandminorchildrenareconcerned,producethesame
legaleffectasifithadbeenrenderedduringthelifeofthepetitioner.
Sec.17.RenunciationofTitleorOrdersofNobility.Incasethealienapplyingtobeadmittedto
citizenshiphasborneanyhereditarytitle,orhasbeenofanyoftheordersofnobilityintheKingdomor
statefromwhichhecame,heshall,inadditiontotheaboverequisites,makeanexpressrenunciationofhis
titleororderofnobilityinthecourttowhichhisapplicationismade,andhisrenunciationshallberecorded
inthecourt,unlesswiththeexpressconsentoftheNationalAssembly.
Sec.18.CancellationofNaturalizationCertificateIssued.Uponmotionmadeintheproperproceedings
bytheSolicitorGeneralorhisrepresentative,orbytheproperprovincialfiscal,thecompetentjudgemay
cancelthenaturalizationcertificateissuedanditsregistrationintheCivilRegister:cralaw
1.Ifitisshownthatsaidnaturalizationcertificatewasobtainedfraudulentlyorillegally.
2.Ifthepersonnaturalizedshall,withinthefiveyearsnextfollowingtheissuanceofsaidnaturalization
certificate,returntohisnativecountryortosomeforeigncountryandestablishhispermanentresidence
there:Provided,Thatthefactofthepersonnaturalizedremainingformorethanoneyearinhisnative
countryorthecountryofhisformernationality,ortwoyearsinanyotherforeigncountry,shallbe
consideredasprimafacieevidenceofhisintentionoftakinguphispermanentresidenceinthe
same;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
3.Ifthepetitionwasmadeonaninvaliddeclarationofintention;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
4.Ifitisshownthattheminorchildrenofthepersonnaturalizedfailedtograduatefromapublicor
privatehighschoolsrecognizedbytheOfficeofPrivateEducationofthePhilippines,wherePhilippine
history,governmentandcivicsaretaughtaspartoftheschoolcurriculum,throughthefaultoftheirparents
eitherbyneglectingtosupportthemorbytransferringhemtoanotherschoolorschools.Acertifiedcopy

ofthedecreecancellingthenaturalizationcertificateshallbeforwardedbytheclerkoftheCourttothe
DepartmentoftheInteriorandtheBureauofJustice.
5.Ifitisshownthatthenaturalizedcitizenhasallowedhimselftobeusedasadummyrequiring
Philippinecitizenshipasarequisitefortheexercise,useorenjoymentofaright,franchiseorprivilege.
Sec.19.PenaltiesforviolationofthisAct.Anypersonwhoshallfraudulentlymake,falsify,forge,change,
alter,orcauseoraidanypersontodothesame,orwhoshallpurposelyaidandassistinfalselymaking,
forging,falsifying,changingoralteringanaturalizationcertificateforthepurposeofmakingusethereof,or
inorderthatthesamemaybeusedbyanotherpersonorpersons,andanypersonwhoshallpurposelyaid
andassistanotherinobtaininganaturalizationcertificateinviolationoftheprovisionsofthisAct,shallbe
punishedbyafineofnotmorethanfivethousandpesosorbyimprisonmentfornotmorethanfiveyears,
orboth,andinthecasethatthepersonconvictedisanaturalizedcitizenhiscertificateofnaturalizationand
theregistrationofthesameinthepropercivilregistryshallbeorderedcancelled.
Sec.20.Prescription.Nopersonshallbeprosecuted,charged,orpunishedforanoffenseimplyinga
violationoftheprovisionsofthisAct,unlesstheinformationorcomplaintisfiledwithinfiveyearsfrom
thedetectionordiscoveryofthecommissionofsaidoffense.
Sec.21.Regulationandblanks.TheSecretaryofJusticeshallissuethenecessaryregulationsforthe
properenforcementofthisAct.Naturalizationcertificateblanksandotherblanksrequiredforcarryingout
theprovisionsofthisActshallbepreparedandfurnishedbytheSolicitorGeneral,subjecttotheapproval
oftheSecretaryofJustice.
Sec.22.Repealingclause.ActNumberedTwentyninehundredandtwentysevenasamendedbyAct
NumberedThirtyfourhundredandfortyeight,entitled"TheNaturalizationLaw",isrepealed:Provided,
ThatnothinginthisActshallbeconstruedtoaffectanyprosecution,suit,action,orproceedingsbrought,
oranyact,thing,ormatter,civilorcriminal,doneorexistingbeforethetakingeffectofthisAct,butasto
allsuchprosecutions,suits,actions,proceedings,acts,things,ormatters,thelaws,orpartsoflawsrepealed
oramendedbythisActarecontinuedinforceandeffect.
Sec.23.DatewhenthisActshalltakeeffect.ThisActshalltakeeffectonitsapproval.
Approved:June17,1939.REPUBLICACTNO.9139June08,2001
ANACTPROVIDINGFORTHEACQUISITIONOFPHILIPPINECITIZENSHIPFOR
CERTAINALIENSBYADMINISTRATIVENATURALIZATIONANDFOROTHERPURPOSES
BeitenactedbytheSenateandtheHouseofRepresentativesofthePhilippinesinCongressassembled:
Section1.ShortTitle.ThisActshallbeknownas"TheAdministrativeNaturalizationLawof2000."
Section2.DeclarationofPolicy. TheStateshallcontrolandregulatetheadmissionandintegrationof
aliensintoitsterritoryandbodypoliticincludingthegrantofcitizenshiptoaliens.Towardsthisend,aliens
bornandresidinginthePhilippinesmaybegrantedPhilippinecitizenshipbyadministrativeproceedings
subjecttocertainrequirementsdictatedbynationalsecurityandinterest.
Section3.Qualifications.Subjecttotheprovisionsofthesucceedingsection,anypersondesiringtoavail
ofthebenefitsofthisActmustmeetthefollowingqualifications:
(a)TheapplicantmustbeborninthePhilippinesandresidingthereinsincebirth;

(b)Theapplicantmustnotbelessthaneighteen(18)yearsofage,atthetimeoffilingofhis/herpetition;
(c) The applicant must be of good moral character and believes in the underlying principles of the
Constitution, and must have conducted himself/herself in a proper and irreproachable manner during
his/herentireperiodofresidenceinthePhilippinesinhisrelationwiththedulyconstitutedgovernmentas
wellaswiththecommunityinwhichhe/sheisliving;
(d)Theapplicantmusthavereceivedhis/herprimaryandsecondaryeducationinanypublicschoolor
privateeducationalinstitutiondullyrecognizedbytheDepartmentofEducation,CultureandSports,where
Philippinehistory,governmentandcivicsaretaughtandprescribedaspartoftheschoolcurriculumand
where enrollment is not limited to any race or nationality: Provided, That should he/she have minor
childrenofschoolage,he/shemusthaveenrolledtheminsimilarschools;
(e)Theapplicantmusthaveaknowntrade,business,professionorlawfuloccupation,fromwhichhe/she
derivesincomesufficientforhis/hersupportandifhe/sheismarriedand/orhasdependents,alsothatof
his/herfamily:Provided,however,Thatthisshallnotapplytoapplicantswhoarecollegedegreeholders
but are unable to practice their profession because they are disqualified to do so by reason of their
citizenship;
(f)Theapplicantmustbeabletoread,writeandspeakFilipinooranyofthedialectsofthePhilippines;and
(g)TheapplicantmusthavemingledwiththeFilipinosandevincedasinceredesiretolearnandembrace
thecustoms,traditionsandidealsoftheFilipinopeople.
Section4.Disqualifications,ThefollowingarenotqualifiedtobenaturalizedasFilipinocitizensunder
thisAct:
(a)Thoseopposedtoorganizedgovernmentoraffiliatedwithanyassociationofgroupofpersonswho
upholdandteachdoctrinesopposingallorganizedgovernments;
(b)Thosedefendingorteachingthenecessityoforproprietyofviolence,personalassaultorassassination
forthesuccessorpredominanceoftheirideas;
(c)Polygamistsorbelieversinthepracticeofpolygamy;
(d)Thoseconvictedofcrimesinvolvingmoralturpitude;
(e)Thosesufferingfrommentalalienationorincurablecontagiousdiseases;
(f)Thosewho,duringtheperiodoftheirresidenceinthePhilippines,havenotmingledsociallywith
Filipinos,orwhohavenotevincedasinceredesiretolearnandembracethecustoms,traditionsandideals
oftheFilipinos;
(g)CitizensorsubjectswithwhomthePhilippinesisatwar,duringtheperiodofsuchwar;and
(h)CitizensorsubjectsofaforeigncountrywhoselawsdonotgrantFilipinostherighttobenaturalized
citizensorsubjectsthereof.
Section5.PetitionforCitizenship.(1)AnypersondesiringtoacquirePhilippinecitizenshipunderthis
ActshallfilewiththeSpecialCommitteeonNaturalizationcreatedunderSection6hereof,apetitionof
five(5)copieslegiblytypedandsigned,thumbmarkedandverifiedbyhim/her,withthelatter'spassport

sizedphotographattachedtoeachcopyofthepetition,andsettingforththefollowing:
(a)Thepetitioner'snameandsurname,andanyothernamehe/shehasusedorbywhichhe/sheisknown;
(b)Thepetitioner'spresentandformerplacesofresidence;
(c) The petitioner's place and date of birth, the names and citizenship of his/her parents and their
residences;
(d)Thepetitioner'strade,business,professionoroccupation,andifmarried,alsothatofhis/herspouse;
(e)Whetherthepetitionerissingleormarriedorhis/hermarriageisannulled.Ifmarried,petitionershall
state the date and place of his/her marriage, and the name, date of birth, birthplace, citizenship and
residenceofhis/herspouse;andifhismarriageisannulled,thedateofdecreeofannulmentofmarriageand
thecourtwhichgrantedthesame;
(f)Ifthepetitionerhaschildren,thename,dateandbirthplaceandresidencesofhis/herchildren;
(g)Adeclarationthatthepetitionerpossessesallthequalificationsandnoneofthedisqualificationsunder
thisAct;
(h)Adeclarationthatthepetitionershallneverbeapubliccharge;and
(i)Adeclarationthatitisthepetitioner'strueandhonestintentiontoacquirePhilippinecitizenshipandto
renounceabsolutelyandforeveranyprince,potentate,Stateorsovereign,andparticularlythecountryof
whichtheapplicantisacitizenorsubject.
(2)Theapplicationshallbeaccompaniedby:
(a)Duplicateoriginalorcertifiedphotocopiesofpetitioner'sbirthcertificate;
(b)Duplicateoriginalorcertifiedphotocopiesofpetitioner'saliencertificateofregistrationandnativeborn
certificateofresidence;
(c)Duplicateoriginalorcertifiedphotocopiesofpetitioner'smarriagecertified,ifmarried,orthedeath
certificateofhisspouse,ifwidowed,orthecourtdecreeannullinghismarriage,ifsuchwasthefact;
(d)Duplicateoriginalorcertifiedphotocopiesofbirthcertificates,aliencertificateofregistrationornative
borncertificateofresidenceifany,ofpetitioner'sminorchildren,whereverapplicable;
(e)Affidavitoffinancialcapacitybythepetitioner,andswornstatementsonthegoodmoralcharacterof
thepetitionerbyatleasttwo(2)Filipinocitizensofgoodreputationinhis/herplaceofresidencestating
thattheyhavepersonallyknownthepetitionerforatleastaperiodoften(10)yearsandthatsaidpetitioner
hasintheirownopinionallthequalificationsnecessarytobecomeacitizenofthePhilippinesandisnotin
anywaydisqualifiedundertheprovisionsofthisAct;
(f)Amedicalcertificatethatpetitionerisnotauserofprohibiteddrugsorotherwiseadrugdependentand
thathe/sheisnotafflictedwithacquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome(AIDS);
(g)SchooldiplomaandtranscriptofrecordsofthepetitionerintheschoolsheattendedinthePhilippines.
Shouldthepetitionerhaveminorchildren,acertificationthathischildrenareenrolledinaschoolwhere

Philippinehistory,governmentandcivicsaretaughtandarepartofthecurriculum;and
(h)Ifgainfullyemployed,theincometaxreturnforthepastthree(3)years.
Section 6. SpecialCommitteeonNaturalization. ThereshallbeconstitutedaSpecial Committeeon
Naturalizationhereinreferredtoasthe"Committee",withtheSolicitorGeneralaschairman,theSecretary
ofForeignAffairs,orhisrepresentative,andtheNationalSecurityAdviser,asmembers,withthepowerto
approve,denyorrejectapplicationsfornaturalizationasprovidedinthisAct.
TheCommitteeshallmeet,asoftenaspracticable,toconsiderapplicationsfornaturalization.Forthis
purpose,thechairmanandmembersshallreceiveanhonorariumofTwothousandpesos(P2,000.00)and
Onethousandfivehundredpesos(P1,500.00),respectively,permeetingattended.
Section7.Powers/FunctionsoftheSpecialCommitteeonNaturalization.Analienwhobelievesthathe
hasallthequalifications,andnoneofthedisqualifications,mayfileanapplicationfornaturalizationwith
thesecretariatoftheSpecialCommitteeonNaturalization,andaprocessingfeeofFortythousandpesos
(P40,000.00).Thereafter,thepetitionshallbestampedtoindicatethedateoffilingandacorresponding
docketnumber.Withinfifteen(15)daysfromthereceiptofthepetition,theCommitteeshalldetermine
whetherthepetitioniscompleteinsubstanceandinform.Ifsuchpetitioniscomplete,theCommitteeshall
immediatelypublishpertinentportionsofthepetitionindicatingthename,qualificationsandotherpersonal
circumstancesoftheapplicant,onceaweekforthree(3)consecutiveweeksinanewspaperofgeneral
circulation,andhavecopiesofthepetitionpostedinanypublicorconspicuousarea.TheCommitteeshall
immediatelyfurnishtheDepartmentofForeignAffairs(DFA),theBureauofImmigration(BI),thecivil
registrarofthepetitioner'splaceofresidenceandtileNationalBureauofInvestigation(NBI)copiesofthe
petitionanditssupportingdocuments.Theseagenciesshallhavecopiesofthepetitionpostedinanypublic
orconspicuousareaintheirbuildings,officesandpremises,andshall,withinthirty(30)daysfromthe
receipt of the petition, submit to the Committee a report stating whether or not petitioner has any
derogatory record on file or any such relevant and material information which might be adverse to
petitioner'sapplicationforcitizenship.
If the petitionis found bythe Committee tobe wanting insubstance and form, the petition shall be
dismissedwithoutprejudice.
Section8.ApprovalorDisapprovalofthePetition.Withinsixty(60)daysfromreceiptofthereportof
theagencieswhichwerefurnishedacopyofthepetitionorthedateofthelastpublicationofthepetition,
whichevercomesinlater,theCommitteeshallconsiderandreviewallrelevantandmaterialinformationit
hasreceivedpertainingtothepetition,andmay,forthepurposecallthepetitionerforinterviewtoascertain
his/heridentity,theauthenticityofthepetitionanditsannexes,andtodeterminethetruthfulnessofthe
statementsanddeclarationsmadeinthepetitionanditsannexes.
IftheCommitteeshallhavereceivedanyinformationadversetothepetition,theCommitteeshallallowthe
petitionertoanswer,explainorrefutetheinformation.
Thereafter, if the Committee believes, in view of the facts before it, that the petitioner has all the
qualificationsandnoneofthedisqualificationsrequiredforPhilippinecitizenshipunderthisAct,itshall
approvethepetitionandhenceforth,notifythepetitionerofthefactofsuchapproval.Otherwise,the
Committeeshalldisapprovethesame.
Section9.DecreeofNaturalizationandNaturalizationProcessingFee.Withinthirty(30)daysfromthe
receipt of the notice of the approval of his/her petition, the applicant shall pay to the Committee a
naturalizationfeeofOnehundredthousandpesos(P100,000.00)payableasfollows:Fiftythousandpesos
(P50,000.00)upontheapprovalofthepetitionandFiftythousandpesos(P50,000.00)uponthetakingof

theoathofallegiancetotheRepublicofthePhilippines,forthwith,acertificateofnaturalizationshallbe
issued.Withinsixty(60)daysfromtheissuanceofthecertificate,thepetitionershalltakeanoathof
allegianceintheproperforumuponproofofpaymentoftherequirednaturalizationprocessingfeeand
certificateofnaturalization.Shouldtheapplicantfailtotaketheabovementionedoathofallegiancewithin
saidperiodoftime,theapprovalofthepetitionshallbedeemedabandoned.
Section10.DutyoftheBureauofImmigration.Withinfive(5)daysaftertheapplicanthastakenhisoath
ofallegianceasrequiredintheprecedingsection,theBIshallforwardacopyofthepetitioner'soathtothe
proper local civil registrar. Thereafter, the BI shall cancel the alien certificates of registration of the
applicant.
Section11.StatusofAlienWifeandMinorChildren.Aftertheapprovalofthepetitionforadministrative
naturalizationincancellationofapplicant'saliencertificateofregistration,applicant'salienlawfulwifeand
minor children may file a petition for cancellation of their alien certificates of registration with the
Committee subject to the payment of the filing fee of Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) and
naturalization fee of Forty thousand pesos (P40,000.00) payable as follows: Twenty thousand pesos
(P20,000.00)upontheapprovalofthepetitionandTwentythousandpesos(P20,000.00)uponthetakingof
theoathofallegiancetotheRepublicofthePhilippines.
Section 12. StatusofAlienHusbandandMinorChildren. Iftheapplicant isamarriedwoman,the
approvalofherpetitionforadministrativenaturalizationwillnotbenefitheralienhusbandbutherminor
childrenmayfileapetitionforcancellationoftheiraliencertificatesofregistrationwiththeBIsubjectto
therequirementsofexistinglaws.
Section 13. Cancellation of the Certificate of Naturalization. The Special Committee may cancel
certificatesofnaturalizationissuedunderthisActinthefollowingcases:
(a)Ifitfindsthatthenaturalizedpersonorhisdulyauthorizedrepresentativemadeanyfalsestatementor
misrepresentationorcommittedanyviolationoflaw,rulesandregulationsinconnectionwiththepetition
fornaturalization,orifheotherwiseobtainsPhilippinecitizenshipfraudulentlyorillegally,thecertificate
ofnaturalizationshallbecancelled;
(b)Ifthenaturalizedpersonorhiswife,oranyorhisminorchildrenwhoacquireFilipinocitizenshipby
virtueofhisnaturalizationshall,withinfive(5)yearsnextfollowingthegrantofPhilippinecitizenship,
establishpermanentresidenceinaforeigncountry,thatindividual'scertificateofnaturalizationoracquired
citizenshipshallbecancelledorrevoked:Provided,Thatthefactofsuchperson'sremainingformorethan
one(1)yearinhiscountryoforigin,ortwo(2)yearsinanyforeigncountry,shallbeconsidered prima
facieevidenceofintenttopermanentlyresidetherein;
(c)Ifthenaturalizedpersonorhiswifeorchildwithacquiredcitizenshipallowshimselforherselftobe
usedasadummyinviolationofanyconstitutionalorlegalprovisionrequiringPhilippinecitizenshipasa
condition for the exercise, use or enjoyment of a right, franchise or privilege, the certificate of
naturalizationoracquiredcitizenshipshallbecancelledorrevoked;and
(d)Ifthenaturalizedpersonorhiswifeorchildwithacquiredcitizenshipcommitsanyactinimicalto
nationalsecurity,thecertificateofnaturalizationoracquiredcitizenshipshallbecancelledorrevoked.
Incasethenaturalizedpersonholdsanyhereditarytitle,orbelongtoanyorderofnobility,heshallmakean
expressrenunciationofhistitleormembershipinthisorderofnobilitybeforetheSpecialCommitteeorits
dulyauthorizedrepresentative,andsuchrenunciationshallbeincludedintherecordsofhisapplicationfor
citizenship.

Section14.Penalties.Anypersonwhoshallfraudulentlymake,falsify,forge,change,alter,orcauseor
aidanypersontodothesame,orwhoshallpurposelyaidandassistinfalselymaking,forging,falsifying,
changingoralteringanaturalizationcertificateissuedunderthisproceedingforthepurposeofmakinguse
thereof,orinorderthatthesamemaybeusedbyanotherpersonorpersons,andanypersonwhoshall
purposelyaidandassistanotherinobtaininganaturalizationcertificateinviolationofthisAct,shallbe
punishedbyafineofnotmorethanFivehundredthousandpesos(P500,OOO.OO)andbyimprisonment
fornotmorethanfive(5)years,andinthecasethatthepersonconvictedisanaturalizedcitizen,his
certificateofnaturalizationshall,ifnotearliercancelledbytheSpecialCommittee,beorderedcancelled.
Section15. Anypersonwhofailedtoregisterhis/herbirthwiththeconcernedcityormunicipalcivil
registrarmay,withintwo(2)yearsfromtheeffectivityofthisAct,fileapetitionfortheacquisitionofthe
Philippine citizenship: Provided, That the applicant possesses all the qualifications and none of the
disqualificationsunderthisActandsubjecttotherequirementsofexistinglaws.
Section16.SpecialDispositionoftheFilingFee.Anamountequivalenttotwentyfivepercent(25%)of
thefilingfeetobepaidbytheapplicantspursuanttoSection7hereofshallaccruetotheUniversityofthe
PhilippinesLawCenterandanothertwentyfivepercent(25%)shallbeallottedforthepublicationofthe
Journal of the House of Representatives. Said amount shall be treated as receipts automatically
appropriated.
Section17. ImplementingRulesandRegulations. TheSpecialCommitteeonNaturalizationishereby
authorizedtopromulgatesuchrulesandregulationsasmaybeneededfortheproperimplementationofthe
provisionsofthisAct.
Section 18. Repealing Clause. All provisions of existing laws, orders, decrees, rules and regulations
contrarytoorinconsistentwiththisActareherebyrepealedormodifiedaccordingly.
Section 19. Separability CIause. If any part, sectionor provisionof thisAct is declared invalidor
unconstitutional,thepart,sectionorprovisionnotaffectedtherebyshallcontinuetobeinforceandeffect.
Section20.EffectivityClause.ThisActshalltakeeffectafterfifteen(15)daysfollowingitspublicationin
atleasttwo(2)newspapersofgeneralcirculation.Velillavs.Posadas
(1935)
FACTS:Velilla,theadministratoroftheestateofMoody,appealedtheinheritancetaxassessedagainstthe
estateonthegroundthatthedecedentwasnotdomiciledinthePhilippines.MoodywenttoCalcuttaand
Parisbeforehisdeath,andhediedinIndia.
HELD:HewasadomiciliaryofManila.DomicileintheCivilCodeisdefinedastheplaceofhabitual
residence,whichwasManilaintheCAB.TherewasnostatementfromMoody,oralorwrittenthathe
adoptedanewdomicilewhilehewasabsentfromManila.Toestablishabandonment,hemustshowhis
deliberateandprovablechoiceofnewdomicilecoupledwithactualresidenceanddeclaredorprovedintent
thatitshouldbehispermanentabode.Thiswasnotproven.
Kookooritchkinvs.SolicitorGeneral
(1948)
FACTS;Kookooritchkin,anativebornRussianwhoclaimstobeastatelessrefugee,filedapetitionfor
naturalization.Thepetitionwasgranted,forwhichtheSolGenappealed,sayingthatKookooritchkinisnot
astatelessperson.
HELD:Kisastatelessperson.Histestimony,asidefrombeinguncontradicted,issupportedbythewell
knownfactthattheruthlessnessofmoderndictatorshipshasscatteredthroughouttheworldalargenumber
ofstatelessrefugeesordisplacedpersons,withoutcountryandwithoutflag.Knowingthehistory,nature

andcharacteroftheSovietdictatorship,itwouldbetechnicallyfastidioustorequirefurtherevidenceofKs
claim that he is stateless than his testimony that he owes no allegiance to the Russian Communist
governmentand,becausehehasbeenatwarwithit,hefledfromRussiatopermanentlyresideinthe
Philippines.
EremesKookooritchkinv.SolicitorGeneral,
G.R.No.L1812,
August27,1948
FACTS:InAugust1941,appelleepetitionerKookooritchkinfiledwiththeCFIofCamarinesSurapetition
fornaturalization,supportedby(a)theaffidavitsofexJudgeJaimeM.ReyesandDr.SalvadorMariano,
residentsofCamarinesSur,(b)hisdeclarationofintentionwhichwassworninJuly1940,and(c)noticeof
hearing.ThepetitionwasfiledinAugust1941butwasnothearduntilAugust28andSept.30,1947when
appelleepetitionerpresentedhisevidence,sincetheprovincewasinvadedbytheJapaneseforcesduring
WWIandthecaserecordshadtobereconstitutedafterbeingdestroyedduringthewar.AppellantSolGen
crossexamined appelleepetitioners witnesses but did not file any opposition anddid not present any
evidencetocontrovertthepetition.TheCFIgrantedthepetitionfornaturalization,findingthatappellee
petitionerwasanativebornRussianwhogrewupasacitizenofandwaspartofthemilitaryofthedefunct
ImperialRussianGovernmentundertheCzars.Hehadseveralstintswhileinmilitaryservicebeforehe
joinedtheWhiteRussianArmyatVladivostokandfoughtagainsttheBolsheviksuntil1922whenthelatter
forcedefeatedtheformer.RefusingtojointheBolshevikregime,hefledbyseatoShanghai,andeventually
wenttoManilaaspartofthegroupofWhiteRussiansunder AdmiralStarkinMarch1923.Hefinally
permanentlyresidedinIriga,CamarinesSurexceptduringhisstintintheguerrillaforceinCaramoanfrom
1942toJuly1945.Thelowercourtalsomadefindingsoftheestablishmentofhisfamily,employment,
social life,his ability to speak and write English and Bicol, his good moral character, adherence to
theunderlyingprinciplesofthePhilippineConstitution,andbeingastatelessrefugeebelongingtonoState.
ISSUES:W/N(1)appelleepetitionersdeclarationofintentiontobecomeaFilipinocitizenwasvalidand
sufficient basis for his petition for naturalization, (2) appelleepetitioner sufficientlyestablished legal
residenceinthePhilippinesandcouldspeakandwriteanyoftheprincipalPhilippinelanguages,and(3)
appelleepetitionerwasstatelessrefugee.
HELD:(1)Section5oftheRevisedNaturalizationLawappliesandprovidesthat[n]odeclarationshallbe
validuntilentryforpermanentresidencehasbeenestablishedandacertificateshowingthedate,placeand
manner of his arrival has been issued. While appelleepetitioners declaration was reconstituted, the
attachedcertificatereferredtointhedeclarationwasnotreconstituted.TheSCruledthatthelawdoesnot
statethatthecertificateisessentialtothevalidityofthedeclarationastheonlyrequirementisforthesaid
certificatetobeissued.Thereistheuncontrovertedfactofappelleepetitionerspeacefulandcontinuous
residenceinthePhilippinesfor25yearsandstatementinhisdeclarationthatacertificatehadbeenattached
to the said declaration. Hence, appelleepetitioners declaration was valid under law in view of other
competent evidence showingthe facts sought to be established under the certificate that was not
reconstituted.(2) Appelleepetitioner has sufficiently shown legal residence in the Philippines for
acontinuousperiodofnotlessthan10yearsasrequiredbySection2oftheRevisedNaturalizationLaw.In
addition, appelleepetitioner had good command of both EnglishandBicol. While there may be many
standardsoutthere,nonewassetinthelawontherequiredabilitytospeakandwriteanyoftheprincipal
Philippinelanguages.Appelleepetitionergotalongwellwithhiscomradesduringhishazardousdaysin
the guerrillamovement thus showing that he satisfied the requirement of the law. There was
alsocircumstantialevidencethatappelleepetitioneralsooughttoknowhowtowriteBicol
Kookooritchkinv.TheSolicitorGeneral(1948)
(tobereadinconnectionwiththeasylumcase)

Kookooritchkin,aformerRussiancitizen,filedapetitionfornaturalization,accompaniedwithsupporting
affidavitsof2citizens,copyofasworndeclarationofintentionandpropernoticeofthehearing.Butdueto
theJapaneseinvasion,thecasewassuspendedandthedocumentspresentedweredestroyed.Thecasewas
reconstitutedafterthewarandaresolutionwaseventuallyissuedgrantingthepetition.
Whatconstitutesastatelessrefugee.AlthoughaRussianbybirthheisnotacitizenofSovietRussia.He
disclaimsallegiancetothepresentCommunistGovernmentofRussia.Heis,therefore,astatelessrefugee
inthiscountry,belongingtonoState,muchlesstothepresentGovernmentofthelandofhisbirthtowhich
heisuncompromisinglyopposed.Heisnotagainstorganizedgovernmentoraffiliatedwithanyassociation
whichupholdsandteachesdoctrineopposingallorganizedgovernments.Hedoesnotbelieveinthe
necessityorproprietyofviolence,personalassaultorassassinationforthesuccessorpredominanceofhis
ideas.Neitherisheapolygamistorabelieverinthepracticeofpolygamy.Heisnotsufferingfromany
mentalalienationorincurablecontagious
disease.Appellee'stestimony,besidesbeinguncontradicted,issupportedbythewellknownfactthatthe
ruthlessnessofmoderndictatorshiphasscatteredthroughouttheworldalargenumberofstatelessrefugees
ordisplacedpersons,withoutcountryandwithoutflag.Thetyrannicalintoleranceofsaiddictatorships
towardalloppositioninducedthemtoresorttobeastlyoppression,concentrationcampsandbloodpurges,
&itisonlynaturalthatthenotsofortunateoneswhowereabletoescapetoforeigncountriesshouldfeel
thelossofallbondsofattachmenttothehellswhichwereformerlytheirfatherland's.Petitionerbelongsto
thatgroupofstatelessrefugees.
Certificateofarrivalnotessential,declarationsorintentiontobecomeaFil.citizenissufficienttogrant
citizenship.TherecordsoftheBureauofJustice,wherethedeclarationsofintentiontobecomeaFilipino
citizenwerefiled,hadbeenlostordestroyedduringthebattlefortheliberationofManila,&thecertificate
alludedtohasnotbeenreconstituted.Appellant'scontentionthatattachmentofthecertificateofarrivalis
essential to the validity of a declaration finds no support in the wordings of the law, as Sec. 5 of
CommonwealthActno.473usesthewords"hasbeenissued.

RomualdezMarcosvs.COMELEC
G.R.No.119976
September18,1995
Facts:
PetitionerImeldaRomualdezMarcosfiledherCertificateofCandidacyforthepositionofRepresentative
oftheFirstDistrictofLeyte.PrivaterespondentCiriloRoyMontejo,acandidateforthesameposition,
filedapetitionforcancellationanddisqualificationwiththeCOMELECallegingthatpetitionerdidnot
meettheconstitutionalrequirementforresidency.Privaterespondentcontendedthatpetitionerlackedthe
Constitution'soneyearresidencyrequirementforcandidatesfortheHouseofRepresentatives.

ImeldaRomualdezMarcosfiledherCertificateofCandidacy(COC)forthepositionofRepresentativeof
theFirstDistrictofLeyte,statingthatsheis7monthsresidentinthesaiddistrict.Montejo,incumbent
Representativeandacandidateforthesameposition,filedaPetitionforCancellationandDisqualification,
allegingthatImeldadidnotmeettheconstitutionaloneyearresidencyrequirement.Imeldathusamended
herCOC,changingsevenmonthstosincechildhood.Theprovincialelectionsupervisorrefusedto
admittheamendedCOCforthereasonthatitwasfiledoutoftime.Imelda,thus,filedheramendedCOC
withComelec'sheadofficeinManila.
OnApril24,1995,theComelecSecondDivisiondeclaredImeldanotqualifiedtorunandstruckoffthe

amendedaswellasoriginalCOCs.TheComelecindivisionfoundthatwhenImeldachosetostayinIlocos
andlateroninManila,coupledwithherintentiontostaytherebyregisteringasavoterthereandexpressly
declaringthatsheisaresidentofthatplace,sheisdeemedtohaveabandonedTaclobanCity,whereshe
spentherchildhoodandschooldays,asherplaceofdomicile.TheComelecenbancaffirmedthisruling.
During the pendency of the disqualification case, Imelda won in the election. But
theComelecsuspendedherproclamation.ImeldathusappealedtotheSupremeCourt.
ImeldainvokedSection78ofB.P.881whichprovidesthatapetitionseekingtodenyduecourseorto
cancelacertificateofcandidacymustbedecided,afterduenoticeandhearing,notlaterthan 15days
beforetheelection.SincetheComelecrenderedtheresolutionononApril24,1995,fourteen(14)days
beforetheelection,Comelecalreadylosejurisdictionoverhercase.ShecontendedthatitistheHouseof
Representatives Electoral Tribunal and not theComelecwhich has jurisdiction over the election
ofmembersoftheHouseofRepresentatives.
Issue:
WhetherornotpetitionerhassatisfiedtheresidencyrequirementasmandatedbyArt.VI,Sec.6ofthe
Constitution
Decision:
WHEREFORE,havingdeterminedthatpetitionerpossessesthenecessaryresidencequalificationstorun
foraseatintheHouseofRepresentativesintheFirstDistrictofLeyte,theCOMELEC'squestioned
ResolutionsdatedApril24,May7,May11,andMay25,1995areherebySETASIDE.Respondent
COMELECisherebydirectedtoordertheProvincialBoardofCanvasserstoproclaimpetitionerasthe
dulyelectedRepresentativeoftheFirstDistrictofLeyte.
RatioDecidendi:
Yes.Forelectionpurposes,residenceisusedsynonymouslywithdomicile.TheCourtupheldthe
qualificationofpetitioner,despiteherowndeclarationinhercertificateofcandidacythatshehadresidedin
thedistrictforonly7months,becauseofthefollowing:(a)aminorfollowsthedomicileofherparents;
Taclobanbecamepetitionersdomicileoforiginbyoperationoflawwhenherfatherbroughtthefamilyto
Leyte;(b)domicileoforiginislostonlywhenthereisactualremovalorchangeofdomicile,abonafide
intentionofabandoningtheformerresidenceandestablishinganewone,andactswhichcorrespondwith
thepurpose;intheabsenceofclearandpositiveproofoftheconcurrenceofallthese,thedomicileoforigin
shouldbedeemedtocontinue;(c)thewifedoesnotautomaticallygainthehusbandsdomicilebecausethe
termresidenceinCivilLawdoesnotmeanthesamethinginPoliticalLaw;whenpetitionermarried
PresidentMarcosin1954,shekeptherdomicileoforiginandmerelygainedanewhome,notadomicilium
necessarium;(d)evenassumingthatshegainedanewdomicileafterhermarriageandacquiredtherightto
chooseanewoneonlyafterherhusbanddied,heractsfollowingherreturntothecountryclearlyindicate
thatshechoseTacloban,herdomicileoforigin,asherdomicileofchoice.
AASJS(ADVOCATESANDADHERENTOFSOCIALJUSTICEFORSCHOOLTEACHEARS
ANDALLIEDWORKERS)memberHECTORGUMANGANCALILUNG.vs.TheHonorable
SIMEONDATUMANONG,inhisofficialcapacityastheSECRETARYOFJUSTICE
G.R.No.160869May11,2007
FACTS:
Petitioner filed a petition and prays that a writ of prohibition be issued to stop respondent from

implementingRepublicActNo.9225,entitled"AnActMakingtheCitizenshipofPhilippineCitizensWho
Acquire Foreign CitizenshipPermanent, Amending for the Purpose Commonwealth Act No. 63, As
Amended,andforOtherPurposes".PetitioneraversthatRA9225isunconstitutionalasitviolatesthe
Constitution.TheassailedprovisionsofRA9225arethefollowing:
SEC.2.DeclarationofPolicy.ItisherebydeclaredthepolicyoftheStatethatallPhilippinecitizenswho
becomecitizensofanothercountryshallbedeemednottohavelosttheirPhilippinecitizenship underthe
conditionsofthisAct.
SEC.3.RetentionofPhilippineCitizenship.Anyprovisionoflawtothecontrarynotwithstanding,natural
borncitizensofthePhilippineswhohavelosttheirPhilippinecitizenshipbyreasonoftheirnaturalization
ascitizensofaforeigncountryareherebydeemedtohavereacquiredPhilippinecitizenshipupontaking
theoathofallegiancetotheRepublic.
WhileSection5,ArticleIVofthe1987Constitutionstatesthat:
Dualallegianceofcitizensisinimicaltothenationalinterestandshallbedealtwithbylaw."
ISSUES:
IsRA9225unconstitutionalforallowingdualallegiance?
RULING:
NO.ItisclearthattheintentofthelegislatureindraftingRA9225istodoawaywiththeprovisioninthe
CA 63 which takes away Philippine citizenship from naturalborn Filipinos who become naturalized
citizensofothercountries.WhatRA9225doesisallowdualcitizenshiptonaturalbornFilipinocitizens
whohavelostPhilippinecitizenshipbyreasonoftheirnaturalizationascitizensofaforeigncountry.On
itsface,itdoesnotrecognizedualallegiance.ByswearingtothesupremeauthorityoftheRepublic,the
personimplicitlyrenounceshisforeigncitizenship.Plainly,fromSection3,RA9225stayedclearoutof
theproblemofdualallegianceandshiftedtheburdenofconfrontingtheissueofwhetherornotthereis
dualallegiancetotheconcernedforeigncountry.Whathappenstotheothercitizenshipwasnotmadea
concernofRA9225.
Section5,ArticleIVoftheConstitutionisadeclarationofapolicyanditisnotaselfexecutingprovision.
Thelegislaturestillhastoenactthelawondualallegiance.InSections2and3ofRA9225,theframers
werenotconcernedwithdualcitizenshipperse,butwiththestatusofnaturalizedcitizenswhomaintain
theirallegiancetotheircountriesoforiginevenaftertheirnaturalization.Congresswasgivenamandateto
draftalawthatwouldsetspecificparametersofwhatreallyconstitutesdualallegiance.Untilthisisdone,it
wouldbeprematureforthejudicialdepartment,includingthisCourt,toruleonissuespertainingtodual
allegiance.
Petitionisdismissedforlackofmerit.

Ujanovs.Republic
(1966)
FACTS:UjanowasanaturalizedUScitizenwhoreturnedtothePhilippinesasavisitorandpetitionedto
reacquirePhilippinecitizenship.Thepetitionwasdeniedbecausehedidnothavetherequiredresidence.
HELD: Residence,fornaturalizationpurposes,hasbeeninterpretedtomeantheactualorconstructive
permanent homeordomicile.Hecannot besaidtohaveestablishedhisdomicileherealthoughheis
actuallypresentbecausehisallowedstayasavisitorisonlytemporaryandhemustleavewhenthepurpose
ofhiscomingisdone.
MoYaLimYaovs.CommissionerofImmigration
GRL21289
4October1971

Factofthecase:On8February1961,LauYuenYeungappliedforapassportvisatoenterthePhilippines
asanonimmigrant,foratemporaryvisitor'svisatoenterthePhilippines.Shewaspermittedtocomeinto
thePhilippineson13March1961.Onthedateofherarrival,AsherY,Chengfiledabondintheamountof
P1,000.00toundertake,amongothers,thatsaidLauYuenYeungwouldactuallydepartfromthe
Philippinesonorbeforetheexpirationofherauthorizedperiodofstayinthiscountryorwithintheperiod
asinhisdiscretiontheCommissionerofImmigration.Afterrepeatedextensions,shewasallowedtostayin
thePhilippinesupto13February1962.On25January1962,shecontractedmarriagewithMoyYaLim
YaoaliasEdilbertoAguinaldoLimanallegedFilipinocitizen.Becauseofthecontemplatedactionofthe
CommissionerofImmigrationtoconfiscateherbondandorderherarrestandimmediatedeportation,after
theexpirationofherauthorizedstay,shebroughtanactionforinjunctionwithpreliminaryinjunction.The
CourtofFirstInstanceofManila(CivilCase49705)deniedtheprayerforpreliminaryinjunction.Moya
LimYaoandLauYuenYeungappealed.
Issue:WhetherLauYuenYeungipsofactobecameaFilipinocitizenuponhermarriagetoaFilipino
citizen.
Held:UnderSection15ofCommonwealthAct473,analienwomanmarryingaFilipino,nativebornor
naturalized,becomesipsofactoaFilipinaprovidedsheisnotdisqualifiedtobeacitizenofthePhilippines
underSection4ofthesamelaw.Likewise,analienwomanmarriedtoanalienwhoissubsequently
naturalizedherefollowsthePhilippinecitizenshipofherhusbandthemomenthetakeshisoathasFilipino
citizen,providedthatshedoesnotsufferfromanyofthedisqualificationsundersaidSection4.Whether
thealienwomanrequirestoundergothenaturalizationproceedings,Section15isaparallelprovisionto
Section16.Thus,ifthewidowofanapplicantfornaturalizationasFilipino,whodiesduringthe
proceedings,isnotrequiredtogothroughanaturalizationproceedings,inordertobeconsideredasa
Filipinocitizenhereof,itshouldfollowthatthewifeofalivingFilipinocannotbedeniedthesame
privilege.Everytimethecitizenshipofapersonismaterialorindispensibleinajudicialoradministrative
case,Whateverthecorrespondingcourtoradministrativeauthoritydecidesthereinastosuchcitizenshipis
generallynotconsideredasresadjudicata,henceithastobethreshedoutagainandagainastheoccasion
maydemand.LauYuenYeung,wasdeclaredtohavebecomeaFilipinocitizenfromandbyvirtueofher
marriagetoMoyYaLimYaoalasEdilbertoAguinaldoLim,aFilipinocitizenof25January1962.
Caasiv.CA
GRNo.88831,84508
November8,1990
GrinoAquino,J.
Doctrine:TobequalifiedtorunforelectiveofficeinthePhilippines,thelawrequiresthatthecandidate
whoisagreencardholdermusthavewaivedhisstatusasapermanentresidentorimmigrantofaforeign
country.
Nature:PetitionforreviewofthedecisionoftheCAandPetitionforcertioraritoreviewthedecisionofthe
CommissiononElection
Facts:
MeritoMiguelwaselectedasmunicipalmayorofBolinao,Pangasinaninthelocalelectionsof1988.
PetitionswerefiledforhisdisqualificationunderSec68oftheOmnibusElectionCode,onthegroundthat
heisagreencardholder,hence,apermanentresidentoftheUS,notofBolinao
oOneofthepetitionersisMateoCaasi,hisrivalcandidateforthepositionofmayor
MigueladmittedthatheholdsagreencardissuedtohimbytheUSImmigrationService,buthedenied
thatheisapermanentresidentoftheUS
oHeallegedlyobtainedthegreencardforconvenienceinorderthathemayfreelyentertheUSfor
hisperiodicmedicalexaminationandtovisithischildrenthere.

oHeallegedthatheisapermanentresidentofBolinao,Pangasinanthathevotedinallprevious
elections.
COMELECdismissedthepetitions,exceptforCommissionerAnacletoBadoy,Jr.
oAccordingtoCOMELEC,thepossessionofagreencardbyMigueldoesnotsufficiently
establishthathehadabandonedhisresidenceinthePhilippines
oCOMELECsaidthatastherespondentmeetsthebasicrequirementsofcitizenshipandresidence
forcandidatestoelectivelocalofficialsunderSec42ofLocalGovt.Code,thereisnolegalobstacletohis
candidacyformayor.
oInthedissentingopinionofCommissionerBadoy,heopinedthatagreencardholder,beinga
permanentresidentoforanimmigrantofaforeigncountry,underSec.68oftheOmnibusElectionCode,
hastoprovethathehaswaivedhisstatusasapermanentresidentorimmigranttobequalifiedtorunfor
electionoffice.
Issue:
IsgreencardaproofthattheholderisapermanentresidentoftheUS?Yes.
DidMiguelwaivehisstatusaspermanentresidentorimmigranttoUSpriortothelocalelections?No.
Ishedisqualifiedtobecomeacandidateofmunicipalmayor?Yes.
Ruling:
MiguelsimmigrationtotheUSin1984constitutedanabandonmentofhisdomicileandresidenceinthe
Philippines
oTheintentiontolivetherepermanentlyisevidencedbyhisapplicationforanimmigrantsvisa.
oImmigrationremovingintooneplacefromanother/enteringintoacountrywiththeintentionof
residinginit.
oImmigrantpersonwhoremovesintoacountryforthepurposeofpermanentresidence
AsaresidentalienintheUS,MiguelowestemporaryandlocalallegiancetotheUS,inreturnforthe
protectiongiventohimduringtheperiodofhisresidence.
Sec18,ArtXIofthe1987ConstitutionisnotapplicabletoMiguel
oAnypublicofficeroremployeewhoseekstochangehiscitizenshiporacquirethestatusofan
immigrantofanothercountryduringhistenureshallbedealtwithbylaw
onotapplicabletoMiguelforheacquiredthestatusofanimmigrantofUSbeforehewaselected
topublicoffice,notduringhistenureasmayor
Sec68oftheOmnibusElectionCodeistheapplicablelawtohim
oAnypersonwhoisapermanentresidentoforanimmigranttoaforeigncountryshallnotbe
qualifiedtorunforanyelectiveofficeunderthisCode,unlesssuchpersonhaswaivedhisstatusas
permanentresidentorimmigrantofaforeigncountryinaccordancewiththeresidencerequirementprovided
forintheelectionlaws
oResidenceinthemunicipalitywhereheintendstorunforelectiveofficeforatleast1yearatthe
timeoffilinghiscertificateofcandidacyisoneofthequalificationsthatacandidateforelectivepublic
officemustpossess.
HeresidedinBolinaoforonly3monthsafterhisreturntothePhilsandbeforeheran
formayor
ClearpolicyofexcludingfromtherighttoholdelectivepublicofficethosePhilippine
citizenswhopossessdualloyaltiesandallegiance,assuchareincapableoftheentiredevotionto
theinterestandwelfareoftheirhomeland
TobequalifiedtorunforelectiveofficeinthePhilippines,thelawrequiresthatthecandidatewhoisa
greencardholdermusthavewaivedhisstatusasapermanentresidentorimmigrantofaforeigncountry.
oHisactoffilingacertificateofcandidacyforelectiveofficeinthePhilippinesdidnotofitself
constituteawaiverofhisstatusasapermanentresidentorimmigrantofUS

oThewaiverofgreencardshouldbemanifestedbysomeactoractsindependentofanddoneprior
tofilinghiscandidacyforelectiveoffice
oWithoutsuchpriorwaiver,hewasdisqualifiedtorunforanyelectiveoffice
MiguelsapplicationforimmigrantstatusandpermanentresidenceintheUSandhispossessionofagreen
cardattestingtosuchstatusareconclusiveproofthatheisapermanentresidentofUSdespitehis
occasionalvisitstothePhilippines
oMiguelfilleduphisapplicationforImmigrantVisainhisownhandwriting,answering
Permanentlyonthequestionofhislengthofintendedstay.
oOnitsface,thegreencardidentifiesMiguelinclearboldlettersasaResidentAlien
SCannulledtheelectionofMiguelasmunicipalmayor.

Yuv.Republic,113Phil.524
Sov.Republic,G.R.No.170603