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WORLDS APART?

Contacts across the Baltic Sea in the Iron Age


Network Denmark-Poland 2005-2008

Edited by
Ulla Lund Hansen & Anna Bitner-Wrblewska

DET KONGELIGE NORDISKE OLDSKRIFTSELSKAB


PASTWOWE MUZEUM ARCHEOLOGICZNE
KBENHAVN - WARSZAWA 2010

Jacek Andrzejowski

e Przeworsk Culture. A Brief Story


(for the Foreigners)1

The Background
(or the Day Before)
During the Early Pre-Roman Period, generally correlated with phases LT B-C1 in the La
Tne Culture area, much of Poland was settled
by the people of two related culture units,
namely, the Pomeranian and the Cloche Grave
Cultures; the older Lusatian Culture tradition
was continued by lingering pockets of Lusatian
population. Starting from phase LT B1, in areas
of southern Poland we find enclaves of a Celtic
population whose presence in the region has
been linked to control exerted by the Celts over
the long-distance trade in Baltic amber.
We have little material evidence to document and date more closely the final phases of
either the Pomeranian Culture or the Cloche
Grave Culture; it is also rather difficult to correlate the decline of settlement by these peoples
with the emergence of the Przeworsk Culture.
This applies particularly to the Cloche Grave
Culture and the southern area of the Pomeranian
Culture which correspond in territorial range
to the area of Przeworsk Culture settlement in
Included in Appendix 1 is a list of key publications
on the Przeworsk Culture, Appendix 2, provides a list
of the most important published cemeteries of the
Przeworsk Culture.

its earlier phase; both are known almost entirely


from numerous cremation cemeteries, all furnished with a distinctive remarkably uniform
and long-lived assortment of ceramic vessels,
widely different from the pottery of Przeworsk
Culture.
The people who created the Przeworsk
Culture must have been the descendants of
Pomeranian and Cloche Grave populations but
the archaeological record does not supply any
convincing proof in this respect. Just the opposite there is a striking absence of legible
continuity; only very exceptionally we find cemeteries which carry over from the PomeranianCloche to the Przeworsk phase; and the cremation rite is essentially different.
It must be noted also that some areas inside
the Przeworsk Culture territory were occupied
by the Przeworsk folk only during phase A2 or
even later; this suggests that older,Cloche communities, survived well into the Przeworsk age.
Another indirect proof is provided by some features of the funerary practice and ceramics which
are registered for the first time in Przeworsk
Culture material during phase A2 and appear
to be the legacy of the Cloche Grave tradition.
At the same time, the hypothesis that the
Przeworsk tribes had migrated to the region of
phase A1-A2 settlement from the outside is not
supported by the archaeological record.

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

The Big Bang


The Przeworsk Culture2 developed as a result of a rapid in archaeological terms adoption and adaptation of La Tne culture models
by the local population. Possibly, with some participation from an outside catalysing agent
passage of the Bastarnae and Scirae tribes in late
3rd c. BC through the territory of Poland, on to
Moldavia, where the people settled and developed the Poieneti-Lukaevka Culture. Unrest
associated with this passage would have weakened the existing social structure and assisted
processes of culture transformation. In recent
years archaeologists have been identifying archaeological material (mainly pottery) definitely attributable to the Jastorf Culture which has
an evident distribution along the northern and
the north-eastern border of the early Przeworsk
Culture, and also, along its southern range in
western Maopolska3. Jastorf material is recorded in the period predating the emergence of the
Przeworsk Culture, but also during a later period, as late as phase A2 (or even A3); frequently
it occurs side by side with strictly Przeworsk
Culture material. Similar assemblages are referred
to as type Werbkowice, type Brze Kujawski,
or, in eastern Poland, as the Czerniczyn Group;
recently, there was a suggestion to separate
similar finds from the Kujawy region, northcentral Poland, as Pre-Przeworsk assemblages

e name Przeworsk Culture was introduced in


1910 by a Czech scholar L. Niederle (see: Buchtela &
Niederle 1910) basing on a large graveeld at village
Ga, close to the district town of Przeworsk, excavated
in 1904 and 1905 and only just published (Hadaczek
1909). In Polish literature this name was set up by
R. Jamka (1933) to dene an archaeological unit represented ia, by graveelds from Kopki and from Ga.
3 Maopolska (Lesser Poland), Wielkopolska (Greater
Poland), Kujawy (Kuyavia vel Cuyavia), Mazowsze
(Masovia), Podlasie (Podlachia), Pomorze (Pomerania)
and lsk (Silesia) are the historical regions of Poland.
Except for Silesia and Pomerania, their English names
are not in common use.
2

but this term may apply only to the earliest


Jastorf finds.
The developments which eventually led to
the emergence of the Przeworsk Culture were
associated with the mastering of the mass production of iron by the local tribes; the new
skills were adopted from the Celts. Local easily
available bog ores were smelted in primitive furnaces. Remains of furnaces and iron slag are
recorded in all the Przeworsk settlements dating from the period. At the end of the Late PreRoman Period and during the Roman Period
some areas the Bonie Plain to the west of
Warsaw, and the witokrzyskie Mountains in
south-central Poland developed centres of
metallurgy where the production of iron assumed a truly industrial scale. Each of the
largest iron-smelting settlements to the west of
Warsaw contained several thousand furnaces.
Until the time of its decline the Przeworsk
Culture continued to be the most iron-rich
civilisation among the local barbarian peoples.
Apparently, smiths were held in high esteem
and belonged to the upper ranks of the society;
this is suggested by graves of warrior-smiths,
who were buried with weapons and sets of
tools.
New settlements were established; their
economic mainstay was animal husbandry and
farming pursued with implements produced
according to the Celtic model. Warriors were
equipped with weapons imitating Celtic war
gear; metal, mostly iron ornaments and dress
accessories, in common use, were also modelled
on Celtic styles. During older phases of the
Przeworsk Culture most ornaments tended to
be made of iron.
Many elements of the Przeworsk ideology
were taken over from the Celts as well. The
main form of burial was cremation.Ashes of the
dead were buried in cemeteries, in flat pit graves
or, more seldom, deposited in urns. In Silesia
and Kujawy areas of especially strong Celtic
influence we find a small number of inhumation graves. Some cemeteries have produced
the remains of small-scale buildings, which are

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)


interpreted as small temples or altars. Cemeteries which continued in use throughout the
entire Przeworsk age contain several hundred
graves4, some of them holding the remains of
more than one individual. Many burials contain
burnt animal bone, frequently, bird bones. In
keeping with the Celtic custom, the dead were
richly fitted out with weapons, ornaments and
pottery; frequently, and in case of weapons,
almost always, the grave goods were deliberately destroyed bent out of shape or broken,
a practice known from Celtic burials. Basing on
the funerary practice it was possible to develop
an accurate chronological system for the early
phases of the Przeworsk Culture; the Celtic style
of the grave goods helps correlate this system
with the interregional chronology of the La
Tne Culture.

On the Outer Edge of the Celtic


World (Figs 1-8)
During the Late Pre-Roman Period (phases
A1-A3) the territorial extent of the Przeworsk
Culture included central and Lower Silesia, parts
of Upper Silesia, Wielkopolska, Kujawy, central
Poland, as well as some areas of Mazowsze,
Podlasie, Lublin Region and Maopolska. The
chronological relationship of Przeworsk and
Celtic settlement in southern Poland is not entirely clear but it is quite likely that in Lower
Silesia Celtic settlement continued well into
phase A1 (in Przeworsk Culture chronology). In
the area around Krakw we see a co-existence
of the Przeworsk Culture and Celtic Culture;
this is evidenced by the culturally mixed Tyniec
Group which survived until the onset of the

e largest of these graveelds was excavated fully at


Zadowice in Wielkopolska, where over 700 graves had
been recovered. More than 700 graves were recorded
at Opatw in Upper Silesia but all of them dated from
the Late Roman Period and early phase of the Migration Period.
4

Early Roman Period, when the Celtic element


finally disappears from the archaeological
record. During the younger stage of phase A2
some areas of Wielkopolska and Lower Silesia
became depopulated. This is interpreted in general as the result of participation of a part of
the Przeworsk population in the alliance of the
Swebian tribes led by Ariovist. Finds characteristic for the Przeworsk Culture, phase A2, mainly pottery, have been recorded in Thuringia,
Anhalt and Wetterau at the gateway to Gaul.
Smaller Przeworsk enclaves are recorded in
the same region even earlier, during phase A1.
During phase A3 Przeworsk settlement became
firmly established on the upper Bug River and
in the upper reaches of the Dnestr River.
Archaeological material from this period
suggests substantial cultural unity of extensive
areas of Przeworsk Culture settlement. Pottery,
in particular, is highly distinctive vessel forms
imitate directly the shapes of Celtic metal and
wheel-thrown vessels while the typically thick
and sharply modelled (facetted) rims emulate
the rim forms of bronze vessels. The pottery
from the first two Przeworsk phases (A1-A2) is
a relatively uniform set; only during the next
phase (A3) we note more serious change, for instance, the sharp and pronounced faceting of
vessel rims is no longer in evidence. The oldest
phase of the Przeworsk Culture is documented
by a relatively modest number of assemblages,
but this may be the result of the limited number
of chronologically reliable indicators; these
include, first of all, long brooches type A, B
and C, swords type I with related scabbards
(all in the typology of Kostrzewski from 1919),
and strip shield-bosses. Forms correlated with
phase A2 include brooches, type D, E, G/H,
J and K, and Nauheim forms. Diagnostic forms
during phase A3 include late La Tne brooches
with an arched bow, types M, N and O (socalled geschweifte Fibeln); at the close of the
same phase we record the first brooch forms
which herald the advent of a new, Early Roman
style.

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 1. Extreme range of the Przeworsk Culture in the Late Pre-Roman Period. 1 inuences of the Przeworsk
Culture; 2 distinct traces of Przeworsk Culture settlement. Aer T. Dbrowska (2003b).

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 2. Przeworsk Culture (dots) and La Tne Culture (circles) sites with a reliable dating, phases A1-A2. Aer
K. Godowski (1992a) & J. Andrzejowski (2005).

Fig. 3. Przeworsk Culture (dots) and La Tne Culture (circles) sites with a reliable dating, phase A3.Aer K. Godowski
(1992a).

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 4. Finds from phase A1. Aer T. Dbrowska (1988a).

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 5. Finds from phase A2. Aer T. Dbrowska (1988a).

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 6. Finds from phase A2. Aer T. Dbrowska (1988a).

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 7. Finds from late phase A2 and early phase A3. Aer T. Dbrowska (1988a).

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 8. Finds from phase A3. Aer T. Dbrowska (1988a).

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THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

By the Borders of the Empire


(Figs 9-18)
The beginning of the 1st c. BC was a period
of stabilised trade and culture exchange with
the Roman state and adoption of Roman styles;
ornaments and dress accessories were produced increasingly from copper alloys bronze
and brass but many continued to be in iron.
Expert Przeworsk smiths were able to work iron
into quite often elaborate and technically sophisticated pieces, such as for example, spring

cover brooches, early strongly profiled trumpet


brooches, or S-shaped fibulae with a fine finish,
which in other culture areas were produced
from non-ferrous metals.
By the turn of the era Przeworsk Culture
settlement had spread over a wide region, from
Lower Silesia, northern Wielkopolska, Kujawy,
northern Mazowsze and western Podlasie to
the Lublin Region and eastern Maopolska.
Across this territory the dominant form of
burial continued to be cremation, with urned
graves now more numerous than pit deposits.

Fig. 9. Extreme range of the Przeworsk Culture in the Early Roman Period. Aer T. Dbrowska (2003b).

11

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI
Large elongated grave pits filled with deep black
earth and a large quantity of pyre remains, typical during phase A1 to A3, have all but disappeared; much more common are graves containing only the cremated bone remains, virtually with no pyre remains. Skeleton graves
continue to be quite rare. The situation in the
region of Krakw is somewhat different; from
this area we know only of a single larger cemetery, at Kryspinw, and a handful of smaller
burial grounds or isolated graves; this in spite
of the fact that the area was relatively densely
populated. Perhaps, this is the effect of the lingering of La Tne Culture of the Tyniec Group.
It is interesting that the earliest Przeworsk
princely grave dated to the stage B1a was recorded in the same region (at Szarbia); its inventory shows evident correspondence to the finds
from the Bohemian Basin.
Basing on evidence from interregional
studies the Early Roman Period chronology of
the Przeworsk Culture has been divided into
three sub-stages within phase B1, and two substages within phase B2. In the eastern Przeworsk
zone, similarly as in the Wielbark Culture, it is
possible to distinguish three stages within phase
B, but only for the female graves; grave goods
in male burials apparently correspond to two
observable horizons only. Another problem is
that of phase B2/C1a. Actually, it is the earliest
phase of the Late Roman Period which reflects
differences between female and male costume
during the late 2nd c. AD. In female dress the
Early Roman Period style is still predominant in grave assemblages a number of fibulae
Almgren groups II, IV and V occur next to early
Late Roman Period brooches mostly forms
with a high catch plate Almgren group VII
(phase B2/C1a). At the same time, male dress
fully introduces new, and much simpler Late
Roman Period style which increasingly features
the first tendril brooch forms (phase C1a).
The Early Roman Period female dress accessories tend to be modest. In graves from this
period we find brooches (two or three) used for
fastening the clothes, decorated quite often with

12

delicate silver filigree; metal belt fittings, of


which the most common are buckles, in iron
or bronze; also frequent are profiled strap-ends,
more seldom we see assorted appliqu items;
other frequent items include pins with an ornate head, in antler or bronze. A special attribute of the woman-housekeeper are keys to
chests and small caskets; other common items
from female deposits include fired clay spindlewhorls, iron spindle-hooks, needles and knives
for working leather.
It appears from current studies of weapons
discovered in Przeworsk grave deposits that
a very important weapon was the Roman twoedged sword, mostly, the short gladius; these
forms are widespread in graves dated to phase
B2 and the earliest phase of the Late Roman period. During phases B1 to B2 we find also oneedged swords, a form derived from an older
local tradition. Spears and lances, some with
barbed spear heads, also were placed in graves.
Because cremation was dominant we can reconstruct the shape of the Przeworsk shield
only from indirect evidence. From the shape
of amulet-pendants which have the form of
a miniature shield it appears that during this
period shields were either sub-oval or elongated
hexagonal. Starting from phase B1 spurs also
are recorded in weapon graves. An important
element of a warriors outfit was the leather belt;
fastened with an iron buckle it had attached
to it a fire-steel and flint-stone, a knife, with
a wooden or an antler haft, shears, a pouch
holding a single-layer comb of red deer antler,
and an iron razor; clothes were usually fastened
with a single brooch made in iron or bronze.
During phases B2b-B2/C1a a typical and almost
obligatory items of a Przeworsk male belt set
are a large rectangular buckle with a double pin,
type Madyda-Legutko AG, and a broad strapend, type Raddatz J.IV or J.II.
In ceramics, funerary pottery in particular,
the dominant vessel form during phase B1 is
round-bodied, often with a distinct neck; during phase B2 it is replaced by biconical and eggshaped vessels; towards the close of phase B2

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 10. Przeworsk Culture sites with a reliable dating, phase B1.Aer K. Godowski (1992a) & J.Andrzejowski (2005).

Fig. 11. Przeworsk Culture sites with a reliable dating, phase B2.Aer K. Godowski (1992a) & J. Andrzejowski (2005).

13

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 12. Pottery from phase B1. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

Fig. 13. Finds from phase B1. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

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THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 14. Finds from phase B1. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

S-shaped vessels are recorded for the first time.


Funerary pottery falls into two main groups.
The first includes thin-walled vessels with
a smooth, usually glossy black surface; frequently, the vessel is ornamented at shoulder with
engraved geometric designs. The second group
are thick-walled vessels with a smooth or roughened tan surface. The most common ornament
is finger-impressed or, one of irregularly engraved hatched lines; in general, vessels in this
group are without decoration.

Starting from phase B1, and better still,


during phase B2, the material culture of the
Przeworsk people apparently becomes less unified internally. This is indicated especially by
finds from the eastern zone of the Przeworsk
Culture in the area of Mazowsze and Podlasie,
to the east of the Vistula, and to the north of
the Wieprz River. Female dress fittings appear
to be much more elaborate and varied than
elsewhere on Przeworsk territory. A new item
in female graves next to brooches, belt fittings

15

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 15. Pottery from phase B2. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

and pins are necklaces, made of imported


multicoloured glass beads; originally they may
have included amber beads too; another new
form are paired bracelets, in bronze or, more
seldom, in iron; some are of a type characteristic for the Wielbark Culture in Pomerania.
Also fairly numerous are assorted metal pendants and S-shaped clasps, also well known in
Pomerania. We find a great number of eye
brooches of the Prussian series, which are much
less common in the western and southern areas
of the Przeworsk Culture; also frequent are
two local brooch types: so-called derivatives of

16

strongly profiled brooches type 5, and the


Mazowsze variant; also, brooches which combine attributes of spring cover brooches and of
strongly profiled brooches. Male dress accessories continue to be mostly the same as elsewhere in the Przeworsk Culture but there is
a larger number of bronze items in the weapon
kit; we also see distinctive forms of spear heads
and spurs. A special form in the group of funerary ceramics are large three-handled vases
with an elaborate ornament of three separate
designs. By the onset of phase B1, in northern
Mazowsze, in the so-called Nidzica Group of

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 16. Finds from phase B2a. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

the Przeworsk Culture, weapons have disappeared from grave deposits; another new development is the coming on record of various
stone structures in cemetery sites. These developments may be interpreted as the effect of
a close exchange of the Przeworsk people in
this part of eastern Poland with tribes of the
Wielbark Culture settled in Pomerania.
Some attempts have been made to distinguish a number of other local sub-units of the
Przeworsk Culture, for example, the Krusza
Zamkowa group in Kujawy. However, so far

arguments of this sort find little support in the


archaeological record. An interesting phenomenon is the presence of a local grouping on the
upper Bug and the upper Dnestr rivers which
definitely includes a Przeworsk element, perhaps even a dominant one. However, without
a full publication of relevant archaeological
material it is impossible to analyse this unit
more closely. On the other hand, it is absurd to
distinguish a Danubian group of the Przeworsk
Culture basing only on a casual analysis of
a handful of characteristic but stray finds.

17

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 17. Finds from phase B2b. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

Face to Face with the Romans


Rome had taken over the older Celtic trade
routes running north, including also the celebrated Amber Route, and Roman imports started flowing into the Przeworsk area. Some items
came in great number coins, glass beads,
brooches, during a later period, also Samian
ware. During phase B1, military and commercial contacts with Rome and associated economic exchange led to the emergence of a local
barbarian upper class whose social standing
is still not entirely clear. This evolutionary process is reflected by the rise of princely graves.
In contrast to the cremation rite prevalent in
the Przeworsk Culture, the princely burials are

18

mostly inhumations, with the body usually deposited within a wooden or stone chamber,
under a barrow, richly outfitted with valuable
Roman vessels, the finest local pottery, and
gold and silver ornaments. It is interesting that
with all this finery items of war gear in princely
graves are exceedingly rare and only the presence of richly ornamented spurs helps to identify the buried individual as a male.
Princely graves in the Przeworsk Culture
have been assigned to two chronological horizons older horizon, corresponding to phases
B1-B2, which may be correlated with rich graves
from Lubieszewo/Lbsow in western Pomerania,
and a younger Zakrzw/Sakrau horizon, datable to phase C2.

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 18. Finds from phase B2, typical for the eastern Przeworsk zone.

The Later Barbarians (Figs 19-33)


The beginning of the Late Roman Period
was a time of a major shift on the territory of
the Przeworsk Culture. During phase B2/C1-C1a
we see the decline of settlement in the eastern
Przeworsk zone, east of the Vistula and north of

the Wieprz rivers. The youngest of the reliably


dated Przeworsk burials in this area belong to
the pure stage C1a dated by early crossbow tendril brooches, type Almgren 162. It appears that
a part of the Przeworsk population from the eastern zone joined the southward Przeworsk wave
to E Slovakia, NE Hungary and N Romania.

19

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 19. Extreme range of the Przeworsk Culture in the beginning of the Late Roman Period. 1 distribution of metal
nds typical for the Przeworsk Culture; 2 settlement zone in the up-per Tisza region. Aer M. Mczyska (2003b).

This expansion started already in phase B2 but


reached its peak at the beginning of the Late
Roman Period. Until phase C1b the Przeworsk
population remained in place in the eastern
part of the Lublin Region, between the Wieprz,
Vistula and San rivers, and in a densely settled
pocket around present-day Lviv.
A part of the early eastern Przeworsk people stayed in their area and underwent a quite
rapid acculturation. This is indicated by some
features of the Wielbark Culture archaeological

20

record from Mazowsze and Podlasie, such as


the presence of a relatively large number of
typically Wielbark crossbow brooches type
Almgren 162, but made in iron, the presence
of burnt pottery in the graves, possibly also,
the presence of burnt human bones in pits of
the inhumation graves. Many older Przeworsk
Culture cemeteries and imaginably also settlements also continued in use.
During phase C2 the Przeworsk Culture expanded into northern Wielkopolska, an area

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 20. Przeworsk Culture sites with a reliable dating, phases B2/C1-C1a. Aer K. Godowski (1992a) & J. Andrzejowski (2005).

vacated by the people of the Wielbark Culture.


Even earlier, we see a gradual expansion of the
Przeworsk Culture to areas in south-western
Poland, occupied previously, during the Early
Roman Period, by the Puchov Culture from
Slovakia. During phase D, northernmost areas
of the Przeworsk Culture, in Wielkopolska and
central Poland, gradually became less densely
settled.
During the Late Roman Period the main
diagnostic form are tendril brooches and their
derivatives. These brooches are stylistically
a rather uniform group and as such, lack a comprehensive typological system. This makes it
difficult at present to refine the system of relative dating for the Late Roman Period in the
Przeworsk Culture (and the Wielbark Culture
too) which is still far from accurate and largely
based on subjective criteria.
During the early phase of the Late Roman
Period diagnostic forms include simple unipartite tendril brooches, Almgren 158, mostly

made in iron, and, much less common, bronze


and iron crossbow brooches,Almgren 162; next
to them continue early brooch forms with a high
catch plate, Almgren group VII. Phase C1a was
a time of an intensive inflow to the Przeworsk
area of terra sigillata the northern and eastern range of this culture overlaps with the extreme range of mass occurrence of terra sigillata
in this part of the Barbaricum. Phase C1a is associated also with mass occurrence of wheelthrown pottery which, with time, in southern
Poland especially, started to be produced on
a scale which was industrial for the age. In
adopting the skill of throwing pottery on the
wheel and of firing in technically sophisticated
kilns the Przeworsk people relied mainly on
influence from the Dacians. Also during phase
C1b-C2 we note a gradual increase in the number of brooches decorated with coils of notched
wire; this form derives from the early Roman
Period style and is encountered on a more limited scale also during phase C1a. The Late Roman

21

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 21. Przeworsk-Wielbark sites east of the Vistula River. 1 cemeteries used continuously; 2 cemeteries with
a chronological gap; 3 settlements; 4 neighbouring contemporary cemeteries and/or settlements; 5 Przeworsk
Culture sites abandoned during phases B2 or B2/C1a.

22

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 22. Przeworsk Culture sites with a reliable dating, phases C1b-C2, and sites dated by wheel-thrown pottery. Aer
K. Godowski (1992a).

Period was a time also of an important change


in the weapon inventory new forms of spear
heads and lance heads are introduced, grave
deposits are furnished with a single spear head
only; the one-edged sword has gone out of
fashion.
During phase C2 the most common brooch
form is the derivative of Almgren 158; brooches
with a closed catch plate are recorded for the
first time, also but less frequently, brooches
with a sheet catch plate, similar to type Almgren
172, and rich brooches of so-called Zakrzw
style; other new forms include younger variants of shield-bosses derived from spiked and
domed forms.
Phase C3 on the Przeworsk territory is poorly documented, unlike during the next phase D,
the early phase of the Migration Period. Moreover, a large part of finds from this period are
datable only broadly within the framework of
phases C3-D; forms characteristic for this phase
include caterpillar brooches, late brooch forms

derived from tendril brooches type Almgren


158, and late brooches with a closed catch plate;
belt buckles with a thickened frame, tongueand beak-shaped strap ends, tri-layer combs
with a bell-shaped handle, and certain distinctive items of war gear; in settlements we find
a great number of distinctive storage vessels of
type Krausengefe.
The Late Roman Period was also a time
of change in the burial rite. Urned graves decline visibly in number and with time disappear from the record altogether; in pit graves
the pits have become smaller and contain
a much smaller amount of the pyre remains.
During the younger phase of the same period
a new phenomenon is registered for the first
time, mostly in the south of Poland so-called
stratified cemeteries in which the cremated remains were spread across the entire surface of
the burial ground.

23

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 23. Finds from phases B2/C1, C1a and C1b. Aer K. Godowski (1992a) & M. Mczyska (2003b).

24

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 24. War gear from phases B2/C1-C1a and C1b. Aer K. Godowski (1992a) & M. Mczyska (2003b).

25

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 25. Zaubice, distr. Woomin, grave 55. Fibula from phase C1a discovered inside an urn with war gear typical for
phase B2. Aer J. Andrzejowski (2001).

26

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 26. Hand-made pottery from phases B2/C1-C1a. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

27

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 27. Hand-made pottery from phases C1b-C2. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

28

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 28. Finds from phases C1b-C2. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

29

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 29. Wheel-thrown pottery from phases C1b-D. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

30

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 30. Wheel-thrown pottery from phases C1b-D. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

31

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 31. Przeworsk Culture sites with a reliable dating, phases C3-D, and sites dated by wheel-thrown pottery. Aer
K. Godowski (1992a).

Fig. 32. Finds from phases C3-D. Aer K. Godowski (1992a).

32

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 33. Large wheel-thrown pot, so-called Krausengefss (A), and hand-made pottery from phases C3-D. Aer
K. Godowski (1992a).

The Twilight (Figs 34, 35)


The youngest horizon of the Przeworsk settlement can be dated reliably to the onset of the
5th c. and its first decades, although by this time
some regions (like Silesia) seem to have lost all
settlement. In general the youngest reliably dated Przeworsk Culture finds do not pass the
dividing line of mid-5th c. One of the most striking assemblages associated with this youngest
phase of the Przeworsk Culture is the princely
grave from Jakuszowice, dating from the 5th c.

This deposit was discovered near a multiple


phase settlement which yielded an uncommonly rich archaeological record (for instance, more
than a hundred Roman coins) and, apparently,
was still in use during the first half of the 5th c.
The grave from Jakuszowice confirms the accounts found in the written sources according
to which some part of the Przeworsk population in southern Poland had come under domination of the Huns. Exchange with the nomads
is documented by other finds from southern
Poland, for instance, distinctive golden earrings

33

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI

Fig. 34. Extreme range of the Przeworsk Culture in the Early Migration Period. 1 post-Przeworsk nds from 2nd half
of 5th c. and early 6th c. Aer M. Mczyska (2003b).

from Przemczany and a hoard discovered inside a burnt down timber hut at wilcza, near
Rzeszw, dendrodated to about AD 433; it is
interesting that a similar earring, only in bronze,
was discovered a few years ago in a Przeworsk
settlement near Warsaw.
A very modest body of evidence, mostly
from central Poland, suggests that during the
latter half of the 5th and on the turn of the 6th c.
the area settled in the past by the Przeworsk

34

people was settled by groups, presumably small,


associated with the culture tradition of Central
European barbarians of the Roman Period.
However, these groups may not be associated
with their Przeworsk predecessors.When they
too departed from the region, the Przeworsk
domain lay deserted for a time. Only starting
from the 6th c. new settlers started to filter in
from the east; these were the Slavs but they
are a part of an altogether different story.

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)

Fig. 35. Post-Przeworsk nds: glass beaker from Piwonice, pow. Kalisz, from 2nd half of 5th c. (A), grave 1 from
Oszczywilk, pow. Radziejw Kujawski, from 2nd half of 5th c. or 5th/6th c. (B). Aer Mczyska (1993).

Appendix 1

General works

The list given below reflects my personal


selection of the key publications on the Przeworsk Culture (= Przeworsk C.). It includes
only the most recently published books and
papers (less recent are listed only if they are still
valid) some of which give a comprehensive list
of references. I tended to select publications in
German or English (or with a summary in one
of these languages).

Several textbooks offer a general picture of


the Przeworsk C. Although most are in Polish
only, they do contain maps and figures which
can be understood easily. Volume V of Prehistory of Polish Lands (Prahistoria ziem polskich)
published by the Polish Academy of Sciences
includes the official view on the Przeworsk C.,
cf K. Godowski (1981). In 1998 P. Kaczanowski described the Przeworsk C. in volume I of

35

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI
Ancient History of Polish Lands (Najdawniejsze dzieje ziem polskich; see Kaczanowski &
Kozowski 1998), and more recently, A. Kokowski (2005) introduced his personal point of view.
A large exhibition of the Przeworsk C. was
displayed in 2003 at Bevern (Lower Saxony),
its extended version in Warsaw, in 2004. Both
exhibitions were accompanied by extensive
and richly illustrated catalogues (Kokowski &
Leiber eds 2003; Andrzejowski, Kokowski &
Leiber eds 2004).
The general perspective on the Przeworsk
C. introduced by K. Godowski (1981; 1985;
1992a) and, for its Late Pre-Roman phases, by
T. Dbrowska (1988a; 2001) is still valid (cf
entry Przeworsk-Kultur in Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, by T. Dbrowska
and M. Mczyska; see Dbrowska 2003b;
Mczyska 2003b). In 1984 progress of research
on the Przeworsk C. was discussed in Stan i potrzeby... (see Godowski & Madyda-Legutko
1999). For Lower Silesia there is a regional monograph by S. Pazda (1980) but also the much
less recent studies by E. Petersen (1925) and
Ch. Pescheck (1939) continue in use since
much of the evidence was lost during WW II.
A large and comprehensive monograph on the
Przeworsk C. in Upper Silesia by K. Godowski
(1973; 1977a) contains data also from outside
that region; on the local Dobrodzie Group of
the youngest phases of the Przeworsk C., see
J. Szydowski (1977). For Wielkopolska we have
nothing but an old study by J. Kostrzewski
(1923), cf H. Machajewski (1986); on the Kuyavian variant of the Przeworsk C., defined as the
Krusza Zamkowa Group (grupa kruszaska),
see A. Cofta-Broniewska (1979), cf A. Kokowski
(1991b). Przeworsk C. in central Poland is discussed by E. Kaszewska (1975a); for the adjacent area of western Mazowsze, see B. Balke
(1991), more recently, J. Skowron (2006).
J. Andrzejowski (2001; 2005) defined the eastern zone of the Przeworsk C. of the Early
Roman Period, while A. Kokowski (1991a; 2001)
discussed the Przeworsk C. in the Lublin Region
and eastern Maopolska. The eastern reaches of

36

the Przeworsk C. in Ukraine were studied by


D. N. Kozak, who defined a local Volhynia-Podolia (vel Zubritska) Group, recently separated as a distinct culture unit (Kozak 1984;
1991; 1993; see also Kokowski 1999); however,
an older study by M. miszko (1932) remains
in use. Complex structure of archaeological
units in the Polish Carpathians was analysed
by R. Madyda-Legutko (1995; 1996). I.V. Kobal
(1997) presented Przeworsk C. from Transcarpathian Ukraine, while M. Oldzki (1999)
discussed Przeworsk C. finds from the upper
Tisza region. Finally, M. Oldzki (1996) made
an attempt to distinguish a Danubian group of
Przeworsk C. but the existence of this unit has
not been substantiated.
Finds. Description of artefacts from Przeworsk
C. sites is based on some crucial classifications;
of these the most general and ones which include the most common forms are listed below.
FIBULAE: Late Pre-Roman J. Kostrzewski
(1919), T. Vlling (1995); Roman Period
O. Almgren (1923), and T. Liana (1970, for
trumpet-shaped fibulae), T. Dbrowska (1995,
for derivatives of trumpet-shaped fibulae),
J.Andrzejowski (1994, for mixed forms of Almgren groups II and IV), H. Machajewski (1998,
for Almgren group V, series 8), M. Mczyska
(2003a, study on aSarmatian variant with a high
catch plate). WEAPONS: Late Pre-Roman
J. Kostrzewski (1919), and D. Bohnsack (1938,
for shield-bosses); recently T. Bochnak (2005)
and P. uczkiewicz (2006); Roman Period
M. Jahn (1916, for shield-bosses and shieldgrips), with T. Liana (1970, for shield-bosses),
M. Biborski (1978, for swords; cf Biborski 2004),
P. Kaczanowski (1995, for spear and lance heads;
cf also Kaczanowski 1998), G. Kieferling (1994,
for axes), N. Zieling (1989, for shield fittings).
SPURS: M. Jahn (1921), more recently, K. Godowski (1970) and J. Ginalski (1991). BEADS:
M. Tempelmann-Mczyska (1985). BELT FITTINGS: R. Madyda (1977), R. Madyda-Legutko
(1987; 1990). METAL PINS: B. Beckmann (1966).
BUCKET-SHAPED PENDANTS: P. Kaczanowski (1987) and I. Beilke-Voigt (1998). COMBS:

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)


S. Thomas (1960). FIRE-STEELS: A. Kokowski
(1985). KEYS AND LOCK FITTINGS: A. Kokowski (1997). DRINKING-HORN MOUNTINGS: J.Andrzejowski (1991). POTTERY: there
is no general classification of Late Pre-Roman
Period pottery, regardless of its high degree of
unification see T. Dbrowska (1988a), and
local typologies, introduced mostly in monographs of cemeteries, may be essentially different cf recently, T. Dbrowska (1997) and
K. Czarnecka (2007). Actually the same applies
to the hand-made pottery from the Late Roman
Period, although the study by K. Godowski is
still valid (1977a); wheel-thrown pottery was
classified by H. Dobrzaska (1980). A general
study on the pottery from the Early Roman
Period is by T. Liana (1970) and local features
are highlighted in several monographs e.g.
M. Stasiak (1994), T. Dbrowska (1997),
J.Andrzejowski (1998), or regional studies e.g.
K. Godowski (1977a). The recent state of discussion on hand-made and wheel-thrown pottery from the Roman Period and Early Migration Period is presented by J. RodziskaNowak (2006) in a comprehensive study on the
pottery from Jakuszowice. M. TempelmannMczyska (1989) gives a concise discussion on
female costume.
Chronology. The chronology of the Late PreRoman phases of Przeworsk C., introduced by
T. Dbrowska (1988a) and the Early Roman
phasing by T. Liana (1970), is still accepted in
general although in regional studies or monographs of cemeteries attempts were made to
refine these systems; a basic chronology for the
Late Roman and Early Migration Periods was
introduced by K. Godowski (1970; 1988).
Burials. Funeral rites of the Late Pre-Roman
and Early Roman period is discussed exhaustively by A. Niewgowski (1981), for the Late
Roman Period there is only a general discussion
by K. Godowski (1981), cf K. Czarnecka (2003);
more recently, A. Baejewski (1998) discussed
the Przeworsk C. funeral rites in Silesia. Some
special grave forms were studied separately, as
e.g.layer cemeteries see J. Szydowski (1977)

and groove-like features see M. Gedl (1985a;


1985b). For a discussion of social structure in
the Przeworsk C., see K. Czarnecka (1990a;
1990b). My personal selection of the most useful publications of Przeworsk C. cemeteries is
given at the end of the Appendix.
Settlements. Studies on settlements of the
Przeworsk C. are summarized by I. Jadczykowa
(1983) and recently by A. Michaowski (2003)
whose study, due to some lapses, needs to
be compared against chronological maps of
K. Godowski (1985; 1992a) and J. Andrzejowski
(2005). Only a small number of settlements was
excavated and published in a more comprehensively manner, e.g., Igoomia in Maopolska, see
H. Dobrzaska (1990a; 1990b), or e.g. Mysowice
-Imielin in Upper Silesia (Osada 1993). The
results of extensive excavation associated with
motorway and gas pipeline construction of the
last two decades have been published to a very
limited extent.
Economy. The economic background of the
Przeworsk C. communities is discussed in outline in volume V of the Prehistory of Polish
Lands, see K. Godowski (1981). One of the most
important factors of Przeworsk C. economy, i.e.
the large scale iron production in witokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains centre was discussed by K. Bielenin (1992; cf also Bielenin 2006),
and more recently, by Sz. Orzechowski (2007),
while another well investigated centre of iron
production in the Bonie Plain west of Warsaw
is still very poorly known, cf S. Woyda (2002).
J. Rodziska-Nowak (2006) gives a thorough review of publications on organized production
of wheel-thrown pottery. P.Wielowiejski (1990;
1996) discusses amber finds and amber workshops. For a study of antler and bone working
see W. Brzeziski (1980).
Weaponry. Recently, two analyses of Late PreRoman weapons were published by T. Bochnak
(2005) and P. uczkiewicz (2006).Weapons and
weapon sets from the Roman Period were discussed by K. Godowski (1992b) and B. Kontny
(2002). For a more detailed discussion I recommend the study of inlaid spear heads by

37

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI
P. Kaczanowski (1992) and studies on sword
technology (recently, see Biborski & Kaczanowski 2003).

The Background (or the Day Before)


For an overview of archaeological groupings in central and southern Poland of the Early
Iron Age (or the Early Pre-Roman Period) see
relevant chapters in textbooks of archaeology
of Poland, all of them in Polish, e.g. Prahistoria
ziem polskich (Prehistory of Polish Lands),
vol. IV: Od rodkowej epoki brzu do rodkowego
okresu lateskiego (eds. J. Dbrowski & Z. Rajewski), Wrocaw 1979 (chapters V,VI,VII and X
in vol. IV), and V.2J-L, V.7 Pradzieje ziem polskich (Prehistory of Polish Lands), vol. I: Od paleolitu do rodkowego okresu lateskiego, part 2:
Epoka brzu i pocztki epoki elaza, Warszawad 1988 (chapters V.2J-L and V.7). The proceedings from 1993 Conference on Pomeranian
and Cloche Grave C. offer insight on new studies on both cultures (Wgrzynowicz et al. 1995)
but more up-to-date monographs have yet to
be published. Celtic settlement in Poland was
studied comprehensively by Z. Woniak (1970;
1981), who recently revisited the problem of its
chronology (Woniak 1992); for Upper Silesia,
see also M. Bednarek (2005). M. Oldzki (2005)
presents a general summary of research.

The Big Bang


On the most recent state of research on the
origins of the Przeworsk C., see T. Dbrowska
and Z.Woniak (2005) (also: Dbrowska 1988a;
1988b). T. Dbrowska (1988c; 1994) discussed
in general the relationship between the Przeworsk and Jastorf C., Z. Woniak and P. Poleska
(1999) studied the Jastorf C. finds from the area
of the later Tyniec Group; a report on the more
recent results of archaeological investigation on
the Jastorf C. in Wielkopolska is in H. Machajewski (2004).

On the Outer Edge of the Celtic World


The most comprehensive view on the Late
Pre-Roman Przeworsk C. is in T. Dbrowska

38

(1988a; see also eadem 2001), who also traced


and studied the La Tne (Celtic) influences in
the early Przeworsk C. (Dbrowska 1988a; 1996);
Celtic-Przeworsk relationships were discussed
also by R. Bockius and P. uczkiewicz (2004).
The mixed Celtic-Przeworsk Group (so-called
Tyniec Group) was studied by Z. Woniak
(1970; 1981), more recently, by P. Poleska (2006).
On the Przeworsk C. presence outside the borders of its home territory see M. Seidel (1999;
2000) and M. Meyer (1994; 2000).

By the Borders of the Empire


The earliest Roman influences in the Przeworsk C. are revisited by T. Dbrowska (2003a).
K. Godowski (1995a) examined the Early
Roman Period finds from the Krakw region.
Phase B2/C1 was discussed thoroughly by
K. Godowski (1970; 1988; 1992a). For Przeworsk C. weapons during the Early Roman
Period, see B. Kontny (2003; 2005).

Face to Face with the Romans


Of several studies on Roman influence in
Przeworsk C. published by J. Wielowiejski,
I recommend two of his more general discussions (1970; 1980). The fundamental but now
rather outdated catalogue of Roman imports
of H. J. Eggers (1951) needs supplement for
metal vessels, J. Wielowiejski (1986; 1990), for
Samian ware, L. Tyszler (1999), for glass vessels, T. Stawiarska (1999), for glass beads,
M. Tempelmann-Mczyska (1985), for weapons, P. Kaczanowski (1992). There is no general
catalogue of imported brooches and other
small finds, except for southern Poland, see
P. Kaczanowski and U. Margos (2002); some of
the finds were published recently in special
volumes of CRFB Polen (Corpus der Rmische
Funde in Barbaricum, Polen). The same applies
to Roman coin finds cf A. Bursche (1986). For
a discussion of Roman written sources concerned with the territory settled by the Przeworsk C. tribes, see several papers by J. Kolendo
(recently 2005). References to the princely
graves are listed by K. Czarnecka (2004); see

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)


also entries Sakrau (= Wrocaw-Zakrzw) and
Wichulla (= Opole-Gosawice) by M. Mczyska
(2004; 2006), and g Piekarski, by W. Nowakowski (2001), all of them in Reallexikon der
Germanischen Altertumskunde.

The Later Barbarians


The decline of settlement in the eastern
Przeworsk zone was studied by J. Andrzejowski
(1989; 2005),A. Kokowski (1991a; 2001) discussed the late Przeworsk C. in the Lublin Region;
D. N. Kozak (1984; 1993) and M. Oldzki (1999)
studied the south-eastern reaches of this culture. For a discussion of Przeworsk-Wielbark relationship in Wielkopolska see H. Machajewski
(1980; 1986).

The Twilight
The Early Migration Period phase of the
Przeworsk C. and its twilight is discussed comprehensively by K. Godowski (1979; 1989), and
more recently, by M. Mczyska (1998; 2005).
The grave of a prince from Jakuszowice was
re-examined by K. Godowski (1995b), while
A. Gruszczyska (1999) discussed the settlement at wilcza, site of discovery of a wellknown hoard. For more recent studies on the
earliest phase of the Slavic settlement in Poland
see e.g., M. Parczewski (1993), also P. Kaczanowski and M. Parczewski (2005).

Appendix 2
Listed below is my personal selection of the most important cemeteries which offer abundant material representative for the Przeworsk C. Most have been published in full, however, I also include
some key sites published in part or only in several reports only, or important for a special reason.
Wielkopolska and Kujawy
Bodzanowo, pow. Aleksandrw Kujawski (Zielonka 1958; 1961)
Domaradzice, pow. Rawicz (Kostrzewski 1954)
Inowrocaw-Szymborze, pow. Inowrocaw (Bednarczyk & aszkiewicz 1990)
Inowrocaw 58, pow. Inowrocaw (Cofta-Broniewska & Bednarczyk 1998)
Konin, pow. Konin (Kostrzewski 1947; Pieczyski 1967; Kka-Krenz 1974)
Konopnica, pow. Wielu (Abramek 1987; 1988; 1990)
Krusza Zamkowa, pow. Inowrocaw (Kokowski 1989)
Lachmirowice, pow. Inowrocaw (Zielonka 1951; 1953)
Modzikowo, pow. roda Wielkopolska (Dymaczewski 1958)
Piotrkw Kujawski, pow. Radziejw (Kaszewska 1962)
Siemianice, pow. Kpno (J. Szembekwna 1902; Z. Szembekwna 1905; 1910; 1915 oldfashioned, but probably the first full publication of a Przeworsk C. cemetery)
Spicymierz (vel Spycimierz), pow. Turek (Kietliska & Dbrowska 1963; Kenk 1977)
Weski 1, pow. Kalisz (Dbrowscy 1967)
Weski 5, pow. Kalisz (Kozowska 1972)
Wymysowo, pow. Gosty (Jasnosz 1952)
Zadowice, pow. Kalisz (Abramowicz 1956; 1960; Abramowicz & Lepwna 1957; Jasnosz 1960;
Kaszewska 1961; 1975b; 1982; 1984; 1988; Piontek & Rycel 1988 one of the largest and most longlived Przeworsk C. cemeteries, but still not published in full)
Zagorzyn, pow. Kalisz (Dbrowski 1970)

39

JACEK ANDRZEJOWSKI
Silesia
Chorula, pow. Krapkowice (Szydowski 1964; Kenk 1977)
Ciecierzyn, pow. Kluczbork (Martyniak, Pastwiski & Pazda 1997)
Dobrodzie, pow. Olesno (Szydowski 1974)
Drochlin, pow. Czstochowa (Kaczanowski 1987)
Izbicko, pow. Strzelce Opolskie (fomer Stubendorf, Kr. Gro Strehlitz; Szydowski 1963)
Kietrz 1, pow. Gubczyce (Gedl 1988)
Mokra, pow. Kobuck (a large and fully excavated cemetery not far from the cemetery at Opatw; all
excavation reports and papers were recently listed in Biborski 2006)
Nosocice (Gogw-Nosocice, pow. Gogw, former Nowitz, Kr. Glogau; Tackenberg 1925, 8-16, 28-50)
Nowa Wie, pow. Wrocaw (former Neudorf, Kr. Breslau; Pescheck 1939, 328-352)
Opatw, pow. Kobuck (Godowski 1959; Gedl, Ginter & Godowski 1970, 108-111; 1971, 71-117; see
Zagrska-Telega 2000, where all the excavation reports and papers are listed the largest known
cemetery of the Przeworsk C., recently prepared for publication)
Szczedrzyk, pow. Opole (Szydowski 1974)
Tarnw, pow. Opole (Godowski & Szadkowska 1972)
erniki Wielkie, pow. Wrocaw (former Gross Srding, Kr. Breslau; Zotz 1935; Mczyska 1993)
Maopolska
Bonie, pow. Sandomierz (Mycielska & Woniak 1988)
Chmielw Piaskowy, pow. Ostrowiec witokrzyski (Godowski & Wichman 1998)
Ga, pow. Przeworsk (Hadaczek 1909 an abundant collection of finds, but the figures are not linked
with the grave descriptions)
Grzybw, pow. Staszw (Garbacz 2000)
Kryspinw, pow. Krakw (Godowski 1972; 1977b; excavation reports in Recherches Archologiques
1968 [1969], 1969 [1970], 1970 [1971], 1971 [1972], 1972 [1973], 1973 [1974], 1974 [1976], 1975
[1976], 1977 [1978], 1979 [1980] and 1984 [1986])
Kopki, pow. Nisko (Jamka 1936)
Starachowice, pow. Starachowice (Jamka 1959)
Stradw, pow. Kazimierza Wielka (Gajewski & Woniak 2000)
Wchock, pow. Starachowice (Balke & Bender 1991 a collection of finds only, nevertheless, important for the region)
Central Poland and western Mazowsze
Biaa, pow. Zgierz (Makiewicz 1970)
Brzece 1, pow. Biaobrzegi (Balke 1976)
Brzece 2, pow. Biaobrzegi (Balke 1977)
Ciebowice Due, pow. Tomaszw Mazowiecki (Dzigielewska & Kulczyska 2007)
Ciosny, pow. Zgierz (Jamka 1962)
Gledzianwek, pow. czyca (Kaszewska 1978)
Grodzisk Mazowiecki, pow. Grodzisk Mazowiecki (Barankiewicz 1959)
Korze, pow. Pock (Kempisty 1968)
Kucw, pow. Bechatw (Oldzki 1985)
gonice Mae I, pow. Przysucha (Liana 1977)
gonice Mae II, pow. Przysucha (Liana 1973; 1976)
d, Szczeciska str., pow. d (aszczewska & Kurylak 1989)
Piaski, pow. Bechatw (Skowron 1997)
Suchod, pow. Sochaczew (Maciaowicz 2006)

40

THE PRZEWORSK CULTURE. A BRIEF STORY (FOR THE FOREIGNERS)


Wlka Domaniowska, pow. Radom (Oldzki 2000)
darw, pow. Sochaczew (Z. Nowakowski 2003)
Eastern Mazowsze and Podlasie
Drohiczyn, pow. Siemiatycze (Szmit 1921; 1923; Dbrowska 1978)
Garwolin, pow. Garwolin (Niewgowski 1991)
Grdki 3, pow. Dziadowo (Okulicz 1983)
Kamieczyk, pow. Wyszkw (Dbrowska 1997)
Karczewiec, pow. Wgrw (Dbrowska 1973)
Krupice, pow. Siemiatycze (Jaskanis 2005)
Nadkole 2, pow. Wgrw (Andrzejowski 1998)
Niedanowo, pow. Nidzica (Ziemliska-Odojowa 1999)
Oblin, pow. Garwolin (Czarnecka 2007)
Pajewo-Szwelice, pow. Szwelice (Dubakowski 2005)
Wilanw (Warszawa-Wilanw; Marciniak 1957)
Lublin Region
Gocieradw, pow. Kranik (Niewgowski 1982)
Kranik-Piaski, pow. Kranik (Kokowski 1991a, 88-92; a large cemetery known only from brief reports
in Archeologia Polski rodkowowschodniej II [1997], III [1998], IV [1999] and V [2000])
Opoka, pow. Puawy (Moskaa 1963; Szarek-Waszkowska 1973; Kokowski 1991a, 96-116; Stasiak 1994)

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kultury przeworskiej w Konopnicy na stanowisku 7 w wojewdztwie sieradzkim (cz
1). Sieradzki Rocznik Muzealny 4, 45-96.
1988. Cmentarzysko ciaopalne kultury
przeworskiej w Konopnicy na stanowisku 7
w wojewdztwie sieradzkim (cz II).
Sieradzki Rocznik Muzealny 5, 77-134.
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