resistance
1.How a.c. resistance is calculated?
The metallic conductors in cables are not perfect conductors and as such, they offer some resistance R
in the flow of current. Thus, a loss occurs in the cable conductor which is proportional to the resistance
and to the square of the current being carried and is known as I 2R loss. The loss normally represents
the largest heat source in the cable and it can be reduced by limiting the current, by reducing the
resistance, or by decreasing both. In a cable carrying a given amount of power the load current
decreases as the transmission voltage increases. Resistance can be reduced by using a larger
conductor or by employing a multiple circuit with two or more parallel conductors.
In the case of direct current the loss within the conductor would be I 2Rdc, but in case of alternating
current the loss would be I2Rac. If a conductor is carrying high alternating current, the distribution of
current is not evenly disposed throughout the cross section of the conductor. This is due to
independent effects known as skin effect and proximity effect. The a.c resistance of the conductor R ac
is in fact the d.c resistance Rdc modified to account for so called Skin and Proximity effects.
The skin and proximity effects are usually expressed as an increase of R in the resistance of the
conductor. Thus
R = Rdc (ys + yp)
and
Rac
= Rdc
+ R = Rdc ( 1 + ys + yp)
Where Rac is the a.c. resistance of the conductor at maximum operating temperature, in ohm/m
Rdc is the d.c. resistance of the conductor at maximum operating temperature in ohm/m
ys is correction factor for skin effect.
yp correction factor for proximity effect.
Proximity effect is a phenomenon of mutual induction between the conductors of adjacent phases
which creates a tendency for the currents in these conductors to flow along one side of the conductor
crosssection. The proximity effect also increases the effective resistance and is associated with the
magnetic fields of two conductors which are close together. If each carries a current in the same
direction, the halves of the conductors in close proximity are cut by more magnetic flux then the
remote halves. Consequently, the current distribution is not even throughout the crosssection, a
greater proportion is carried by the remote halves. If the currents are in opposite directions the halves
in closer proximity carry the greater density of the current. In both cases the overall effect results
increase in the effective resistance of the conductor. This effect is present in singlecore as well as in a
3core cable systems. The loss, due to this proximity effect, decreases with increased spacing between
the cables. Obviously this effect is always more pronounced in 3core cables than in single core cables
of the same size and operating voltage owing to closer conductor spacing in the former cables.
Proximity effect can usually be disregarded for cables smaller than about 185 mm2 cross sections.
Proximity effect factor is also affected by the inductive currents in any metallic sheath and eddy
currents in both metallic sheaths and armor. These can be neglected for small conductor sizes at lower
frequencies.
4. What is the formula for calculating a.c resistance from d.c. resistance, considering the
effect of skin and proximity factors?
D.C. resistance of conductor
The d.c. resistance per unit length of the conductor at its maximum operating temperature is given
by:
R = R0 [1 + 20(  20)]
Where
R
Ro
20
standard values)
 Maximum operating temperature in degree Celsius (this will be determined by the type of
Where
xS2 =
x S4
192+0.8 X s4
8 x 107 ks
R
In the absence of an alternate formulae it is recommended that the above formula should be used
for sector and
oval shaped conductors.
Proximity effect factor yp for two core cables and for two single core cables:
The proximity effect factor is given by:
X p4
Yp =
dc
192 + 0.8X p4
x 2.9
S
X p2 = 8 x 107 kp
The above formula is accurate providing xp does not exceed 2.8 and therefore applies to the
majority of practical cases.
Proximity effect factor yp for three core cables and for three single core cables
1.Circular conductor cables
The Proximity factor is given by
2
X p4
0.312
1.18
yp = 192 + 0.8xp4
dc
X p4
S
192 + 0.8 x p4
+ 0.27
dc diameter of conductor. (mm)
S  distance between conductor axes. (mm)
Note: For cables in flat formations, s is between adjacent phases. Where the spacing
between adjacent phases is
not equal, the distance will be taken as S
=
S1 x S 2
Values of kp are given in Table.
The above formula is accurate provided xp does not exceed 2.8 and therefore applies to
the majority of practical cases.
2.Shaped conductor cables
In case of multi core cables with shaped conductors, the value of y p shall be two thirds of
the value calculated according to the above formulae.
dc = dx = Diameter of equivalent circular conductor of same cross sectional area and
degree of compaction. (mm)
S = (dx + t) mm
where t = Thickness of Insulation between conductors(mm). Values for k p are given in
table 4.
The above formula is accurate provided xp does not exceed 2.8 and therefore applies to
the majority of practical cases.
3.Skin and proximity effect in pipe type cables The skin and proximity effects calculated
according to the above formula shall be increased by a factor 1.5 for these cables:R = R [(1 + 1.5(ys + yp)] (ohm/m)
IllustrationOne
A. 3C x 240Sq.mm. (Aluminum), 650/ 1100Volts grade cable AYFY.
A.C. Resistance of conductor
R
o
D.C. Resistance of conductor at 20 C R0 0.125 /Km
DIMENSIONS
Compacted Conductor  17.5 mm
Insulation Thickness
2.2mm
Insulated Conductor
 21.9 mm
R
R
ys
yp
ys =
Xs2 =
Where
x 107 ks
R
8x3.1416x50 x 107
0.150 x 10 3
= 0.8378
Ys
=
X s4
192 + 0.8X s4
0.8378 x 0.8378
192 + 0.8 ( 0.8378 x 0.8378)
0.00365
x1
Hence
2
yp
= 0.00365
17.5/21.9
= 0.00365 x 0.6385
2
17.5/21.9
0.6385
x 0.312 + 4.312
Illustration Two
DIMENSIONS
Compacted Conductor 17.5 mm
Insulation Thickness 
D.C. Resistance of conductor at maximum operating temperature (90 oC) Insulated Conductor
20.9mm
That is given by R = R0 [1 + 20(  20)]
= 0.125[ 1 + 0.00403(9020)]
= 0.160 x 103 ohm/ km
A.C. resistance of conductor
1.7 mm
The a.c. resistance per unit length of the conductor at its maximum operating temperature is given by
the following formula, except in the case of pipe type cables
R = R ( 1+ys +yp)
Where
R  a.c. resistance of conductor at maximum operating temperature. (ohm/ m)
R d.c. resistance of conductor at maximum operating temperature. (ohm/ m)
ys the skin effect factor.
yp  the proximity effect factor.
ys
Xs2
X s4
192 + 0.8xs4
8 x 107 ks
R
xs2 = 8x3.1416x50
0.160 x
= 0.7854
ys =
103
107
x 1
xp4 = xs4
Hence
yp = 0.00321
17.5/20.9
0.00321 x 0.7011
0.2187 + 4.319
= 0.00255 x 4.5377
= 0.01157
2/3 for Shaped conductor
yp = 0.01157 x 0.6667
= 0.00771
A.C. Resistance at Maximum operating temperature
R = R (1+0.00321 + 0.00771)
= 0.160 x
103
103
(1.01092)
= 0.162 x
ohm / m
= 0.162 ohm / km
Illustration Three
Determination of a.c. resistance of a hollow aluminum stranded conductor of a 132 Kv single core cable
with a nominal cross sectional area of 500 sq.mm. The conductor outside and inside diameters are
respectively 28 mm and 12 mm. The axial spacing between the conductors of adjacent cables is 100 mm.
The conductor temperature assumed is 85 C .
103 0 C at 20 C
103 /ohm / km
2812
28+12
8f x
28+24
28+12
107 ks
= 0.676
Rdc
=
8x3.1416 x 50
103
8f x 107 kp
0.0764 x
xp2 =
Rdc
8x3.1416 x 50 x
ys =
1.112 x 1.112
192 + 0.8 x 1.112 x 1.112
= 1.731
= 0.00640
2
=
0.312 x( 28/100 )2
= ( .00896 x 0.0784)
0.0245 + 1.18/ 0.00896 +0.27
= 0.000702 x 0.0245 + 4.230
= 0.00299
R = 0.0764 x (1+ .0064 +.00299) =0.0771ohm/km
Table : Skin and proximity effects Experimental values for the coefficients k s
and kp
Type of Conductor
ks
kp
Round, stranded
Yes
0.8
Round, stranded
No
Copper
Round, segmentala
0.435
0.37
Yes
0.8
Sectorshaped
Yes
0.8
Sectorshaped
No
Aluminium
Round, stranded
Either
Round, 4 segment
Either
0.28
Round, 5 segment
Either
0.19
Round, 6 segment
Either
0.12
Either
a. The values given apply to conductors having four segments (with or without central duct) and sectional areas
less than 1600 mm2. These values apply to conductors in which all the layers of wires have the same
direction of lay. The values are provisional and the subject is under consideration.
b. The following formula should be used for k s. For hollow conductor
ks
dc  di
dc + di
where:
di
dc + 2 di
dc + di
dc is the outside diameter of the equivalent solid conductor having the same central duct (mm)
c. The following formula should be used to calculate ks for cables having a conductor which consists of a central
segmental portion surrounded by one or more layers of strands.
ks = {12c[(c 0.5)2 + (c 0.5) (  ) c + 0.33 (  )
c 2] + b (3 6b + 4b2)}0.5
where: b is the ratio of the total crosssectional area of the peripheral strands to the total crosssectional
area of the complete conductor.
area of the
c  is the ratio of the total crosssectional area of the segmental conductor to the total crosssectional
complete conductor, c = (1 b)
=
(1 + sin/n)2
= 2 /n + 2/3
2 (1 + /n )
Where: n is the number of segments
This formula is applicable to aluminum conductor up to 1600 mm 2.
If the total crosssectional area of the peripheral strands exceeds 30% of the total crosssectional area of the
conductor, then ks may be regarded as unity.
d
Although there are no accepted experimental results dealing specifically with the coefficient k o for aluminum
conductors, it is recommended that, for stranded aluminum conductors, the values given for similar copper
conductors are used.
Extrusion
1.How screw design effect the production capacity of an extruder?
The design variable which has the greatest effect on extrusion performance is the screw;
and, therefore the selection of the proper screw design is of the greatest importance.
The mechanical work accomplished by the extruder screw as it conveys the material
forward is directly related both to mixing efficiency and frictional heat development. The
sum of the conducted heat and frictional heat determines the final resin temperature. It
can be seen in figure below, the extrusion screw consists of three sections:
a. Feed zone
b. Compression or transition zone
c. Metering zone
The feed section, characterized by the greatest channel depth, is responsible for conveying
the resin forward from the feed hopper to the hotter zones of the barrel. This assures that the
succeeding sections of the screw will not be starved for material. Inadequate or uneven feed will
affect output of the extruder and cause pulsating
The compression zone is the screw section in which the channel dimensions change from
those of the feed section to those of the metering section. It is here that the channel
depth decreases and compressing and melting the material, starts.
The metering zone has the shallowest channel in the screw, and to a large extent, it
establishes the overall pumping characteristics of the extruder and is, therefore, one of
the most critical sections of the screw. This section provides intense mixing, pumps the
molten plastic at a uniform rate, and generates sufficient pressure to force it through the
die.
1. Plain Screw: A screw of constant pitch, decreasing channel depth with a shallow
metering section is recommended as it results in better mixing and more uniform control of
temperature and pressure. Frictional heat development in deep channel screws at low
pressure may be inadequate to produce thorough fluxing and homogeneity, leading to rough
extruded surfaces and, in drycolor mixes, poor color dispersion.
While a deep channel screw provides faster extrusion rates at low pressures when using
large or low resistance dies, the extrusion rate for the shallow channel screw is less
affected by pressure than the deep channel screw. Since the shallow channel screw has
less back flow, it provides faster extrusion rates at higher pressures for small or high
resistance dies such as used in small diameter wire insulation. The clearance between the
screw and the cylinder wall should be closely maintained and generally is 0.08 to 0.25 mm,
depending on the size of the machine. This clearance provides maximum frictional working.
A screw with a conical or rounded end is recommended to prevent material hangup. Molten
polymer at the center of a flat end screw is not forced through the breaker plate and may
decompose after extended periods of operation. When the temperature of the screw
becomes too high, the polymer will begin to adhere to it instead of slipping over it, thus
reducing output rates. Screw temperatures can be controlled by circulating water through
the screw. In addition to reducing the resin temperature, screw cooling has the
advantages of increasing mechanical work and improving product quality. However, these
advantages must be weighed against the considerable quality of purchased heat that is
removed and essentially thrown away by screw cooling.
2.
Barrier Type Screw: In some cases even an optimally designed screw is not capable of
completing the melting process. In such cases, the extrudate will contain unmelted
plastic. This can be prevented by building a barrier or a secondary flight in the channel.
The barrier flight is undercut and permits the passage of only fully molten plastic. Below
figure depicting a conventional barrierflight screw.
Barrier flights causes the solid bed to wedge between the barrel and screw, bending the
screw and pushing it towards the barrel. These forces lead to increase in screw and barrel wear.
The service life of the equipment is reduced further when the resin is stiff and even more so
when the barrel is intensively cooled, hardening the unmelting resin. To reduce the rate of wear on
high performance feed screw, the doublebarrier screw was introduced. The double barrier screw
is doubleflight and both flights have own barrier flight. This balances the screw, causing the
bending forces to cancel one another, thereby preventing excessive wear. Figure below depicts a
double barrier screw
5.
2.What is LD Ratio?
The extent of surface available for heat transfer to the resin and the amount of mixing to
which the material may be exposed within the extruder. L/D is the effective length of the
machine (from the rear of the feed hopper to the breaker plate) divided by the nominal
diameter (inside diameter of the barrel).
Effective length of the machine
Nominal diameter of barrel
This ratio known as the L/D ratio, is customarily expressed in relation to unity, e.g, the L/D
ratio for a screw of 100 mm diameter and effective length of 2500 mm would be given as
25:1.
L/D ratios of screws in single screw extruders for PVC can range up to about 36:1 (or even
higher in some cases) although 24:1 is fairly common.
Barrel and screw lengths have increased considerably over the years. Several factors have
been instrumental in this change, such as vented zones, additional or modified screw
sections, high heat transfer surface etc. In simple screw extruders the main route to
attain higher output rates was by increasing the screw diameter. A simultaneous increase
in the length is also necessary, however to prevent a reduction in residence time of the
material in the barrel, which would otherwise result as a consequence of the faster output
rate, such as reduction would entail the need for higher temperature and/or shear energy
input in working the material to ensure adequate fusion and homogenization
The barrel length is also in its own right a factor in the output rate. Moreover, with a longer
barrel, the output is less sensitive to change in back pressure, as well as, more closely
linear with screw speed. The following expression is a fairly good representation of the
general relationship between rate of output of a single screw extruder and main structural
parameters.
Q D2LhN
Where:
Q : Output rate
D : Barrel Diameter
L : Effective barrel length
h : Flight depth in the last metering section of the screw.
N : Rotational speed of the screw.
According to the above equation the output can be increased simply by speeding up the
screw, whilst this is correct, there is top limit on practicable screw speeds, imposed by
the abnormal shear and frictional effects of the material.
3.What is a crosshead assembly?
The extruder crosshead directs the flow of the resin from the screw to the die (usually at
a 90 degree angle) and also holds the die in place. It is desirable to use a small volume
streamlined head in order to avoid stagnation and to ensure uniform pressure distribution
and flow rates.
Crossheads of the design illustrated in Figure are normally employed in the extrusion of
primary insulation or jacketing. Preheated wire passes into the rear of the head, through
a mandrel and guider tip, into the molten plastic and through the forming die. The latter
determines the insulation thickness and finished diameter. Dies with triple tapered
approaches provide the best surface appearance for thin wall extrusion, while both short
and long tapered land dies are satisfactory in extruding heavy wall insulation. A land length
equal to the die diameter is usually adequate.
The cavity in the head should be small and smooth to prevent compound buildup.
 The size of the head used on an extruder as well as size of extruder varies according
to the type of wire being produced. Different size heads may be used on each extruder.
 Heads are supplied with either safety bolts or pins which release under excessive
pressure.
This prevents injury to employees and damage to the machine.

Excessive play in the tip after it is secured in the head indicates wear.
Leakage of compound around the head should be corrected. Leakage may be a sign of :
a. Improper tightening of the bolts
b. Jamming of the tip against the die.
c. Warping of the face plate due to heat and pressure
d. Worn breaker plate.
The work done on the extrudate must be completed by the time it exits the breaker plate.
From the breaker plate through the die, it is purely a forming operation. Flow from the
breaker plate through the die should be smooth with easy turns along the head surface and
guider tip assembly. The spider supports for the guider should be smooth and streamlined.
The entire crosshead assembly should be separately heated to insure maintenance of the
optimum extrudate temperature.
4. What is compression ratio ?
Screw compression ratio is the proportion of the volume of the first flight and the last
flight. In selecting a screw design, one must consider the bulk density of the feed material.
The frictional properties and bulk density of power and pellet feed stocks strongly
influence the feeding action just beyond the hopper of a single screw extruder and
knowledge of them is needed for accurate design of these machines. If the feeding is
erratic, there will be fluctuations in product dimensions. The plastic that enters as a
loosely packed aggregate of particles must become a voidfree melt before it reaches the
die. Generally, the volume per screw turn of the feed section of a screw extruder must be
two or three times that of the front or pumping section, sometimes even more. The ratio
of these two volumes is known as the compression ratio of the screw.
To determine the current which a conductor will carry at a temperature above a certain
ambient temperature, a heat balance equation must be solved:
Heat Gained
Heat Lost
A conductor gains heat due to its electrical resistance and, if exposed to the sun, due to
suns radiation. It loses heat by convection, which can be natural in still air or forced in
a wind, and by radiation.
Convection Loss:
a. Natural convection (Still air)
Loss = 12.8 x x 104 (d3)0.233 watts/cm length
Where :
b
760
293 .
(273 +t)
Where :
2. What is Radiation Gain & Loss and how it effects the Current
Carrying Capacity ?
Radiation Gain & Loss:
a. Radiation Loss:
Loss = ESd (T42  T41) watts / cm length,
Where:
= emissivity of conductor,
S
If an A.C.S.R. conductor has an even number of layers of aluminum, then since the layer
are spiraled alternately left hand and right hand, the magnetizing forces tend to cancel.
Under the worst conditions, the a.c. resistance may be 4 per cent greater that the d.c.
value. This will give a 2 per cent error in the current rating, which, considering the
arbitrary nature of the conditions used in the calculation, is sufficiently accurate.
With an odd number of layers of aluminum, the value of a.c. resistance is higher and at
high current densities may introduce errors in current rating of up to 6 percent. IF an
error of this magnitude is acceptable, the d.c. value of resistance can be used.
4.What are the contributory factors for calculations of current rating of
conductors
Contributory Factors:
a. Solar radiation :
A table of recommended values for various places throughout the world is given in the
table.
b. Wind:
As, in any outdoor situation, a condition of no wind would be unusual, crosswind of 1
m.p.h. should be allowed for in all current rating calculations unless the customer
specifically asks for a still air rating.
c. Emissivity:
When a conductor is newly erected, it is usually in a bright, shiny condition. Within a
very few months depending on the temperature, it weathers to a dirty and rough finish.
In this latter condition it is said to be black. The emissivity in each of these states is
different but, unless the rating of the first few months is important, that for the
conductor in the black state is normally taken. A table of recommended values of
emissivity is given below.
Conductor Material
Condition
Bright
Aluminum A.C.S.R, Aluminum Alloy
Hard drawn copper, cadmium copper
0.3
0.2
Black
1.0
1.0
5.How to calculate the Current Rating of other metals, when the Current ratings of Aluminum
Conductors is known ?
Net Losses
Resistance
Net Losses
(x / a) x Resistance of Aluminum
X Material
Thus the factor for homogeneous round wire constructions of materials other than aluminum is :
= Resistivity of Aluminum .
Resistivity of material used
For A.C.S.R. (since the steel core is considered nonconducting) the factor is :
Where
m .
m+1
Or
0.1 P
m=
Aluminum area
Steel area
Where
In cases where two different conducting materials are mixed, or shaped wires are used, the factor
must be calculates as :
=Resistance of an Aluminum conductor of the given diameter
Resistance of the conductor being rated.
Latitude
Abisko
68N
84
Upsala
60N
96
Leningrad
60N
102
Moscow
55N
103
Eskdalemuir
55N
101
Kew
51N
95
Frankfurt
50N
107
Paris
49N
100
Toronto
43N
102
Naples
41N
95
Madrid
40N
102
Washington, D.C.
39N
105
Santa Fe
36N
116
Simla
31N
112
Calama
22N
118
Bangkok
14N
87
Johannesburg
26S
112
Cape Horn
56S
103