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Model Solutions to Examination

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SI

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8 Pages

Date:
Subject:

FORMATION EVALUATION
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
No.

Mk.

1. Complete the sections above but do not seal until the examination is finished.
2. Insert in box on right the numbers of the questions attempted.
3. Start each question on a new page.
4. Rough working should be confined to left hand pages.
5. This book must be handed in entire with the top corner sealed.
6. Additional books must bear the name of the candidate, be sealed and be affixed to
the first book by means of a tag provided

PLEASE READ EXAMINATION REGULATIONS ON BACK COVER

A1
A1.
a.

Clays have a wide range of densities (2.2 - 2.65 g/cc). Presence of


clay in the pores of a sandstone could therefore result in
misinterpretation of the matrix density and therefore the porosity of
the sandstone.

b.

The bound water and OH groups on clay minerals will result in an


overestimation of porosity when using the neutron log.

c.

Bound water will also have an effect on resistivity measurements.

d.

The electrostatic charges on the surface of clay minerals present in


the sandstone affects the conductivity of the sandstone and
therefore the resistivity. Smectites will have the greatest effect,
with Illite and finally Kaolinite having the lowest effect.

A2.
a.

The principal controls on porosity of a formation depend on the type


of porosity: intergranular porosity and/or secondary porosity. The
intergranular porosity of a granular rock such as sandstone is a
function of stacking and sorting of the rock grains. The denser the
packing the lower the porosity. Stacking can result in porosities of
between 47.6% (for particles of the same size stacked on top of each
other to 25.9% for particles of the same size with the particles
sitting in troughs between layers. A variety in size (poorly sorted) and
shape of particles will result in a reduction of porosity.

Secondary porosity is caused by dissolving of limestone or dolomite


causing vugs and caverns. Fracturing also creates secondary porosity.

Model Solutions to Examination

b.

Permeability is heavily dependant on fracture aperature and density.


The denser the fracture population the greater the permeability.
Porosity is rarely affected by fractures since the fractures generally
contributes less than 1% to the porosity.

A3.
a.

The sources of Gamma radiation are: Potassium K40, Uranium U238,


and Thorium Th232

b.

K40 is present in illitic shales and clays, feldspar and micas

U238 is present in phosphates and uranium salts

Th232 is present in phosphates and shales

A4
A4.
a.

Compressional wave velocities provide porosity information

b.

Shear and compressional wave velocity waves are used to calculate the
mechanical properties of rocks such as Poissons ratio for sand control
and borehole stability in drilling

c.

Stonley waves are used to predict permeability and the presence of


open fractures.

Fresh Mud
System

Salt Mud
System

Resistivity, R

a.

Resistivity, R

A5.

Rx0

Fresh Mud

b.

Rx0

The density method:

ma b
ma f

2.67 2.31
= 0.216
2.67 1.0

The Acoustic method:

Salt
Water
Zone

R0

Rt

A6.
a.

R*
DMS

t Log t ma
t f t ma
84 55.56
= 0.219
185.2 55.56

Rw So
increasing

R*
SMD

Model Solutions to Examination

The values from the two techniques are similar. The differences could
be due to errors in assumed fluid and matrix densities and travel
times. The difference could also be due to dispersed clays in the pore
space affecting the log readings.

c.

The saturation of the rock is given by:

Sw =

a
1

m Rw

Rt

Therefore:

Sw = 1.65

1.37
1
.

0
04

27
0.2161.85

Sw = 0.124

The saturation is 12.4%. This is less than the critical saturation of


45% and therefore the zone will be productive.

A7.
a.

The Rw is determined from the following:

Since Rmfeq

= Rmf x 0.85
= 0.55 x 0.85
= 0.468 ohm.m

SSP = -71 = (61 + 0.133 x 140) log(0.468/Rweq)

Rweq = 0.468/1071/79.62 = 0.468/7.79 = 0.06 ohm.m

From SP-2:

Rweq = 0.06 => Rw = 0.075

b.

The logging suite would be:

Spectral GR - for basic correlation


- identify anomalous high GR zones which are not shale
- aid lithology identification

Neutron Density - for lithology and porosity information


- also Pe log from density for lithology

Induction log

When Rmf / Rw exceeds 2.5 and Rw is below 1 ohm.m

then an induction log should be used in place of a laterolog. Since Rmf /


6

Model Solutions to Examination

Rw is around 7.5 (See graphic above) we run the induction log for Rt
determination.

Sonic Log

- Lithology identification
- help characterise porosity type
- An Array sonic can be used for fracture
identification. Vp and Vs data can be useful for
rock mechanics studies.

A8.
a.

The T2 response is a function of the pore size distribution and can


therefore be correlated to permeability.

The NMR measures the fluid filled porosity. However the NMR can
resolve the bound or capillary trapped water saturation from the
moveable water saturation.

In an appraisal well a correlated permeability can be coupled with the


BVF to give likely fluid production and potential rates.

B9.
a.

The following zones can be seen on the log (See log):


Zone

Depth

1
2

11400 - 11468
11468 - 11542

Limestone
Shaley sandstone, possibly gas bearing

11542 - 12115

11930 - 1215

Shaley sandstone
Gas bearing down to GWC at 12115
Shaley sandstone possibly oil bearing

12115 -

Shaley sandstone

B10.
a.

Point

Depth

1
2

11410
11510

2.60
2.18

0.04
0.23

57
91

0.83
0.83

0.60
0.65

3
4

11655
12165

2.15
2.20

0.22
0.235

94
85

0.83
0.87

0.68
0.64

Point

Depth

b - n

M-N

11410

Low Sandstone

Limestone

11510

Sandstone

Low Sandstone

11655

Sandstone with gas

High sandstone

12165

Sandstone

Ambiguous Sandstone but


with secondary porosity

Model Solutions to Examination

b. Ambiguities:

11655 - N-D plot shows gas indications but M-N does not. Gas is
supported by resistivity separation

12165 - N-D indicates sandstone, M-N plot is ambiguous.

It is possible that the shale and gas effect are affecting the
interpretation.

B11.
a.

The Humble Equation is:

F=

0.62
2.15

or,
F=

0.81
2

At 12165 :

Neutron - Density cross plot gives a porosity of = 0.275

Hence,

F=

0.62
= 9.95
0.2752.15

or
F=

0.81
= 10.7
2

Since,
Rxo

= 0.71

RLLS

= 0.31

RLLD

= 0.31

Hence,

RLLD /RLLS = 1 (implies no invasion correction)


RLLD/RXO = 0.44

From Rint-9b

Rt / RXO = 0.41

Therefore,

Rt = 0.291 (Approximately equal to RLLD)

Rwa = Rt /F

Therefore,

Rwa = 0.291/9.95 = 0.030

10

Model Solutions to Examination

or
Rwa = 0.291/10.7 = 0.027

These values are very close.


B12.
Since,
Rxo

= 2.5

RLLS

= 17

RLLD

= 45

RLLD /RLLS

= 2.65

RLLD/RXO

= 18

From Rint-9b

Rt / RLLD = 1.35

Therefore,
Rt = 60.75 ohm.m
di = 38 inches
Resistivity

Rt

60

Rx0 = 2.5

38 inches

11

B13.
a.

It is difficult to identify a maximum shale value :

The biggest shale peak is at 11543. This is 112 GAPI

Hence this will be used :

GR @ 11890 = 80
GRsand = 52
GRshale = 112

I GR =

GR GR sand
GR shale GR sand

I GR =

80 52
112 52

= 0.53

Hence the volume of shale at 11890 using the Olser Rocks model
is approx. 38%.

12

Model Solutions to Examination

The whole interval below 11468 is very shaley. The m and a assumed
for the Rwa equation assumes a clean sand. The value of m will
decrease in a shaley sand due to the conductivity of the shale, and the
value of Rwa calculated represents a minimum

To correct for the shales, one of the shale saturation equations may
be needed.

13

Gas

14

Model Solutions to Examination

GOC

Oil

OWC

Water

15

Deliberately Left Blank

16

Model Solutions to Examination

17

Schlumberger

Porosity and Lithology Determination from


Formation Density Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log
For CNL logs before 1986, or labeled NPHI

Fresh water, liquid-filled holes (f = 1.0)


1.9
45

2.0

40

Sulfur
Salt

30

30

25

20

15

D
ol
om
ite

10
15

10

5
0

5
10

2.7

0
5

2.8

Langbeinite
Polyhalite
0

10

3.0

An
hy
dr
ite

2.9

15

0
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

10

4-16

18

20

30

CNLcor , neutron porosity index (p.u.) (apparent limestone porosity)

3 24

40

D, density porosity (p.u.) (ma = 2.71; f = 1.0)

2.5

2.6

30

20

10

b, bulk density (g/cm3)

25

ne
sto
25
d
an
s
0
2
tz
e)
ar
on
t
Qu
s
e
20
(lim
e
t
lci
Ca
5
1

15

2.4

30

35

ity
os
r
Po

35

25

2.2

40

35

Ap
pro
xim
co gas ate
rre
ctio
n

2.3

40

35

2.1

3
2
4

45

40