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8 Pages

Date:

Subject:

FORMATION EVALUATION

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

No.

Mk.

1. Complete the sections above but do not seal until the examination is finished.

2. Insert in box on right the numbers of the questions attempted.

3. Start each question on a new page.

4. Rough working should be confined to left hand pages.

5. This book must be handed in entire with the top corner sealed.

6. Additional books must bear the name of the candidate, be sealed and be affixed to

the first book by means of a tag provided

A1

A1.

a.

clay in the pores of a sandstone could therefore result in

misinterpretation of the matrix density and therefore the porosity of

the sandstone.

b.

overestimation of porosity when using the neutron log.

c.

d.

the sandstone affects the conductivity of the sandstone and

therefore the resistivity. Smectites will have the greatest effect,

with Illite and finally Kaolinite having the lowest effect.

A2.

a.

of porosity: intergranular porosity and/or secondary porosity. The

intergranular porosity of a granular rock such as sandstone is a

function of stacking and sorting of the rock grains. The denser the

packing the lower the porosity. Stacking can result in porosities of

between 47.6% (for particles of the same size stacked on top of each

other to 25.9% for particles of the same size with the particles

sitting in troughs between layers. A variety in size (poorly sorted) and

shape of particles will result in a reduction of porosity.

causing vugs and caverns. Fracturing also creates secondary porosity.

b.

The denser the fracture population the greater the permeability.

Porosity is rarely affected by fractures since the fractures generally

contributes less than 1% to the porosity.

A3.

a.

and Thorium Th232

b.

A4

A4.

a.

b.

Shear and compressional wave velocity waves are used to calculate the

mechanical properties of rocks such as Poissons ratio for sand control

and borehole stability in drilling

c.

open fractures.

Fresh Mud

System

Salt Mud

System

Resistivity, R

a.

Resistivity, R

A5.

Rx0

Fresh Mud

b.

Rx0

ma b

ma f

2.67 2.31

= 0.216

2.67 1.0

Salt

Water

Zone

R0

Rt

A6.

a.

R*

DMS

t Log t ma

t f t ma

84 55.56

= 0.219

185.2 55.56

Rw So

increasing

R*

SMD

The values from the two techniques are similar. The differences could

be due to errors in assumed fluid and matrix densities and travel

times. The difference could also be due to dispersed clays in the pore

space affecting the log readings.

c.

Sw =

a

1

m Rw

Rt

Therefore:

Sw = 1.65

1.37

1

.

0

04

27

0.2161.85

Sw = 0.124

45% and therefore the zone will be productive.

A7.

a.

Since Rmfeq

= Rmf x 0.85

= 0.55 x 0.85

= 0.468 ohm.m

From SP-2:

b.

- identify anomalous high GR zones which are not shale

- aid lithology identification

- also Pe log from density for lithology

Induction log

6

Rw is around 7.5 (See graphic above) we run the induction log for Rt

determination.

Sonic Log

- Lithology identification

- help characterise porosity type

- An Array sonic can be used for fracture

identification. Vp and Vs data can be useful for

rock mechanics studies.

A8.

a.

therefore be correlated to permeability.

The NMR measures the fluid filled porosity. However the NMR can

resolve the bound or capillary trapped water saturation from the

moveable water saturation.

BVF to give likely fluid production and potential rates.

B9.

a.

Zone

Depth

1

2

11400 - 11468

11468 - 11542

Limestone

Shaley sandstone, possibly gas bearing

11542 - 12115

11930 - 1215

Shaley sandstone

Gas bearing down to GWC at 12115

Shaley sandstone possibly oil bearing

12115 -

Shaley sandstone

B10.

a.

Point

Depth

1

2

11410

11510

2.60

2.18

0.04

0.23

57

91

0.83

0.83

0.60

0.65

3

4

11655

12165

2.15

2.20

0.22

0.235

94

85

0.83

0.87

0.68

0.64

Point

Depth

b - n

M-N

11410

Low Sandstone

Limestone

11510

Sandstone

Low Sandstone

11655

High sandstone

12165

Sandstone

with secondary porosity

b. Ambiguities:

11655 - N-D plot shows gas indications but M-N does not. Gas is

supported by resistivity separation

It is possible that the shale and gas effect are affecting the

interpretation.

B11.

a.

F=

0.62

2.15

or,

F=

0.81

2

At 12165 :

Hence,

F=

0.62

= 9.95

0.2752.15

or

F=

0.81

= 10.7

2

Since,

Rxo

= 0.71

RLLS

= 0.31

RLLD

= 0.31

Hence,

RLLD/RXO = 0.44

From Rint-9b

Rt / RXO = 0.41

Therefore,

Rwa = Rt /F

Therefore,

10

or

Rwa = 0.291/10.7 = 0.027

B12.

Since,

Rxo

= 2.5

RLLS

= 17

RLLD

= 45

RLLD /RLLS

= 2.65

RLLD/RXO

= 18

From Rint-9b

Rt / RLLD = 1.35

Therefore,

Rt = 60.75 ohm.m

di = 38 inches

Resistivity

Rt

60

Rx0 = 2.5

38 inches

11

B13.

a.

GR @ 11890 = 80

GRsand = 52

GRshale = 112

I GR =

GR GR sand

GR shale GR sand

I GR =

80 52

112 52

= 0.53

Hence the volume of shale at 11890 using the Olser Rocks model

is approx. 38%.

12

The whole interval below 11468 is very shaley. The m and a assumed

for the Rwa equation assumes a clean sand. The value of m will

decrease in a shaley sand due to the conductivity of the shale, and the

value of Rwa calculated represents a minimum

To correct for the shales, one of the shale saturation equations may

be needed.

13

Gas

14

GOC

Oil

OWC

Water

15

16

17

Schlumberger

Formation Density Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log

For CNL logs before 1986, or labeled NPHI

1.9

45

2.0

40

Sulfur

Salt

30

30

25

20

15

D

ol

om

ite

10

15

10

5

0

5

10

2.7

0

5

2.8

Langbeinite

Polyhalite

0

10

3.0

An

hy

dr

ite

2.9

15

0

*Mark of Schlumberger

Schlumberger

10

4-16

18

20

30

3 24

40

2.5

2.6

30

20

10

25

ne

sto

25

d

an

s

0

2

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20

(lim

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lci

Ca

5

1

15

2.4

30

35

ity

os

r

Po

35

25

2.2

40

35

Ap

pro

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co gas ate

rre

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2.3

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2.1

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40

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