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HOMEWORK 3

BASANTA PAHARI

Question 1. (2) Verify that the set A in Example 4 is an ideal and


that A = hxi. Example 4 : Let R[x] denote the set of all polynomials
with real coefficients and let A denote the subset of all polynomials with
constant term 0. Then A is an ideal of R[x] and A = hxi.
Proof. Let R[x] denote the set of all polynomials with real coefficients
and let A denote the subset of all polynomials with constant term 0. As
we can see for every polynomial p, p(0) = C, where C is some constant.
Then C = 0 if and only if p(0) = 0. Moreover , if x | p(x), then the
constant term is 0. Then,
A = {p(x) R[x] | p(x) has constant term 0}
A = {p(x) R[x] | p(0) = 0 }
A = {xr(x) | r(x) R[x]} = hxi = A Now let p(x), q(x) A. Since
p(x), q(x) A, (p q)(0) = p(0) q(0) = 0.
Also (pq)(0) = p(0)q(0) = 0 . Now suppose f (x) = 0x. Since f (x) =
0x, x A. Thus A is not empty. Hence A is an ideal.

Question 2. (3) Verify that the set I in Example 5 is an ideal and that
if J is any ideal of R that contains a1 , a2 , ......, an , then I J. (Hence
(a1 , a2 , ......., an ) is the smallest ideal of R that contains a1 , a2 , ......., an .)
Proof. Let R be a commutative ring with unity, and a1 , a2 , ...., an R.
Let I = ha1 , a2 , ......, an i. Then I = {r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an |
r1 , r2 , ......, rn R} R .
Let s R and t I. We want to show that st I. Since t I, There
exists a r1 , r2 , ......, rn R such that t = r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an .
Thus st = s(r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an ) = (sr1 )a1 + (sr2 )a2 + .......... +
(srn )an . Since (sr1 ) + (sr2 ) + .......... + (srn ) R, (sr1 )a1 + (sr2 )a2 +
.......... + (srn )an I.
Let s, t I. Then there exist si , ri R and i = 1, 2, ......, n such that
s = s1 a1 + s2 a2 + ......... + sn an and r = r1 a1 + r2 a2 + ......... + rn an .
Hence s r = (s1 a1 + s2 a2 + ......... + sn an ) (r = r1 a1 + r2 a2 + ......... +
r n an )
Thus s r = (s1 r1 )a1 + (s2 r2 )a2 .........(sn rn )an .All (si ri ) R
by additive clousure where i = 1, 2, ....., n. Hence s r I. Thus I is
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BASANTA PAHARI

an ideal.
Now suppode J is an ideal of R such that {a1 , a2 ......., an } J. Then
a1 , a2 ......., an J. For r1 , r2 , ........, rn R, r1 a1 , r2 a2 , .........., rn an J
since J is an ideal.Hence r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an J because J is
an additive group. Thus I J.
Remark : I = ha1 , a2 , ......., an i = {r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an |
r1 , r2 , ......, rn R} R. If we let ri = 1(1 i n) and rj = 0 (j 6= i).
Then, r1 a1 +r2 a2 +..........+rn an = ai . Thus ai I i = 1, 2, ........., n.Thus
{a1 , a2 , ......., an } I. Therefore our claim provides that I is the smallest ideal that contains {a1 , a2 , ......., an }.
Question 3. (16) If A and B are ideals of a commutative ring R with
unity and A + B = R, show that A B = AB.
Proof. ( ) Let n A B and r R. Then n A and n B. Since
A and B are ideals we have nr A and nr B. Thus nr A B.
Since A + B = R, there exists ak A and bk B such that r = ak + bk .
Hence nr = n(ak bk ) = nak +nbk which is an element of AB by denition.
Thus A B AB.
() Let x AB then x = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + ....... + an bn where ai A;
bi B. Since A and B are ideals we have aj bj A;aj bj B. But
ideals are subrings, so they are closed under addition. Hence x =
a1 b1 + a2 b2 + +an bn A and x = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + ...... + an bn B. Thus
x A B and AB A B. Therefore A B = AB.

Question 4. (20) Suppose that R is a commutative ring and |R| = 30.
If I is an ideal of R and |I| = 10, prove that I is a maximal ideal.
Proof. Suppose that R is a commutative ring, |R| = 30, I is an ideal of
R and |I| = 10. Then |R/I| = |R|
= 3. Thus, |R/I| is a group of order
|I|
3. Since |R| = 3, R/I is isomorphic to Z3 . Since R/I
= Z3 , R/I is a
|I|

field. But since 3 is prime and R/I is afield, I is maximal by Theorem


14.4.


Question 5. (38) Prove that i = h2 + 2ii is not a prime ideal of Z[i].
How many elements are in Z[i]/I? What is the characteristic of Z[i]/I?
Proof. We know the Gaussian integers are a Euclidean domain, and so
a UFD. So 2 = (1+i)(1i) = i(1+i)2 , so 2+2i = 2(1+i) = i(1+i)3 .
Let p = 1 + i, which is prime in Z[i] . Z[i]/p has only two elements 0
and 1, since a + bi = a b + b(1 + i) = a b mod 1 + i and since 2 = 0
mod 1 + i then a b = 2c + d = 1 or 0 mod 1 + i depending on the

HOMEWORK 3

parity of a b. So Z[i]/p Z/2 has characteristic 2. Using the remainder


theorem, Z[i]/p3
= Z[i]/p Z[i]/p Z[i]/p
= Z/2 Z/2 Z/2 has
3
2 = 8 elements.

Question 6. (51) Let Z2 [x] be the ring of all polynomials with coefficients in Z2 (that is, coefficients are 0 or 1, and addition and multiplication of coefficients are done modulo 2). Show that Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i
is a field.
Proof. Let Z2 [x] be the ring of all polynomials with coefficients in Z2
(that is, coefficients are 0 or 1, and addition and multiplication of coefficients are done modulo 2). Suppose by contradiction that x2 + x + 1is
reducible in Z2 [x] then x2 + x + 1 = (x + a)(x + b) = x2 + x(b + a) + ab.
Comparing coefficients, b + a = 1 (mod 2) and ab = 1 (mod 2). The
second equation forces a = b = 1, but a + b = 0 6= 1 (mod 2), a contradiction. This shows that Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i is a field.
Alternative Proof: Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i is a field if f (x) = x2 + x + 1
has no zeros in . Z2 .
f (0) = 0 + 0 + 1 = 1
f (1) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 1
As f (x) has no zeros in Z2 , Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i is a field.

Question 7. (52) List the elements of the field given in Exercise 51,
and make an addition and multiplication table for the field.
Solution: As did in the class, the elements of the fiels are
{0 + I, 1 + I, 2 + I, 3 + I, i + I, (1 + i) + I, (2 + i) + I, (3 + i) + I}.