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This pdf contains solutions to various problem in Kenneth Ross Elementary Analysis book

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BASANTA PAHARI

that A = hxi. Example 4 : Let R[x] denote the set of all polynomials

with real coefficients and let A denote the subset of all polynomials with

constant term 0. Then A is an ideal of R[x] and A = hxi.

Proof. Let R[x] denote the set of all polynomials with real coefficients

and let A denote the subset of all polynomials with constant term 0. As

we can see for every polynomial p, p(0) = C, where C is some constant.

Then C = 0 if and only if p(0) = 0. Moreover , if x | p(x), then the

constant term is 0. Then,

A = {p(x) R[x] | p(x) has constant term 0}

A = {p(x) R[x] | p(0) = 0 }

A = {xr(x) | r(x) R[x]} = hxi = A Now let p(x), q(x) A. Since

p(x), q(x) A, (p q)(0) = p(0) q(0) = 0.

Also (pq)(0) = p(0)q(0) = 0 . Now suppose f (x) = 0x. Since f (x) =

0x, x A. Thus A is not empty. Hence A is an ideal.

Question 2. (3) Verify that the set I in Example 5 is an ideal and that

if J is any ideal of R that contains a1 , a2 , ......, an , then I J. (Hence

(a1 , a2 , ......., an ) is the smallest ideal of R that contains a1 , a2 , ......., an .)

Proof. Let R be a commutative ring with unity, and a1 , a2 , ...., an R.

Let I = ha1 , a2 , ......, an i. Then I = {r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an |

r1 , r2 , ......, rn R} R .

Let s R and t I. We want to show that st I. Since t I, There

exists a r1 , r2 , ......, rn R such that t = r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an .

Thus st = s(r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an ) = (sr1 )a1 + (sr2 )a2 + .......... +

(srn )an . Since (sr1 ) + (sr2 ) + .......... + (srn ) R, (sr1 )a1 + (sr2 )a2 +

.......... + (srn )an I.

Let s, t I. Then there exist si , ri R and i = 1, 2, ......, n such that

s = s1 a1 + s2 a2 + ......... + sn an and r = r1 a1 + r2 a2 + ......... + rn an .

Hence s r = (s1 a1 + s2 a2 + ......... + sn an ) (r = r1 a1 + r2 a2 + ......... +

r n an )

Thus s r = (s1 r1 )a1 + (s2 r2 )a2 .........(sn rn )an .All (si ri ) R

by additive clousure where i = 1, 2, ....., n. Hence s r I. Thus I is

1

BASANTA PAHARI

an ideal.

Now suppode J is an ideal of R such that {a1 , a2 ......., an } J. Then

a1 , a2 ......., an J. For r1 , r2 , ........, rn R, r1 a1 , r2 a2 , .........., rn an J

since J is an ideal.Hence r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an J because J is

an additive group. Thus I J.

Remark : I = ha1 , a2 , ......., an i = {r1 a1 + r2 a2 + .......... + rn an |

r1 , r2 , ......, rn R} R. If we let ri = 1(1 i n) and rj = 0 (j 6= i).

Then, r1 a1 +r2 a2 +..........+rn an = ai . Thus ai I i = 1, 2, ........., n.Thus

{a1 , a2 , ......., an } I. Therefore our claim provides that I is the smallest ideal that contains {a1 , a2 , ......., an }.

Question 3. (16) If A and B are ideals of a commutative ring R with

unity and A + B = R, show that A B = AB.

Proof. ( ) Let n A B and r R. Then n A and n B. Since

A and B are ideals we have nr A and nr B. Thus nr A B.

Since A + B = R, there exists ak A and bk B such that r = ak + bk .

Hence nr = n(ak bk ) = nak +nbk which is an element of AB by denition.

Thus A B AB.

() Let x AB then x = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + ....... + an bn where ai A;

bi B. Since A and B are ideals we have aj bj A;aj bj B. But

ideals are subrings, so they are closed under addition. Hence x =

a1 b1 + a2 b2 + +an bn A and x = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + ...... + an bn B. Thus

x A B and AB A B. Therefore A B = AB.

Question 4. (20) Suppose that R is a commutative ring and |R| = 30.

If I is an ideal of R and |I| = 10, prove that I is a maximal ideal.

Proof. Suppose that R is a commutative ring, |R| = 30, I is an ideal of

R and |I| = 10. Then |R/I| = |R|

= 3. Thus, |R/I| is a group of order

|I|

3. Since |R| = 3, R/I is isomorphic to Z3 . Since R/I

= Z3 , R/I is a

|I|

14.4.

Question 5. (38) Prove that i = h2 + 2ii is not a prime ideal of Z[i].

How many elements are in Z[i]/I? What is the characteristic of Z[i]/I?

Proof. We know the Gaussian integers are a Euclidean domain, and so

a UFD. So 2 = (1+i)(1i) = i(1+i)2 , so 2+2i = 2(1+i) = i(1+i)3 .

Let p = 1 + i, which is prime in Z[i] . Z[i]/p has only two elements 0

and 1, since a + bi = a b + b(1 + i) = a b mod 1 + i and since 2 = 0

mod 1 + i then a b = 2c + d = 1 or 0 mod 1 + i depending on the

HOMEWORK 3

theorem, Z[i]/p3

= Z[i]/p Z[i]/p Z[i]/p

= Z/2 Z/2 Z/2 has

3

2 = 8 elements.

Question 6. (51) Let Z2 [x] be the ring of all polynomials with coefficients in Z2 (that is, coefficients are 0 or 1, and addition and multiplication of coefficients are done modulo 2). Show that Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i

is a field.

Proof. Let Z2 [x] be the ring of all polynomials with coefficients in Z2

(that is, coefficients are 0 or 1, and addition and multiplication of coefficients are done modulo 2). Suppose by contradiction that x2 + x + 1is

reducible in Z2 [x] then x2 + x + 1 = (x + a)(x + b) = x2 + x(b + a) + ab.

Comparing coefficients, b + a = 1 (mod 2) and ab = 1 (mod 2). The

second equation forces a = b = 1, but a + b = 0 6= 1 (mod 2), a contradiction. This shows that Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i is a field.

Alternative Proof: Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i is a field if f (x) = x2 + x + 1

has no zeros in . Z2 .

f (0) = 0 + 0 + 1 = 1

f (1) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 1

As f (x) has no zeros in Z2 , Z2 [x]/hx2 + x + 1i is a field.

Question 7. (52) List the elements of the field given in Exercise 51,

and make an addition and multiplication table for the field.

Solution: As did in the class, the elements of the fiels are

{0 + I, 1 + I, 2 + I, 3 + I, i + I, (1 + i) + I, (2 + i) + I, (3 + i) + I}.

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